Zolai Gelhmaan Bu 1

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Zolai Gelhmaan Laigelhsate Kaihkhopna Bu Khatna

Zolai Grammar A Collection of Papers Volume I

By Taang Zomi

Mailam-a hong suak lai dingte:1 Zolai Gelhmaan, Bu II (Zolai Grammar, Volume II) Zomi Ngeina Pawlkhat (Some Points in Zomi Culture) Zokam Awneenbulthu le Awbulthu (Zokam Phonetics and Phonemics)

1 Laibu minte pen, a hun taktak ciangin, a tuamdang zong hong hi thei ding hi.

Zolai Gelhmaan Bu Khatna Zolai Grammar Volume I

By Taang Zomi Published in commemoration of the J. H. Cope Centennial Jubilee (1910-2010) Circulation of this book is restricted to members of Zomi community A publication of Zomi Linguistics Research Group Sponsored by Zomi Innkuan Singapore Distributed by Zomi Christian Literature Society

Copyright Page Zolai Gelhmaan, Bu Khat Zolai Grammar, Volume One Copyright © 2010 by Taang Zomi The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the author, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Please contact the author at: [email protected] [email protected]

First Edition: November 2010 First Printing: November 2010 Printed in Yangon, Myanmar This is a co-operative effort of Zomi Linguistics Research Group, Zomi Innkuan Singapore, Zomi Christian Literature Society, and individuals who are interested in, and concerned about, the improvement of the written language of the Zomi. The author has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of residential addresses and URLs for external or third party internet websites referred to in this book, and does not guarantee that any content on such website is, or remain, accurate or appropriate.

Colophon Writing and manuscript building: Manuscript preparation: OpenOffice.org Writer 3.2.1 Typesetting: Body text: Times New Roman Body text (some): Comic Sans MS, Lucida Sans Unicode, CharisSIL, Couriet New, Arial, Curlz MT, Zawgyi-One Prepress: Editing: Tg. Pau Cin Thang Proofreading: Book design: Tg. Pau Cin Thang Typography: Production using OpenOffice.org Writer 3.2.1 Cover Design: Tg. Nang Sawm Piang Book consultants: Tg. Raymond Pau Lian Mang, Tg. Nang Sawm Piang Conversion: OpenOffice.org Writer to PDF, and PrimoPDF Printing: Offset printing done in Yangon, Myanmar by Shwe Sabai Sarpay, 368 First Floor (Right), Maha Bandoola Park Street (Upper), Kyauktada Township, Yangon; Phone: 95-1-377861; Mobile: 01 73031557 Paper: 60 gsm Cover: 10 pt C1S, four-color, lay-flat gloss film lamination Binding: Perfect-bound (adhesive, softcover) Book publication: Zomi Linguistics Research Group, Atlanta, GA, USA Book sponsoring: Zomi Innkuan Singapore, Singapore Book distribution: Zomi Christian Literature Society, Kalaymyo, Sagaing Division, Myanmar

Zolai Gelhmaan

A Sung-a Om Thute Table of Contents Copyright Page ..........................................................4 Colophon.....................................................................5 A Sung-a Om Thute....................................................7 Acknowledgments ....................................................11 Thumasa (Foreword):..............................................15 Kohnop Lungdamhuai Thu............................................15 By Rev. Dr. Tg. S.Pau Khan En .................................15

Thupatna (Introduction):........................................19 Hih Laibu A Kibawlna A Hang, A Kibawl Zia, cihte....19

Zolai Gelhziate Pawlkhat ........................................23 Thupatna: Zolai Telkan Un! ..........................................23 Pawfi Zatna (The Use of the Apostrophe) .....................24 Thupatna ....................................................................24 Theihding Bulpite (Basic Rules) ...............................25 Namkhenna (Classification) ......................................27 Khawknote (Sections) ................................................29 Thukhupna (Conclusion) ...........................................55 Nungthuap (Appendix): Theih thak ...........................56 Noun Pian’sakna (Formation of Nouns) .......................56 Page 7 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Theih Masak Dingte ..................................................57 Theihding Bulpite (Basic Rules) ...............................58 Malgawm leh Awsuah Kiheel Lo-a Noun Pian’sakna ....................................................................................59 Malgawm Kikheel Lo-a Awsuah Bek Kikheel-a Noun Pian’sakna ..................................................................61 Malgawm leh Awsuah Kikheel-a Noun Pian’sakna ...63 Thukhupna: Hih Lai (Article) Tawh Kisai) ..................73

Zolai Bulpite Pawlkhat ...........................................75 Thupatna: Zolai It Un! ...................................................75 Tat-Huh Pian’sakna ........................................................77 Awbul Tawh Kisai Theih-Huai Pawlkhat .....................83 (Some Points on Phonemes) ...........................................83 Thukhupna: Ngaihsutna Hong Pia Un .........................90

Manglai leh Zolai-a Ih Khialh Khaak Pahpahte Pawlkhat....................................................................91 Mun-awng (Space) .................................................101 1. Khialhna (Error)........................................................101 2. Computer leh Word Processing Program zangh-a lai gelhna..............................................................................102 3. Punctuation Mark-te.................................................104 4. Mun-awng (Space) koih zia.......................................105

Tomlaakna (Abbreviation).....................................117 Tomlaak (Abbreviation) zat zia....................................119

Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, Period leh Space Zat Zia Pawlkhat....................................................127 Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding? (1)...................145 Page 8 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan A. Thupatna....................................................................145 1. Thu Masa..............................................................145 2. Khialhna (Error)....................................................146 3. Computer leh Word Processing Program zangh-a lai gelhna........................................................................148 B. Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding?...........................149 C. Nungthuap (Appendix).............................................162 Zomi Polysyllabic Words..........................................162

Magazine Bawlna-a Zat Zia Pawlkhat.................171 Malgawm Zia pawlkhat.................................................171 Min malgawm zia.....................................................171 Beh min malgawm zia..............................................172 Khua min malgawm zia............................................172 Minam min malgawm zia.........................................173 Kammal Kinaaisak zia leh Kihalsak zia......................173 Zat zia pawlkhat.............................................................176

A Nostalgic Small Piece of Zolai Grammar.........179 Zolai Gelhmaan Bulpi Pawlkhat...........................191 Gelhmaan (Grammar) Telkan (Research) Ka Bawl Dan...........................................................................199 I am Proud of Being a Zomi..................................201 Tedim Labu a Lui le a Thak Etkaakna Tawmno (01)...........................................................................205 Noun pen Capital Letter tawh Gelh Ding Vai le Zolai Vai Tuamtuam...............................................215 Awmung Nih Kithuap le Pawfi Zatna..................219 Awmung Nih Kithuap le Pawfi Zatna – 2............223 Page 9 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Zolai Vai Pawlkhat le Zokam Tone Vai................229 Tone Marks for Zolai................................................235 Diagrams.........................................................................237 Tables...............................................................................238

Title Suan’na, Degree Suan’na, Apostrophe Zatna, etc.............................................................................243 Zomi Mimal Minnote Vai.......................................257 Zomi Mimal Minte.................................................261 Minpite............................................................................261 Minnote...........................................................................265

Zolai Awbulte..........................................................267 Index........................................................................281 Thu Ciaptehna........................................................287

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Zolai Gelhmaan

Acknowledgments I would like to express my thanks:

ֱ ‫)]י ְהוָה‬ 1. To YHWH Elohim ([‫ ]יהוה אלהים‬or [‫אֹלהִים‬ for enabling me to play a small role in the maintenance and improvement of Zolai; 2. To the late Rev. Dr. Joseph Herbert Cope, for reducing Zokam to Roman script and for educating Zomi people; 3. To my father’s second cousin, the late Rev. Tg. Sukte T. Hau Go, for translating many hymns and booklets into Zolai; and To Rev. Dr. Tg. Kam Khaw Thang, for translating The Child's Story Bible by Catherine F. Vos (Lai Siangtho Tangthu Naupang T’a), the reading of which launched me into studying the Bible, and for translating the whole Bible; 4. To my father, the late Pastor-General Tg. Thang Za Kam (Tg. Kampu), for teaching me one of the most fundamental — yet one of the most neglected and ignored — elements of alphabetic writing: placing a sufficient amount of space between two words in handwriting, and placing one space between two words in typing; and To my late maternal grandfather, Sia Tg. Pau Za Dongh (Tg. Donghkawi), for teaching me punctuation when I was in the fourth standard (primary school); 5. To my mother, Lia Niang Za Dim (Lia Dimno), for teaching me Lesson 1 of Zolai Sim Bu Tan Khat (“Ka dah mah mah”, etc.) on the first morning before school where I was to study Zolai for the first time. (Zolai was not taught in my kindergarten Page 11 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan class in the mission school I attended the previous year.); 6. To my third cousin, the late Sia Tg. S. L. Hang Khan Pau (Tg. Paupu), for teaching me diligence in handwriting, spelling, punctuation and pronunciation in my fifth standard (middle school); and To my maternal uncle, Sia Tg. Kam Khen Cin, for encouraging me to be proficient in English by buying me the The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, one of the best dictionaries in the world for students; 7. To Rev. Dr. Tg. Simon Enno (Tg. Pau Khan En), for inviting me to attend the founding meeting of Zomi Christian Literature Society (ZCLS), and to participate in its research activities; and To Rev. Tg. Paul Thuam Thang, for encouraging me to delve into research on Zolai, especially on tones and tone sandhi, and share the findings of my research, and for allowing me (along with him) to represent ZCLS to other organizations; 8. To the late Siapi Tg. Vul Za Thang, and To the late Sia Tg. J. Gin Za Twang, for inspiring me — by compiling Chin English Dictionary (Tiddim-Chin) — to study tones in our language; 9. To My brother-in-law, Lt.-Col. (Dr.) Tg. Kam Khan Thawng, and To my doctoral mentor, Rev. Dr. Colin Brown (professor of systematic theology, director of the Center for Advanced Theological Studies, and associate dean of the School of Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California, USA), Page 12 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan for inspiring me to greater diligence, meticulousness, and consistency in reading and writing; 10. To Tg. Pau Lian Nun (Tg. Nunpi) for giving me many of his books and magazines for use in my research; 11. To Tg. Michael Suan Lian Pau for implementing the principles of punctuation written in this book; 12. To Rev. Tg. Go Khan Pau (Fort Lauderdale, Florida), To Tg. Thang Khaw Pau (Cumming, Georgia), and To Tg. Sing Pi (Clarkston, Georgia) for willingly and proactively letting me use their computers; 13. To my son Tg. Kam Sian Tung (Tg. Tungpi) for helping me acquire my own laptop computer; 14. To Tg. Tual Khan Suan (USA), To Tg. Disciple Kap Sian (Sianpu) (Malaysia), To Tg. Paul Khaipu (Australia), and To Tg. Joshua Gin Khaw Mang Shoute (Canada) for encouraging me to write this kind of paper and this kind of book; 15. To my brother, Tg. Raymond Pau Lian Mang (Tg. PLMangno), and To brother-in-law, Tg. Nang Sawm Piang, for helping me in Page 13 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan printing and publishing this book; 16. To Zomi Innkuan Singapore, for financially sponsoring me in pubslishing this book; and To Zomi Christian Literature Society, for taking the responsibility of distributing this book; and 17. To friends and family, and fellow language lovers, far and near.

Taang Zomi [email protected] [email protected] 13 SEP 10 MON

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Zolai Gelhmaan

Thumasa (Foreword):

Kohnop Lungdamhuai Thu By Rev. Dr. Tg. S. Pau Khan En

Pasian’ bawlsa hih i leitung ah minam khat-a i pian’ nak leh paulehaam nei tek hi hang. Tua i pau i haamte mah tawh thupi lapi suutin thucin’ thutang i gen a, i lungsimte genkhia-in mihingte i kizom hi. A mual a guam leh teen’na giahna kilamdan’na, kigamlatna hangin paulehaam a cih nam tampi hong pha-in hong khangtoto, hong tam seemseem hi. Tua paulehaam kilamdan’na in minam tampi hong phasak-in hong kaaktoto hi. Paulehaam a manthan’loh nadingin minam khangto masa ahi Babylon mite, Egypt mite cih bangin a khangkhangin lai na pankhia uh a, lai na nei tek uh hi. Tua a patkhiatte uh na gina zo pah saam lo-in tungman tungah lim peuhin suai-in na ciamteh uh hi. Tuate panin savun tung leh pumpeng tung ah na gelh uh a, pau panin lai-in a bawl uh hi. Minam dangte mah bangin ei Zosuan tate in zong pau i nei, haam i nei hi. Tua paulehaamte tawh i khang tangthute i suut a, la-in phuakin paunakin i thute i ciing hi. Lai kici i nei kei hi. Ahi zongin Zosuan tate adinga Tedim tual ah hong bual masa Tuiphum Sangmang Rev. Dr. Joseph Herbert Cope-te nupa in lai hong patkhiatsak uh hi. I hamphat mahmahna khat ah minam pawlkhatte’ aa bangin tualsung laimal hong zatsak lo-in leitung bup-a kizang Zawmah laimal (Roman alphabet) hong zatsak pah ek a, leitung bup tawh manlang takin a kalsuan khawm thei i suak pah hi. Hampha kisa ing! Page 15 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ahi zongin tua Sangmang Cope topa’ hong patsak laite zangin thupi lapi i gelh ciangin laigelhzia ding hong kisam a, bulphuhzawk ding i neihloh manin eimau’ ut bangin i gelh ziazua hi. I gelhziate kibang lo hi. Kilamdang hi. A sintuam a siamtuam om k’hang, ci-in eimau’ atzia tek maanpeen hoihpeen sa-in i din’pih tentan thong hi. Tua bangin pai toto mawk lehang laikip laikho i nei thei ngei kei ding hi. Hih bang hun lian laitakin paulelai lamah Pasian in siamtuamna a piak Rev. Pau Cin Thang (Sia Thangbawi) in a hun a phaat leh a siamna neihtawp zangin Zolai Gelhmaan cih laibu hong suahkhiat ciangin Pasian in Zosuan tate dong hong hukna hi, ka cih pah hi. Amau unau pen paulehaam leh laigelhzia lamah Pasian in pian’pih siamna, uukna leh veina a guatte uh hi a, hih laigelhzia bawl dingin muan’lah dingte hi lo uh hi. Uuk uh hi. Vei uh hi. Kan beh uh hi. I minam bup aadingin i go i gamhpi ding khat hong bawlsaksak ahi hi. Zosuan tate’ lai ding hong bawlsak Sangmang Cope topate hong tun’ leh Zolai i neih kum zakhat (1910-2010) a cin’ kum kekkek-a hih Zolai Gelhmaan laibu hong suah theih, Zosuan tate bup aadingin a lungdamhuai bel ahi hi. I nuam hi. I kipaak hi. Hih laibu hong bawlkhia Sia Thangbawi leh laibu hong suahkhiat nadinga a seppih a bawlpihte, a thuthu a lamlam-a a pan’pih i sanggam itte tungah Zosuan tate bup in lungdam thu i ko hi. Kammal zakhat leh laimal khat kikim cih Kawl paunak khat om hi. Tua hi a, hih laigelhzia laibu zangin i minam sungah laigelh siam tampi hong pian’ nading, laibu tampi suahkhia-a thumaan thutak tawh a nungta Zosuan tate i hih nadingin Van Pasian kiangah thu ka ngenngen hi. Tung Pasian in hih laibu a gelhte, a pian’zawh nadinga a munmun a ciangciang pan-a a pan’pihte, a lei a simte leh a zang ding Zosuan tate khempeuh thupha hong pia ta hen! Tua mah bangin Tung Pasian mahmah in hih laibu leh a sunga om thute Page 16 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan humopin thupha pia henla, laigelh mi khempeuh’ lungsim khoihin laigelh lai-at a siam mi tampi hong pholhkhia-in Ama’ minthan’ nadingin hong zatsak hoh hen, ci-in ka thu ka khum hi. Kipak takin, Rev. Tg. S. Pau Khan En, Ph.D. Pastor Tedim Baptist Church – Yangon June 2, 2010

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Zolai Gelhmaan

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Zolai Gelhmaan 08 SEP 10 WED

Thupatna (Introduction):

Hih Laibu A Kibawlna A Hang, A Kibawl Zia, cihte 1. 1968 kum pawl-a a kibawl Zomi sangnaupang magazine khat ka sim ciangin, khialhna tampi om-a, khialh khaak pakte bek hi lo-in, theih loh man-a khialhnate zong kihel hi, cih ka mu hi. Tua ahih manin, article gelh leng, kei mahmah coypeditor ka hih ciang, a’ihke’h proofreader ka hih ciang bekin, magazine-ah puak ka sawm hi. Tua khialhna tuamtuamte ka muhna hangin, Zolai gelh zia a maan thu, ka gelh nopna lungsim hong piang-a, “Zolai Gelhziate Pawlkhat” cih article khat gelh ka kipan hi. Editor ka sepna, Chin Magazine 1973-74 sungah ka suaksak hi. 2. 2000 kum-in ZoNet (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/) hong kiphuat ciang leh, tua khit-in yahoogroup tuamtuam hong kiphuat ciangin, lai kigelh ziahziah-a, tampi tak khial hi. Leitung pilna saang pipi a neite nangawn in punctuation zatna ciang nangawn maan tak-a hong zat theih loh uh ciangin, veiina ka nei-a, tua yahoogroup-te-ah, Zolai gelh zia pawlkhat ka gelh hi. 3. Laibu khat ka bawl ding a deih lawm le gualte’ hanthotna tungtawn-in hih laibu k’ong bawl hi. 4. Hih laibu pen, magazine-te-a a kisuaksaksate le Zomite’ yahoogroup-te-a a kisuaksak khinsate kaihawm-a, a kibawl ahi hi. Page 19 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 5.1 A thu a khial kha tawmtawm longal, ahi bang lian-in kisuaksak hi. Gentehna-in, ka laigelhna pawlkhat-ah “ih” (“ih gam ih lei”) ciin ka zangh-a, pawlkhat-ah “i” (“i gam i lei”) ci-in ka zangh hi. [Word processing progam-ah, “i” (small letter) i khet ciangin, “I” (capital letter) hong suak hi. Tua ahih manin, “ih” ka zangh hi. Tu-in, “i” (small) ka khet ciangin, “I” (capital letter) a suak lo dingin, bawl thei ta ka hih manin, “i” ka zangh kik hi.] Tuate pen, ka gelh laitak-a bang lian-in, hih laibu sung-ah kitei kik hi. Tua bangmah-in, pawlkhat-ah “leh” (“and”) ka ci-a, pawlkhatah “le” (“and”) ka ci hi. 5.2 Pawlkhat-ah, ka gelh masa-te, a hi bang lian-in la leng, ka gelh nunung-te tawh kikhentel thei lo thei-in lungsim buaina a piang kha thei ding om hi. Tuate pen, a nunung lam-a ka gelh dan-in ka puah hi. Gentehna-in, 1970-1980 lai-in vowel pen “lai-aw” ka ci-a, tu (2006-2010) ciangin, “laimung” ka ci hi. Nidang-a “lai-aw” ka cihna mun teng-ah “laimung” ci-in ka kheel hi. Tua bangmahin, tua lai-in, phoneme pen “awmal” ka ci hi. Tu-in, syllable pen “awmal” ci ka hih manin, phoneme pen “awmal” ci lai leng, buai huai ahih manin, phoneme pen “awbul” ka ci hi. Tua ahih manin, tua hun lai-a phoneme pen “awmal” ci-a ka gelh pen, hih laibu sung-ah “awbul” ci-in, ka laih hi. 6. Ka laigelhte pawlkhat pen, mi pawlkhatte’ laigelhte ka dawn’ kikna ahi hi. Tua munte-ah, amau’ laigelhte, ka suaksak (quote) hi. Tua bangte-ah, amau’ gelh bang lian-in, ka suaksak hi. Kei’n maan ka sak bang, hi lo hi. 7. Yahoogroup-te-ah lai ka gelh ciangin, a sim mite in baihno tak-a a tel pah theih nading-un, a khial kammalte pen a san (red font) tawh ka lak-a, a khial ka bawlphatna pen vanmeel (blue font) tawh ka lak hi. Page 20 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Laibu-a i bawl ding ciangin, color tuamtuam om leh sum tam bei-a, black and white bek hi leh, sum tawm bei hi. Tua ahih manin, red font teng pen Comic Sans MS Bold Italic tawh ka laih-a, blue font pen Times New Roman Bold Italic tawh ka laih hi. 8. Color zatna a dangdangte zong, hih laibu bawlna-a a kizang font (Times New Roman) ahi lo font dangdang tawh ka laih hi. Color a nei lim (drawing; figure)-te pen, bold line, dotted line, broken line, dashed line, etc. tawh ka laih hi. 9. Teen’na mun (residential address), website URL cihte zong, ka gelh hun-a ka gelh bang lian-in, hih laibu sung-ah kigelh hi. Tampi tak, maan nawn lo ding hi. 10. Laibu khat peuh i bawl ciangin, laigelhpa a khialh khakna om thei tawntung hi. Press pan-in zong kikheen khial thei lai hi. Tua ahih manin, khialhna na muh uh leh, hih a nuai-a munte-ah, n’ong zaaksak ding uh, k’ong thuum hi. [email protected] [email protected] Second edition-ah a maan zaw-in i bawl ding hi. 11. Hih laibu pen, Zolai a thei nai lo khat in a theih nading ngimna tawh a gelh ka hi kei-a, a thei khinsa khat in a maan-a a theih nading ngimna tawh a gelh, ka hi hi. Zolai Tan IV ciang a zo khin-a Kawllai le Manglai a kilawm ciang khat a thei khin (high school a’ihk’eh college a zo khin)-te’ aading-a ka gelh, ahi hi. 12. Hih laibu pen, a sim nop ding, a zaak nop ding-in, ka gelh kei-a, a maan, a kician a kitheih nadingin ka gelh hi. Beautiful Page 21 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Zolai dingin ka gelh kei-a, Correct Zolai dingin, ka gelh hi. 13. A zaak nop ding-a a kigelh hi lo, ngaihsut ding le sin (study) ding-a a kigelh ahih man-in, sim (read) ziau lo-in, laidal le laikung zangh-in, ciapteh ding, sin ding, ahi hi. Computer a zanghte in, computer mai-ah tu pah-in, kisin (practise) ding, ahi hi. Tua hi kei leh, tel mun meel om lo-in, lai sim thaman om lo thei ding hi. 14. Topa Pasian in, hih laibu tungtawn-in, Zolai a maan-in gelh theihna hong piangsak hen.

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Zolai Gelhmaan Grammar & Linguistics:

Zolai Gelhziate Pawlkhat2 Khenpi I (Part I)

Thupatna: Zolai Telkan Un! Mahatma Gandhi in, “Lai a nei lo minam a om leh mangthang ding hi,” ci hi. Tua ahih leh ei Zomite i mangthang ding hiam? Kimangthang lo ding hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, ei’n lai nei hi hang. Tua ahih leh, tua i lai neih a kicing hiam? Kicing nai lo hi. A kicin’ na’ng-a tavuan nei kuate hiam? Minam dangte hi lo-in, Zomite mah hi pah hi. Tu hun laitak-in, leitung bup-a a kizang lai in Manglai ahi hi. Leitung mun tuamtuam-ah Manglai a kisinna pen, Manglai-ah, kammal leh zatna a kicin’ man ahi hi. Tua bang-a a kicin’ na’ngin Mangkangte in na hanciam uh hi. Kammal i hauh theih na’ngin lampi tuamtuam om hi. Tuate in: (1) A omsa i lai, kepcingna (preservation) (2) A kimangngilh khinsate phot (phong) kikna (revival) (3) A om nai lo kammalte, phuat thakna (invention or coinage) (4) Minam dangte’ kammalte, ei’ aa suahsakna (adoption) 2 Tg. Pau Cin Thang, “Zolai Gelhziate Pawlkhat,” Rangoon Universities Chin Literature and Culture Subcommittee Annual Magazine (19731974), Rangoon: Rangoon Universities Chin Literature and Culture Subcommitte, 1974, Tedim Section, pp.12-26 Page 23 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (5) I neihsa laite, khan’tohsakna leh lim tak-a kepna (development and nurture) cih bangte ahi hi. Zolai a khan’toh theih na’ngin, Zolai i telkan ding kisam hi. Zomi i hih pen, zumna-in nei lo-in, ei’ pau, ei’ lai zong neu ngaihsut lo ding hi hang. A khangto gam a kici peuhmah in, amau’ lai, paampaih lo-in, a puah theih zah-un puah uh hi. Ei zong i gam i khan’tohsak nop leh, Zolai telkan-in, puah ni.

