Chapter II Theoretical Framework
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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Speaking 1. Definition of Speaking Men are social being who always need the other in their life. In order to facilitate their efforts to provide themselves with the necessities to live, human beings have to cooperate for one another, which can only be carried out in the community. Speaking is the important thing for normal human in their daily activities. With speaking we can communicate, speak the ideas, delivery the purposes and messages and express the feelings in any kind of emotional condition with the others. If we observe in our daily activities, there are many people who speak for variety purposes. Yet, not all of them have a good ability to convey the content of the message with the result that it can be understood appropriately with their aim. In other words, not all of people have a good speaking ability to harmonize between their mind or feeling and their speech, so the audience can easily receive the message comprehensively. Speaking about simple things probably is not a serious problem for common people, but explaining the idea usually become a main problem for non-expert people, moreover not all of people able to master this skill well. It seems that it cannot be abstained that speaking has a significant role in human’s life. Speaking is the most vital tool in communication. Someone’s
speaking ability is determining his/her successful career. Speaking can be a great unifier for social groups in the society. In many cases, the problems that faced by two individuals or groups are solved with communication/speaking. H. G. Tarigan noted that “speaking is language skill which develops in child’s life and always started with listening skill.”1 He also defined that “speaking is a skill of conveying words or sounds of articulation to express or to deliver ideas, opinions, or feelings.”2 He added “speaking is a human’s behaviour which exploits physical, psychological, neurological, semantic, linguistic factors extensively, so it’s considered as the most important tool in human’s social control.”3 Mackey stated in his book, ”Speaking is the most complex of linguistics skill, since it involves thinking of what is to be said while saying what has been thought.”4 Speaking skill basically must be possessed of all men who need communication in their activity, in one-directional-communication or multidirectional-communication. A man who has great speaking skill is usually finds easy of his relationship with the other. With his ability, every ideas, opinions or feelings which stated are easy to be received, so the communication that he made sets everyone at ease. Weaver, Borchers and Smith had a notion in their book, “speaking is an aspect of human behaviour, and it is learned behaviour in the same sense that handwriting, spelling, or table manners are learned behaviour even though skills 1 Henry Guntur Tarigan, Berbicara Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa, (Bandung, Angkasa, 1985), p.3 2 Ibid. p. 15 3 Ibid. p. 21 4 W. F. Mackey, Language Teaching Analysis, (London, Longman, 1978), p. 263
in speaking may be somewhat more complex.”5 According to them that speaking involves many things, habits, attitudes, and generalized abilities by reason of the nature of the environment and experiences from early childhood. They also explained further, “speaking is always a total act, involving all of basic elements, voice, visible action, language, and mental processes, in an inseparable integration.”6 For this reason, they commonly describe an act of speaking or a speech situation not in terms of its characteristic elements, but in terms of the forms of speech which it involves. John F. Wilson and Carroll C. Arnold realized that the values of definitions formulated from other vantage points and emphasizing special aspects of speech be the physiological or physical, and sociological aspects. They chose to look at speech as a phenomenon consisting of substance, process, and function. They concluded, “Speaking is thought conceived, transmitted, and expressed by brain, voice, and body, producing stimuli for auditors and for the speaker himself; and influencing subsequent thoughts, feelings, and actions.”7 Micken stated, “Speaking is not something that comes before doing; neither is it something that goes on instead of action.”8 Rather it is a form of action. It is doing. In many situations the first thing to do is to talk matters over.
5 Andrew Thomas Weaver, Gladys Louise Borchers, Donald Kliese Smith, The Teaching of Speech, (Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New York 1965), p. 3 6 Ibid. p. 265 7 J. F. Wilson and Carroll. C. Arnold, Public Speaking as a Liberal Art, (Allyn and Bacon, Inc, Boston 1965). p. 10 8 Ralph A. Micken, Speaking for Result, (Southern Illinois University, The Riverside Press, Cambridge). p. v
2. Aim of Speaking The main aim of speaking is to communicate. In order to express the feeling effectively, the speaker must comprehends all of things that he said; he must able to evaluates the effect of the communication to his audience; and also able to knows the principles which provides a basis for all of speaking situations, either generally or individually. Commonly, the speaking purposes divided into three kinds;9 a. To inform b. To entertain c. To persuade Blending or mixing process between two purposes is probably occurred. For example, a conversation which consists of informing speaking and entertaining speaking. In other book, J. F. Wilson and C. C. Arnold explained the speaking purposes in five objectives;10 a. Speaking to Inform There are times when speakers are fully satisfied if their hearers understand what is said. Sometimes such understanding is the sole objective of an entire speech; then we tend to think of the talk as wholly informative. There are some standard peculiar things which can be categorized into informative speaking; (a) Accuracy, in the sense of being true to fact in both detail and proportion; (b) Completeness, in the sense of being comprehensive enough to 9 Henry Guntur Tarigan, Berbicara Sebagai Suatu Keterampilan Berbahasa, (Bandung, Angkasa, 1985), p.16 10 J. F. Wilson and Carroll. C. Arnold, Public Speaking as a Liberal Art, (Allyn and Bacon, Inc, Boston 1965).
