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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES
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COMPLETE PHONOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR.
P HONOG IUPH1C
COiAf PLET E
INSTRUCTOR. DESIGNED FOR CLASS
INVENTOR OF PHONOGRAPHY.)
AUTHOR OP "THE PHONOGRAPHIC DICTIONARY," "REPORTER'S ASSISTANT," "PHONOGRAPHIC PHRASE BOOK," ETC.; AND EDITOR OP "THE PHONETIC JOURNAL."
ISAAC PITMAN & SONS. Tm: Phonographic 33 Union Square.
Hickox, Pierce Building. Co., Limited, Toronto.
Tub Copp, Clare
By ISAAC PITMAN.
Entered according to Act op Congress, By ISAAC PITMAN,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at
All tights reserved.
i " •>•'!
so exceedingly simple as to be easily learned by :iny-
one of ordinary capacity; and
be learned by a very large
the people, the public benefits to be derived from
This art appears to
likely to tend to increase the love of
reading and writing and of education generally; and
sprung up at a time when
are entirely incal-
wasmost needed."— Bight Hon. John Bright.
KEY TO ISAAC PITMAN'S COMPLETE PHONOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR. This work, contains a Key to all the Exercises, and Answers to the Review Questions. Uniform with the " Instructor.'' 68 pp.. cloth. Price, 50 cents.
INTRODUCTION. system THEwork, was
of shorthand writing presented in this first
published by the Inventor on
November, ISoT, under the title of "Stenographic Sound-hand." The second edition appeared on the 10th January, 1840, in the form of an engraved plate with the title of "Phonography, or Writing by Sound, being also A New and Natural System of Shorthand, invented and drawn by Isaac Pitman." In the succeeding half15th
published a large
works containing presentations of Phonography, from leaflets and primers to comprehensive treatises dealing with the entire system. This work belongs to the latter category, and is designed to furnish, within the compass of a volume of handy size, a complete presentation of Phonography, including all those principles of abbreviation which have caused Pitman's Shorthand to be universally adopted wherever tin- English language prevails, on account of its extreme brevity and legibility. There are also embodied in this volume all those valuable improvements in the system, the results of practical experience in the use of the art. and of careful experiments conducted by the
The general past fifty-five years. "Instructor " makes it equally serviceable for self-tuition and for use under a teacher. Every part of the system is explained in the simplest and clearest Inventor during the
plan of the
manner possible; each principle is and the student's knowledge
tested at succeed-
ing stages by questions. In addition to leading the learner by easy steps to the briefest style of Phonography, a large amount of information is included which will
him with a wide range of shorthand work. Phonography, as its name implies, is a method of writing by sound, as distinguished from the established orthography of the English language. The accepted mode of spelling is so far removed from any apparent attempt to represent the sounds of speech, that this, its familiarize
original purpose, has almost ceased to be evident.
ing several sounds, and the symbols it does employ are used in many contradictory senses. It must be obvious, therefore, that a system of shorthand based on the Eng-
must exhibit these imperfections in a Phonography (from cpoov?}, phone, voice, and ypaq)?}, gnqihe, writing) is, however, founded on a scientific analysis of vocal sounds, and with its "alphalish
bet of nature," the writer is able to record on paper an accurate representation of spoken language. While Isaac
phonetic accuracy and its is eminently suited
practical principles of abbreviation, for the professional
useful for every description of written communication. It is,
indeed, in general employment for the various pur-
poses of every-day notes and extracts,
for correspondence, for
admirably adapted for this purpose is apparent from the fact that its simple geometrical forms can, :il the lowest computation, be written with one-sixth of the trouble, and in one-third of the time,
Longhand requires. The present "uncertain and unscientific mode of riling," to quote Professor Max Midler's designation \
not the only hindrance to
The characters em-
ployed in ordinary writing arc too long and complicated In to admit of their being written with expedition. Pitman's Shorthand, the sounds of the English language
and Phonography, therefore, furnishes a system of writing by which the operations of the mind and of the hand are brought into close correspondence, and, while capable of being written with the speed of the most rapid distinct articulation, it can be read with the certainty and ease In addition, phonographic manuof common longhand. script-, are easily read by any person acquainted with the system, and hence the art is extensively employed are represented by the briefest possible signs,
for letter writing.
In the United States, where a number of publishers have issued the system with slight alterations, 97 per cent, of the shorthand writers use either Isaac Pitman's In Phonography or an American presentation of it. Great Britain, Pitman's Shorthand is every year more
extensively taught and practised; cent, of
used by 93 per
newspaper reporters and 98 per cent, of shortThe percentage of phonographers in AusPhonography has been adapted to eleven 96.