Khenpi II

Pawfi Zatna (The Use of the Apostrophe) Khawkpi I (Chapter I)

Thupatna Manglai bek-ah hi lo-in, Zolai-ah zong, Kamzepna (Punctuation) i nei hi. Tua Kamzepnate (Punctuations) in, lai i atna-ah, i cihnopna hong kicingsak hi; hong kilangsak hi; hong kitelsak hi. Tua ahih manin, kamzepnate in, thu a pawlcingsak, a zeem, a puah hong suak hi. Kamzepna om lo-in, lai i at leh, i cihnopna kitel lo ding hi. Theih pak na’ngin gen ni ci leeng, lai i atnate-ah, kamtawpna (full stop) zang kei leeng, bang suak-in na um hiam? Kamtawpna in zong kamzepnate sungah khat ahi hi. Kamzepnate sungah, kamkhawlna (comma), kamhon’na (open quotation mark), kamkhakna (closed quotation mark), tawpna (full stop), kamkhenna (hyphen), kamdotna (question mark or interrogation point), diipkuatna (exclamation point), kualhon’ (open bracket), kualkhak (closed bracket), pawfi (apostrophe), colon, semicolon, lamgiit (dash), lai-awn (oblique stroke or virgule), aksi (star mark or asterisk)-a kipan, Zolai-a i Page 24 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan zat ngei khol loh, a dang zong pawlkhat om lai hi. Zolai-ah mantak-a i zat theih zawk deuh kamzepnate in, kawmtawpna, kamkhawlna, kamhon’na, kamkhakna, leh kamdotna-te ahi hi. A dang a om lai teng ahih leh, mantak-in kizang thei nai lo hi. Tua ahih manin, hih kamzepnate koici kizat hiam, i telkan (research) ding kul hi. Zolai-a i neih khol loh ahi: Acute Accent, Grave Accent, Circumflex, Tilde, Macron, Breve, Diaeresis, Cedilla, Caret, Brace, Ellipsis, Single Dagger, Double Dagger, Section or Numbered Clause, Parallels, Paragraph, Index or Fist, Asterism cihte pawl pen, tu-in i kikum nai kei phot ding hi. Tu-in hih san tak-ah, kamzepnate sung panin, Pawfi (Apostrophe) zatna hong ki-at hi. I theihna, i ciaptehna leh i zatnate, kibang kim khol lo kha ding hi. Tu-a pen i kipatciilna ahih manin, hih sung-a hong ki-atte a man vive hi, cihna om lo hi. Hong pai lai ding hunte-ah, Zolai a telkan (research) nuam mi khat a om leh, tua pa’ etteh (reference) dingin, kimang kha ding, cih lametna tawh, hong ki-at hi bek hi. Tu-a hong ki-at “Pawfi Zatna” in Zolai Grammar laibu i neih zawh hun ciangin, sehno khat-a kiman’na hong neih zawh leh, i telkan (research) thaman hong om ding hi; a telkan taak mah hong suak ding hi. Zogam-ah Thucing (Encyclopedia), Dictionary, Grammar Book cihte i nei zo nai kei hi. Hih bang laibu thupite i neih zawh na’ngin, khat guak’ tha tawh hi lo, vekpi’ tha tawh, i sep ding kisam hi. Tua bang hun hong tun’ ciang-a a nuamtuam dingin, i kaikhawm khol ding hi. Inn i lam nop leh, a sing a suang i kaihkhop masak ding kul hi.

Khawkpi II Theihding Bulpite (Basic Rules) 1. Pawfi (Apostrophe) pen kammal (word) khat ahih kei leh kammalte sung-a om laimal (letter) khat ahih kei leh laimalte’ Page 25 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan taangin, kizang hi. (The Apostrophe is used to show the omission of a letter or letters from a word or words.) Khawkno I pan XLVII en in. Gt.

(1)

mite in

=

mite’n

(2)

ka hong

=

k’ong

(3)

nading

=

na’ng

(4)

hangna

=

han’na

2. Pawfi pen nimit (date) khat sung-a om simmal (figure) khat ahih kei leh simmalte’ taangim, kizangh hi. (The Apostrophe is used to show the omission of one or more figures from a date.) Khawkno XLVIII en in. Gt.

1966 =

’66

1974 =

’74

3. Pawfi pen Neihsa Genna (Genitive Case)-ah kizang hi. (The Apostrophe is used in the Genitive Case of Nouns or Pronouns.) Khawkno XI, XX, XXV, XXXVI, leh XXXVIII en in. Gt.

(1)

Amah ii ta

=

Ama’ ta

(2)

Nang ii thu

=

Nang’ thu

(3)

Makaipa ii sepna

=

Makaipa’ sepna

4. Pawfi pen Neihsa Alak Kammalte (or) Neihsa Min-huhte (Possesive Adjectives)-ah kizang LO hi. Page 26 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (The Apostrophe is NOT attached to the Possessive Adjectives.) Khawkno XXXVIII en in. Gt.

(1)

Ka inn

(2)

I lo

(3)

Na thu

5. Pawfi pen Neihsa Min-huhte (Possessive Adjectives) sung pan, “A”, “Ko”, leh “No”-te-ah, kizang veve hi. (The Apostrophe is exceptionally attached to the Possessive Adjectives such as “A”, “Ko”, and “No”.) Khawkno XXXVIII en in. Gt.

(1)

Ama’ laibu

=

A’ laibu

(2)

Koma’ inn

=

Ko’ inn

(3)

Noma’ an

=

No’ an

Khawkpi III

Namkhenna (Classification) Hih “Pawfi Zatna” limtak-a, a telkan (research) nuam ta ding-a, a nuam tuam dingin, Khawkno (Section) sawmli leh giat (48)-in hong kikhen hi. Tua Khawknote in a nuai-a bang ahi hi. 01

Laimal

“-a”

taang-a zatna

02

Laimal

“-a-”

taang-a zatna

03

Laimal

“(-a)(h-)”

taang-a zatna

04

Laimal

“ah-”

taang-a zatna

05

Laimal

“-ai”

taang-a zatna Page 27 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 06

Laimal

“-ang”

taang-a zatna

07

Laimal

“(-ang)(hi)”

taang-a zatna

08

Laimal

“-angin-”

taang-a zatna

09

Laimal

“-di-”

taang-a zatna

10

Laimal

“-e”

taang-a zatna

11

Laimal

“(-e)(ii)”

taang-a zatna

12

Laimal

“-eh”

taang-a zatna

13

Laimal

“-ei”

taang-a zatna

14

Laimal

“-g”

taang-a zatna

15

Laimal

“-gi-”

taang-a zatna

16

Laimal

“-gin-”

taang-a zatna

17

Laimal

“-h”

taang-a zatna

18

Laimal

“h-”

taang-a zatna

19

Laimal

“-h-”

taang-a zatna

20

Laimal

“(-h)(ii-)”

taang-a zatna

21

Laimal

“-hi”

taang-a zatna

22

Laimal

“hi-”

taang-a zatna

23

Laimal

“(-h)(hi-)”

taang-a zatna

24

Laimal

“(-h)(i-)

taang-a zatna

25

Laimal

“-ha-”

taang-a zatna

26

Laimal

“i-”

taang-a zatna

27

Laimal

“-i”

taang-a zatna

28

Laimal

“-i-”

taang-a zatna

29

Laimal

“(-i))(he-)”

taang-a zatna

30

Laimal

“(-i)(i-)”

taang-a zatna

31

Laimal

“(-i)(l-)”

taang-a zatna Page 28 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 32

Laimal

“-i-a-”

taang-a zatna

33

Laimal

“-i-i-”

taang-a zatna

34

Laimal

“-ih”

taang-a zatna

35

Laimal

“ii”

taang-a zatna

36

Laimal

“(ii)(i-)”

taang-a zatna

37

Laimal

“-imi-”

taang-a zatna

38

Laimal

“(-mah)(ii)”

taang-a zatna

39

Laimal

“-ng”

taang-a zatna

40

Laimal

“-ng-”

taang-a zatna

41

Laimal

“(-ng)(a)”

taang-a zatna

42

Laimal

“-ng-a”

taang-a zatna

43

Laimal

“-ng-a-”

taang-a zatna

44

Laimal

“(-ng)(ah-)

taang-a zatna

45

Laimal

“-ng” “-h”

taang-a zatna

46

Laimal

“(-ng) (hi-)”

taang-a zatna

47

Laimal

“u-”

taang-a zatna

48

Laimal

Nambat

taang-a zatna

Khawkpi IV

Khawknote (Sections) Khawkno I “-a” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen, laimal “-a” taangin, kizangh hi. (1)

Ka ong

=

K’ong Page 29 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (2)

Na ong

=

N’ong

(3)

Ka hong

=

K’hong (=K’ong)

(4)

Na hong

=

N’hong (=N’ong)

(5)

Ka eek

=

K’eek

(6)

Na eek

=

N’eek

Nambat 3-ah, “K’hong” pen “Khong” hi lo-in, a’ awsuah (pronunciation) pen “K’ong” mah hi veve hi. Tua mahbangin, “N’hong” zong “N’ong” mah tawh a’ awsuah kibang hi. Malgawm kilamdang hi bek hi. SINNA K’ong laibu piak na ngah hiam? N’ong gen thute ka na tel hi. N’hong pai ding leh n’hong pai loh ding hong zasak in. K’hong dawn ding hi. K’eek va tha ning ei. Nang’n n’eek na tha nai maw leh? Khawkno II “-a-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-a-” taangin, kizangh hi. (1)

Buk-ah

=

Buk’h

(2)

Khua-ah

=

Khua’h

(3)

Lak-ah

=

Lak’h

(4)

Mun-ah

=

Mun’h

(5)

Pua-ah

=

Pua’h

(6)

Pute’ inn-ah =

Pute’nn’h

(7)

Sung-ah

=

Sung’h

(8)

Hua-ah

=

Hua’h Page 30 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Nambat 1, 3,4, 6, 7-te-ah, Pawfi i zat ciangin, awsuah kiheel tuan lo hi. Nambat 2, 5, 8-te-ah, awsuah kikheel hi. SINNA Zogam pua’h kuate teeng hiam? I pute’nn’h (awsuah: puteen) hawh ni. Zomite lak’h om in. Zolai sung’h a haksa tampi tak om hi. A thadahte’ omna mun’h pai kei in. Khawkno III “(-a)(h-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(a-)(h-)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Ka hong

=

K’ong

(2)

Na hong

=

N’ong

Hih pen Khawkno I mah tawh kibang hi. Tua ahih manin, kamvui (sentence)-in zang leeng, Khawkno I mah tawh kibang ding hi. Khawkno IV “ah-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “ah-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Tua ahih

=

Tua’ih

(2)

Tua ahih teh

=

Tua’ih teh

(3)

Tua ahih ciangin

=

Tua’ih ciang’n

(4)

Tua ahih hangin

=

Tua’ih hang’n

Nambat 3, 4-na-a “ciang’n”, “hang’n”-te’ zatna Khawkno Page 31 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan XXVIII-ah en in. SINNA Zolai ka it hi; tua’ih teh ka telkan ding hi. Zolai i telkan kul hi; tua’ih mahbangin Zolai Telkan Pawlpi, tha i piak kul hi. Zolai a baih kei hi; tua’ih ciang’n i hahkat ding hi. Khawkno V “-ai” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ai” taangin kizang hi. (1)

Hong pai aw

=

Hong p’aw

(2)

Hong pai o

=

Hong p’aw

Nambat 2na-a “o” pen “aw” mah tawh a kibangin, kila hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, a nih tuak-un, “p’aw” a suah khop man hi. SINNA Hong p’aw, lawm. Lawm, hong p’aw. Hong p’aw, an ne pak ni. Khawkno VI “-ang” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ang” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Bang e?

=

B’e?

SINNA A: “Zolai hong hilh sin.” Page 32 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan B: “B’e?” A: “Zolai hong hilh lecin.” B: “Na ut zen taak. Limtakin hong hilh ning maw.” A: “B’e? Hong gen kik sin.” B: “Limtakin kei’n hong hilh ning; nang’n zong hahkat mahmah in.” Khawkno VII “(-ang)(hi)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-ang)(hi)” taangin, kizang hi. (1) Bang hi e?

=

B’e?

Khawno VI mah tawh kibang hi. Khawkno VIII “-angin-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen “-angin-” taangin, kizang hi. (1) hangin-ah

=

h’ah

(2) sangin-ah

=

s’ah

SINNA N’ong gen h’ah tel thei ke’ng. Na mawlmawl s’ah na seem zaw ve. Khawkno IX “-di-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-di-” taangin, kizang hi. Page 33 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (1)

nading

=

na’ng

Hih mun-ah “nading” leh “-na ding” ci-in nam nih om thei-a, thuhaksa (problem) piang thei zeel hi. Hihte geel, i telkan (research) kul hi. I telkan nak leh, a man i mukhia ding hi. (a) “nading” pen Tatna (verb) tawh kithuah hi. “Nading” pen Manglai-a “to,” “in order to,” “that,” “in order that,” “so that,” “so as to,” leh “for the purpose of” cihte pawl ahi hi. Gt. (1) Tui ka dawn na’ng thu hong pia in. (dawn = tatna) (2) Hih thu ka dawn’ theih na’ng hun, ka ngah diam? (dawng = tatna) (3) Tua mun-a ka om theih na’ngin, hong vaihawmsak in. (om = tatna) (b) “-na ding” pen Min (Noun) tawh kithuah hi. “-na ding” sung-a “-na” in, kammal khat pepeuh Min (Noun) a suah theih na’ng-a kisam nungthuap (suffix) hi-a, “ding” in, mailam hun kawkna-a kizang ahi hi. Gt. (1) Ka omna ding om lo hi. (“omna” in mun (place) lak hi.) (2) Ka paina ding hong lak in. (‘paina” in mun lak hi.) (3) I tui dawnna ding koi lai hiam? (“dawnna” in mun lak hi.) Tua ahih ciangin, ciapteh dingin, “nading” bek-ah, pawfi kizang thei-a, “-na ding”-ah a hih leh, kizang thei lo hi. SINNA Zomi i kip na’ngin Zolai i mangthangsak kei ding hi. Zolai a kicin’ seemseem na’ngin, i telkan (research) ding hi. Tua bang i ngimna a tangtun’ zawh na’ngin, khat leh khat i kihuh Page 34 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan diamdiam ding hi. Khawkno X “-e” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen, laimal “-e” taangin, kizangh hi. (1)

ve aw

=

v’aw

(2)

mate aw

=

mat’aw

SINNA Leengthei tui dawn v’aw, dal nelna a’i ve. I Zolai niam lai mahmah veh aw mat’aw; ahih ke’h, nidang teh thupi mamah saam na ve. Khawkno XI “(-e)(ii)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-e)(ii)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

te ii a

=

t’a

Hih mun-ah “t’a” pen “ta” ci-in, pawfi om lo-in zong, ki-at thei hi. SINNA Zolai pen kua t’a hiam? Zolai telkan t’a ding a noptuam dingin, hih laibu i bawl hi. Zolai pen Zomi t’a hi. Khawkno XII “-eh” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-eh” taangin, kizang Page 35 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan hi. (1)

veh aw

=

v’aw

(2)

heh aw

=

h’aw

Khawkno X sung-a “v’aw” pen sawlna (command) bek-ah kizang thei hi. Tu-a Khawkno XII-a “v’aw” pen genna (statement) bek-ah kizang thei hi.Tua ahih ciangin, ciapteh dingin, malgawm a kibat hangin, zatna kibang lo hi. “H’aw” pen mi, na khat i piak teh kizang hi. SINNA I Zolai hong hoih seemseem v’aw. Mangkangte khawng, Kawlte khawng in, amau’ lai ciat uh telkan-a puah uh ahih teh, ei’n zong i puah ding kul hi v’aw. H’aw, la o. Khawkno XIII “-ei” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ei” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Pai kei aw

=

Pai k’awh

(2)

Pai kei o

=

Pai k’awh

(3)

Pai kei awh

=

Pai k’awh

(4)

Pai kei oh

=

Pai k’awh

(5)

Pai kei un

=

Pai k’on

(6)

Pai kei ung

=

Pai k’ong

Hih mun-ah, “aw” leh “o” pen Khawkno V-a mahbangin, a kibangin kila hi. Nambat 1-ah, “h” kibehlap hi. Bang hang hiam Page 36 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan cih leh, Nambat 1 in Nambat 3 tawh a kibat man hi. Tua mahbangin Nambat 2 leh Nanbat 4 kibang hi. Nambat 5-ah, “u” leh “o” a kibangin, kila hi. Ahih hangin, “k’on” leh “k’ong” pen Tedim kam taktak-ah kizang ngei lo hi. A thu (theory) bek suak hi. SINNA Zolai tawh a ki-at laibu peuhmah thaangbawl k’awh. Zomite sung-ah, “Note in khutdawh ngente na hi uh hi,” hong cite tawh kikhawl k’on. Ko pai k’ong. KHAWKNO XIV “-g-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-g-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Siangthona

=

Sian’thona

(2)

Nungtana

=

Nun’taakna

(3)

Deengna

=

Deen’na

(4)

Thumangna

=

Thuman’na

Khawkno XV “-gi-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah Pawfi pen “-gi-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

dingin

=

din’n

SINNA Bang din’n na neu lai-a Zolai sin lo na hiam? Neek din’n an hong huan in. Khawkno XVI Page 37 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan “-gin-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen “-gin-” taangin kizang hi. (1)

dingin

din’

Zatna leh ciaptehna pen Khawkno XV-a mah tawh kibang hi. Malgawm tawmcik a kilamdang bek hi lel hi. Kamvui-a i zat ciangin, “din’n” leh “din’” i deih zawkzawk zat ding ahi hi. Ahih hangin zat dingin, Khawkno XV-a pen hoih zaw hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, Khawkno XVI-a pen kitelkhial thei ding hi; pawfi pen bang taang-a ding (stand for) hi ding hiam, cih kitel lo kha thei ding hi. SINNA Gen din’ bang na kiging hiam? Zolai sin din’ na lungngai hiam? Khawkno XVII “-h” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen “-h” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Pai uh o!

=

Pai u’au!

(2)

Uh hi

=

U’hi

(3)

Uh leh

=

U’leh

Nambat 1-a om “o” pen “au” tawh a kibangin kila hi. Nambat 2ah, “u’hi” taangin, “uhi” ci-in pawfi om lo-in zong ki-at thei hi. Nambat 3-ah zong “u’leh” taktak kizang ngei khol lo-a, “uh leh” mah-in ki-at zaw hi. Nambat 2 leh 3 pen a thu (theory) bek hi-a, kizangh taktak ngei khol lo hi. SINNA Tu’n Zolai telkan ta u’au leh. Bang thu teng gen na hi u’hiam? Page 38 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Khawkno XVIII “h-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “h-” taangin, kizang hi. 1

Ka hi

=

Ka’i

2

Na hi

=

Na’i

SINNA Kei, Siapi ka’i. Nang migi lua na’i. Kei’n Zolai telkan ka’i. Khawkno XIX “-h-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-h-” taangin, kizang hi. 1

Hih-ah

=

Hi’ah

2

Uh-ah

=

U’ah

3

Ahi hia?

=

A’i hia?

4

tanghial

=

tang’ial (awsuah: ta-ngial)

SINNA Hi’ah tu in la, pau kei in. Zolai na telkanna u’ah bang haksatna om hiam? Zolai puah ding kisawm hi; tua a’ih teh, bangci puah ding i hiam? Tu laitak-a a kigengen bang thu a’i de? Amah tang’ial hong pai lo mawk maw? Khawkno XX “(-h)(ii)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah Pawfi pen laimal “(-h)(ii)” taangin, kizang hi. Page 39 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 1

Amah ii

=

Ama’

2

Keimah ii

=

Keima’

3

Komah ii

=

Koma’

4

Kuamah ii

=

Kuama’

5

Nomah ii

=

Noma’

SINNA Ama’ ankuang kitamsak ke’n. Keima’ thu na man’ kul hi. Koma’ deihna khempeuh k’ong gen ding uh hi. Kuama’ thu-in gamta kei in. Noma’ van tek na puak uh kul hi. Khawkno XXI “-hi” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-hi” taangin, kizang hi. 1

Ahi hia?

=

A’ hia?

Hih pen “A hia?” ci-in, pawfi om lo-in, kizang zaw hi. SINNA Amah’n thu hong gen a’ hia? Zolai puah ding pen a hoih mah a’ hia? Khawkno XXII “hi-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “hi-” taangin, kizang hi. 1

uh hiam?

=

uh’am? (u’am?)

Page 40 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih mun-ah “uh’am” pen “u ham”-in a’ aw suak lo-a, “uam”-in a’ aw suak hi. Tua ahih manin, “uh’am” in “uam” tawh kibang hi. “Uh’am” pen zat huai lo hi. SINNA Lai na sim uh’am? Zolai telkan na kipan zo uh’am? Khawkno XXIII “(-h)(hi-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-h)(hi-)” taangin, kizang hi. 1

uh hiam?