cover the subject promised in the specific purpose of the speech or in any subsection of the speech; and (c) Unity, in the sense of providing knowledge that will be intelligible as a whole, not as a mere miscellany of items. Like many other propositions about oral communication, these standards of good informative speaking grow out of the demands of the audience. When a speaker indicates he wants to make us understand, all of us, as listeners, begin analysing what he says for its truth; for whether there is enough detail to permit understanding and to justify accepting what is being offered; and for whether what we are told “adds up” to any completed, significant whole.
b. Speaking to Induce Inquiry A formal example of speaking to induce inquiry might be seen when a city manager or other official outlines to a mass meeting the nature of his city’s watersupply crisis and presents the alternatives from which the city must choose its solution. In formal as well as informal setting speakers do address audiences without pretending to have the answers. A fraternity member may observe that the porch of the chapter house is deteriorating. If nothing is done about it he may feel moved to introduce the problem at a business meeting. Not having the answers himself, he may choose to discuss the problem and several possible ways of doing the necessary repair work. Likewise, a speaker might be truly perplexed about “What attitude should we take toward conscientious objectors?” and so, wish to set off discussion of the topic. In such moments these speakers are not informants in the usual sense, nor do they have the answer about which to persuade their hearers. Their objective is to set out the conditions within which a solution must
be found and to challenge those who listen to evaluate and select a desirable solution. The challenge may be for private thought or for public discussion in the open forums that often follow such speeches. c. Speaking to Reinforce Beliefs and Feelings From time to time we talk to others without intending to establish new beliefs or reverse the directions in which our listeners’ feeling run. We often talk simply to reinforce beliefs and feelings that already exist. We speak of the values of education on a commencement day; we assure a friend that he is right in asserting that Chris John is a better boxer than Eliaspikal; and so on. The aim of such talk is to make the listener believe something more than ever or to feel more strongly then ever that which he already feels in some degree. We seek to put our hearers more completely under the dominion of their existing beliefs and feelings than they were before we began to talk.
d. Speaking to Entertain It is exceedingly important to notice that both definitions of entertain imply that entertainment may be amusing but is not invariably so. We all recognize that a first-rate travelogue can be entertaining and that although some first-rate travelogues are humorous or have amusing undertones, others do not. Likewise, many narratives and many descriptions entertain us; some do so because they are amusing while others accomplish a like effect with very little use of humor . The speaker who is asked to give “an entertaining speech’ should recognize that is choosing his subject and central theme he may elect either a humorous or a non-humorous subject and still hope to entertain.
e. Speaking to Persuade Justifying, as well as amplifying materials are essential in any attempt at altering beliefs and feelings. Moreover, both must have motivational importance for the audience. Ideally, this ought to be true of all content in all speeches; but it is crucial in persuasion. It has been repeatedly indicated that listeners have to be motivated to pay attention to what is said; but if hearers are to alter their viewpoints or feelings, their personal interests must supply especially strong justifications for change. 3. Kinds of Speaking Activity Traditional classroom speaking practice often takes the form of drills in which one person asks a question and another gives an answer. The question and the answer are structured and predictable, and often there is only one correct, predetermined answer. The purpose of asking and answering the question is to demonstrate the ability to ask and answer the question. In contrast, the purpose of real communication is to accomplish a task, such as conveying a telephone message, obtaining information, or expressing an opinion. In real communication, participants must manage uncertainty about what the other person will say. Authentic communication involves an information gap; each participant has information that the other does not have. In addition, to achieve their purpose, participants may have to clarify their meaning or ask for confirmation of their own understanding. The speaking activity grows keeping pace with period development. The high mobility of modern people demands more complexity of speaking purposes, then, affects to speaking activity in providing those purposes.