The Publishers desire to take this opportunity to tender their hearty thanks to the large number of expert writers and teachers of
Phonography, who have offered
valuable suggestions for the improvement of this work, during its passage through the press.
Directions to the Student
Table of Consonants
Joined Consonants < It and upward Long Vowels
Grammalogues Additional Signs for
St and St loops and Sic circle 7i' and L hooks Irregular Double Consonants hooks and - Tioti hook i'
The Aspirate Upward and Downward The Halving Principle
49 54 58
Table of Single and Double Consonants Series of Diphthongs and Vocalization of PI and Pr Series of Consonants.
Additional Methods of Vocalization List of
89 92 99
Phraseography Punctuat ion
Speed Practice Writing Materials Phraseography
Writing in Position Reporting Grammalognes Significant Remarks
and Negative Words Omission of Con and Com Prefixes Positive
138 of Figures
List of Reporting Contractions
and Where Phraseograms Business Phrases and Contractions of Here, There,
List of General
Legal Correspondence Practical Hints in Legal
French Words and Phrases
Words requiring insertion List of Similar Words
Reporting Exercises Applied Phonography Typewriting and Shorthand Index
208 209 214 246 249 251
Complete Phonographic Instructor.
DIRECTIONS TO THE STUDENT. 1.
Phonography may be
Experience has shown that its principles are mastered by most learners in a short time, and that an hour's daily practice in reading and writing, for two or three months, will enable the student to write it with some degree of Speed in writing comes only by practice. facility. 2. Phonography can be learned, and is learned by thousands, from the Instruction Books without the aid of a teacher, and the Text-Books are compiled to meet the requirements of those who cannot obtain the services of a shorthand instructor. But if the student can obtain personal instruction or attend the classes of an efficient teacher, he will acquire a
knowledge of the system more
is experienced in finding a teacher or school, the publishers will be pleased to put
DIRECTIONS TO THE STUDENT.
the student in communication with one on receipt of a
stamped and addressed envelope. 3. Phonography is best written upon ruled paper, and either a pen or a pencil may be used, but in reporting- a pen will be found the most convenient. As, however, the shorthand writer is sometimes so situated that he cannot use a pen, he should accustom himself, at times, to reThe pen or pencil should be held as port with a pencil. for longhand writing, the elbow being turned out, so that can be struck with ease. The writer must the letter uot let the wrist rest upon the desk or note-book. The bearing of the arm on the edge of the desk should be at this gives the greatest freethe middle of the fore-arm dom of movement. The penholder should be held lightly, and the writer should sit in front of the desk, with the Select a good paper parallel with the edge of the table. and suitable pen, smooth paper, and be accurate in 1 lie the result length and direction of the shorthand letters The learner will be a neat and legible style of writing. should bear in mind that it is not sufficient to know a particular sign or rule, but that the knowledge must be so wrought into the mental constitution by writing the sign, or the shorthand outline, that it can be repeated at any moment. Till a word at once suggests the shorthand form, some delay must necessarily arise before its outline can be placed on the paper therefore, no opportunity should he lost of practising Phonography.
4. The student should bo very careful not to write the shorthand characters rapidly at the outset. When his hand has become accustomed to trace with correctness and elegance the simple geometric forms of the letters, he will find no difficulty in writing them quickly but if ;
he lets his anxiety to write FAST overcome his resolution to write WELL, In will not only be longer in at tabling 1
speed, but will always have to lament his writ in
the illegibility of
exercises given in this
written until the pupil
be written and re-
familiar with the form of every
All the illustrative
the text should
one hour daily must be given to practice, and this practice should one hour daily is much better than two be regular In learning the Alphabet, each hours every other day. letter as it is written should be pronounced aloud, and in subsequent rules, each example or illustrative word should written
addition to the exercises.
be traced, either with the pen or the finger, as it is read. is cautioned not to look ahead, or to attempt
to read exercises in
knowledge, as such a
likely to retard his progress.
(i. From the commencement of his study, the student should keep before his mind the fact that be is learning The ordinary spelling, with its to write by sound.
irregularities and inconsistencies, will afford him guidance in phonographic notation. At every step he takes in the study of Phonography, the student should exercise his reasoning powers, and accustom himself to make a mental analysis of the consonant and vowel sounds which compose the words he desires to write in This will greatly facilitate his progress, and shorthand.
will ensure correct writing.
THE ALPHABET. 7.