=

u’am (=uam)

Zatna leh cihnopna pen Khawkno XXII-a mah tawh kibang hi; malgawm tawmcik a kilamdang hi bek hi. Zat taktak dingin, tua “u’am” mah hoih zaw hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, Khawkno XXII-a “uh’am” pen, awsuah a tuamdang peuh-in kila kha thei ding hi. SINNA Na khanglo nai u’am? Khawkno XXIV “(-h)(i-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-h)(i-)” taangin, kizang hi. 1

Ne uh in

=

Ne u’n (=un)

2

Pai uh in

=

Pai u’n (=un)

Hih mun-ah, “u’n” leh “un” a nih tuak-in kizang thei Page 41 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan khawmkhawm hi. SINNA Na seem u’n. Zolai telkan u’n. Zolai Telkan Pawlpi (Zolai Research Society) phuankhia u’n. Khawkno XXV “-ha-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ha-” taangin kizang hi. 1

lehang

=

le’ng (aw sau)

“Ei” (First Person Plural in the Nominative Case) tawh zang leeng, “le’ng” pen a’ aw sau hi. “Le’ng” pen “leeng” tawh a’ awsuah kibang hi. “Le’ng” leh “leeng” a nih tuak-in kizang thei khawm hi. SINNA Na seem le’ng thaman i ngah ding hi. Hamciam le’ng kitangtung ding hi. Khawkno XXVI “i-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “i-” taangin, kizang hi. 1

kei ing

=

ke’ng (aw tom)

2

ve ing

=

ve’ng (aw sau)

3

pai o ing

=

pai o’ng (Teizang)

4

pai taw ing

=

pai to’ng (Teizang)

5

pai o taw ing

=

pai o to’ng (Teizang)

Page 42 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 6

le ing

=

le’ng (aw tom)

7

kai in

=

kai’n (pull it)

8

kum in

=

kum in (climb down)

9

ta ing

=

ta’ng (aw tom)

10

pai in

=

pai’n (go)

11

khia in

=

khia’n

12

Kuamah

=

Kuamah’n

13

Keimah in

=

Keimah’n

14

tua thu in

=

tua thu’n

15

mite in

=

mite’n

16

Kei in

=

Kei’n (Keimah’n)

17

Nang

=

Nang’n (Nangmah’n)

18

Ei in

=

Ei’n (Eimah’n)

19

Ko in

=

K’on (Komah’n)

20

No in

=

No’n (Nomah’n)

“Lehang” pen tomsak leeng, “le’ng” suak hi, ci-in Khawkno XXV sung-ah i gen zo hi. Hih Khawkno XXVI Nambat 6-ah “le ing” pen tomsak leeng, “le’ng” mah suak veve-a, ahih hangin, a’ aw tom hi. A kitukalhgawp (confusing) loh na’ngin, a masa “le’ng” pen “leeng” ci-in, “e” nih (double) tawh ki-at-a, a nunung pen, “leng” ci-in “e” khatguak (single) tawh ki-at hi. “Lo’ng” pen a masa (Khawkno XXV) pen-ah hi ta leh, a nunung (Khawkno XXVI) pen-ah hi ta leh, theory bek hi-a, pawfi om lo-in kizang zaw hi. “Leng”pen “kei” (First Person Singular in the Nominative Case) tawh kizang hi. “Ko’n” leh “No’n” (Nambat 19 leh 20) in zong theory bek mah ahi hi. Nambat 8na-ah, “kum’n) pen sawlna (command) hi-a, awsuah pen kiheel tuan lo hi. Nambat 7 leh 10-ah, “kai’n” leh Page 43 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan “pai’n” in, “i” aw tawmtawm kihel-a ahih hangin kithei tham lo hi. Nambat 16-a om “Kei’n” pen, bawlpa (subject)-a i zat ciang-a piang, ahi hi. “Kei’n” leh “ke’n” a kilamdan’na i theih kul hi. “Ke’n” pen “Hih kei in,” ci-a khaamna (prohibition) ahi hi. (Khawkno XXX en in.) Nambat 17-na-ah, “Nang’n” pen, bawlpa (subject)-a i zat cianga piang, ahi hi. Awsuah kikheelna om tuan lo hi. Nambat 1-na-a “ke’ng” tawh kisai, Khawkno XXX sung-ah en in. SINNA Zolai kicin’ ding ut lua ve’ng. Na tha neih zah-in, kai’n. Zogam a khan’toh mu nuam lua si’ng. Innkhum tung pan manlangin kum’n. Na khua’h va pai’n in la, sum va lawh in. N’ong laibu khak ngah ta’ng. Nipi ni-in sumpi khia’n. Kuamah’n giitlohna deih kei leh hoih ding hi. Ei’n lo mah kho ni. Ko’n bangnah seem zo nai kei ung. No’n Zolai na telkan laitak uh maw? Taangpi taangta’n bang ngaihsun hiam? Khawkno XXVII “-i” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen lamimal “-i” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

ni ung

n’ung (aw sau)

SINNA Ko Zolai telkan ta n’ung. Lo kho ta n’ung. Khawkno XXVIII “-i-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-i-” taangin, kizang Page 44 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan hi. 1

ciangin

ciang’n

2

manin

man’n

3

hangin

hang’n

4

dingin

ding’n

5

den-in

den’n

6

tu-in

tu’n

7

zan-in

zan’n (night)

8

zan-in

zan’n (yesterday)

9

hoih-in teh

hoih’n teh

10

na-in teh

na’n teh

11

kei-in teh

ke’n teh

Nambat 11-na-a “ke’n” tawh kisai-in, Khawkno XXXIII en in. SINNA Zolai i telkan khit ciang’n, laibu-in bawl zo leeng, hoih’n teh, ci-in i ngaihsut man’n, tu mahmah’n i hanciam ding kisam hi. Tu’n i sep pah kei leh, hoih ke’n teh. Hong piang na’n teh, ci-a i tuttut hang’n phattuamna om lo ding hi. Khawkno XXIX “(-i)(he-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-i)(he-)” taangin, kizang hi. 1

thei het ke’ng

the’t ke’ng

SINNA Page 45 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Kei’n nang hong the’t ke’ng. Nang’n kei hong the’t lo maw? Khawkno XXX “(-i)(i-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-i)(i-)” taangin, kizang hi. 1

kei ing

ke’ng

2

kei in

ke’n

Hih mun-ah “ke’n” pen khaamna-a a kizang ahi hi. SINNA Zogam peuhmah zuak nuam het ke’ng. Zolai simmawh bawl peuhmah ke’ng. Kumpi thu nial ke’n. Nasep kipan nai ke’ng. Khawkno XXXI “(-i)(l-)” Hih Kawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen, laimal “(-i)(l-)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Ahih kei leh

=

Ahih ke’h

SINNA Zolai i telkan kul hi; tua a’ih ke’h i minam mahmah-in i mangthang ding hi. Na lawmpa a’ih ke’h na galpa kua it zaw na hi hiam? Khawkno XXXII “-i-a-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen “-ia-a” taangin kizang hi. Page 46 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (1)

Koi-ah

=

Kaw’h

(2)

Kawi-ah

=

Kaw’h

Nambat 1na-a “o” pen “aw” tawh a kibangin kila hi. SINNA K’awh pai ding na hiam? K’awh om ding na hiam? Khawkno XXXIII “-i-i-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-i-i-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

kei-in

=

ke’n (aw pheipai)

Khawkno XXVI-na-ah,”kei’n” pen, bawlpa (subject)-a i zat hia, Khawkno XXX-na-ah, “ke’n” pen khaamna (prohibition)-a i zat ahi hi. Hih Khawkno XXXIII-na-ah, “ke’n” pen, ahi lo lam genna (negative statement) ahi hi. SINNA Zolai i telkan kei leh hoih ke’n teh. Minam dangte’n, hong pai diildeel-in, hong puahsak ke’n teh. Khawkno XXXIV “-ih” Hih Kawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen “-ih” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Koi dih aw

=

Koi d’aw

(2)

Koi dih o

=

Koi d’o

(3)

Koi dih oh

=

Koi d’oh Page 47 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan SINNA A — “Pai ta ve ni e.” B — “Koi d’oh, tawmcik na khawl pak oh.” A — “Hih naungek kapkap si e.” B — “Koi d’aw, tawi pak dih ni.” Khawkno XXXV “ii” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “ii” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Amah ii

=

(a) Amah’ (b) Ama’

(2)

Amau ii

=

Amau’

(3)

Ei ii

=

Ei’

(4)

Eimah ii

=

(a) Eimah’ (b) Eima’

(5)

Eimau ii

=

Eimau’

(6)

Ko ii

=

Ko’

(7)

No ii

=

No’

(8)

Mi ii

=

Mi’

Nambat 1-ah, “Amah’” pen kizang lo zaw-a, “Ama’” pen kizang zaw hi. “Amah ii” taang-a “Ama’” kizatna, Khawkno XX-ah en in. Nabta 4 zong, Nambat 1 mah tawh kibang-a, Khawkno XX mah-ah, ki-en thei hi. SINNA Ama’ ngiimna in, ei’ ngiimna mah tawh kibang hi. Mite’ deihna in bang ahi hiam? Eite’ deihna in, Zolai telkan ding, ahi hi. Hih thu’ kipatna koi lai hiam? Page 48 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Khawkno XXXVI “(ii)(i-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(ii)(i-)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Ka pute ii inn

=

Ka pute’nn

(2)

Ka nite ii inn

=

Ka nite’nn

(3)

La pite ii inn-ah

=

Ka pite’nn’h

(4)

Ka gangte ii inn-ah

=

Ka gangte’nn’h

Nambat 3 leh 4-ah, “pite’nn’h” leh “gangte’nn’h” ci-in “n” nih (double) a om ban-ah, pawfi zong nih om hi. Hih bang paizia pen Khawkno II-ah en in. SINNA I pute’nn pai ni. I panote’nn’h hawh ni. I lawmten’nn’h laibu en ni. Khawkno XXXVII “-imi-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-imi-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

vaimim leh gattaam

=

va’m leh gataam

SINNA Va’m leh gataam huan ung e, ne dih ni. V’am leh gataam mah nene ni. Khawkno XXXVIII “(-mah)(ii)” Page 49 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-mah)(ii)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Amah ii

=

A’

(2)

Komah ii

=

Ko’

(3)

Nomah ii

=

No’

Hih a tung-a thumte ban-ah, a nuai-a teng zong, kihel thei hi. (4)

Eimah ii

Ei’

(5)

Keimah ii

Kei’

(6)

Kuamah ii

Kua’

(7)

Nangmah ii

Nang’

Nambat 1, 2, 3 teng, a thupi peen ahi hi.Hih thu tawh kisai, Theihding Bulpi Nambat 5-ah kilak zo hi. “Ka,” “I,” leh “Na” teng-ah pawfi kizang lo hi, ci-in Theihding Bulpi Nambat 4-ah kilak zo hi. Nambat 4, 5, 6, 7 teng pen “hithei” (possible) ahih man-a hong kihel hi-a, Nambat 1, 2, 3 zah-in thupi lo hi; bang hang hiam cih leh, Nambat 4, 5, 6, 7 teng pen Khawkno XXXV sung-ah tawmcik tek kilak zo hi. A diakdiak-in Nambat 1 thupi peen hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, “A” pen amah guak ding (stand) tawm thei lo hi.A dangte pen amau’ thu-in om trhei hi. Gt. (1) Ko pai ta n’ung. (2) No koi laitak-ah pai ding na hi u’a? Ahih hangin, Page 50 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (3) A pai hi. kici thei lo hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, bawlpa (subject) nei lo hi. (4) Amah a pai hi. ci leeng, man thei pan hi. Theih ding khat-ah, “A” a kizat leh “Amah” taangin kila thei hi. “A pai hi,” ci leeng, kua pai hiam, cih kithei lo hi. Ahi zongin, “A” pen “mi khat pepeuh” (someone) taangin la leeng, “A” pen bawlpa (subject) hong suak thei-a, i kamvui (sentence) zat pen maan pah hi. SINNA A’ tapa gol ta hi. Ko’ gam in Zogam ahi hi. No’ pilna k’ong deihgawh kei uh hi. A’ hanciamna taangtung hi. Ko’ laibute hoih mahmah hi. No’ laikung hoih mah si e. Khawkno XXXIX “-ng” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ng” taangin kizang hi. (1)

Bang a?

Ba’a?

SINNA Ba’a na gen? Na gelh ba’a? Khawkno XL “(-ng-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ng-” taangin, kizang Page 51 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan hi. (1)

Nung-a

Nu’a

(2)

Ding-a

Di’a

(3)

Sung-ah

Su’ah

SINNA Kei’ telkan nu’a a telkan ding mi khat kisam hi. Bang di’a nang’n zong, Zolai telkan lo na hiam? Zolai su’ah thu manpha tampi om hi. Khawkno XLI “(-ng)(a)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-ng)(a)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Bang a ci-a?

Ba’ ci-a?

“Ba’ ci-a?” sangin, “Bang ci-a?” ci-in kizang zaw hi. Tua banah “ci-a” sangin, “cia” ci-in, kamkhenna (hyphen) om lo-in, kizang thei hi. SINNA Ba’ ci-a hong pai lo na hi hiam? Ba’ cia hong pai lo na hi hiam? Khawkno XLII “-ng-a” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ng-a” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Bang hang a?

Bang ha’h?

Page 52 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih mun-ah “h” kibehlap hi. SINNA Bang ha’h Zolai telkan nuam lo na hi hiam? Bang ha’h na seem nuam lo na hi hiam? Amah hong pai ha’h kei hong pai kei ning. Khawkno XLIII “-ang-a-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-ang-a-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

khawng-ah

khaw’h

SINNA Inn khaw’h om lel ning. Khua lam khaw’h ciah zeel lo maw? Khawkno XLIV “(-ng)(ah-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-ang)(ah-)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

Bang ahi?

Ba’i?

SINNA Tu-a na gen ba’i? Ba’i na gelhgelh? Ba’i tu-a na telkan? Khawkno XLV “-ng”“-h” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen, laimalte “-ing” leh “-h” taangin, kizang hi. Page 53 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (1)

ding ahi

=

di’a’i

Hih mun-ah, “-ng” leh “-h” ci-in, laimal nih om hi. Hih laimal nihte’taangin Pawfi nih kizang hi. Tu-a Khawkno XLV pen a tuampian khat hi. A dang Khawknote-ah, laimal a om zahzah’ taangin, pawfi khat bek kizang hi. Tu-a Khawkno-ah Pawfi nih kizang ahih manin, a dangte tawh kilamdang hi. Khawkno II, Nambat 6, Khawkno XXXVI, Nambat 3, 4-te tawh enkaak in. SINNA Zolai telkan leeng, hoih mahmah di’a’i ve. Kikepna tawh na gamtat kei leh, lauhuai di’a’i maw. Khawkno XLVI “(-ng)(hi-)” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “(-ng)(hi-)” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

ding hiam?

=

di’am?

(2)

ding hia

=

di’a?

SINNA Zolai telkan leeng i khial di’am? Na lawmpa hong pai di’a? Ngaihsut kik ding a kilawm di’am? Kilawm mah lo di’a? Khawkno XLVII “u-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah, Pawfi pen laimal “-u-” taangin, kizang hi. (1)

A pai ta um?

=

A pai ta’m? Page 54 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (2)

Pai taw ung

=

Pai taw’ng (Teizang)

Nambat 1-an-ah, “ta um” pen, a tam (plural) tawh kizang hi. “Ta’m” pen a’ awsuah “tam” hong suak hi. Ahih hangin, “tam” (pawfi om lo) pen, khat guak (singular) tawh kizang hi. Tua ahih manin, “ta’m” in, a thu (theory) bek mah ahi hi. SINNA Zolai na telkan ta’m? Note, kum bang zah na pha ta’m maw? Amaute, Zolai telkan ding a ut uh ta’m? Khawkno XLVIII Simmal Hih Khawkno sunng-ah, Pawfi pen, nimit (date) khat sung-a om simmal (figure) khat a hih kei leh simmalte’ taangin. kizang hi. (1)

1967

=

’67

(2)

1949

=

’49

SINNA ’66 kum pan-a Zolai telkan ka kipat, ’69 kum ciang dong, hoih takin na seem thei ing. Tu’n m’74 kum hong hi ta-a, kilim pat kik sawm ing.

Khawkpi V

Thukhupna (Conclusion) Hih Pawfi zatnate sung-ah, zat ding-a a hoih lote in, a nuai-ate ahi hi. (1) (2) (3)

Khawkno XIII, Khawkno XVII, Khawkno XXI,

Nambat 5 leh 6 Nambat 2 leh 3 Nambat 1 Page 55 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (4) (5) (6)

Khawkno XXII, Khawkno XXVI, Khawkno XLVII,

Nambat 1 Nambta 6 Nambat 1

Hih lai (article) sung-ah a khial a om na muh uh leh ahi zongin, na theih thak uh a om leh ahi zongin, hong zasak, hong theisak, hong hilh zo le uh cin, ka lungdam mahmah ding hi. Mailam hun-ah, Zolai tampi i telkan beh lai ding-a, a vekpi-in, i gawmtuah ding hi. Tua bang hun pha hong tun’ theih na’ngin, i vekpi-in i hanciam ding hi. Zolai a puah ding kuate hiam? Zomite longal, a dang kuamah om lo hi.

Nungthuap (Appendix): Theih thak3 Khawkno XLIX “-h” “-ile-” Hih Khawkno sung-ah Pawfi pen laimalte “-h” leh “-ile-” taangin kizang hi. (1)

ahih kei leh

a’ihke’h

Hih mun-ah, “-h” leh “-ile” ci-in, laimal nih om hi. Hih laimal nihte’taangin Pawfi nih kizang hi. Khawkno XLV sung-ah zong laimal nih taangin Pawfi nih kizang hi.

Khenpi III

Noun Pian’sakna (Formation of Nouns) Khawkpi I 3 Theih beh dang zong om-a, ahih hangin ka ciaptehna lai, inn lam-ah om ahih manin, hih laibu sung-ah kiguang man lo hi. [17 MAY 2010 MON] Page 56 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Theih Masak Dingte 1. Kammal Pian’sakna (Formation of Words) nam 4 om hi. (1) Noun Pian’sakna (Formation of Nouns) (2) Verb Pian’sakna (Formation of Verbs) (3) Adjective Pian’sakna (Formation of Adjectives) (4) Adverb Pian’sakna (Formation of Adverbs) 2. Noun Pian’sakna: Abstract Noun-te, a nuai-ate pan kipiangsak hi. (1) Verbs (2) Adjectives (3) Common or Concrete Nouns 3. Verb Pian’sakna: Verb-te, a nuai-ate pan kipiangsak hi. (1) Nouns (2) Adjectives 4. Adjective Pian’sakna: Adjcetive-te, a nuai-ate pan kipiangsak hi. (1) Nouns (2) Verbs (3) Other Adjectives 5. Adverb Pian’sakna: Adverb-te a nuai-a pan kipiangsak hi. (1) Adjectives 6. A Kician Lo Thu: “Hau,” “Hoih,” “Gol,” cih bang kammalte (words) pen, English Grammar-ah adjective hi-a Burmese Grammar-ah ahih leh, Verb kihisak ahih manin, i Zolai Grammar-ah, bang kihisak zaw ding cih kician lo hi. Tua ahih Page 57 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan manin, tua bang kammalte pen hih lai (article) sung-ah, KAMMAL-in kiciamteh lel hi. Khawkpi II

Theihding Bulpite (Basic Rules) 1. Kammal dangte panin, noun i pian’sak nop leh, “-na” kibehlap hi. Gentehna

1

dah kah

= =

dahna (sad) kahna (climb)

2

lau pil

= =

launa (afraid) pilna (clever)

3

hau lian

= =

hauhna (rich) liatna (great)

2. Kammal pawlkhatte leh “-h” tawh a tawp kammalte, noun i suahsak ciangin, (a) Malgam (spelling) kikheel lo hi. (b) Awsuah (pronunciation) zong kikheel tuan lo hi. Gt.

1

kah

=

kahna (climb)

2

gah

=

gahna (fruitful)

3

hoihna

=

hoihna (good)

4

dah

=

dahna (sad)

Khawkpi III en in. 3. Kammal pawlkhatte, noun i suahsak ciangin, (a) Malgawm kiheel tuan lo hi. Page 58 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (b) Awsuah bek kikheel hi. Gt.

1

kum

=

kumna (descend)

2

om

=

omna (exist)

3

lau

=

launa (afraid)

4

pawl

=

pawlna (associate)

Khawkpi IV en in, 4. Kammal pawlkhatte, noun i suahsak ciangin, (a) Malgawm kikheel hi. (b) Awsuah zong kikheel hi. Gt.

1

go

=

gawhna (slaugher)

2

leeng

=

leen’na (fly)

3

lian

=

liatna (great)

4

ne

=

neekna (eat)

Khawkpi III

Malgawm leh Awsuah Kiheel Lo-a Noun Pian’sakna A 1

alh

=

alhna

=

2

baih

baihna

3

bulh

bulhna

4

bawh

bawhna

= C B 1

bah

bahna

1

cih

=

cihna

2

cip

=

cipna

Page 59 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 3

ciah

=

ciahnana

D

L 1

luh

=

luhna

2

loh

=

lohna

3

lawh

=

lawhna

1

dah

=

dahna

2

deih

=

deihna

1

3

delh

=

delhna

2

meh

=

mehna

4

dup

=

dupna

3

mak

=

makna

M

G 1

gah

N =

gahna

H 1

hoih

=

hoihna

2

heh

=

hehna

3

hah

=

hahna

4

hap

=

hapna

1

neh

=

nehna

2

nip

=

nipna

3

nolh

=

nolhna

=

opna

O 1

op P

I 1

ik

=

ikna

K

1

pap

=

papna

2

peh

=

pehna

3

pop

=

popna

4

pelh

=

pelhna

1

kah

kahna

2

keh

kehna

3

khuh

khuhna

1

sah

=

sahna

4

khih

khihna

2

sak

=

sakna

3

suk

=

sukna

S

Page 60 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 4

sot

=

sotna

V

T 1

to

=

tona

2

tap

=

tapna

3

thuah

=

thuah

1

vul

=

vulna

2

veh

=

vehna

=

zepna

Z 1

zep

Khawkpi IV

Malgawm Kikheel Lo-a Awsuah Bek Kikheel-a Noun Pian’sakna A 1

al

=

alna

2

at

=

atna

D

B 1

bei

=

beina

2

buai

=

buaina

3

bawk

=

bawkna

4

baai

=

bawina

C 1

ciil

=

ciilna

2

ciim

=

ciimna

3

ciin

=

ciinna

4

ciip

=

ciipna

1

dam

=

damna

2

daal

=

daalna

3

dem

=

demna

4

dim

=

dimna

E 1

el

=

elna

2

em

=

emna

3

eu

=

euna

G 1

gaai

=

gaaina

2

geel

=

geelna

3

gim

=

gimna

Page 61 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 4

gol

=

golna

4

mak

H

=

makna

N

1

hat

=

hatna

1

neel

=

neelna

2

hai

=

haina

2

niim

=

niimna

3

haal

=

haalna

3

neu

=

neuna

4

hak

=

hakna

4

nawt

=

nawtna

I 1

it

O =

itn

1

ol

=

olna

2

om

=

omna

K P

1

kum

=

kumna

2

kol

=

kolna

1

pil

=

pilna

3

kuun

=

kuunna

2

pai

=

paina

4

kial

=

kialna

3

phuum

=

phuumna

4

phuai

=

phuaina

L 1

lam

=

lamna

S

2

lei

=

leina

1

sau

=

sauna

3

leep

=

leepna

2

san

=

sanna

4

lau

=

launa

3

sawl

=

sawlna

4

so

=

sona

M 1

maai

=

maaina

2

maap

=

maapna

1

to

=

tona

3

muak

=

muakna

2

tum

=

tumna

T

Page 62 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 3

thawl

=

thawlna

1

vaal

=

vaalna

4

thuap

=

thuapna

2

vom

=

vomna

3

veel

=

veelna

4

vil

=

vilna

U 1

uum

=

uumna

2

uap

=

uapna

3

ut

=

utna

1

zuak

=

zuakna

4

uuk

=

uukna

2

zuau

=

zuauna

3

zin

=

zinna

4

zuut

=

zuutna

Z

V

Khawkpi V Malgawm leh Awsuah Kikheel-a Noun Pian’sakna Kammal pawlkhatte, noun i suahsak ciangin, kammal sung-a om laimal a nunung peen, kikheel-a, awsuah zong kikheel pah hi. A theih nop dingin, khawkno sawm leh thum (13)-in hong kikhen hi. 01

vowel



h

02

vowel



k

03

vowel



t

04

i



ih

05

l



lh

06

u



uh

07

k



h

Page 63 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 08

p



h

09

t



h

10

m



p

11

n



t

12

ng



n’