Weaver, Borchers, and Smith divided the common speaking activities in some activities:11 a. Drama: Play readings, all-school plays, class plays, operettas, one –act plays, play contests, and festivals. b. Contest speaking and reading: Interscholastic contests in interpretation of literature (declamation and reading), extemporaneous speaking, oratorical declamation, and original oratory. c. Debate: Intramural and interscholastic competition in debating propositions selected by state or national debating associations. d. Discussion: School and inter-school forums; interscholastic discussion contests. e. Speech clubs: Drama clubs, debate clubs, radio workshops, and the like. Such clubs may support or extend school and interscholastic work in particular types of speaking, may be social groups formed by students with common interests, or, as in the case of radio workshops, may foster a student interest group around a “newer” center of student interest and activity. f. Community speaking enterprises: (a) Speaker’s bureaus organized to get student speakers before adult groups in the community or before student audiences in other schools, and (b) school radio programs, filling regularly allotted time on local radio stations. g. Other student activities of which speech training is a concomitant 11 Op cit. p. 61
aspect: School assembly programs, student councils, class groups, and the like, are organized for purposes other than the giving of speech training. However, the value of such activities to the speech development of certain students in such skills as public speaking, parliamentary procedure, discussion leadership, and the like, is apparent and is often noted as one of the educational values of these activities. 4. Elements of Speaking It has to be realized that good English speaking ability is influenced by mastering the speaking elements. Speaking elements are crucial things which could not be separated each other, they are unity. A good speaking ability could not be reached if one of these elements is weak or poor. In this case, the writer took these elements in three items, phonetics, semantics and syntax. a. Phonetics As we start out, it will be useful to ask ourselves where we are going, and with what purpose. Our daily practical routine depends on oral communication. All day long we make noises and listen to noises, and these noises help in getting the day’s work done. If we’ve always spoken English, we don’t pay much attention to it, but take it for granted. There are times, however, when it’s useful to analyze the language and see how it works. Although most of us think we know English, because we use it more or less efficiently, few of us know it scientifically. Many of us fall into the booby traps of English spelling. Some of us run into conflicting opinions about what is good pronunciation and what is bad, and have no way of settling the conflict. Since our understanding of English is
likely to be loaded with misconceptions. C. K. Thomas in his book stated, phonetics is the study of oral sound used in communication.12 In phonetics, a distinctive sound is one which may distinguish one word from another, as the final sound of cat distinguishes it from cap, and the medial sound from cut. A non-distinctive sound, or sound change, is one that does not alter the meaning of the word. In cat, for instance, we have all heard nondistinctive variations in the quality or length of the medial sound, the vowel. We recognized the reference to the small animal, even though the pronunciation, by our standards, seemed a bit quaint. Phonetics (from the Greek: phōnē, "sound, voice") is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds (phones), and the processes of their physiological production, auditory reception, and neurophysiological perception. Phonetics was studied as early as 2500 years ago in ancient India, with Panini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his 5th century BC treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Panini's classification.13 Muhammad Farkhan explained also that phonetics is the study of sounds which is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones) as well as those of non-speech sounds, and their production, audition and perception, as opposed to phonology, which operates at the level of sound systems and abstract
12 Charles Kenneth Thomas, An Introduction to the Phonetics of American English, Second Edition, The Ronald Press Company, New York 1958, p. 4 13 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonetics
sound units (such as phonemes and distinctive features). 14 Phonetics deals with the sounds themselves rather than the contexts in which they are used in languages; while phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages. There are three types of the study of the sounds of language: articulatory, acoustic, and auditory phonetics.15 •
with the positions
movements of the lips, tongue, vocal tract and folds and other speech organs in producing speech. In studying articulation, the phonetician is attempting to document how we produce speech sounds. That is, articulatory phoneticians are interested in how the different structures of the vocal tract, called the articulators (tongue, lips, jaw, palate, teeth etc.) interact to create the specific sounds. This will be discussed briefly in this chapter. •
Acoustics phonetics, concerned with the properties of the sound waves and how they are received by the inner ear. Acoustic phonetics Investigates properties like the mean squared amplitude of a waveform, its duration, its fundamental frequency, or other properties of its frequency spectrum, and the relationship of these properties to other branches of phonetics (e.g. articulatory or auditory phonetics), and to abstract linguistic concepts like phones, phrases, or utterances.