Phonography, the invention of Isaac Pitman in is based upon an analysis of the English spoken lan-
guage. Its consonants and vowels arc so arranged as to show, as far as possible, their mutual relations. In the consonants,
ceeding from the 1*
next the rest follow in their
the stopped or explosive letters, prolips
then the continu-
coalescents, and aspirate, us in the Table on the opposite
group of eight letters, represented by is called " cxplodents, " because the voice
exploded through organs (the
The next group of eight is called "continuants," be!). cause the breath or voice continues to How through the partially closed organs. 10. The " nasals" are produced by closing the lips and sending the sound through the nose. The " liquids" flow into union with other letters, and thus make double letters or consonantal diphthongs. The "coalescents" precede vowels and coalesce with them. The "aspirate" is a breathing upon the following vowel. Sixteen only out of he wenty-four consonants are I
are p, /, ch, /; j\ //>, g, *// ; The articulations in the pairs
hi' same, hut the sound and heavy in the second letter of each pair. The letters of each pair are represented by similar strokes, but that chosen for the second 1
so to speak, light in the
written thick, instead of thin
\ etc.; and thus, not only is the memory burdened with fewer signs, but the mind perceives that a thin stroke corresponds with a light articulation^ and a thick stroke with a limn/ articulation. Ch and /are double consonants, formed by the union of ,, sh, and
p sh, b th, p
n sh, n
ch ch, k
s in, s
k sh, k m.
ch, th k, th
k, in n
sh k, sh
n ch, n k.
n n, r
r r. t
r is distinguished from eh as folWhen written upwards, and eh downwards. stand alone, r slopes a little from the hori-
from the perpendicular; thus,
The stroke naturally takes these slopes when struck by the hand upward and downward re-
joined to other
distinguished by the direction of the stroke, and the
of no consequence; thus,
^ 1 -/
^ ^ r^ "V
R and CM Combinations.
\ peh, \ypr,
. ill, iiir, a Write the characters for p and /, and show the vowel places before and after them. What are Hie respective positions of first, second, and vowels between the following conthird place .'
By what signs are they represented? Name them in their order.
— siiokt VOWELS.
SHORT 37. :ire
Besides the six long vowels already explained, there vowel sounds in the English
six corresponding short
There are the vowel sounds heard iapat, pet, In producing these sounds, the positions of the vocal organs are nearly the same us in uttering the long vowels in palm, pate, peat; nought, note, food; the chief difference being that the short vowels are more rapidly pronounced. language.
/nt; not, nut, foot.
The The The The The The
short sound of ah in palm is a (say (ih quickly) in pal. short sound of eh in pate is e (say eh quickly) in pet. short sound of ee iii peat is i (say ,, quickly) in pit. short sound of aw in nought is o (say aw quickly) in not. short sound of oh in note is nearly u (wA) in nut.
short sound of 00 in /ood (say ooquickly)
By drawling a word containing a short vowel, the corresponding long vowel
will be heard.
'ompare pick, peek
strokes, similar to those
short vowels are represented by dots
light to indicate their short sound, thus: Son/id
The order of the
remembered by saying:
not ni'/eh good.
[nstead of calling these short vowel sounds short "//. ee, etc., it is better to give them nanus by
short eh, short
adding the consonant / to them; thus, at, et, it, ot, ut, dot, in the same manner as the; consonant sounds are named by placing a vowel either before or after them; thus, ''f,' li \t"pee; "v,"«ee. if; "m," em; 1
40. In order to gain familiarity with the short vowels and their powers, the student should pronounce them in connection with other letters of the alphabet: thus,
4. 5. G. 7.
How man; diphthongs :iru there? Give their sounds. How may ?, ow, and wi be written as to place ? State the position for oi and ?7. What is a grammalogue ? Give some examples. How arc logograms generally written In what directions are the logograms «
^~f ms, s_p .
ADDITIONAL SIGN FOR
Between two straight
forming an angle, the
written on the outside of the angle; thus,
"s" AM) " Z."
.sr.sor scs ;
JJ ^ cS S
exercises on " st," "str," and " sw."
i\ Lt, ^.^ r *
^ ^~ v^
w r V"
swell, swelling, swathe, swig,
boaster, jester, muster.
initially 4. 5. (i.
the middle of a
Give some examples.
How may a final 8 be added to these loops How is initial 8W represented? How is xtr written when not joined to another ?
Write some words illustrating the rule that a vowel cannot be read before an initial, or after a final
Give several words
circle, or loop.
which the sw
INITIAL " R "
AM> " L
CHAPTER A AND The Liquids
and forming a
arc often found following
united or blended with other
as in the
In pronouncing fry,Jly, douWe, maker, etc. these words, the combination of the /• or I with the pre-
INITIAL HOOK ADDING
In writing the following exercise, call the combina-
and the words
tions by their single names,
'^ S \
^^ ^ v
Exercise 25. Flap,
either, other, through, fry,
Finger, banker, hopeful, dinner, Sock, funnel, banner. .;
Mother, father, brother, evil, freak, fluency, Irian. Fisher, adverse, eternity, burglan, bugle k, winner. Ai;i;i\al,
rather, rightful, Loafer, owners.