13

ng



t

Khawkno I vowel → h 1 i

si → ih

1 si

= hihna

2 hi

= cihna

3 ci

= cihmawhna

4 cimawh

= sihna

2 o 1 om lo

4

u

o → oh = om lohna

2 no (tease) = nohna 3 kho

= khohna

4 khangto

= khan’tohna

3 o/aw

o → aw

1 zo

zawhn

2 go

gawhna

3 lo

lawhna

4 to

tawhna Page 64 of 288

= u → uh

Zolai Gelhmaan 1 mu

= muhna

2

mudah

= muhdahna

Khawkno II vowel → k 1 a

a → ak

3 su

= sukna

4 khu

= khukna

1 la

= laakna

2 za

= zaakna

3 kihta

= kihtaakna

5 aw

4 pakta

= pahtaakna

1 taw

= tawkna

2 zaw

= zawkna

2 e 1 ne

aw → awk

e → ek 6 ia

= neekna

3 i

= i → ik

1 bi

= bikna

2 kisi

= kisikna

ia → iak

1 pia

= piakna

2 bia

= biakna

7 ua

ua → uak

1 pua

= puakna

u → uk

2 bua

= buakna

1 gu

= guukna

3 lua

= luakna

2 zu

= zukna

4 vua

= vuakna

3 gamla

= gamlaatna

4 kha

= khaatna

4 u

Khawkno III vowel → t 1 a

a → at

1 sa

= satna

2 na

= natna Page 65 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 2 e=

e → et

1 khia

= khiatna

1 phe

= pheetna

2 sia

= siatna

2 le

= leetna

3 kia

= kiatna

3 de

= detna

4 nusia

= nusiatna

3 i

i → it

6 ia/e

ia → et

1 pi

= piitna

1 zia-en

= ze-etna

2 migi

= migiitna

2 phia

= pheetna

3 kimisak

= kimiitsakna 7 ua

= ua → uat

u → ut

1 lua

= luatna

1 ku

= kuutna

2 hua

= huatna

2 hu

= huutna

3 phu

= phuutna

8 aw

4 tu

= tutna

1 gaw

4 u

aw → awt = gawtna

2 lomthaw = lomthawtna 5 ia

= ia → iat

Khawkno IV i → ih 1 a

ai → aih

1 nei

= neihna

1 paai

= paihna

2 kei

= keihna

2 daai

= daihna

3 gei

= geihna

3 aai

= aihna

4 kaai

= kaihna

2 e

3 u

ei → eih

1 zui

Page 66 of 288

ui → uih = zuihna

Zolai Gelhmaan 2 nuui

= nuihna

3 guui

= guihna

4 buui

= buihna

4 aw/o

3 zawi

awi → oih

1 sawi

= soihna

2 lawi

= loihna

= zoihna

5

ua

uai → uaih

1

kuai

= kuaihna

2

luai

= luaihna

3

suai

= suaihna

Khawkno V l → lh 1 a 1 sal 2 e

al → alh

el → elh

1 beel

= belhna

2 peel

= pelhna

3 zeel

= zelhna

3 i 1 zil 4 o

6 ia

= salhna

il → ilh = zilhna ol → olh

ial → ialh

1 khial

= khialhna

2 kisial

= kisialhna

3 kivial

= kivialhna

7

ua

ual → ualh

1

mual

= mualhna

2

kual

= kualhna

3

kigual

= kigualhna

8

aw/o

awl → olh =

1 khol

= kholhna

1

kizawl

2 dol

= dolhna

2

kikhawl =

kikholhna

9

ia/e

ial → elh

1

khial

5 u 1 vul

ul → ulh = vulhna

Page 67 of 288

kizolhna

= khelhna

Zolai Gelhmaan Khawkno VI u → uh 1

a

au→ auh

1

hau

= hauhna

3

ia

2

patau

= patauhna

1

siau

2

i

iu→ iuh

4

ua

1

kiiu

1

huau

= kiuhna

iau→ iauh = siauhna uau → uauh = huauhna

Khawkno VII k→h 1 a

ak→ ah

1 hak

= hahna

4

u

2 lak

= lahna

1

suk

= suhna

3 pakta

= pahtaakna

2

thuk

= thuhna

4 baak

= bahna

3

vuk

= vuhna

5

ia

1

khiak

=

khiahna

2

liak

=

liahna

6

ua

1

suak

=

suahna

2

e

1

ek

2

kihek

ek→ eh = ehna ek)

(sing

uk→ uh

iak→ iah

= kihehna ik→ ih

uak→ uah

3

i

1

gik

= gihna

2

luak

=

luahna

2

sik

= sihna

3

buak

=

buahna

3

ik

= ihna

4

phuak

=

phuahna

Page 68 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 3

bok

=

bawhna

4

ok

=

awhna

1

kap

=

kahna

1

mit

=

mihna

4

u

1

vut

=

vuhna

et → eh

2

phut

=

phuhna

3

sut

=

suhna

5

o/aw

it → ih

1

bot

=

bawhna

am → ap

3

haam

=

hapna

4

am

=

apna

2

e

7

o/aw

ok→ awh

1

dok

=

dawhna

2

lok

=

lawhna

Khawkno VIII p→h 1 a ap → ah

Khawkno IX t→h 1

a

at → ah

1

that

=

thahna

2

tat

=

tahna

2

e

1

get

=

gehna

2

pet

=

pehna

3

i

ut uh

ot → awh

Khawkno X m→p 1

a

1

sam

=

sapna

2

gaam

=

gapna Page 69 of 288

em → ep

Zolai Gelhmaan 1

keem

= kepna

2

geem

= gepna

3

hehneem = hehnepna

4

um

=

6 aw/o

upna awm → op

1 kikhawm = kikhopna im → ip

2 kidawm

= kidopna

=

khipna

3 tawm

= topna

iim

=

ipna

4 bawm

= bopna

3

dim

=

dipna

4

zim

=

zipna

3

i

1

khim

2

7

ia

1

hiam

=

hiapna

om → op

2

khiam

=

khiapna

3

ciam

=

ciapna

8

ua

uam → uap

1

muam =

muapna

4

o

1

zom

=

zopna

2

bom

=

bopna

5

u

um → up

1

gum

=

gupna

2

sum

=

supna

9

ua/o

3

lum

=

lupna

1

nuam

an → at

2

e

iam → iap

uam → op =

nopna

Khawkno XI n→t 1

a

1

kipan

=

kipatna

1

en

=

etna

2

baan

=

batna

2

leen

=

letna

3

tankhia =

tatkhiatna

3

zia-en

=

zia-etna

4

gaan

gatna

4

kheen

=

khetna

=

Page 70 of 288

en → et

Zolai Gelhmaan 3

i

in → it

3

lawn

=

lotna

1

siin

=

sitna

4

awn

=

otna

2

khin

=

khitna

3

niin

=

nitna

7

ia

1

lian

=

liatna

2

kician

=

kiciatna

8

ia/e

1

lian

4

o

1

hon

on → ot =

5 u

ian → iat

hotna ian → et =

letna

un → ut

1 uun

= utna

9 ua

2 bun

= butna

1 zuan

=

zuatna

2 guan

=

guatna

3 phuan

=

phuatna

3 ngaihsun = ngaihsutna 4 kisuun

= kisutna

uan → uat

4 masuan = 6

aw/o

1

zawn

=

zotna

10 ua/o

2

thawn

=

thotna

1

phuan

ang → an’

2

e

masuatna

awn → ot uan → ot =

photna

Khawkno XII ng → n’ 1

a

1

saang

= saan’na

1

eeng

= een’na

2

thang

= than’na

2

peeng

= peen’na

3

thumang = thuman’na

3

teeng

= teen’na

4

pang

4

kheng

= khen’na

= pan’na

Page 71 of 288

eng → en’

Zolai Gelhmaan 3

i

ing → in’

2 dawng = dawn’na

1

cing

=

cin’na

3 zawng = zawn’na

2

hing

=

hin’na

4 gawng = gawn’na

3

bing

=

bin’na

4

ging

=

gin’na

7

ia

iang → ian’

4

o

ong → on’

1

siang =

sian’na

1

pong

=

pon’na

2

diang =

dian’na

2

zong

=

zon’na

3

piang =

pian’na

3

hong

=

hon’na

4

ciang =

cian’na

4

tong

=

ton’na

8 ua

uang → uan’

1 phuang = phuan’na 2 tuang 5

u

1

sung

= sun’na

2

nung

= nun’na

3

khung

= khun’na

9

au/o

4

tung

= tun’na

1

paung = pon’na

2

aung

ang → at

2

kilang =

kilatna

tatna

3

kibang =

kibatna

6 aw

ung → un’

= tuan’na

3 kisuang = kisuan’na 4 muang = muan’na aung → on’ = on’na

awng → awn’

1 lawng = lawn’na Khawkno XIII ng → t 1

a

1

taang

=

Page 72 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 4

nang

=

natna eng → et

5

u

1

bung

ung → ut =

2

e

1

beng

= betna

2

beeng

= netna

6

aw/o

3

theng

= thetna

1

awng

4

neng

= netna

2

khawng = khotna

3

tawng

butna awng → ot

= otna = totna

3

i

ing → it

1

cing

= citna

7

ia

iang → iat

2

hiing

= hitna

1

piang =

3

niing

= nitna

piang (transfer)

4

o

ong → ot

8

ua

uang → uat

1

phong =

photna

1

uang

2

dong

=

dotna

9

iau

iaung → iat

3

long

=

lotna

1

piaung =

piatna

4

khong =

=

uatna

khotna

Khenpi IV Thukhupna: Hih Lai (Article) Tawh Kisai) Mun (space) om loh mani-in, “Pawfi Zatna” leh “Noun Pian’sakna” — hihhte geel bek, hong kihel hi. Mun kicing hi leh, a nuai-ate zong hong kihel ding hi. 1. Adverb Pian’sakna (Formation of Adverbs) Page 73 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 2. Adjective Pian’sakna (Formation of Adjectives) 3. Verb Pian’sakna (Formation of Verbs) 4. Comma Zatna (The Use of the Comma) 5. Hyphen Zatna (The Use of the Hyphen) 6. Kammal Kimatsakna (Agglutination of Words) 7. Awsuah Saang-Niam Kikheelna (Intonation) Mailam-ah, hih a tung-ate leh, Zolai tawh kisai a dang thute, i hel ding hi. Hun kicing lo-a, a nunung peen hun (deadline) lap nopna hangin, “Noun Pian’sakna” pen a guh a taang (skeleton) teng bek, hong ki-at hi. Gentelna (explanation) ki-at man nawn lo hi. A hoihhoih-in na na sim ciat na’ng-un, hong thuum ing. Hih lai (article) tawh kisai-in, ngaihsutna piakna, lahtelna cihte (suggestions, comments, criticisms, etc.) n’ong puak ding uh, ka lamen hi. Pumpi tawh ahi zongin, a nuai-a munte-ah, kei tawh kizopna om thei ding hi. 1) 74 Bazaar Road, Tiddim, Zogam4 2) Building 7, Room S/3, 51st Street, Rangoon4 Lai gelh ciil kum: 1966 Puahphat kum: 1973

4 Hih address-te maan nawn lo hi. Page 74 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Linguistics (Morphemics and Phonemics):

Zolai Bulpite Pawlkhat5 (Some Fundamentals of Zolai) Khenpi I Thupatna: Zolai It Un! Lai leh ngeina (literature and culture) a nei lo minam a om leh, a sawt lo-in mangthang ding hi. Lai leh ngeina in minam lahna (national identity) ahi hi. Mangkangte in Kawlgam hong uk lai-in, Manglai theite bek ulian suak zo uh-a, Manglai thei lo-a Kawllai bek a theite, khuasuak zo lo hi. Tua ahih manin, Kawlmi tampi tak in, Kawllai neumuh mahmah uh-a, Manglai bek thupisak uh hi. Ahih hangin, Kawllai puah ding leh kepcing ding a hanciam Kawlmi pawlkhat om uh hi. A minthang zawdeuh gen leeng, U Po Kya, U Wun (Minthuwun), U Thei Han (Zawgyi), U Sein Tin (Theikpan Maung Wa), leh U Pe Maung Tin cih bangte a hi uh hi. “Kawllai pen, Manglai zah-in kicing zo lo mah hi; ahi zongin, kicing lo ahih teh ci-a, paihkhiat ding hi lo-in, a hoih seemseem na’ng-a puah ding hi,” a cite ahi uh hi. Tu laitak-in, ei Zogam-ah, mi pawlkhat in, “Zolai bang ding hiam? A kiman’na om kei. Zolai in ulian hong suaksak zo kei,” ci uh hi. “Kawllai bek thupi hi,” ci uh hi. 5 Tg. Pau Cin Thang, “Zolai Bulpite Pawlkhat,” Zomi Magazine 1980, Rangoon: Zomi Magazine Committee, 1980, pp. 116-123 Page 75 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ahih hangin, Zolai puah ding leh kepcing ding a hanciam Zomi pawlkhat om hi. Tg. Sukte T. Hau Go, Tg. Vul Za Thang, Tg. J. Gin Za Twang, Tg. Ginkhatsuan, Tg. M. Khup Lam Thang, Tg. H. Gin En Cin, Tg. J. Hang Khan Pau, Tg. Pau Cin Thang leh a dang pawlkhatte in, amau’ hih theihna mun ciat pan Zolai puah uh hi. Kawlgam in suahtaakna a ngah hun (1948 kum)-a kipan-in, khengval nam-itna (ultra-patriotism) om ahih manin, Kawllai bek kithupisak-in, Manglai kipaampaih hi. Leitung buppi’ zat Manglai a kipaampaih khak man-in, supna tampi tak a om lam, kiphawk kik ahih manin, 1970 kum ciangin, Manglai thupi ngaihsut ding hong kipan leeuleeu hi. Tua kum-in, Rangoon Institute of Education-ah B.A. (English) kihong hi. A tung-a i gensa mahbangin, ngaihsutna kikheelkheel-a, Manglai bek thupisak-a Kawllai neu-et hun (Mangkang Kumpi hun sung), Kawllai bek thupisak-a Manglai neu-et hun (1948 pan 1970 ciang), leh Kawlai leh Manglai thupisak khawm hun (1970 pan tu ciang), ci-in hun thum-in kikhen thei hi. Ei Zogam-ah Zolai pen kithupi ngaihsut ngei lo zaw hi. Manglai ahih kei leh Kawllai bek kithupisak den hi. Tu-in Zolai pen neu-et nawn lo-in Kawllai, Manglai-te tawh a kikim-a i thupi ngaishut ding kisam ta hi. “Zomi hi’ng,” a ci mi khempeuh in, Zolai it-in, i puah ciat ding, i tavuan lian peen khat hi, ci-in, ngaihsun ciat ni.

Page 76 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Khenpi II Tat-Huh Pian’sakna (Formation of Adverbs) I. A Kibang Kammal Nih 1. A kibang kammal nih ih koih khop ciangin Tat-huh suak hi. Gt. guapguap, namnam, zuahzuah 2. Tua kammal nih kimat ding hi. +

guap

=

guapguap

pah

+

pah

=

pahpah

mah

+

mah

=

mahmah

Gt. guap

3. Kammal masa’ awkaih (tone) leh kammal nihna” awkaih (tone) kibang hi. (A masa pen a nuaikiat leh, a nihna zong nuaikiat, a masa pen a pheii-pai leh a nihna zong pheii-pai.) Gt. ziazia ziahziah II. A Kibang Lo Kammal Nih 1. A kibang lo kammal nih i koihkhop ciangin, Tat-huh piang hi. Gt. niahnuah; niuhneuh 2. Tua kammal nih kimat ding hi. Gt. niah

+

nuah

=

niahnuah

Page 77 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan pheu

+

=

phau

pheuphau

3. Kammal masa a kipatna laimal (or) laimalte leh kammal nihna a kipatna laimal or laimalte kibang hii. Gt. (1) laimal:

(2) laimalte:

niahnuah

thelthal

kekkak

phiatphuat

4. Kammal masa a tawpna laimal (or) laimalte leh kammal nihna a tawpna laimal (or) laimalte kibang hi. Gt. (1) laimal:

(2) laimalte:

keukau

kengkang

dildel

phiatphuat

5. Kammal masa a laizang laimal leh kammal nihna a laizang laimal kibang LO hi. Gt. (1) gengan liuleu

(2)

phihpheh giahguah

6. Kammal masa’ awkaih leh kammal nihna’ awkaih kibang hi. (A masa pen a nuaikiat leh a nihna zong nuaikiat, cih bang.) Gt. geeugaau geuhgauh III. A Nam-a Khenna A tung-a I leh II tawh kisai-in, a nuai-a bang-in, a nam-in kikhen thei hi. I tawh kisai pen a nuai-a A-ah en inla, II tawh Page 78 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan kisai pen a nuai-a B-ah en in. A. A Kibang Kammal Nih A tung-a I-na tawh kisai-in, nam tampi om lo ahih man-in, haksatna om lo hi. Tat-huh pian’sakna nam 7 om hi. (1) a → a (2) e → e (3) i → i (4) o → o (5) u → u (6) ia → ia (7) ua → ua (i) a → a 1. kaka (=kaakaa) 2. kahkah 3. (a) kaikai (b) kaaikaai 4. kaihkaih 5. (a) kakkak (b) kaakkaak

6. (a) kalkal (b) kaalkaal 7. kalhkalh 8. (a) kamkam (b) kaamkaam 9. (a) kankan (b) kaankaan 10. (a) kangkang

(b) kaangkaang 11. (a) kapkap (b) kaapkaap 12. (a) katkat (b) kaatkaat 13.(a) kaukau (b) kaaukaau 14. kauhkauh

No. 3 (a) pen aw-tom hi-a, No. 3 (b) pen aw-sau hi. Tua mahbangin, No. 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13-te-ah aw-tom leh awsau kilak hi. (ii) e → e Hih pen, a tung-a (i)na mahbang-in, sazian bawl leeng, (i) mah tawh kibang hi. Laidal i ciil nop man-in, sazian i bawl kei ding hi. Page 79 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (iii) i → i A tung-a (i) bang-in gual suk leeng, No. 3na pen “kii-kii” hong hi ding hi. “Ki” khit teh “-i” aw tawh kilo lai hi. (iv) o → o 1. koko 2. kohkoh 3. (a) koikoi (b) kawikawi 4. koihkoih 5. (a) kokkok (b) kawkkawk 6. (a) kolkol

(b) kawlkawl 7. kolhkolh 8. (a) komkom (b) kawmkawm 9. (a) konkon (b) kawnkawn 10. (a) kongkong (b) kawngkawng

11.(a) kopkop (b) kawpkawp 12. (a) kotkot (b) kawtkawt 13. (a) --(b) kawukawu

aw: “o” aw-sau-a i zatna hi. kawu: “kaw” khit teh “-u” aw tawh kilo lai hi. No. 13 (a)na-a “kou” leh No.1na-a “ko” pen, aw kibang hi. Tua ahih man-in, No. 13 (a)-ah bangmah kigelh lo hi. (v) u → u No. 13 (a): kuukuu No. 13 (b): kuuukuuu No. 14: kuuhkuuh kuu: “ku” khit teh “-u” aw kilo lai hi. No. 13 (a) pen aw tom hi-a, No 13 (b) pen aw-sau hi. No. 13 (b)-ah “u” laimal tam lua ahih man-in, zat-huai lo tawh kibang hi. (vi) ia → ia Page 80 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 1. kiakia 2. kiahkiah 3. kiaikiai 4. kiaihkiaih 5. kiakkiak

6. kialkial 7. kialhkialh 8. kiamkiam 9. kiankian 10. kiangkiang

11. kiapkiap 12. kiatkiat 13. kiaukiau 14. kiauhkiauh

(vii) ua → ua A tung-a (vi) tawh kiang hi. B. A Kibang Lo Kammal Nih A tung-a II-na tawh kisai-in Tat-huh pian’sakna pen nam 8 bang-in kikhen thei hi. (1) e → a (2) e → aw/o (3) e → u (4) e → ua (5) i → e (6) i → ia (7) i → u (8) ia → ua (i) e → a 1. keka 2. kehkah 3. (a) keikai (b) keeikaai 4. keihkaih 5. (a) kekkak (b) keekkaak 6. (a) kelkal

(b) keelkaal 7. kelhkalh 8. (a) kemkam (b) keemkaam 9. (a) kenkan (b) keenkaan 10. (a) kengkang (b) keengkaang Page 81 of 288

11. (a) kepkap (b) keepkaap 12. (a) ketkat (b) keetkaat 13. (a) keukau (b) keeukaau 14. keuhkauh

Zolai Gelhmaan (ii) e → aw/o 1. kekaw 2. kehkawh 3. (a) keikoi (b) keeikawi 4. keihkoih 5. (a) kekkok (b) keekkawk 6. (a) kelkol

(b) keelkawl 7. kelhkolh 8. (a) kemkom (b) keemkawm 9.(a) kenkon (b) keenkawn 10. (a) kengkong (b) keengkawng

11. (a) kepkop (b) keepkawp 12. (a) ketkot (b) keetkawwt 13. (a) keuko (b) keeukawu 14. keuhkoh

(iii) e → u Hih pen, (i)na mahbangin, sazian bawl leeng, (i)na mawh tawh, kibang hi. No. 13 (a) keukuu No. 13 (b) keeukuuu No. 13 (b)na-ah “u” tam lua ahih man-in, a zat huai lo tawh kibang hi. (iv) e → ua A tung-a (i)na mah tawh kibang hi. (v) i → e No. 3 (a): kiikei No. 3 (b): kiiikeei No. 3 (b)-ah “i” tam lua hi. (vi) i → ia A tung-a (v) mahbang-in, No. 3 (b)-ah “i” tam lua hi. Page 82 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (vii) i → u No. 3 (a): kiikui No. 3 (b): kiiikuui No. 3 (b)-ah “i” tam lua hi. No. 13 (b)-ah “u” tam lua hi. (viii) ia → ua A tung-a (i)na mah tawh kibang hi.

Khenpi III Awbul Tawh Kisai Theih-Huai Pawlkhat (Some Points on Phonemes) I. Awbul (Phoneme) Awbul i cih pen aw (sound) a piangsak hi-a, laimal (letter) hi lo hi. Ahih hangin, awbul pen laimal tawh kilak hi. Laimal leh awbul a kikhen theih na’ng-in, awbulte pen, giit-awn (oblique stroke) nih kikaal-ah kikoih hi. (Gt. /t/) p pen laimal (letter) khat hi-a, /p/ pen awbul (phoneme) khat hi. ph pen laimal nih (p leh h) hi-a, ahih hang-in, /ph/ pen awbul khat ahi hi. Hih laipuak (article) sung-ah awbul ciaptehna (phoneme Page 83 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan notation) kizang lo hi. (Press pan laimal haksa ahih manin.6) Laimung (consonant), awmung (vowel) i cihte zong, laimal hi lo-a laimal tawh a kilak awbul ahi hi. II. Laibul (Alphabet) Zolai laibul (alpabet) sung-a om laimalte (letters) in a nuai-a teng hi-a, 21 pha hi. a,

b,

c,

d,

e,

f,

g,

h,

i,

k,

l,

m,

n,

o,

p,

s,

t,

u,

v,

w

z

Zolai-a i neih loh, laimalte, 5 pha hi. j, q, r, x, y Ciapteh ding: “f” pen Teizang kam-ah “ph” taang-in (a tam peen-in) kizang hi. III. Laimungte (Consonants) Zolai-ah laimung 22 kinei hi.