14 Muhammad Farkhan, An Introduction to Linguistics, UIN Jakarta Press, Jakarta 2006, p. 27 15 Ibid. p. 28
Auditory phonetics, concerned with speech perception, principally how the brain forms perceptual representations of the input it receives. Sound is perceived through the sense of hearing. Humans and many animals use their ears to hear sound, but loud sound and low frequency sounds can be perceived by other parts of the body through the sense of touch.
Daniel Jones stated the student of spoken English or any other spoken language is faced at the outset with difficulties of five kinds in the matter of pronunciation. They are as follows:16 •
The students must learn to recognize readily and with certainly the various speech-sounds occurring in the language, when they hear somebody else pronounced; they must moreover learn to remember the acoustic qualities of those sound.
They must learn to make the foreign sounds with their own organs of speech.
They must learn to use those sounds in their proper places in connected speech.
They must learn the proper usage in the matter of the ‘soundattributes’ or ‘prosodies’ as they are often called (especially length, stress and voice-pitch).
They must learn to catenate sounds, i.e. to join each sound of a sequence on to the next, and to pronounce the complete sequence
16 Daniel Jones, An Outline of English Phonetics (Revised Edition), ……..,p. 2
rapidly and without stumbling. The ultimate object of the language learner is to be able to pronounce properly without having to pay any particular attention to the way in which they does it. To attain this end they must in the initial stages of their study focus their attention continually on the above-mentioned details of the mechanism of speech. After long practice they will gradually acquire the power of pronouncing correctly without thinking of these details. Ability to speak a language or understand it when spoken does not involve the ability to read or write it in the conventional way. One may learn to speak English perfectly without ever seeing ordinary English orthography. And conversely it is possible to learn to read and write the language without being able to pronounce it. b. Semantic Most learners begin their second language acquisition process with a "silent period", in which they speak very little if at all. For some this is a period of language shock, in which the learner actively rejects the incomprehensible input of the new language. However, research has shown that many "silent" learners are engaging in private speech (sometimes called "self-talk"). While appearing silent, they are rehearsing important survival phrases and lexical chunks. These memorized phrases are then employed in the subsequent period of formulaic speech. Whether by choice or compulsion, other learners have no silent period and pass directly to formulaic speech. This speech, in which a handful of routines are used to accomplish basic purposes, often shows few departures from L2 morphosyntax. It eventually gives way to a more experimental phase of
acquisition, in which the semantics and grammar of the target language are simplified and the learners begin to construct a true inter-language. Semantics is the study of meaning. The word "semantics" itself denotes a range of ideas, from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language to denote a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal inquiries, over a long period of time. The formal study of semantics has many subfields, including proxemics, lexicology, syntax pragmatics, etymology and others, although semantics in and of itself is a well-defined field in its own right, often with synthetic properties.17 In Philosophy of language, semantics and reference are related fields. Further related fields include philology, communication, and semiotics. The formal study of semantics is therefore complex. As a result, those who study meaning differ on what constitutes meaning. For example, in the sentence, "John loves a bagel", the word bagel may refer to the object itself, which is its literal meaning or denotation, but it may also refer to many other figurative associations, such as how it meets John's hunger, etc., which may be its connotation. Traditionally, the formal semantic view restricts semantics to its literal meaning, and relegates all figurative associations to pragmatics, but many find this distinction difficult to defend. 18 The degree to which a theorist subscribes to the literal-figurative distinction decreases as one moves from the formal semantic, semiotic, pragmatic, to the cognitive semantic
17 Cruise, Alan. Meaning and Language: An introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, chapter one, Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics, 2004 18 Kearns, Karen. Semantics, Palgrave MacMillan 2000; Cruise, D.A. Lexical Semantics. Cambridge, 1986
traditions. Muhammad Farkhan explained that semantic is branch linguistics devoted to the study of meaning, especially the meaning of words, phrases, sentences and text. It is concerned with describing how the user of a language represents the meaning of a word, or linguistic forms above or below a word in his mind and how he uses this representation tin constructing sentence. Semantics which is based largely on the study of logic in philosophy is commonly contrasted with syntax, which pertains to the formal arrangement of characters and words in the expressions of a given language. c. Syntax That almost all language networks are small-world and scale-free raises the question of whether syntax plays a role to measure the complexity of a language networks. To answer this question, it built up two random language (dependency) networks based on a dependency syntactic network and investigated the complexity of these three language networks to see if the non-syntactic ones have network indicators similar to the syntactic one. The result show that all the three networks are small-world and scale-free. While syntax influences the indicators of a complex network, scale-free is only a necessary but not sufficient condition to judge whether a network is syntactic or non-syntactic. The network analysis focuses on the global organization of a language; it may not reflect the subtle syntactic differences of the sentence structure. Lexically, syntax originates from the Greek words “syn” meaning “co-“ or “together,
Terminologically, syntax can be defined as the study of the rules, or “patterned
relations” that govern the way the words in a sentence come together.19 Simply, it concerns with how different words that are categorized as nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. are combined into phrases, clauses, which in turn, are combined into sentences. Consider the following examples. Example 1 Words:
reads girl novel the her in room new a
the girl + reads a new novel + in her room
the girl reads a new novel in her room
the girl reds a new novel in her room
Example 2 Words:
delivering senate president is his before the speech the
the president + is delivering + his speech + before the senate
the president is delivering his speech before the senate
the president is delivering his speech before the senate
Syntax attempts to systematize descriptive grammar, and is unconcerned with perspective grammar. To accommodate various school of linguistics discussing syntax, the study is differentiated into two categories, traditional and modern perspective.