EXERCISES ON INITIAL
The calmer Honor thy
neighbor. The Holy Hible should he youi: teacher; apply to
river appeals, the deeper it is sm id to How.
love thy brother and
true wisdom. •1.
spe^k the truth
After the labor of the
pray you. and do no evil.
gather pleasure from
Give examples of words containing a double consonant formed by the combination of r or 2 with the preceding
By what means
are these combinations represented
the pupil assisted in
are the^r, pi series used ? does a small hook prefixed to a curved
Write the two forms of
right-hand curves be used, and when the left-hand curves? What does a large hook prefixed to a curve represent ? How are the double consonants pi, •.
tRCLES AND LOOPS.
agent, /^~- ransom, hie.
cf shl, J) shn, when
written upward and ( //,-when downward, must never stand ALONE, for it might be supposed that^., had been written downward, and !i?.
V V ^
Pain, plain, pun, blown, brain, deign, train. Tone, chin, bean, crown, cone, join, cam', grain, glean.
Fine, vine, even, thine, nine, ocean, lane.
7. 8. 9.
Puff, proof, beef, brief, Mull', ('hale, chaff, calf,
rough, trough, deaf. cliff, grief,
Hoof, huff, waif, turf, tariff, drive, derive, roof. Bone, bony; spoon, sj ay; puff, puffy; Jane, Jenny. Cone, coney; gun, agony; fan, Fanny; vain, avenue.
Man, many, manna, money; rave, review rain, rainy. bevy; nine, ninny; pansy, iitouy, renew. ;
Circle S added to
and F Hooks.
hook of a straight
pns, ins, chns, kns, rns, wne, 1ms: pfs,
to the n
A k^ ^
^\ r\ '
EXERCISE ON THE "-TION" HOOK.
Exercise 37. 1. Fashion, mission, motion, notion, nation, oRation, lotion, evasion, vision, fusion, elation, solution, delusion, donation, mention, invasion, dimension, nomination, invention, pension, relation, cremation, salvation, evolution, infusion, collision, veneration, provision, pollution, ammunition, reservation, intimation, revelation 'J Suppression, attrition, Grecian, abrasion, suction, equation, accretion, secretion, expression, selection, location, faction, fiction, vocation, vacation, approbation, illustration, addition, imitation, exhortation, deputation, emigration vegetation. ;!. Option, potion, passion, auction, caution, cushion, apparition, education, diction, duration, Egyptian, implication, aberrat ion, appor! ion, coercion. attenuation, intuition 4. Evacuation missionary, optional, visionary, illusionary, occasional, educational, sectional passions, stations, relations, occupations, explanations, gradations, divisions. 5. Possession, precision, procession, requisition, disquisition, inquisition, incision, authorization, sensation, evangelcessation, transition; ization, suppositions, accusations, pulsations; positional,, transitional. ;
Review. 1. 'i. :!.
How How How
the termination -tion expressed ? the -tion hook written when following a curve ? after a straight letter beginning with a hook.
from a curve ? hook written after t, d, or j
circle or loop, or springing t.
How How How
the hook written
or n& 9.
other cases \ when two vowel in
signs occur Write accentuation. Give examples of the -tion hook used medially. How is -tion expressed when following the circle is
far can this
hook he vocalized
— THE ASPIRATE.
Phonography in four ways: downward (b) a tick (an abbreviawritten upward downward h) ('
always read FIRST,
c_ sack; and the hook
like the circle s
123. The dot aspirate cannot be used before a vowel thus \.v is Aj/jiii (A.cts not followed by a consonant 28. 15), not Ap-hy. ;
only employed in a few words of
it may afterwards be (a) where and the word treated as a grammalogue, some long words in order to give a briefer
Mohawk, enhance, Nehemiah,
Sihor (theNile), Soho, Sahara, Sheehy,
Eehum Ezra (
Denmark), weigh house, warehouse, Yahoo, heigh-ho
In the example Fitzhugh, the circle and the circle of the upward h make a large circle, which cannot be mistaken torftssr,tti which the ss circle won hi be written on ihe other side of t. S and «A, preceding h. are wril ten with the circle of the A inside the cmve because ilie combinations #, »•, chi sh, s, ch ; do not occur in English. .<
EXERCISE ON T11K ASPIRATE.
1 v ^ - J^
The upward m, final, generally more convenient than the downward one; yore,
always written up, except preceded l>y a vowel and followed by a
down ward. Final Lis always written down