6 Tua hun lai (1970-1980)-in, press-ah haaknaw (lead) tawh laimal kibawl hi. Phoneme notation (/ /) tampi kizangh leh, tua haaknaw tawh a kibawl font tampi kisam ding-a, sum tam bei hi. Tu lai (2006-2010) hun ciangin, computer kizangh ahih manin, bangmah bei tuam tuan lo hi. Page 84 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan b,

c,

ch, d,

f

g,

h,

k,

kh,

l

lh,

m

n

ng,

p

ph,

s,

t,

th,

v

w

z

IV. Awmungte (Vowels) Awmung 21 kinei hi. 1. Awmung Taktak (Monophthongs or Pure Vowels) a, e, i, o, u, aw Ciapteh ding: “Aw”-ah laimal nih (“a” leh “w”) a om hangin, aw (sound) khat bek ahi hi. Tua ahih manin, “aw” pen awbul khat ahi hi. 2. Laimung Nih Kithuapte (Diphthongs) ai, au, awi, awu ei, eu ia, iu oi ua, ui Ciapteh ding: “awi” leh “awu”-ah laimal 3 a om hangin, aw (sound) nih bek ahi hi. “Aw” pen aw khat hi-a, “i” or “u” tawh a kigawm ciangin, aw nih piang hi. 3– Awmung Thum Kithuapte (Triphthongs) iai, iau uai, uau Page 85 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan V. Kammal Patna Awbulte (Initial Phonemes) 1. Laimungte (Consonants) b-,

c-,

ch-,

d-,

f-

g-,

h-,

k-,

kh-,

l-

m-,

n-,

ng-, p-,

ph-

s-,

t-,

th-,

z-

v-,

Gt. Bawngpi khat in lopa ne phuatphuat hi. 2. Awmung Taktakte (Pure Vowels) a-, e-, i-, o-, u-, awGt. Amah in eek tha thei lo-in om ahih man-in a awng hi. 3. Awmung Nih-thuapte (Diphthongs) (i) “-h” tawh a kithuah kei leh, ia-, uaGt. A dah mi khat pen uap in. Ahi zongin, uang tat lua kei in. (ii) “-h” tawh a kithuah leh, ai-, au-, awi-, awuei-, euia-, iuoiua-, uiPage 86 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ciapteh ding: A tung-a (ii)na-a awmung nih-thuap 11-te sung pan-in, “ia-” leh “ua-” (a tung-a (i) en in) longal, a dang 9-te pen”-h” tawh a kithuah ciang bek-in, kammal patna-in kizang thei hi.7 “Ia-” leh “ua-” pen “-h” tawh kithuah leh kithuah kei leh, kammal patna-in kizang thei hi. 4. Awmung Thum-thuapte (Triphthongs) (i) “-h” tawh a kithuah kei leh, kammal patna-in kizang thei lo hi. Ciapteh ding: “iai-” pen “-h” tawh thuah leeng “iaih” suak hi. Ahih hangin, “-h” tawh thuah kei leeng, kammal patna-in kizang thei lo hi. “Iaip” ciah bang om thei lo hi. (ii) “-h” tawh a kithuah leh, iai-, iauuai-, uauVI. Kammal Tawpna Awbulte (Final Phonemes) 1– Laimungte (Consonants) -h,

-k,

-l,

-lh,

-m

-n,

-ng,

-p,

-t,

-w

Gt. Sumbuk-ah van tuamtuam kizuak hi. Ciapteh ding: “-w” pen laimal khat’ tawpna-ah a kizat ciangin, “a-” bek tawh kithuah hi. 2. Awmung Taktakte (Pure Vowels)

7 aik, aul, awim, awun, eip, eut, etc. cih bang om thei lo, cihna hi. Page 87 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan -a, -e, -i, -o, -u, -aw Gt. Ko phattuam na’ng, na a seem na hi uh maw? 3. Awmung Nih-thuapte (Diphthongs) -ai, -au, -awi, -awu -ei, -eu -ia, -ii, -iu -oi, -ua, -ui, -uu Gt. Kei kia in koici sep ding ka hia? 4– Awmung Thum-thuapte (Triphthongs) -iai, -iau -uai, -uau Gt. Lam ka siau liailiai uh hi. Tua laitak-in huih nung hiauhiau hi. VII. Kammal Patna leh Tawpna-a a Kizangkhawm Thei Awbulte 1– Laimungte (Consonants) -h-, -k-, -l-, -m-, -n-ng-, -p-, -tGt. Na pa’ tha na kheek zawh na’ng, hah kat in. (Patna leh tawpna kithuah) Hih an, na pa ap in, (Tawpna, patna, tawpna...) 2– Awmung Taktakte (Pure Vowels) Page 88 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan -a-, -e, -i-, -o-, -u-, -awGt. Hih an, na pa ap in. (Patna, tawpna, patna...) Han-mun pan kiciah khin zo hi. (A laizang) 3– Awmung Nih-thuapte (Diphthongs) (i) “-h-” tawh a kithuah kei leh, -ia-, -uaGt. Piangthak na suak nuam hiam? (A laizang) Tua sum, mi na pia inla, a om lai teng uang zat ke’n. (Tawpna, patna) (ii) “-h-” tawh a kithuah leh, -ai-, -au-, -awi-, -awu-ei-, -eu-ia-, -ii-, -iu-oi-ua-, -ui-, -uuGt. Hiah koih peuh sin. (A laizang) Taangza na aih vial leh, na hauhna hong bei kha ding hi. (Patna, a laizang) 4– AwmungThum-thuapte (Triphthongs) “-h” tawh a kithuah kei leh, om lo Page 89 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (ii) “-h” tawh a kithuah leh, -iai-, -iau-uai-, -uau-

Khenpi IV Thukhupna: Ngaihsutna Hong Pia Un Hih laipuak (article) sung-a awkaih (tone), laimung (consonant), laibul (alphabet) cih bang Zolai kammalte pen, Tg. Ginkhatsuan’ phuah (coin; invent) bang-a ka zat hi-a, kammal (word), awmung (vowel), laimal (letter; grapheme), awbul (phone; phoneme), syllable (awmal) cih bang Zolai kammalte pen kei’ phuah ahi hi. Zolai khan’toh ding deihna lungsim tawh, hih laipuak a gelh, ka hi hi. I theihna, i ciaptehna, i ngaihsutnate, kibang khin lo ding hi. Tua ahih manin, hih laipuak tawh kisai-in, na ngaihsutna uh n’ong piak na’ng-un, k’ong sam hi. Pumpi tawh ahih zongin, lai tawh ahi zongin, hih a nuai-a munte-ah, kei tawh, kizopna om thei ding hi. Tg. Pau Cin Thang 1) 74, Bazaar Road, Tiddim, Zogam8 2) Building 7, Room s/3, 51st Street, Rangoon8 Lai gelh ciil kum: 1975 Puahphat kum: 1979

8 Hih address-te pen maan nawn lo hi. Kizop nopna a neite in, [email protected], [email protected] ah kizopna kibawl thei hi. Page 90 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Thursday, October 19, 2006 Grammar 2006:

Manglai leh Zolai-a Ih Khialh Khaak Pahpahte Pawlkhat (Some Frequently Made Mistakes in English and in Zolai) By Taang Zomi YEAR OF OPENED, YEAR OPENED, YEAR OF OPENING, YEAR OF BEING OPENED -WHICH? 1. Manglai pen ei’ lai (Zolai) hi lo ahih manin, Manglai-a lai ih gelh ciangin, ih khialh khaakna om thei zeel hi. 2.1 “The Year Opened”: “Sang kihon’ kum” pen, a sau-in gelh leeng, “the year in which it (= the school) was opened” ahi hi. Tom laak zawdeuh leeng, “the year it (=the school) was opened” ahi hi. Tom laak sawnsawn lai leeng, “the year opened” ahi hi. Zam Vung’ gen pen, a maan, ahi hi. 2.2 “The Year of Opened”: Preposition (“of”) khit ciangin, object hong pai ding hi. Tua object pen noun hi ding hi. Noun liinlian a om theih kei leh Page 91 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan noun equivalent khat a kizat kul hi. Gerund (=verbal noun) pen noun equivalent khat ahi hi. Gerund-ah present participle form (= “-ing” form) kizangh hi. “The Year of OPENING” ahih kei leh “The Year of BEING Opened” cih bang hi leh, “opening” leh “being” pen gerund hi-a a form pen present participle form ahi hi. [Hih mun-a, “The Year of Being OPENED” sung-a om “opened” pen gerund hi lo-in passive voice hi-a, past partciple form nei hi.] “The Year of OPENED” pen hih a tung-a ih gen rule tawh kituak lo hi. “Opened” pen past tense form zong hi thei, past participle form zong hi thei hi. Gerund hi lo hi. 3. A kikhial mun mahmah pawlkhat nei lai hi hang. 3.1 “Head Quarter”, “Headquarter”: 1980-1990 sung, Tedim khuapi-ah, hih bang signboad-te kisuang ngei hi. Pentecostal Church of Christ (P.C.C.) Head Quarter Assemblies of God No. 3 Section Headquarter 1988-1990 sung, Kawlpi-ah, hih bang signboard kisuang ngei hi: Kale Valley Baptist Association Headquarter 1998-2005 sung, Kawlpi-ah, hih bang office letter-head om ngei hi: Page 92 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Zomi Baptist Convention of Myanmar Headquarter Manglai ih simkhiat ciangin, “s” pen suaksak pha lo thei hi hang. Kihihsakna (showing off) dan-in tuat ih hih man-in, Mangpau tawh a kibang lo theithei dingin, ih aw ih suaksak hi. A maan pen Headquarters hi-a, ahi zongin, ih simkhiat ciangin, headquarter ciang bek a aw suaksak ih hih manin, ih gelh ciangin zong, “s” a om lam kimangngilh ta hi. A maan pen, headquarters ahi hi. Headquarter hi lo hi. Head Quarter zong hi lo hi. Head Quarters zong hi lo hi. "Head" leh "quarters" pen kizom/kimat ding-a kammal (word) khat bek hi ding hi. 3.2 “Quarter”: Tedim Sangpi-ah siate pawlkhat in omna inn ngah uh hi. Tua bang inn khat pen “Teacher’s Quarters” ahi hi. Ahi zongin, “Teacher’s Quarter” mah ih ci zeel kha hi. Inn pen khat bek hi ta leh “Quarters” mah, cih veve ding ahi hi. 4. Awsuah zong ih khialhna pawlkhat om hi. 4.1 “Bomb”, “Bomber”: Vangleeng tung panin bomb kikhia thei hi. Tua bang-a bomb khiatna-a a kizangh vanleeng pen bomber kici hi. Zomi tampi tak in bomber pen "bom-ber" cih bangin a aw suaksak hi hang. A maan pen "bom-er" ahi hi. "Bomb" pen "bom" ci-a sim ding hi-a, "b" aw, suak lo hi. "Bomber" pen "b" aw suaksak lo-a "Bomer" cih ding ahi hi. Nawh cih leeng, "bo-ma" tawh kibang dektak ding hi. Page 93 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 4.2 “Sing”, “Singer”: “Singer” pen “sing-ger” dan-in a aw ih suaksak hi. 1956-1962 sungin, Tedim khuapi Lawibual veeng-ah, England-te’ bawl puankhuiset “Singer” a kicite khat, a nei innkuan khat om hi. A leenglapa in “Sing-gel, suang-gel; sing-gel, suang-gel” ci-in la dan-in sa hi. A innteekte in, “Bang na cihna a hia?” a cih leh, “Na puankhuiset uh ka muh teh, cim thawina-a Sing-gel a ci hi ing. Sing om ahih leh Suang zong om ding ci-in, Suang-gel a ci hi ing,” ci hi. A maan pen “sing-er” ding ahi hi. “G” (hard G) aw, suahsak ding hi lo hi. Nawh cih leeng, "Si-nga" tawh hong kibang dektak ding hi. “Sing” zong, a tawpna-ah hard G aw suahsak ding hi lo hi. 4.3 “Colonel”, “Kal-neel”, “Kaa-nel” Hih galkap-bu za min pen, a za neite mahmah in zong a awsuah maan lokhia thei khol lo thei hi. “Kal-neel” peuh i ci hi. “Kal” pen awtom, “neel” pen awsau ahi hi. Tua pen maan lo hi. “Co-lo-nel” sung-a om “lo” pen, “l” hi ta leh, “o” hi ta leh a aw a suakkhia ding hi lo hi. “Kaa-nel” cih tawh a kibang dektak-a aw suahsak ding ahi hi. “Kaa” pen awsau, “nel” pen awtom ahi hi. 5. Punctuation zong, ih khialhna, om mun mahmah hi. 5.1 Grammar laibu tuamtuam ka et ciangin, spacing (mun awng) tawh kisai kigelhna tam muh meel lo hi’ng. Typewriter keyboard or computer keyboard-ah, space bar om hi. Laimal (letter) ahi zongin, kammal (word) ahi zongin, simmal (numeral) ahi zongin, punctuation mark ahi zongin, ih kihalsak nop ciangin, tua space bar ih zangh hi. Page 94 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 5.2 Period (=full stop) [.], comma [,], colon [:], semi-colon [;], close quotation mark [”], close bracket [)], question mark [?] cihte leh a mai-a om laimal/kammal-te kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. Pasian in eite hong it hi . [Khial] Pasian in eite hong it hi. [Maan] Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw , [Khial] Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw, [Maan] A thupi peen thu thum : upna, lametna leh itna [Khial] A thupi peen thu thum: upna, lametna leh itna [Maan] Pasian in mite it hi ; mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Khial] Pasian in mite it hi; mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Maan]

“Itna ” ih cih bang hiam? [Khial] “Itna” ih cih bang hiam? [Maan] Pilna (wisdom ) pen hauhna (wealth ) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Khial] Pilna (wisdom) pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Maan] Bang deih na hi hiam ? [Khial] Bang deih na hi hiam? [Maan] 5.3 Period (=full stop) [.], comma [,], colon [:], semi-colon [;], close quotation mark [”], close bracket [)], question mark [?] cihte leh a nung-a om laimal/kammal-te kikaal-ah space KHAT om ding hi. (Space bar khat vei kheen suk in.) Page 95 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Pasian in thupha hong pia hen.Na hawhna na ciahna-ah daupai in. [Khial] Pasian in thupha hong pia hen. Na hawhna na ciahna-ah daupai in. [Maan] Vantung-a om kote' Pa aw,na min siangtho hong kiphat ta hen. [Khial] Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw, na min siangtho hong kiphat ta hen. [Maan] A thupi peen thu thum:upna, lametna leh itna [Khial] A thupi peen thu thum: upna, lametna leh itna [Maan] Pasian in mite it hi;mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Khial] Pasian in mite it hi; mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Maan] “Itna”ih cih bang hiam? [Khial] “Itna” ih cih bang hiam? [Maan] Pilna (wisdom)pen hauhna (wealth)sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Khial] Pilna (wisdom) pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Maan] Bang deih na hi hiam?Hong gen in. [Khial] Bang deih na hi hiam? Hong gen in. [Maan] 5.4 Open quotation mark [“], open bracket [(] leh a nung-a om laimal/kammalte kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi.

“ Itna” ih cih bang hiam? [Khial] “Itna” ih cih bang hiam? [Maan] Page 96 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Pilna ( wisdom) pen hauhna ( wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Khial] Pilna (wisdom) pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Maan] 5.5 Open quotation mark [“], open bracket [(] leh a nung-a om laimal/kammalte kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. (A tung-a #13 en in.) Close quotation mark [”], close bracket [)] leh a mai-a om laimal/kammalte kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. (A tung-a #11 en in.)

“ Zeisu in Topa hi, ” na ci hiam? [Khial] “Zeisu in Topa hi,” na ci hiam? [Maan] Mangmatna ( dream ), mangmuhna ( vision ) cihte na nei hia? [Khial] Mangmatna (dream), mangmuhna (vision) cihte na nei hia? [Maan] 6. Abbreviation ih gelh ciangin zong, kikhial thei mahmah hi. 6.1 Degree a tom-a ih gelh ciangin, period kizang hi. Bachelor of Arts = B.A. B khit cianngin period khat om-a A khit ciangin period khat mah om ding hi. B.A [Khial] BA. [Khial] B.A. [Maan] 6.2 Degree nih bang thum bang a ngah mi khat a om leh, a degree khatna leh nihna kikaalah comma [,] om ding hi. Degree nihna leh thumna kikaal-ah zong, comma om ding hi. Page 97 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan B.A., B.L. BSc., M.Sc., Ph.D. B.A, B.L [Khial] B.A., B.L [Khial] B.A.,B.L. [Khial] B.A., B.L. [Maan] 6.3 Degree nih hi napi-a khat bang-a a kingaihsun degree pen, degree nih kikaal-ah comma koih theih, koih loh theih, ahi hi. M.B., B.S. [Maan] M.B.B.S. [Maan] M.B. (Bachelor of Medicine) leh B.S. (Bachelor of Surgery) pen kituam laak thei lo hi. Laak khop kul hi. 6.4 A tom-a ih gelh ciangin, period ih zat leh zat suak ding, ih zat kei leh zat loh suak ding (consistently) ahi hi. B.A. [Maan] BA [Maan] B.A., MA [Khial] BA, M.A. [Khial] B.A., M.A. [Maan] BA, MA [Maan] ----- Original Message ----From: Zam Vung To: [email protected] Sent: Wednesday, October 18, 2006 11:07 PM Subject: Re: [ZONET] Vangteh Sang Diamond Jubilee . Vangteh te na sia mahmah ei. Page 98 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hi bang aa na hanciam na te uh thupi sa mahmah ing. Na mualsuang uh zong hoih mahmah hi. Ahi zong in correction khat na bawl ding uh ong muhsak ing. Tua in YEAR OF OPENED cih hi. Tua pen YEAR OPENED cih hi zaw leh grammer maan zaw in um ing. Deihsak tak in, Vung michael pau wrote: Vangteh Sang Diamond Jubilee Mualsuang.

Page 99 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Thursday, March 15, 2007 Zolai Grammar: Punctuation:

Mun-awng (Space) by Taang Zomi

1. Khialhna (Error) Khialhna (Error) pen, hih ka laigelh tawh kisai-in, nam nih-in khen pak ni: (1) Khialh khaak pakna (Accidental Error; Careless Error; Inadvertent Error; Unintentional Error) I theih hi napi, i khial kha pahpah hi. Pasian in mihingte hong it hi. Pasian in a Tapa khat neihsun hong piak zah dongin mihingte hong it hi. Mihingte in ahih leh Paisan a it kik khol kei uh hi. Pasian’ hong itna i theih ding kisam hi. Hih mun-ah, sentence thumna-a “Paisan” pen, a kikhial kha pak ahi hi. “Pasian” ding, ahi hi. (2) Theih loh man-a khialhna (Error through Ignorance; Error through Being Uninformed) Pa sian in mi hing te hong it hi. Pa sian in a Ta pa khat neih sun hong piak zah dong in mi hing te hong it hi. Mi hing te in a hih leh Pa sian a it kik khol kei uh hi. Pa sian Page 101 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan hong it na i theih ding kisam hi. Hih mun-ah, laigelhpa in grammar, malgawm zia (orthography), punctuation, cihte tel lo a hihna kithei hi. “Pa sian” cih ding hi lo-in, “Pasian” cih ding, ahi hi. “Mi hing” hi lo-in “mihing” hi ding hi. “Ta pa” zong “Tapa” cih ding hi. A tam lahna-a a kizang kammal ahi “te” pen, a vei lam-a om kammal tawh i kimatsak ding, ahi hi: mihing + te = mihingte. Neihsa lahna-in apostrophe zat ding ahi hi. Noun pian’sakna-a a kizangh “na” pen a vei lam-a kammal tawh kimat ding hi. “Ki” pen a taklam-a kammal tawh kimat ding hi. Hih bang hi leh, maan zawdiak ding hi: Pasian in mihingte hong it hi. Pasian in a Tapa khat neihsun hong piak zah dongin mihingte hong it hi. Mihingte in ahih leh Pasian a it kik khol kei uh hi. Pasian’ hong itna i theih ding kisam hi.

2. Computer leh Word Processing Program zangh-a lai gelhna Tu laitak-in word processing program a thupi thum (3) kinei hi: Corel WordPerfect, Microsoft Word leh OpenOffice.org Writer. I laigelh a maan leh a khial, computer screen tung-ah, i muh pak theih nadingin, word processor program-ah non-printing character a kimu thei dingin bawl in. A bawl zia na theih kei leh menu bar-a om Help menu sung-ah kimu thei ding hi. Gentehna-in, tu laitak-a ka zat OpenOffice.org Writer 2.19 sungah, ka screen tung-ah non-printing chacater-te a suak ding ka deih ciangin, (1) View menu-ah pai-in, Nonprinting Characters ka meek hi; or (2) Ctrl + F10 [Ctrl key leh function key ahi F10 9 Version 3.2.1 hi ta [08 SEP 10 WED] Page 102 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan meek khat-in] ka meek hi; or (3) Tool bar tung-a om Nonprinting Character sign ahi ¶ ka meek hi. Non-printing character i cih pen, screen tung bek-a a kimu, i print ciang-a hong suakkhia lo character peen hi. Gentehna-in space a om lam i theih nadingin center dot ahih kei leh middle dot ahih kei leh interpunct [·] pen kammal khat leh kammal khat kikaal-ah [kammal·khat·leh·kammal·khat·kikaal-ah] om hi. Tua pen na printer tawh print khia lecin, hong dawkkhia lo ding hi. Nonprinting character-te leh computer keyboard tung-a a kilangh-a a kikoih lo character-te, na screen tung-ah hi taleh, na print khiatna-ah hi taleh, na suahsak nop leh, keyboard shortcut pawlkhat kizangh thei hi. [·] = Middle dot or center dot or interpunct. Alt + 0183 (Main keyboard tung-a om Alt key meek inla, khahkhia nailo-in, keypad tung-a om 0, 1, 8, 3-te meek in. Tua khit ciangin a vekin khahkhia lecin, na screen tung-ah, middle dot hong om ding hi. Keypad pen, na keyboard a tak lam-ah om hi.) [¶] = Paragraph sign. Alt + 0182 [–] = en-dash. Alt + 0150 [—] = em-dash. Alt + 0151 Hyphen [-] bel, keyboard tung-ah om hi. En-dash pen hyphen zah nih bang, em-dash pen en-dash zah nih bang leh hyphen zah li (4) bang sau hi. - = hyphen – = en-dash — = em-dash

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Zolai Gelhmaan Hih ka lai gelhna-ah, a khialte font a san (red10) tawh lak-in, a maante pen vanmeel (blue11) tawh ka lak hi.