B. Factor Affecting Speaking Practice Self Confident Self-confident is about how you see yourself. How people perceive you will affect your own self image and will affect how they relate to you. It will 19 http://www.wikipedia.org/org/wiki/syntax-grammar-2006; accessed on July 23rd 2009
affect your relationship either positively or negatively. And, your view about yourself shaped your unique thoughts and belief. You will see yourself in positive and negative ways and both will be biased. Then, your view will influence your self-confident because our general belief about ourselves can have a powerful effect upon our self confidence across many situations. To know whether the self confident of learners has relationship with their English speaking ability or not, the writer would like to explain the concept as follows: Self confident theory firstly comes from Carl Rogers’ theory about self. He introduced an entire system of helping built around the important of the self. The entire theory is built on a single “force of life”. He calls the ‘actualizing tendency’. It can be defined as the built in motivation present in every life form to develop its potential to the fullest extent possible.20 In Rogers’ view, the self is a social product, developing out of interpersonal relationships and striving for consistency. He maintained that there is a basic human need for positive regard both from others and from oneself. He also believed that in every person there is a tendency towards self-actualization and development so long as this is permitted and encouraged by an inviting environment.21 So, Rogers in Pesticelli defines self confident as the organized concept that composed of perceptions of the characteristics of ‘I’ or ‘me’ and the perception of the relationships of the ‘I’ or ‘me’ to others and to various aspects of life, together
20 Purkey, W. (1988). An overview of self-concept theory for counselors. ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Personnel Services, Ann Arbor, Mich. (An ERIC/CAPS Digest: ED304630) in `www.ericdigest.org./pre_9211/self.htm accessed on June, 2008. 21 Purkey W……, p. 89
with the values attached to these perceptions. In other words, one’s self confident influences the way of how one regards both oneself and one’s environment. 22 According to him, a strong self confident is flexible and allows a person to confront new experiences and ideas without feeling threatened. Besides Rogers, there are many definitions of self confident from other psycholinguists. The writer will present a few to know more about the meaning of self confident. Hubber and Runyon in Bintang Bangsaku state that self confident is an internal perception of one’s competencies, virtues, and feeling value. 23 Murphy in Bintang Bangsaku defines it as the individual as known to the individual.24 According to Symonds in Bintang Bangsaku it is the way or manner in which the individual react to himself. 25 He spells out four aspect of self: how a person perceives himself; what he thinks of himself; how he values himself; and how he attempts through various action to enhance or defend himself. In addition, Purkey defines self confident is the totality of a complex, organized, and dynamic system of learned beliefs, attitudes, and opinions that each person holds to be true about his/her personal existence.26 Marsh in Burnet states that self confident is a person’s perceptions regarding him/her; these perceptions are formed through experience with and interpretations of one’s environment. They are especially influenced by evaluations by significant others, reinforcements and attributions for one’s own behavior.27 22 Pescitelli, Dagmar. 1998. An Analysis of Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality. http://www.nidus.org, accessed on march, 23rd 2008 23 Bintang Bangsaku….., p. 68 24 Bintang Bangsaku ….., p. 69 25 Bintang Bangsaku,….. p. 70 26 Bintang Bangsaku,….. p. 70 27 Burnet, Paul C., Craven, Rhonda G., Marsh, Herbet W.1999. Enhanching Students’ SelfConcept and Related Constructs: The need for a critical longitudinal analysis capitalizing on and combining promising enhancement techniques for educational setting.www.aare.edu.au, accessed on June, 21st 2008