3. Punctuation Mark-te Punctuation mark-te hih a nuai-a-te hi-a a dangdang zong om lai hi. Sentence tawpsakna-a a kizangh punctuation mark-te (end punctuation marks): period [x.] question mark [x?] exclamation point [x!] Khawlna-a a kizangh punctuation mark-te (pause punctuation marks): comma [x,] semicolon [x;] colon [x:] A kop-a akizangh punctuation mark-te (puntuation marks used in pairs): open quotation mark leh closed quotation mark [“x”] open bracket leh closed bracket [(x)] em-dash [—x—] (a kuulna mun-ah) open quotation mark na zat leh closed quotation mark zangh hamtang ding. open bracket na zat leh closed bracket zangh hamtang ding. em-dash na zat leh a kuulna mun-ah a koppih em-dash zangh ding. 10 Hih laibu sung-ah, Comic Sans MS Bold Italic 10 points tawh kilak hi. 11 Hih laibu sung-ah Times New Roman Bold Italic 12 points tawh kilak hi. Page 104 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan A dangdangte: apostrophe [x’] ellipsis points [x . . .] hyphen [x-y] en-dash [x–y] ampersand [x & y] slash [x/y] A kisaipih a dangdangte: Hihte pen punctuation a kicih lian loh hangin, punctuation tawh a kisaipihte ahi hi: capitalization [capital letter zatna] abbreviation [tomlaakna] space [mun awng]

4. Mun-awng (Space) koih zia Typewriter keyboard or computer keyboard-ah, space bar om hi. Laimal (letter) ahi zongin, kammal (word) ahi zongin, simmal (numeral) ahi zongin, punctuation mark ahi zongin, i kihalsak nop ciangin, tua space bar i zangh hi. Hih spacing thu pen, English grammar bu a tam peen-ah kigelh kha lo hi. Zolai grammar bu nih, bu thum sung-ah, kigelh kha vet lo hi. Ei Zomite’ laigelhna-ah i khialhna tuamtuamte lak-ah hih spacing pen a kitam khialh peen khat ahi hi. Laibu, labu a kibawl tuamtuamte en kik leeng, hih thu (i khialh mahmah thu) kimu thei hi. Tu mahmah-in zong, ZoNet sung-a lai kigelhte en lehang, kimu thei hi. 1. Kammal (word) khat leh a dang kammal khat kikaal-ah space KHAT om ding hi. Pasian in kei hong it hi. Page 105 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Pasian·in·kei·hong·it·hi. Hih kamvui (sentence) sung-ah kammal 6 om hi. “Pasian” leh “in” kikaal-ah space khat om hi. Tua mah bangin, “in” leh “kei” kikaal, “kei” leh “hong” kikaal, “hong” leh “it” kikaal, leh “it” leh “hi” kikaal-ah space khat ta om hi. Pasian in kei hong it hi. [Maan]

Pasian·in·kei·hong·it·hi. [Maan] Pasianinkeihongithi. [Khial]

Pasianinkeihongithi. [Khial] Pasianinkei hongithi. [Khial]

Pasianinkei·hongithi. [Khial] Pasianin keihong ithi. [Khial]

Pasianin—keihong—ithi. [Khial] Pasian inkei hongithi. [Khial]

Pasian·inkei·hongithi. [Khial] 2. Period (=full stop) [.], comma [,], colon [:], semi-colon [;], closed quotation mark [”], closed bracket [)], question mark [?], exclamation point [!] cihte leh a nung-a om laimal/kammal-te kikaal-ah space KHAT om ding hi. (Space bar khat vei kheen suk in.) Period: Pasian in thupha hong pia hen.Na hawhna na ciahna-ah daupai in. [Khial] Pasian·in·thupha·hong·pia·hen.Na·hawhna·na·ciahna-

ah·daupai·in. [Khial] Page 106 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Pasian in thupha hong pia hen. Na hawhna na ciahna-ah daupai in. [Maan]

Pasian·in·thupha·hong·pia·hen.·Na·hawhna·na· ciahna-ah·daupai·in. [Maan] Comma: Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw,na min siangtho hong kiphat ta hen. [Khial]

Vantung-a·om·kote’·Pa·aw,na·min·siangtho·hong· kiphat·ta· hen. [Khial] Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw, na min siangtho hong kiphat ta hen. [Maan]

Vantung-a·om·kote’·Pa·aw,·na·min·siangtho· hong·kiphat·ta·hen. [Maan] Colon: A thupi peen thu thum:upna, lametna leh itna [Khial]

A·thupi·peen·thu·thum:upna,·lametna·leh·itna [Khial] A thupi peen thu thum: upna, lametna leh itna [Maan]

A·thupi·peen·thu·thum:·upna,·lametna·leh·itna [Maan] Semicolon: Pasian in mite it hi;mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Khial] Page 107 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Pasian·in·mite·it·hi;mite·in·bel·Pasian·it·kik·khol·lo· uh·hi. [Khial] Pasian in mite it hi; mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Maan]

Pasian·in·mite·it·hi;·mite·in·bel·Pasian·it·kik· khol·lo·uh·hi. [Maan] Closed Quoatation Mark: “Itna”i cih bang hiam? [Khial]

“Itna”i·cih·bang·hiam? [Khial] “Itna” i cih bang hiam? [Maan]

“Itna”·i·cih·bang·hiam? [Maan] Closed Bracket: Pilna (wisdom)pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Khial]

Pilna·(wisdom)pen·hauhna·(wealth)·sangin·thupi·zaw· hi,·kici·hi. [Khial] Pilna (wisdom)·pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Maan]

Pilna·(wisdom)·pen·hauhna·(wealth)·sangin·thupi· zaw·hi,·kici·hi. [Maan] Question Mark: Bang deih na hi hiam?Hong gen in. [Khial]

Bang·deih·na·hi·hiam?Hong·gen·in. [Khial] Bang deih na hi hiam? Hong gen in. [Maan] Page 108 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Bang·deih·na·hi·hiam?·Hong·gen·in. [Maan] Exclamation Point: Tua ahih leh hehpihna hangin thukham a kipaaikhia hiam? Deksuai!Thukham i kipsak hi. [Khial]

Tua·ahih·leh·hehpihna·hangin·thukham·a·kipaaikhia· hiam?·Deksuai!Thukham·i·kipsak·hi. [Khial] Tua ahih leh hehpihna hangin thukham a kipaaikhia hiam? Deksuai! Thukham i kipsak hi. [Maan]

Tua·ahih·leh·hehpihna·hangin·thukham·a·kipaaikhia· hiam?·Deksuai!·Thukham·i·kipsak·hi. [Maan] Double quotation marks [“ ”] leh single quoatation marks [‘ ’] pen Space tawh kisai-ah a zat dan kibang hi. Curved Brackets [( )], Braces or Squiggly Brackets [{ }] leh Square Brackets [[ ]] pen, Space tawh kisai-ah a zat dan kibang hi. 3. Period (full stop) [.], comma [,], colon [:], semi-colon [;], closed quotation mark [”], closed bracket [)], question mark [?], exclamation point [!] cihte leh a mai-a om laimal/kammal-te kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. Period: Pasian in eite hong it hi . [Khial]

Pasian·in·eite·hong·it·hi·. [Khial] Pasian in eite hong it hi. [Maan]

Pasian·in·eite·hong·it·hi. [Maan] Comma: Page 109 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw , [Khial] Vantung-a·om·kote’·Pa·aw·, [Khial] Vantung-a om kote’ Pa aw, [Maan]

Vantung-a·om·kote’·Pa·aw, [Maan] Colon: A thupi peen thu thum : upna, lametna leh itna [Khial]

A·thupi·peen·thu·thum· : ·upna,·lametna·leh·itna [Khial] A thupi peen thu thum: upna, lametna leh itna [Maan]

A·thupi·peen·thu·thum:·upna,·lametna·leh·itna [Maan] Semicolon: Pasian in mite it hi ; mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Khial]

Pasian·in·mite·it·hi·;·mite·in·bel·Pasian·it·kik·khol· lo·uh·hi. [Khial] Pasian in mite it hi; mite in bel Pasian it kik khol lo uh hi. [Maan]

Pasian·in·mite·it·hi;·mite·in·bel·Pasian·it·kik·khol· lo·uh·hi. [Maan] Closed Quotation Mark: “Itna ” i cih bang hiam? [Khial]

“Itna·” ·i·cih·bang·hiam? [Khial] Page 110 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan “Itna” i cih bang hiam? [Maan]

“Itna”·i·cih·bang·hiam? [Maan] Closed Bracket: Pilna (wisdom ) pen hauhna (wealth ) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Khial]

Pilna·(wisdom·)·pen·hauhna·(wealth·)·sangin·thupi zaw·hi,·kici·hi. [Khial] Pilna (wisdom) pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Maan]

Pilna·(wisdom)·pen·hauhna·(wealth)·sangin·thupi· zaw·hi,·kici·hi. [Maan] Question Mark: Bang deih na hi hiam ? [Khial]

Bang·deih·na·hi·hiam·? [Khial] Bang deih na hi hiam? [Maan]

Bang·deih·na·hi·hiam? [Maan] Exaclamation Point: Tua ahih leh hehpihna hangin thukham a kipaaikhia hiam? Deksuai ! Thukham i kipsak hi. [Khial]

Tua·ahih·leh·hehpihna·hangin·thukham·a·kipaaikhia· hiam?· Deksuai·!·Thukham·i·kipsak·hi. [Khial] Tua ahih leh hehpihna hangin thukham a kipaaikhia hiam? Deksuai! Thukham i kipsak hi. [Maan]

Tua·ahih·leh·hehpihna·hangin·thukham·a·kipaaikhia· Page 111 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

hiam?· Deksuai!·Thukham·i·kipsak·hi. [Maan] 4. Open quotation mark [“], open bracket [(] leh a nung-a om laimal/kammalte kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. Open Quotation Mark: “ Itna” i cih bang hiam? [Khial]

“·Itna”·i·cih·bang·hiam? [Khial] “Itna” i cih bang hiam? [Maan]

“Itna”·i·cih·bang·hiam? [Maan] Open Bracket: Pilna ( wisdom) pen hauhna ( wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Khial]

Pilna·(·wisdom)·pen·hauhna·(·wealth)·sangin·thupi· zaw·hi,·kici·hi. [Khial] Pilna (wisdom) pen hauhna (wealth) sangin thupi zaw hi, kici hi. [Maan]

Pilna·(wisdom)·pen·hauhna·(wealth)·sangin·thupi· zaw·hi,·kici·hi.[Maan] 5. Open quotation mark [“], open bracket [(] leh a nung-a om laimal/kammalte kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. (A tung-a #4 en in.) Closed quotation mark [”], closed bracket [)] leh a mai-a om laimal/kammalte kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. (A tung-a #3 en in.) Open Quoation Mark leh Closed Quotation Mark:

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Zolai Gelhmaan “ Zeisu in Topa hi ” na ci hiam? [Khial]

“·Zeisu—in·Topa·hi·”·na·ci·hiam? [Khial] “Zeisu in Topa hi” na ci hiam? [Maan]

“Zeisu·in·Topa·hi”·na·ci·hiam? [Maan] Open Bracket leh Closed Bracket: Mangmatna ( dream ), mangmuhna ( vision ) cihte na nei hia? [Khial]

Mangmatna·(·dream·),·mangmuhna·(·vision·) ·cihte·na·nei·hia? [Khial] Mangmatna (dream), mangmuhna (vision) cihte na nei hia? [Maan]

Mangmatna·(dream),·mangmuhna·(vision)·cihte·na· nei·hia? [Maan] 6. Hyphen [-] leh a mai-a om kammmal kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. Hyphen leh a nung-a om kammal kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. November- January sung, vot mahmah hi. [Khial]

November-·January·sung,·vot·mahmah·hi. [Khial] November -January sung, vot mahmah hi. [Khial]

November·-January·sung,·vot·mahmah·hi. [Khial] November - January sung, vot mahmah hi. [Khial]

November·-·January·sung,·vot·mahmah·hi. [Khial] November-January sung, vot mahmah hi. [Maan]

November-January·sung,·vot·mahmah·hi. [Maan] Page 113 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 7. Em-Dash leh a nung-a om kammal kikaal-ah space a om KEI leh, a koppih em-dash leh a nung-a om kammal kikaal-ah space om LO ding hi. Em-Dash leh a nung-a om kammal kikaal-ah space a om leh, a kithuahpih em-dash leh a nung-a om kammal kikaal-ah space om ding hi. Space Om LO: Ka lawmte nih—Thang Ho leh Lian Do —hong hawh uh hi. [Khial]

Ka·lawmte·nih—Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do·—hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Khial] Ka lawmte nih—Thang Ho leh Lian Do— hong hawh uh hi. [Khial]

Ka·lawmte·nih—Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do—·hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Khial] Ka lawmte nih—Thang Ho leh Lian Do — hong hawh uh hi. [Khial]

Ka·lawmte·nih—Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do·—·hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Khial] Ka lawmte nih—Thang Ho leh Lian Do—hong hawh uh hi. [Maan]

Ka·lawmte·nih—Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do—hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Maan] Space OM: Ka lawmte nih — Thang Ho leh Lian Do—hong hawh uh hi. [Khial] Page 114 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Ka·lawmte·nih·—·Thang·Ho·leh· Lian·Do—hong·hawh·uh·hi. [Khial] Ka lawmte nih — Thang Ho leh Lian Do —hong hawh uh hi. [Khial]

Ka·lawmte·nih·—·Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do·—hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Khial] Ka lawmte nih — Thang Ho leh Lian Do— hong hawh uh hi. [Khial]

Ka·lawmte·nih·—·Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do—·hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Khial] Ka lawmte nih — Thang Ho leh Lian Do — hong hawh uh hi. [Maan]

Ka·lawmte·nih·—·Thang·Ho·leh·Lian·Do·—·hong· hawh·uh·hi. [Maan]

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Zolai Gelhmaan 23 MAR 2007 FRI Zolai Gelhmaan 2007: Punctuation:

Tomlaakna (Abbreviation) By Taang Zomi 1. Hih lai pen, Zolai a puah nuam, a khangtosak nuam i om leh, tua bang mite’ aading-a ka gelh ahi hi. 2. Hih lai pen, a zaak nop ding-in gelh (Kawllai-in: phwaynway) lo hi’ng. Hun nei leng bel, a zaak nop dingin gelh nuam veve ing. 3. Hih lai sung-ah kicin’na om nai lo hi. Kicin’ lohna, thaneemna leh khialhna a omte, Zolai itna lungsim tawh, n’ong theihsak kik ding uh, hong thuum ing. Note’ hong zaaksak kiknate tungtawn-in, a hoih zaw-in mai lam hun-ah puah toto ni. 4. I zat email client program-te khat leh khat kibang lo, i zat email service-te khat leh khat kibang lo, i zat yahoogroup-te khat leh khat kibang lo ahih man-in, hih email pen, nang kiang hong tun’ cianging, kei’ gelh bang-in nang’ email-ah hong suak lo kha thei ding hi. Gentehna: Na email program-ah RTF (Rich Text Format) or HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) a kizangh thei ding-a na bawl kei leh, hih ka lai sung-a color tuamtuamte, font size tuamtuamte, na mu thei kei ding hi. Na email program-ah tua bangin na bawl hangin, tu laitak-in, virus leh spyware tuamtuam daal nadingin, Chinland yahoogroup leh Zomikhangthak yahoogroup-ah HTML kiphal lo, attachment kiphal lo ahih manin, tua yahoogroup pan-a na ngah email-teah, kei’ lai pen, ahi bangin hong suak lo ding hi. Tua ahih manin, attachment-a k’ong khak pdf na sim zaw un. Page 117 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 5. Hun i ngah ciangin, Capital Letter Zatna (Capitalization), Comma Zatna, Apostrophe Zatna, Noun Pian'sakna (Formation of Nouns), Kammal Kimat Kigamla Ding Khentelna cihte gelh toto lai ni. Mailam hun-ah Zolai Grammar bu hoih mahmah khat i neih zawh ding, lamen hang. ===== Zolai Gelhmaan: Punctuation:

Tomlaakna (Abbreviation) By Taang Zomi Tomlaakna (Abbreviation) pen punctuation ahih pah lian loh hangin, punctuation tawh a kizangh khawm ahih manin, punctuation thulu nuai-ah, khat veivei, kihel hi. Hih ka laigelh sung-ah tomlaakna tawh kisai a vekpi-in kihel nai lo hi. Mai lam-ah behlap toh lai ding, ahi hi. 1973 leh 1980 kikaal sungin, Zolai a it, a puahte lak-a a kihel Tg. Ginkhatsuan (Head of Department, Township Department of Agriculture, Tamu Township) in editor ka sepna magazine khat-ah article sau leh lai tomno nengneng hong puak hi. Lai tomnote lak-ah hih nih hong kihel hi: Dictionary = Diksiannali = Dik-sian’na-li = Thu a maan a dikte a singtho-a a kikoihna mun (tuili dan) Grammar = Gelhmaan = Laigelh zia a maan a kihilhna laibu Hong nusia khinsa Tg. Ginkhatsuan (hih laimalgawm pen ama’ Page 118 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan deih dan hi) ka phawkna leh zahtaak ka piakna-in, grammar pen gelhmaan ci-in k’ong zangh hi.

Tomlaak (Abbreviation) zat zia Tomlaakna (Abbreviation) zong, a kikhial mahmah thei khat ahi hi. 1. Degree min, kipawlna min, gam min cihte a tom-a a kilaak ciangin, period [.] kizangh hi. Bachelord of Arts = B.A. Bachelor Science = B.Sc. United Nations Organization = U.N.O. Myanmar baptist Concention = M.B.C. United States of America = U.S.A. United Kingdom = U.K. 2. A kitomlaak laimalte’ nung-ah period koih kim ding hi. Bachelor of Arts = B.A. B.A [Khial: A khit teh period om ding] BA. [Khial: B khit teh period om ding]] B.A. [Maan] Myanmar Baptist Convention = M.B.C. M.B.C [Khial: C khit teh period om ding]] MB.C [Khial: M leh C khit teh period om ding] M.BC [Khial: B leh C khit teh period om ding] MBC. [Khial: M leh B khit teh period om ding] MB.C. [Khial: M khit teh period om ding] M.BC. [Khial: B khit teh period om ding] M.B.C. [Maan] Washington, District of Columbia = Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C [Khial: C khit teh period om ding] Page 119 of 288

Washington, DC. Washington, D.C.

Zolai Gelhmaan [Khial: D khit teh period om ding] [Maan]

United States of America = U.S.A. U.S.A [Khial: A khit teh period om ding] US.A [Khial: U leh A khit teh period om ding] U.SA [Khial: S leh A khit teh period om ding] USA. [Khial: U leh S khit teh period om ding] US.A. [Khial: U khit teh period om ding] U.SA. [Khial: S khit teh period om ding] U.S.A. [Maan] Florida Zomi Innkuan (U.S.A.) = F.Z.I. (U.S.A.) F.Z.I (U.S.A.) [Khial: I khit teh period om ding] F.Z.I (U.S.A) [Khial: I leh A khit teh period om ding] F.Z.I. (USA) [Khial: F.Z.I. ci-in kigelh khin ahih manin U.S.A. ci-in gelh kul] FZI (U.S.A.) [Khial: FZI ci-in kigelh khin ahih manin USA ci-in gelh kul] F.Z.I. (U.S.A.) [Maan] Zomi Innkuan Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Zomi Innkuan Washington D.C, U.S.A. [Khial: C khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan Washington D.C, U.S.A [Khial: C leh A khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan Washington D.C., U.S.A [Khial: A khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan Washington D.C., U.S.A. [Maan thei: Washington khit teh comma a om ding hi-a, ahi zongin, a om loh hangin zong maan thei teei hi.] Zomi Innkuan Washington, D.C, U.S.A. Page 120 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan [Khial: C khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan Washington, D.C, U.S.A [Khial: C leh A khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan Washington, D.C., U.S.A [Khial: A khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan Washington, D.C., U.S.A. [Maan] Zomi Innkuan, D.C. Zomi Innkuan D.C [Khial: C khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan DC. [Khial: D khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan D.C. [Maan thei: Innkuan khit teh comma a om ding hi-a, a om loh hangin zong maan thei teei hi.] Zomi Innkuan, D.C [Khial: C khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan, DC. [Khial: D khit teh period om ding] Zomi Innkuan, D.C. [Maan] 3. Degree nih a ngah mi khat a om leh, degree khatna leh nihna kikaal-ah comma [,] khat om ding hi. B.A., B.Ed. Spacing tawh kisai-a i gensa bangin, comma [,] ma-ah space om Page 121 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan lo ding-a comma [,] khit ciangin space khat om ding hi. B.A. , B.Ed.

B.A.·,·B.Ed.

[Khial]

[Khial]

B.A.,B.Ed.

B.A.,B.Ed.

[Khial]

Khial]

B.A., B.Ed.

B.A.,·B.Ed.

[Maan]

[Maan]

4. Degree thum leh a tungsiah a ngah mi khat a om leh, degree khat leh khat kikaal-ah comma om ding hi. B.A., B.L., M.Ed., Ph.D.

B.A.,·B.L.,·M.Ed.,·Ph.D. Spacing tawh kisai-a i gensa bangin, comma [,] ma-ah space om lo ding-a comma [,] khit ciangin space khat om ding hi. B.A. , B.L., Ph.D.

[Khial]

B.A.·,·B.L.,·Ph.D. [Khial: comma ma-ah space a om lo ding hi napi om] B.A.,B.L., Ph.D

[Khial]

B.A.,B.L.,·Ph.D. [Khial: comma khit teh space a om ding hi napi om lo] B.A.,B.L.,Ph.D

B.A.,·B.L.,·Ph.D ding hi napi om lo]

[Khial]

[Khial: Ph.D khit teh period a om

Page 122 of 288

B.A., B.L., Ph.D. B.A.,·B.L.,·Ph.D.

Zolai Gelhmaan [Maan] [Maan]

Hih pen a kikhial thei mahmah khat ahi hi. Tu ni (23 MAR 07 FRI)-in, Director U Tin Yu in a zaih “Moe-koke-set-waing Ko Kyaw-lun Ywaike” (မိးုကုပ္စက္၀ိုင္း ကို ေက်ာ္လြန္ ၍) (Manglaia kei’ tei tawmm: Beyond the Horizon) ka en kha hi. Lwin Moe, Htun Aeindra Bo, Khaing Thinn Kyi, Myat Kaythi Aung leh Aung Lwin kihel uh uh hi. BurmeseClassic.com12 http://www.burmeseclassic.com/display.php?title_str=Friday %20Movie&asxfile=Day5.asx http://www.burmeseclassic.com/display.php?title_str=Saturday %20Movie&asxfile=Day6.asx Minthila.com13 http://store.minthila.com/lym-114.html http://store.minthila.com/lym115.html Youtube.com14 Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=t3mIBkH55iM&feature=related Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUaLTjpaRug Part 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSdmOCOsVQM Part 4 (Final): http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=_iHg0TJmkWk Actor Aung Lwin pen Dr. Ohn Myint mun-ah kizaih hi. A signboard-ah hih bangin kigelh hi. 12 Hih movie pen hih website-ah na om nawn lo hi. [03 JUL 08 THU] 13 Hih movie pen hih website-ah et dingin na om nawn lo-in, advertisement bek na om hi. [18 APR 10 SUN] 14 Hih movie pen hih website-ah om napi, a signboard kisuan’na pen na om nawn lo hi. [18 APR 10 SUN] Page 123 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Dr. Ohn Myint [Hih pen Kawllai-in kigelh; a nuai-a teng Manglai-in kigelh] M.B.B.S, D.P.M M.Med.Sc (Psychiatry) Mental Health15 Hih mun-ah khialhna thum (3 ) om hi. (1) M.B.B.S. cih ding ahi hi. S khit ciangin period om ding hi. (2) D.P.M. cih ding ahi hi. M khit ciangin period om ding hi. (3) M.Med.Sc. cih ding ahi hi. Sc khit ciangin period om ding hi. 5. Degree nih hi napi-a khat bang-a a kingaihsun degree pen, degree nih kikaal-ah comma koih theih, koih loh theih, ahi hi. M.B., B.S.

M.B.,·B.S. pen om] M.B.B.S.

[Maan]

[Maan: comma khit teh space a om ding [Maan]

M.B. (Bachelor of Medicine) leh B.S. (Bachelor of Surgery) pen kituam laak thei lo hi. Laak khop kul hi. 6. A tom-a i gelh ciangin, period i zat leh zat suak ding, i zat kei leh zat loh suak ding (consistently) ahi hi. B.A. BA

[Maan] [Maan]

B.A., MA [Khial: B.A. ci napi MA ci] BA, M.A. [Khial: BA ci napi M.A. ci] B.A., M.A. [Maan] BA, MA [Maan] 15 Hih signboard a kihelna pen, hih website-te-ah om nawn lo hi. Page 124 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan U.S.A. USA

[Maan] [Maan]

F.Z.I. (U.S.A.) FZI (USA)

[Maan] [Maan]

Zomi Innkuan Washington, D.C. Zomi Innkuan Washington, DC Zomi Innkuan D.C Zomi Innkuan DC

[Maan] [Maan]

[Maan] [Maan]

7. Degree min ahi zongin, mihing min ahi zongin, a kitomlaakna-ah laimal thum leh li a kizat leh, tua leh laimal dangte kikaal-ah space om ding hi. M.A. [Maan: M leh A kikaal-ah space om lo.] Ahih hangin: John Fitzgerald Kennedy J.F.Kennedy [Khial] J.F. Kennedy [Maan thei teei: J.F.·Kennedy] J. F. Kennedy [Maan: J.·F.·Kennedy] Jennifer Lopez J.Lo J. Lo J. Lo.

[Khial:] [Maan: J.·Lo] [Maan: J.·Lo.]

Thang Do Hang T.D.Hang T.D. Hang T. D. Hang

[Khial] [Maan thei teei: T.D.·Hang] [Maan: T.·D.·Hang]

Page 125 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 23 FEB 2007 FRI Zolai Grammar 2007:

Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Dash, Period leh Space Zat Zia Pawlkhat By Taang Zomi 1. ZoLite yahoogroup leh Zolai yahoogroup-ah kuamah in bangmah a gelh loh hong sawt pian ta ahih manin, Zolai grammar sung-a khenno khat k’ong gelh hi. ZoLite yahoogroup leh Zolai yahoogroup pen Zolai puah nading ngimna tawh a kiphuan ahih manin, hih thu hong gelh, ka hi hi. 2. Miami-a om Tg. Singpi (Tg. Vungh Pian Sing) kiang-ah 17 FEB 07 SAT ni-in, zan taam dingin ka va hawh leh, ama kiangah, hih a nuai-a laibute na om hi: (1) Chin Christian Centerary Magazine (1904-2004) (ခ်င္း ခရစ္ယာန္ ရာၿပည့္ မဂၢဇင္း (၁၉၀၄၁၉၀၄-၂၀၀၄) ၂၀၀၄) [Chin Kha-rit-yan Yar-pyi Meg-ga-zin (1904-2004)] Printed in March, 2004 Edited by Chin Christian Centenary Magazine Committee Published by Rev. Kip Thian Pau for Chin Christian Centenary Magazine Committee Printed by Rev. D. Kip Thian Pau at Baptist Press, Yangon Printed and published in Yangon Size: Breadth 7" x Length 9.25" x Spine Thickness 0.562" Pages: 374 pages [(i-xxiv) plus (1-353) minus (326-328 censored)] Page 127 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (2) Vahui Magazine 2006 The Pigeon Magazine 2006 Printed in November 2006 Edited by Taang Zomi Published by Florida Zomi Innkuan (USA), Inc. Printed in Georgia, and published in Florida Size: Breadth 8.5 x Length 11" x Spine Thickness 0.475" Pages: 198 pages (3) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim By Evan. Do Khup Edited by Rev. Chin Do Kham, D.D., D. Min., Ph.D. Printed in 2000, and published in Yangon Size: 5.5" x 7.5" x 0.625" Pages: 290 pages [(8 unnumbered pages) plus (I-X) plus (A-F) plus (1-274)] (4) 90% Mite’ Nunzia 90% of Human Life By Pa. Sian Cin Zam B.Min B.A.B.S Printed in 2006 First Printing: 2004 Edited by Sia Cin Sian Pau and Sia Thang Nen Pau Printed and published in Yangon Size: 6.75" x 8.25" x 0.48" Pages: 291 pages [(16 unnumbered pages) plus (1-275)] (5) Khuado Pawi Journal Printed in October 2003 Edited by Pa Cin Za Nang, Pa Thawng Khan Pau, Tg. Vum Lam Tuang, Pa Cin Sian Pau, Pa Nang Suan Kham Printed and published in Yangon Size: 6.75" x 8.5" x 0.125" Pages: 66 pages [(1 unnumbered page) plus (1-64) plus (1 unnumbered) Page 128 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (6) The Fruit of Unspared Labor By Nu Zen Khaw Don Printed in September 2004 Printed and published in Yangon Size: 5" x 7.25" x 0.125" Pages: 56 pages (1-56) (7) Theihhuai Thu Tuamtuam By Vungh Khan Suan, Sakollam, Tedim Printed in 2002 Size: 6" x 7.75" x 0.062" Pages: 26 pages (1-26) 3. Tua ban-ah December 3, 2005 ni-a Yangon-a a kibawl Zomi Seminar 1 video compact disk side 1, side 2 leh side 3 zong na om-in, ka en kha thei hi. 4. Hih laibute ka sim ciangin, a thute zong thupi-in, a gelhte leh a endikte zong thupi ka sa hi. Zomi Seminar zong thupi ka sa hi. Rev. Tg. D. Kip Thian Pau: Tedim-ah Tan X-ah ka sangkahpih ngei khat hi-a, lai a na uuk mahmah ahih lam, hih magazine pan-in ka mu hi. Evan. Do Khup: Amah ka muh ngei loh hangin ama’ thu a hoih lam vive ka za den hi. Ama’ laibu-ah zong, thu hoih vive gelhkhia hi. Tg. Sian Cin Zam: Amah pen kei’ khan’gual hi-a, Tg. Singpi’ pa ahi hi. Ama’ cih zah khat-in a teek nung, a guai nung-in degree nih bang ngah-a, laibu hoih khat hong bawlkhia hi. Gualnam beh in Khuado a bawl uh pen, eek nusiat lo-in laibuin hong bawlkhia uh ahih manin, thupi ka sa hi. Lia Zen Khaw Don: Amah pen ka neu lai-in ka inn tungte hi-a, Page 129 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan hih banga numei khat in laibu hong bawlkhiat pen thupi ka sa hi. Tg. Vungh Khan Suan: Amah zong, a teek nung, a guai nungin, degree na ngah hi. Hih bang-a laibu hong bawlkhiat pen thupi ka sa hi. Zomi Seminar: Hih pen thupi ka sa-a, kibawl zeelzeel zo leh hoih mahmah dingin ka ngaihsun hi. 5. Ahi zongin, tu-a ka gelh ding pen, tua laibute sung-a om thute’ thupina thu leh Zomi Seminar’ thupina thu hi lo-in, laigelh zia (grammar) thu ahi hi. Laigelh zia khempeuh hi lo-in, punctuation zat zia ahi hi. A vekpi-in sim khin man lo hi ing. Khialhna ka muhte tampi lak panin pawlkhat, mailam-ah laigelh zia leh etdik zia kipuahphat nading cih ngiimna tawh, hong pulaakkhia ing. Tua khialhnate pen gelh khialh khaak pakte hi lo-in, grammar telcian lohna hang-a a kikhialte, ahi hi. Hih a tung-a mi (laigelh leh endik) thupi teng in zong, hih ka lai gelh mu le uh, hehna-in la lo-in lungdamna-in la ding uh, ci-in, ngaihsun ka hih man-a a gelh ngam ka hi hi. 6. Khialhnate leh Puahphatnate A khialte, a san (red) tawh lak-in, a maante, a vom-eng (blue) tawh lak ing. (1) Chin Christian Centerary Magazine (1904-2004), pp. 309311 01 Aung Mang 04 Cin Do Kham 06 Chum Awi 07 Cong Luai 14 Duh Kam

Ph.D D.Min, Ph.D STD D.D D. Miss Page 130 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih teng pen hih anuai-a bang hi ding hi: 01 Aung Mang 04 Cin Do Kham 06 Chum Awi 07 Cong Luai 14 Duh Kam

Ph.D. D.Min., Ph.D. S.T.D. D.D. D. Miss.

Ph.D: “Ph” khit teh period a om bangmah-in “D” khit teh period om ding hi. D.Min: “D” khit teh period a om bangmah-in “Min” khit teh

period om ding hi. STD: “STD” (period om lo) pen maan hi. Ahi zongin, a tung-a

leh a nuai-a om degree-te-ah period kikoih ahih manin, “S.T.D.”ci-in gelh ding kilawm hi. D.D: “D” masa khit teh period a om bangmah-in “D” nihna khit

teh period om ding hi. D.Miss: “D” khit teh period a om bangmah-in “Miss” khit teh period om ding hi.

(2) Chin Christian Centerary Magazine (1904-2004), p. 312 m MA. Ph.D 04 Gin Dal Lian 05 Huat Za Mang M.D, FRCS 10 Mang Cin Hau BSc, Ph.D 13 Vum Ko Hau Ph.D, FRGS, FRAI 15 Zam Khen Thang B.S.E.E. Ph.D, M.Div Hih teng pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: 04 Gin Dal Lian

M.A., Ph.D. [or MA, PhD] Page 131 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 05 Huat Za Mang 10 Mang Cin Hau 13 Vum Ko Hau

M.D., F.R.C.S. [or MD, FRCS] B.Sc., Ph.D. [or BSc, PhD] Ph.D., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.I. [or PhD, FRGS, FRAI]

15 Zam Khen Thang

B.S.E.E., Ph.D., M.Div. [or BSEE, PhD, MDiv]

MA. Ph.D: “M” khit teh period om ding hi. Tua khit teh “A”

hong pai ding-a, “A” khit teh period om ding hi. Period khit teh space om ding hi. “Ph” khit teh period a om bangmah-in “D” khit teh period om ding hi. M.D,: “M” khit teh period a om bangmah-in “D” khit teh period om ding hi. FRCS: “FRCS” pen maan hi. Ahi zongin, amah tawh a kithuah

degree-ah period i koih leh, tu-a degree-ah zong period koih kul hi. “F.R.C.S.” hi ding hi. Ph.D: “Ph” khit teh period a om bangmah-in “D” khit teh period om ding hi. FRGS, FRAI: Hihte zong maan hi. Ahi zongin, amau tawh a

kthuah degree-ah period om ahih manin, “F.R.G.S.” leh “F.R.A.I.” ci-in, period zat ding ahi hi. Period i zat kei leh lah, a vekpiin zat lo ding ahi hi. B.S.E.E.: “B.S.E.E.” khit ciangin comma koih ding. Ph.D,: “D” khit teh period koih ding. M.Div: “Div” khit teh period koih ding.

(3) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, cover: Page 132 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan A gelh; Evan. Do Khup

Hih pen, a nuai-a bang hi zaw ding hi: A gelh: Evan. Do Khup A gelh;: “Gelh” khit ciangin semicolon om lo ding hi. Colon

om ding hi. (4) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, four pages after the front cover: Lungdamna lianpi tawh;

Evan. Do Khup Hih pen, hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Lungdamna lianpi tawh, Evan. Do Khup “tawh” khit ciangin semicolon om lo ding-a comma om ding hi.

tawh;:

(5) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, page I (roman numeral I) Hih a nuai-a pen ka thulu “Comma, Semicolon, Colon Dash leh Period Zat Zia Pawlkhat” in huam kha lo hi. Kammal a kimat a kihal tawh kisai thu ahi hi. Zogam hong khang losak a, Zomite hong it manin “HAUHNA LEH KHANSAUNA THUSIM” hong hilh ih biak Topa pasian in minthanna nei tawntung ta hen.

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Page 133 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Zogam hong khanglosak a, Zomite hong it manin “HAUHNA LEH KHANSAUNA THUSIM” hong hilh ih biak Topa Pasian in minthanna nei tawntung ta hen. khang lo: “Khang lo” cih ciangin, a ngei-a ngei cihna hi. “Kiam

lo” cih ciangin, a ngei-a ngei cihna mah ahi hi. Ei mihingte pen i neu lai-in damdam-in i khang hi. I kum hong tam pian ciangin khang nawn lo hi hang. Pasian in i Zogam pen hong khangsak ahi hiam? Ahih kei leh hong khang losak ahi hiam? khanglo: “Khanglo” cih ciangin, ihmu nawn lo, khua phawk ta, cihna ahi hi. Pasian in hong khanglosak ahi hiam? Ahih kei leh hong ihmusak ahi hiam? (6) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, page VI: C. Thang Za Tuan B.Sc, Dip.Ed, H.G.P, M.A(Australia)

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: C. Thang Za Tuan, B. Sc., Dip. Ed., H.G.P., M.A. (Australia) C. Thang Za Tuan: “C. Thang Za Tuan” khit ciangin comma

om ding hi. B.Sc: “B” khit ciangin period a om mahbangin “Sc” khit

ciangin period om ding hi. Dip.Ed: “Dip” khit ciangin period a om mahbangin “Ed” khit

ciangin period om ding hi. Dip.Ed: “Dip.” khit ciangin space om ding hi.

A kitomlaak kammal khat-ah laimal khat bek a om leh, tua kammal leh a dang a kitomlaak kammal kikaal-ah space a om loh hangin phamawh lo hi: Page 134 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan B.A. [“B.” leh “A.” kikaal-ah space om lo.] A kitomlaak kammal khat-ah laimal nih leh a tungsiah a om leh, tua kammal pen tuam din’ ding hi: “Dip.Ed.” hi lo, “Dip. Ed.” hi ding. H.G.P: “H” khit ciang leh “G” khit ciangin period a om

bangmah-in, “P” khit ciangin period om ding hi. M.A(Australia): “M” khit ciangin period a om bangmah-in “A” khit ciangin period om ding hi. M.A(Australia): “M.A.” leh “(Australia)” kikaal-ah space om

ding hi. (7) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, page X: Itna leh deihsakna tawh;

Evan. Langh Do Khup Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Itna leh deihsakna tawh, Evan. Langh Do Khup tawh;: “tawh” khit ciangin semicolon om lo ding-a comma om

ding hi. (8) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, page 231: Ka pawlpi min uh pen, U.B.B hi a, “UT BANGBANG” a cihna ahi hi. Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Page 135 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ka pawlpi min uh pen, U.B.B. hi a, “UT BANGBANG” a cihna ahi hi. U.B.B: “U” khit teh period om, “B” masa khit teh period om,

“B” nunung khit teh period om ding hi. (9) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, page 258: Mual bawl;

Pa Gin Khan Pau Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi zaw ding hi: Mual bawl: Pa Gin Khan Pau Mual bawl;: “Bawl” khit ciangin semicolon om lo ding hi.

Colon om ding hi. (10) Hauhna leh Khansauna Thusim, page 274: Lungdam angtang takin

Evan. Langh Do Khup Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Lungdam angtang takin, Evan. Langh Do Khup takin: “takin” khit ciangin comma om ding hi.

(11) 90% Mite' Nunzia, cover: Pa. Sian Cin Zam B.Min B.A.B.S.

Page 136 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih pen hih anuai-a bang hi ding hi: Pa Sian Cin Zam, B.Min., B.A.B.S. Pa.: “Pa” pen a kitomlaakna hi lo ahih manin “Pa” khit ciangin

period om lo ding hi. Zam: “Pa Sian Cin Zam” khit ciangin comma om ding hi.

B.Min: “B” khit teh period om ding; “Min” khit teh period om ding hi. B.Min: “B.Min.” khit ciangin comma om ding-a, comma khit

teh space om ding hi. Space khit teh degree a dang khat hong pai ding hi. (12) 90% Mite' Nunzia, third unnumbered page: Sia,Langh Sawm Mang

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi. Sia Langh Sawm Mang

Sia,: “Sia” khit teh comma om lo ding hi. Sia,Langh: “Sia” khit teh comma om lo ding ban-ah “Sia” leh

“Langh” kikaal-ah space om ding hi. “Sia Langh” hi ding hi. ( (13) 90% Mite' Nunzia, sixth unnumbered page: Rev;Job.Thawngno.Tahan.

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Rev. Job Thawngno, Tahan Page 137 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Rev;: “Rev” pen a tom-a a kila ahih manin “Rev” khit teh

period om ding hi. Semicolon kizangh lo ding hi. [“Rev.” hi ding.] Rev;Job.: “Rev.” leh “Job” kikaal-ah space om ding hi.

[Rev. Job hi ding.] Job.: “Job” pen a tom-a a kila hi lo ahih manin “Job” khit teh

period om lo ding hi. [“Job.” hi lo-in “Job” hi ding hi.] Thawngno.: “Thawngno” khit ciangin period om lo ding hi. Thawngno. Tahan: “Thawngno” khit teh period om lo-in, comma om ding hi. Comma leh “Tahan” kikaal-ah space om ding hi. [“Thawngno, Tahan” hi ding.] Tahan.: “Tahan” khit ciangin period om kul lo hi. [“Tahan.” hi

lo-in “Tahan” hi ding.] (14) Khuado Pawi Journal, page 13: Lia, Esther Cingsan (Zogam)

Hih pen, a nuai-a bang hi zaw ding hi: Lia Esther Cingsan (Zogam) “Lia” khit ciangin comma om lo ding hi. “Lia.” hi lo-in “Lia” hi ding. (15) Khuado Pawi Journal, page 20: Khanglui Pupa’ Ngeina By, Pa Pau Za Mung

Page 138 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi zaw ding hi: By Pa Pau Za Mung “By” khit ciangin comma om lo ding hi. “By Pa Pau Za Mung” i cih pen, a sau-in gelh leeng, “Written by Pa Pau Za Mung” a cihna hi. A sau zawlai-in gelh leeng, “This article is written by Pa Pau Za Mung” a cihna ahi hi. “This article is written by, Pa Pau Za Mung” cih ding hi lo hi. (16) Khuado Pawi Journal, page 39: 6. Lia. Cing Lun Nuam

Hih pen a nuai-a bang hi zaw ding hi: 6. Lia Cing Lun Nuam “Lia” khit ciangin period om lo ding hi. Tomlahna ahih leh bek period om ding hi. “Lia” pen a tom-a a kila hi lo hi. (17) Khuado Pawi Journal, page facing page 1: E-di-tar A-phway (အယ္ဒတ ီ ာ အဖြ.ဲ ) [Board of Editors]: B.A., (Hist) Pa Cin Za Nang Pa Thawng Khan Pau D.BS., M.Div., MCS., M.A (Theo) Cand

Pa Vum Lam Tuang Pa Cin Sian Pau Pa Nang Suan Kham

B.A., B.A.B.S., M.A (Theo) B.A., M.A., Ph.D (Cand)

Hih a nuai-a bang hi zaw ding hi: Page 139 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Pa Cin Za Nang, B.A. (Hist.) B.A.,: “B.A.” khit ciangin comma om lo ding hi. (Hist): “Hist” khit ciangin period om ding hi. “Hist” pen a

kitomlaakna hi-a, a sau-in“History” ahi hi. Pa Thawng Khan Pau, D.B.S., M.Div., M.C.S., M.A. (Theo.) Cand. D.BS: “D.B” khit ciangin period om ding-a tua period khit teh

“S” hong pai ding-a “D.B.S.” hi ding hi. MCS.: “M” leh “C” kikaal-ah period om ding, “C” leh “S”

kikaal-ah period om ding hi. (Theo): “Theo” khit ciangin period om ding hi. “Theo” pen a

tom-a kila hi-a, a sau-in “Theology” ahi hi. Cand: “Cand” khit ciangin period om ding hi. “Cand” pen a

tom-a kila hi-a, a sau-in “Candidate” ahi hi. Pa Vum Lam Tuang, B.A. B.A.,: “B.A.” khit ciangin comma om lo ding hi.

Pa Cin Sian Pau, B.A.B.S., M.A. (Theo.) M.A: “M” khit ciangin period a om mahbangin “A” khit ciangin

period om lai ding hi. (Theo): “Theo” khit ciangin period om ding hi. “Theo” pen a

tom-a kila hi-a, a sau-in “Theology” ahi hi. Pa Nang Suan Kham B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Cand.) Page 140 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ph.D: “Ph” khit ciangin period a om mahbangin “D” khit

ciangin period om ding hi. (Cand): “Cand” khit ciangin period om ding hi. “Cand” pen a

tom-a kila hi-a, a sau-in “Candidate” ahi hi. Degree-te-ah period i koih nop lei leh zong, kikoih lo thei hi. Hih a nuai-a bang, ahi hi: Pa Cin Za Nang Pa Thawng Khan Pau

BA (Hist) DBS, MDiv, MCS, MA (Theo) Cand

Pa Vum Lam Tuang Pa Cin Sian Pau Pa Nang Suan Kham

BA BABS, MA (Theo) BA, MA, PhD (Cand)

(18) The Fruit of Unspared Labor, page 15 (10) Mei Nguk (d) w/o Lt. Col Kap Za Thang Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: (10) Mei Nguk (d) w/o Lt. Col. Kap Za Thang Lt. Col: “Col” pen a tom-a a kila ahih manin “Col” khit ciangin period om ding hi.

(19) Theihhuai Thu Tuamtuam, page 2 Dr. Rev. Kham Khen Mang B Sc. M.Div.

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Page 141 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Rev. Dr. Kham Khen Mang, B.Sc., M.Div. Dr. Rev.: “Rev.” masa ding, “Dr.” in zom ding. Mang: “Mang” khit ciangin comma om ding. Comma khit

ciangin space om ding. (20) Theihhuai Thu Tuamtuam, page 25 Sd/- Vungh Khan Suan BTh.

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang hi ding hi: Sd/- Vungh Khan Suan, B.Th. Suan: “Suan” khit ciangin comma om ding. Comma khit

ciangin space om ding. BTh. : “B” khit ciangin period om ding

(21) Zomi Seminar 1 VCD side 2 sung-ah, lai kigelhte sung panin, hih a nuai-a zong ka mu hi: Sianu. Cin Khan Lun

Hih pen hih a nuai-a bang ahih ding hi zaw hi: Sianu Cin Khan Lun Sianu.: “Sianu” khit ciangin period om lo ding hi. Tomlahna

ahih leh bek period om ding hi. “Sianu” pen a tom-a a kila hi lo hi. 7. Hih a tung-a-te pen, tua laibute sung leh seminar VCD tung-a ka muh pakte hi-a, tampi om lai hi. Mai lam-ah kikum toto ni. Page 142 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan – Pre-1964: Lia (Lakam) = Numei (naungek, naupang, nungak, nupi, piteek) Taang (Lakam) = Pasal (naungek, naupang, tangval, papi, puteek) Kamhau gam Ukpipa, Pu Khaw Cin le Sukte’ phualpi ahi, Mualbeem Innpite, Pi Lian Dim kiteeng uh-a, tapa nih leh tanu nih nei uh hi. Tua teng lakah Vum Za Cing bek khuasuak-a, a nungak ciangin, Hau Cin Khup’ lai-atpa Thual Neng [Hautual/Ngaihte]’ tapa Suan Pum tawh kiteeng uh hi. [p. 29] Tonzang Innpite’ maakpa Suan Pum bang Pu Hau Cin Khup’ aadingin a naseempa lah hi-a, a maakpa le a khuapih zong hi lai ahi manin lungsim ngaihsutna le thagui thatang kisapna khempeuh-ah a diang pawl ahi hi. [pp. 30, 28] Pu Khup le Tapidawte’ thu a laan’ laitakin [zi leh ta a nei] Pa Suan Pum pen a naute [zi leh ta a nei] Khawl Cin leh [zi leh ta a nei] Vial Nang [Rev. Vial Nang] Tapidaw suak uh-a, nuam sa het lo ahi manin hih late na sak hi: (a) Miim bang pian’pih TAANG’ laizomte’n Sianmang kei’ aa tuam ci e. (b) Tung Pasian in siam tuam nei lo, ka laizom ci tuam lo e. [p. 28] “Thu I Cih La Hi” by Siapi Mang Za Lian (Pu Suan Pum’ tapa), Sukte Chronicle XII, November 2006, pp. 29, 30, 28 == Page 143 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Thursday, May 24, 2007 Attachment: Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding.pdf (129 KB) Zolai Grammar: Zolai Orthography:

Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding? (1) [What Words Are to Be Written Solid? (1)]

By Taang Zomi Thupatna Thu Masa Khialhna Computer leh Word Processing Program zangh-a lai gelhna [pages 3-4] Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding? Nungthuap

A. Thupatna 1. Thu Masa Page 145 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 1. Hih lai pen, Zolai a puah nuam, a khangtosak nuam i om leh, tua bang mite’ aading-a ka gelh ahi hi. 2. Hih lai pen, a zaak nop ding-in gelh (Kawllai-in: phwaynway) lo hi'ng. Hun nei leng-a siamna nei leng bel, a zaak nop dingin gelh nuam veve ing. 3. Hih lai sung-ah kicin’na om nai lo hi. Kicin’ lohna, thaneemna leh khialhna a omte, Zolai itna lungsim tawh, n’ong theihsak kik ding uh, hong thuum ing. Note’ hong zaaksak kiknate tungtawn-in, a hoih zaw-in mai lam hun-ah puah toto ni. 4. I zat email client program-te khat leh khat kibang lo, i zat email service-te khat leh khat kibang lo, i zat yahoogroup-te khat leh khat kibang lo ahih man-in, hih email pen, nang kiang hong tun’ cianging, kei’ gelh bang-in nang’ email-ah hong suak lo kha thei ding hi. Gentehna: Na email program-ah RTF (Rich Text Format) or HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) a kizangh thei ding-a na bawl kei leh, hih ka lai sung-a color tuamtuamte, font size tuamtuamte, na mu thei kei ding hi. Na email program-ah tua bangin na bawl hangin, tu laitak-in, virus leh spyware tuamtuam daal nadingin, Zomikhangthak yahoogroup-ah HTML kiphal lo, attachment kiphal lo ahih manin, tua yahoogroup pan-a na ngah email-te-ah, kei’ lai pen, ahi bangin hong suak lo ding hi. Tua ahih manin, attachment-a k’ong khak pdf na sim zaw un. 5. Hun i ngah ciangin, Capital Letter Zatna (Capitalization), Comma Zatna, Apostrophe Zatna cihte gelh toto lai ni. Mailam hun-ah Zolai Grammar bu hoih mahmah khat i neih zawh ding, lamen hang.