Furthermore, Bracken in Bintang Bangsaku mentions that self confident is a context that depends on learned behavioral patterns that reflect an individual’s evaluation of past behavior and experiences, influence an individual’s current behavior, and predict the individual’s future behaviors.28 Furhman in Bintang Bangsaku states that self confident is all about one’s perception and assessment about one’s self through physic, sex, cognitive, behavior, competence, performance, motivation, and emotion.29 Other definition about self confident is from Cooley in Bintang Bangsaku he defines self confident as a concept is formed from learning process about norm, attitude, role, and identity in the interaction process with society. 30 Stuart and Sudeen in Salbiah state that self confident is all ideas, thinking, and belief is known by someone about his/herself and influence one in interaction process.31 In this study, self confident is what someone understands about his/herself that develops through experience, education, socialization and interaction process as long as human life. It is about how a person perceives himself; how a person regards himself; what he thinks of himself; how he values himself; and how he attempts through various actions to enhance or defend himself. Aspects or Sub Scale of Self Confident According to Brook Bintang Bangsaku stated that the aspect of self confident is divided into three. They are as follows:
28 Bintang Bangsaku…..,p. 71 29 Bintang Bangsaku…..,p. 72 30 Bintang Bangsaku…..,p. 73 31 Salbiah, SKp. 2003. Konsep Diri. www.usu.ac.id.com (Accessed on June, 2008)
a. Academic Self Confident It is related to individual’s perception about his capability, achievement, and self confidence in academic life. And the students’ perception itself is influenced by others’ perception toward him especially teachers and classmates. If the teacher believes to the students’ capability, the students also trust with their capability. Then, they may feel others accept themselves. Unconsciously, there is a high motivation and desire inside the students’ self to get a good achievement. In addition, Jones and Grieneeks (Pudjijogyanti: 1991) say that self confident is the best non-intellectual factor to determine students’ achievement. Many observations showed that individual perception about his capability will influence his motivation to get a good achievement. In brief, it shows that the importance of self confidence, self regard, and self acceptance in determining the successfulness. b. Social Self Confident It is related to one’s social role, his perception toward its role, and the ability to make relationship with others people. This aspect focuses on one’s role as a social person in the family and society and how the family and environment treat someone and influence one’s self confident. c. Personal Self Confident It is related to individual’s perception about his property like physical appearances, the way of thinking, and feeling value toward himself which relates to one’s characteristic or trait personality like attitude, value, and belief such as self confidence, honesty, and trustworthy.
Level of Self Confident Mostly, self confident is divided into two levels.32 They are high self confident and low self confident. Furthermore, it is divided into three levels. They are high, fair and low. High self confident is the condition when you are sure about yourself, appreciate your self, trust to your potential, feel accepted, make friend easily, and another happy feeling that make you confident and deserve to have a better life. Fair self confident is the condition when you have a fairly self confident. You feel accepted, praised and other happy feelings that make you be confidence, but in another situation, the feeling can be change of the opposite. Although he or she has high self confident, but it is not high enough to be called high concept, because there is still another room to be improved to have high self confident. Low self confident is the condition of your feeling when you have a poor self image caused by your experiences during childhood, and that feeling cannot go through when you are growing up. You feel lonely, depressed, having social anxiety and alienation even in crowd situation. Coopersmith33 states that the characteristic of people who have high self confident are free to give opinion, have high motivation to reach aim, can actualize self potential, and have ability to adapt with environment. In addition, Brook and Emmert34 mention that high self confident is signed by trusting one’s competence to solve problem, having equal role with others, accepting praise, being aware that not all people are accepted certainly by society and always improving his/her personality.
32 Bintang Bangsaku, ….. p. 76 33 Bintang Bangsaku, ….. p. 78 34 Bintang Bangsaku, ….. p. 79
John Robert Power 35 states that people have high self confident when they know themselves deeply both strength and weakness, accept all their self potential and feel confidence to develop it optimally, and have a strong motivation to learn and become a success person. In this study, if the learners have high self confident on English speaking, they will speak English confidently and fluently. Because by having high self confident, students will have strong motivation to learn and to develop their competence in speaking and be active in English speaking class. They are also brave to take risks of making mistakes and make decision about what to say and how to express their ideas in English. Briefly, the learners who have high self confident will regard themselves and can reach the aim easily. Fair self confident almost has the same characters with high self confident. But, it is unstable. A person with fair self confident is easy distracted by the condition and situation. And it is easy to make them feel inferior or not confidence when they are in unusual condition and do something difficult or they never done before. Sometimes they are unable to overcome the unusual situation, but sometimes not. Low self confident is signed by having no knowledge about self, lack confidence, afraid to make mistakes and to try a new thing, afraid to refusal, lazy to learn, easy feeling failure, always blaming situation and others, sensitive to others’ criticism, hypercriticize, responsive to others’ praise, and pessimistic. Coopersmith36 states that low self confident is characterized by insecure feeling and lack self acceptance. Furthermore, Fitts37 mention that people have low self 35 Ibid. 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid.
confident when they do not regard themselves, have no self image yet, have difficulty to define their own self, easy to be influenced with environment, and feel strange in his/her own environment because of their bad experiences. By having low self confident, learners are hampered to speak English well. Because they tend to be inactive, ashamed to express their idea, afraid to make mistakes and do not know what and how should they express their idea in English? If the learner keeps this low level of self confident during he or she learns to speak English, the writer thinks that it will take a long time for them to be success in English speaking. Here is needed the teacher or instructor’s role in improving their self confident on English speaking ability because it is not always so easy to recognize whether the learners have low self confident or not. There are some consequences of having low self confident that can devastate. It can create anxiety, loneliness, and increase the likelihood for depression. It can cause problems with friendship and relationship, can impair academic and job performance seriously, can lead to under achievement and increase vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. These negative consequences can take a person into a downward spiral of lower self confident and increasingly non productive or even actively self destructive behavior.38
Self Confident Development Self confident is not innate and heredity. It develops by continuing self 38 Fitriana, Rinda. 2006. The Self-Esteem in English Speaking Ability by the Learners of Lembaga Pendidikan Indonesia Amerika (LPIA)’s Conversation ! class in Academic Year 2005/2006). Unpublished Thesis. Samarinda: College of English Education of Mulawarman University. P. 98
learning process. Burns39 states that self confident always develop as long as human life. Furthermore Cooley40 mentions that self confident is formed through learning process. Self confident develops throughout our lives as we build a self image through our experiences with different people and activities. Experiences during childhood play role in shaping our basic self confident. The way we are treated by families, teachers, friends, and society, and the way we face our success and failure when we are growing up, give a contribution to create our self confident. As Hurlock states that the development process of self confident started from when human was born, continue until his/her age is 6-8 months old, and when his/her age is 3-5 years old, the person starts to identify him/her self about age, body size, sex, and other.41 In this face which Allport
called as early self face,
someone also tries to give simple respond to others. The process is more complicated in schooling age. It is because of socialization, and interaction process with others. And the most complex face is adolescent. Hurlock mentions that adolescent face is the important face to find out and set up one’s self confident. If someone receives positive perception or regards from others, he/she may regard his/her self highly which also can shape his/her positive self confident.43 In brief, self confident is formed from learning process through feedback from others and environment, experience (both childhood and growing up), education, interaction and socialization process. 39 Ibid. 40 Ibid. 41 Hurlock, B. Elizabeth. 1980. Psikologi Perkembangan. Jakarta: Erlangga. P. 56 42 Ibid. 43 Hurlock B. Elizabeth….. p. 77
C. Thinking Framework As discussed before, self-confident has the urgent role in speaking activity. A good speaking activity is supported by good self-confident. To have speaking activity, students are needed to avoid afraid to make mistakes and do not know what and how should they express their idea in English, and ashamed to express their idea. Because, to communicate in English needs confident that is reflected through general self confident. In addition, in acquiring second language, learner is affected by some variables including motivation, self confidence, and anxiety. With high motivation, self confidence, a good self image, and a low level of anxiety, students will be better for success in second language acquisition. Furthermore, low motivation which relate to the low self confident and debilitating anxiety, can form a mental block that prevents comprehensible input for language acquisition. It means that when the students has low self-confident, any efforts to acquire second language as well will be disturbed, and she/he might failed to acquire English as second language. As the writer explained above, low self confident may affect their self confidence and motivation to learn. So, high self confidence is needed to present our English in communication (speaking activity).