2. Khialhna (Error) Khialhna (Error) pen, hih ka laigelh tawh kisai-in, nam nih-in Page 146 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan khen pak ni: (1) Khialh khaak pakna (Accidental Error; Careless Error; Inadvertent Error; Unintentional Error) I theih hi napi, i khial kha pahpah hi. Pasian in mihingte hong it hi. Pasian in a Tapa khat neihsun hong piak zah dongin mihingte hong it hi. Mihingte in ahih leh Paisan a it kik khol kei uh hi. Pasian’ hong itna i theih ding kisam hi. Hih mun-ah, sentence thumna-a “Paisan” pen, a kikhial kha pak ahi hi. “Pasian” ding, ahi hi. (2) Theih loh man-a khialhna (Error through Ignorance; Error through Being Uninformed) Pa sian in mi hing te hong it hi. Pa sian in a Ta pa khat neih sun hong piak zah dong in mi hing te hong it hi. Mi hing te in a hih leh Pa sian a it kik khol kei uh hi. Pa sian hong it na i theih ding kisam hi. Hih mun-ah, laigelhpa in grammar, malgawm zia (orthography), punctuation, cihte tel lo a hihna kithei hi. “Pa sian” cih ding hi lo-in, “Pasian” cih ding, ahi hi. “Mi hing” hi lo-in “mihing” hi ding hi. “Tapa” zong “Tapa” cih ding hi. A tam lahna-a a kizang kammal ahi “te” pen, a vei lam-a om kammal tawh i kimatsak ding, ahi hi: mihing + te = mihingte. Neihsa lahna-in apostrophe zat ding ahi hi. Noun pian’sakna-a a kizangh “na” pen a vei lam-a kammal tawh kimat ding hi. “Ki” pen a taklam-a kammal tawh kimat ding hi. Hih bang hi leh, maan zawdiak ding hi: Page 147 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Pasian in mihingte hong it hi. Pasian in a Tapa khat neihsun hong piak zah dongin mihingte hong it hi. Mihingte in ahih leh Pasian a it kik khol kei uh hi. Pasian’ hong itna i theih ding kisam hi.

3. Computer leh Word Processing Program zangh-a lai gelhna Tu laitak-in word processing program a thupi thum (3) kinei hi: Corel WordPerfect, Microsoft Word leh OpenOffice.org Writer. I laigelh a maan leh a khial, computer screen tung-ah, i muh pak theih nadingin, word processor program-ah non-printing character a kimu thei dingin bawl in. A bawl zia na theih kei leh menu bar-a om Help menu sung-ah kimu thei ding hi. Gentehna-in, tu laitak-a ka zat OpenOffice.org Writer 2.216 sung-ah, ka screen tung-ah non-printing chacater-te a suak ding ka deih ciangin, (1) View menu-ah pai-in, Nonprinting Characters ka meek hi; or (2) Ctrl + F10 [Ctrl key leh function key ahi F10 meek khat-in] ka meek hi; or (3) Tool bar tung-a om Nonprinting Character sign ahi ¶ ka meek hi. Non-printing character i cih pen, screen tung bek-a a kimu, i print ciang-a hong suakkhia lo character peen hi. Gentehna-in, space a om lam i theih nadingin center dot ahih kei leh middle dot ahih kei leh interpunct [·] pen kammal khat leh kammal khat kikaal-ah [kammal·khat·leh·kammal·khat·kikaal-ah] om hi. Tua pen na printer tawh print khia lecin, hong dawkkhia lo ding hi. Nonprinting character-te leh computer keyboard tung-a a kilangh-a a kikoih lo character-te, na screen tung-ah hi taleh, na print khiatna-ah hi taleh, na suahsak nop leh, keyboard shortcut pawlkhat kizangh thei hi. 16 Tu laitak OOo Writer 3.2.1 hi ta. — 10 SEP 10 FRI Page 148 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan [·] = Middle dot or center dot or interpunct. Alt + 0183 Main keyboard tung-a om Alt key meek inla, khahkhia nai lo-in, keypad tung-a om 0, 1, 8, 3-te meek in. Tua khit ciangin a vekin khahkhia lecin, na screen tung-ah, middle dot hong om ding hi. Keypad pen, na keyboard a tak lam-ah om hi. [¶] = Paragraph sign. Alt + 0182 [–] = en-dash. Alt + 0150 [—] = em-dash. Alt + 0151 Hyphen [-] bel, keyboard tung-ah om hi. En-dash pen hyphen zah nih bangin sau-a, em-dash pen en-dash zah nih (2) bang leh hyphen zah li (4) bang sau hi. - = hyphen – = en-dash — = em-dash Hih ka lai gelhna-ah, a khialte font a san (red)17 tawh lak-in, a maante pen vanmeel (blue)18 tawh ka lak hi.

B. Bang Ding?

Kammalte

Kinaaisak

01. Khaileh, hih a nuai-a lai, sim sin aw! REVTGKHUPZAGOINVAHUIMAGAZINE2006LAIMAI44V EILAMKHAWKAHHIHBANGINGELHHIMIKANGKUMPI 17 Red taang-in, Comis Sans MS Bold Italic 10 points kizangh hi. 18 Blue taang-in, Times New Roman Bold Italic 12 points kizangh hi. Page 149 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan HONGKHANGATUATAWHKITONINKHRISTIANBIAKNA MKAITEZONGZOGAMHONGTUNGUHHI.TUAHUNLAIIN ZOMITEINLAINEINAILOUHHIZOPAUTAMPIOMHICIHAT HEIHCIANGUNKOIPEENTAWHLAIBAWLLENGPHAPEE NDINGHIAMCIINKUMPILAMPANHITALEHBIAKNALAM PANHITALEHAVAIHAWMUHHITUATHUTAWHKISAIINK AWLGAMLAISIANGTHOTHUVANPIREVSHERRATTZOG AMAHAZINKAWIKAWIHISHERRATTNLONDONLAISIAN GTHOZUMAHTHUAPUAKNALAIJULY71913SUNGAHKU MPILAMPANLEHBIAKNALAMMAKAITENGAIHSUTNAP ANINTEDIMGAMPANINTAANGKAMLINGUAFRANCAPI ANGTHEIPEENLEHKILAWMHICIINTHUPUAKHITUATH UTAWHKITUAKINREVJHCOPEINATEI1915KUMAKIKHE NMATTHAIBUPENCHINHILLSSUNGZOPAUTAWHAKIK HENMASAPEENLAISIANGTHOHIPAHHITUAHIAMIPILM ASALAITHEIMASAMIKANGTEINZONGZOPAUBULPIKH ATAASEHUHTEDIMPAUPENAMANPHADIAKPAUKHATA HIHI. 02. Hih a tung-a lai sung-ah UPPERCASE LETTER (CAPITAL LETTER) vive kizang hi. Punctuation mark (colon, comma, hyphen, period cihte) kizang lo hi. Mun-awn'sakna (Spacing) kizang lo-in kammal (word) khempeuh kimat (written solid) ) khin hi. 03. Hih a tung-a lai pen, na sim thei kha ahi zongin, a sim dan nuam khol lo ding hi. 04. Nidang pek lai-in, Greek pen hih a tung-a bangin na gelh ngei uh hi. Tu dong mahin Hebrew leh Kawllai pen hih a tung-a bang pian-in kigelh lai hi. 05. Tuhun ciangin, Greek, Latin, English cihte-ah, kammal khat leh khat kimat ziazua nawn loin, kammal khat leh khat kikaalah mun-awng (space) kikoih hi. Uppercase letter bekbek tawh kigelh lo hi. Sentence patna-a a kizang kammal (word) sung-a Page 150 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan om laimal (letter) masa peen pen uppercase letter hi-a, tua lo teng pen lowercase letter (small letter) tawh kigelh hi. 06. Zolai pen awmal khat a nei kam (monosyllabic language) ahi hi. Awmal (syllable) khat pen kammal (word) khat hi pah hi. 07. Awmal-Khat Kammalte (Monosyllabic Words): ak, be, ci, dawn, en, go, hau, inn, khua, lui, min, neu, ol, pil, siam, tui, ui, vui, zo 08. Zokam pen Awmal-Khat Kam (Monosyllabic Language) ahih hangin, Awmal-Tam Kammalte (Polysyllabic or Multisyllabic Words) pawlkhat nei veve hi. 09. Awmal-Nih Kammal (Disyllabic or Bisyllabic Words): awle, baibek, cingsing, dumde, gataam, heisa, innlawi, kaikhuang, lengla, manta, nahtang, pasan, sagih, tawsaw, uiphuk, vaphual, zasan 10. Awmal-Thum Kammal (Trisyllabic Words) zong, tawmcik khat nei hi: huihtuuntal, lengmasel, muvanlai, simheisa, vanungak, zoheisa

ngalulok,

pasialthau,

11.Awmal-Li Kammal (Quadrisyallabic or TetrasyllablicWords) pen om pha lo phial hi: khuaivalikaap Hih kammal pen, Pu Tg. Lian Khan Mung kiang pan, 23 MAY 07 WED ni-a ka ngah, ahi hi. 12. Hih Awmal-Nih Kammalte (Disyllabic Words), AwmalPage 151 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Thum Kammalte (Trisyllabic Words) leh Awmal-Li Kammal (Quadrisyllabic Words) pen, kammal khat (one word)-a a kisim ahih manin, kimat ding uh hi. 13. Khua min sung-a om awmalte (syllable) zong, kimat ding uh hi: Anlang, Bizang, Cikha, Dolluang, Gamlai, Hangken, Khuabem, Lailui, Mualbem, Ngennung, Phaileng, Saizang, Tedim, Valvum, Zimpi 14. Beh min sung-a awmalte zong, kimat ding uh hi: Ainam, Bawmkhai, Cungphuh, Dopmul, Elsing, Gualnam, Hatlang, Innsun, Khuptong, Lamhau, Manlun, Naulak, Phaipi, Sukte, Taithul, Vahui, Zahlang Hih beh minte pen, J. Thang Lian Pau in ZoNet sung-a 30 SEP 2004 THU ni-a a gelh “Zomi beh le phung kaikhopna” sung pan-a ka laak hi. 15. Para #01 sung-a lai pen, mat zeizai nawn lo-in, awmal khat teh kammal khat suah-in a tuam ciat-in gual leeuleeu ve ni e: REV TG KHUP ZA GO IN VA HUI MA GA ZINE 2006 LAI MAI 44 VEI LAM KHAWK AH HIH BANG IN GELH HI MI KANG KUM PI HONG KHANG A TUA TAWH KI TON IN KHRIS TIAN BIAK NA MA KAI TE ZONG ZO GAM HONG TUNG UH HI TUA HUN LAI IN ZO MI TE IN LAI NEI NAI LO UH HI ZO PAU TAM PI OM HI CIH A THEIH CIANG UN KOI PEEN TAWH LAI BAWL LENG PHA PEEN DING HIAM CI IN KUM PI LAM PAN HI TA LEH BIAK NA LAM PAN HI TA LEH A VAI HAWM UH HI TUA THU TAWH KI SAI IN KAWL GAM LAI SIANG THO THU VAN PI REV SHER RATT ZO GAM AH A ZIN KAWI KAWI HI SHER RATT IN LON DON LAI SIANG THO ZUM AH THU A PUAK NA LAI JULY 7 1913 SUNG AH KUM PI LAM PAN Page 152 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan LEH BIAK NA LAM MA KAI TE NGAIH SUT NA PAN IN TE DIM GAM PAN IN TAANG KAM LIN GUA FRAN CA PIANG THEI PEEN LEH KI LAWM HI CI IN THU PUAK HI TUA THU TAWH KI TUAK IN REV J H COPE IN A TEI 1915 KUM A KI KHEN MAT THAI BU PEN CHIN HILLS SUNG ZO PAU TAWH A KI KHEN MA SA PEEN LAI SIANG THO HI PAH HI TUA HI A MI PIL MA SA LAI THEI MA SA MI KANG TE IN ZONG ZO PAU BUL PI KHAT A A SEH UH TE DIM PAU PEN A MAN PHA DIAK PAU KHAT A HI HI 16. Hih a tung-a lai sung-ah, UPPERCASE LETTER vive kizang hi. Punctuation mark kizang lo hi. Awmal khat pen kammal khat-in la-in, tua kammalte khat leh khat kikaal-ah mun-awng (space) kikoih hi. 17. Para #01 leh Para #15 na etkaak ciangin, Para #15 pen baih zaw na sa ding hi. 18. Tua in bang lak hiam cih leh, kammalte tampi a kimat ngeeingaai pen, sim hak hi. A kimat ding, a kigamla ding, na theih kei leh, na kimatsak sangin kigamla sak lecin, tel nop zaw hi. 19. Gelhmaan (Grammar) tawh kisai thukhun (rule) pawlkhat enkik ni: 19.01 Kamvui (sentence) a kipatna-a a kizangh kammal (word) sung-a laimal (letter) masa peen pen UPPERCASE LETTER hi ding hi. Kamvui sung-a om kammal dangte lowercase letter tawh kigelh ding hi. Bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi. Kamvui patna-a a kizang kammal: bang Tua kammal sung-a laimal masa peen: B Page 153 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi.

[Kamvui patna kammal “bang” pen capital letter “B” tawh kipan lo: Khial] 19.02 Kamvui a tawpna-a a kizang kammal nung-ah period om ding hi. Tua kammal leh period kikaal-ah mun-awng (space) om lo ding hi. Bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi.

Bang·thu·om·ta·leh,·ka·upna·ka·khiam·kei·ding·hi. Kamvui tawpna-a a kizang kammal: hi Tua kammal khit ciang-a hong pai ciaptehna mal: period [.] Bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi . [“hi” leh period kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Bang·thu·om·ta·leh,·ka·upna·ka·khiam·kei·ding·hi·. [“hi” leh period kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.03 Kamvui khat a tawp ciangin, period kikoih hi. Kamvui nihna pen, period khit ciangin kipan pah lo hi. Period khit ciangin mun-awng (space) khat kikoih phot hi. Tua space khit ciangin, kamvui nihna kipan thei pan hi. Cih nopna-ah, period leh kamvui thak kikaal-ah munawng (space) khat kikoih hi. Bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi. Topa lam maingat-in thu ka ngen ding hi.

Bang·thu·om·ta·leh,·ka·upna·ka·khiam·kei·ding· hi.·Topa·lam·maingatin·thu·ka·ngen·ding·hi. Bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi.Topa lam maingat-in thu ka ngen ding hi. [Period leh “Topa” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial]

Bang·thu·om·ta·leh,·ka·upna·ka·khiam·kei·ding· Page 154 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan hi.Topa·lam·maingatin·thu·ka·ngen·ding·hi.

[Period leh “Topa” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial] Bang thu om ta leh, ka upna ka khiam kei ding hi. Topa lam maingat-in thu ka ngen ding hi. [Period leh “Topa” kikaal-ah space nih tak om: Khial]

Bang·thu·om·ta·leh,·ka·upna·ka·khiam·kei· ding·hi.··Topa·lam·maingatin·thu·ka·ngen·ding·hi. [Period leh “Topa” kikaal-ah space nih tak om: Khial] 19.04 Rev. Dr. Joseph Herbert Cope leh Rev. Tg. Sukte Tualhang Hau Go pan Rev. Dr. Tg. Kam Khaw Thang leh Pi Lia Luan Za Cing dong-a a kizangh suakte sung-ah, “ki” pen a taklam-a om kammal tawh kimatsak hi. Mite in Zeisu that uh hi. Zeisu in thahna thuak hi. Zeisu kithat hi.

Zeisu·kithat·hi. Zeisu ki that hi. [“ki” leh “that” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Zeisu·ki·that·hi. [“ki” leh “that” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.05 Tua bang-a a kizang suakte sung-ah, “te” pen a vei lam-a kammal tawh kimat hi. Mite in Zeisu that uh hi.

Mite·in·Zeisu·that·uh·hi. Mi te in Zeisu that uh hi.

[“mi” leh “te” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Mi·te·in·Zeisu·that·uh·hi. Page 155 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

[“mi” leh “te” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.06 Tua bang-a a kizangh suakte sung-ah, “na” pen a vei lama om kammal tawh kimat hi. Eite in hehpihna hangin upna tawh gupna i ngah hi.

Eite·in·hehpihna·hangin·upna·tawh·gupna·i·ngah· hi. Eite in hehpih na hangin up na tawh gup na i ngah hi. [“hehpih”, “up” leh “gup” cihte leh “na” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] Eite·in·hehpih·na·hangin·up·na·tawh·gup·na·i·ngah·

hi. [“hehpih”, “up” leh “gup” cihte leh “na” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.07 Sawlna-a a kizangh “in” pen a vei lam-a kammal tawh kimat lo ding hi. Ahih hangin kam zopna lamsang-a a kizang “in” pen a vei lam-a om kammal tawh kimat ding hi. A vei lama om kammal pen awmung (vowel) ahih leh, tua kammal leh “in” kikaal-ah hyphen om ding hi. 19.07.1 Tho in. An huan in. An na neek khit ciangin zum-ah pai in.

Tho·in.·An·huan·in.·An·na·neek·khit·ciangin· zum-ah·pai·in. Thoin. An huanin. An na neek khit ciangin zum-ah paiin. [“tho”, “huan” leh “pai” cihte leh “in” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial] Thoin.·An· huanin.·An·na·neek·khit·ciangin·

zum-ah·paiin. Page 156 of 288

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[“tho”, “huan” leh “pai” cihte leh “in” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial] 19.07.2 Amah tho-in an huan pah hi. Ziakaai nuam lo ahih manin an neek khit phetin zum-ah pai hi.

Amah·tho-in·an·huan·pah·hi.·Ziakaai·nuam·lo·ahih· manin·an·neek·khit·phetin·zum-ah·pai·hi. Amah tho in an huan pah hi. Ziakaai nuam lo ahih man in an neek khit phet in zum-ah pai hi. [“tho”, “man” leh “phet” cihte leh “in” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] Amah·tho·in·an·huan·pah·hi.·Ziakaai·nuam·lo·ahih· man·in·an·neek·khit·phet·in·zum-ah·pai·hi.

[“tho”, “man” leh “phet” cihte leh “in” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.08 Postposition khat ahi “ah” leh a mai-a om kammal kimat hi. A mai-a om kammal pen awmung (vowel) ahih leh tua kammal leh “ah” kikaal-ah hyphen kikoih hi. [Hih pen zat suakhuai hiam, kikup tuak hi.] Tedim khua-ah ka suak hi. Tedim panin Tahanah ka pai hi.

Tedim·khua-ah·ka·suak·hi.·Tedim·panin·Tahanah· ka·pai·hi. Tedim khua ah ka suak hi. Tedim panin Tahan ah ka pai hi. [“khua”, “Tahan” cihte leh “ah” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] Tedim·khua·ah·ka·suak·hi.·Tedim·panin·Tahan·ah

ka·pai·hi. [“khua”, “Tahan” cihte leh “ah” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] Page 157 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 19.09 Pronoun pian-a a kizang “a” leh a mai-a om kammal hitaleh, a nung-a kammal hitaleh, kimat lo hi. Ahi zongin, Conjunction pian-a a kizang “a” leh a mai-a kammal kimat hi. Tua kammal pen awmung (vowel) ahih leh, tua kammal leh “a” kikaal-ah hyphen kikoih hi. [Hih zong a kikup huai khat hi.] 19.09.1 Kei ka hau hi. (First Person Singular) Ei i hau hi. (First Person Plural Inclusive) Ko ka hau uh hi. (First Person Plural Exclusive) Nang na hau hi. (Second Person Singular) No na hau uh hi. (Second Persona Plural) Amah a hau hi. (Third Person Singular) Amau a hau uh hi. (Third Person Plural) Amah a hau hi.

Amah·a·hau·hi. Amaha hau hi. [“Amah” leh “a” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial]

Amaha·hau·hi. [“Amah” leh “a” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial] Amah ahau hi. [“a” leh “hau” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial] Amah·ahau·hi.

[“a” leh “hau” kikaal-ah space om lo: Khial] 19.09.2 Taanglai pek-a kipan tuni ciang dong ki-itna i nei hi. Ciimnuaia i teen’ lai na thei hia?

Taanglai·pek-a·kipan·tuni·ciang·dong·ki-itna·i·nei· Page 158 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

hi.·Ciimnuai-a·i·teen’·lai·na·thei·hia? Taanglai pek a kipan tuni ciang dong ki-itna i nei hi. Ciimnuai a i teen’ lai na thei hia? [“pek”, “ciimnuai” cihte leh “a” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] Taanglai·pek·a·kipan·tuni·ciang·dong·ki-itna·i·

nei·hi.·Ciimnuai·a·i·teen’·lai·na·thei·hia? [“pek”, “ciimnuai” cihte leh “a” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.10 “sak” leh a veilam-a om kammal kimat hi. Ka innteekpa in, ko a leenglate, an leh tui hong nesak, hong dawnsak ziahziah hi.

Ka·innteekpa·in,·ko·a·leenglate,·an·leh·tui·hong· nesak,·hong·dawnsak·ziahziah·hi. Ka innteekpa in, ko a leenglate, an leh tui hong ne sak, hong dawn sak ziahziah hi. [“ne” leh “sak” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Ka·innteekpa·in,·ko·a·leenglate,·an·leh·tui· hong·ne·sak,·hong·dawn·sak·ziahziah·hi. [“ne” leh “sak” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.11 “pih” leh a veilam-a om kammal kimat hi. Pasian in hong hehpih mahmah hi.

Pasian·in·hong·hehpih·mahmah·hi. Pasian in hong heh pih mahmah hi. [“heh” leh “pih” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Pasian·in·hong·heh·pih·mahmah·hi. [“heh” leh “pih” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] Page 159 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ka lawmpa a za khang ahih manin ka lungdampih mahmah hi.

Ka·lawmpa·a·za·khang·ahih·manin·ka·lungdampih· mahmah·hi. Ka lawmpa a za khang ahih manin ka lungdam pih mahmah hi. [“lungdam” leh “pih” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Ka·lawmpa·a·za·khang·ahih·manin·ka·lungdam·pih· mahmah·hi. [“lungdam” leh “pih” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.12 Gamtatna a kizopzop lam a lak kammalte kimat hi. Amah’n lai simsim hi. A lawmpa pen mawlmawl hi.

Amah’n·lai·simsim·hi.·A·lawmpa·pen·mawlmawl·hi. Amah’n lai sim sim hi. A lawmpa pen mawl mawl hi. [“sim” leh “sim” kikaal, “mawl” leh “mawl” kikaal-te-ah space om: Khial]

Amah’n·lai·sim·sim·hi.·A·lawmpa·pen·mawl·mawl· hi. [“sim” leh “sim” kikaal, “mawl” leh “mawl” kikaal-teah space om: Khial] 19.13 Tat-huh (Adverb)-a a kizang kammalte pawlkhat, kimat hi. 19.13.1 Amah pil mahmah hi. (Adverb of Degree)

Amah·pil·mahmah·hi. (Adverb of Degree) Amah pil mah mah hi. (Adverb of Degree) [“mah” leh “mah” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Amah·pil·mah·mah·hi. (Adverb of Degree) Page 160 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

[“mah” leh “mah” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 19.13.2 Amah’n la sa hiauhiau hi. (Adverb of Manner)

Amah’n·la·sa·hiauhiau·hi. (Adverb of Manner) Amah’n la sa hiau hiau hi. (Adverb of Manner) [“hiau” leh “hiau” kikaal-ah space om: Khial]

Amah’n·la·sa·hiau·hiau·hi. (Adverb of Manner) [“hiau” leh “hiau” kikaal-ah space om: Khial] 20. Para #15-a lai pen a ngeina maan-in gual ta ni ei! Rev. Tg. Khup Za Go in Vahui Magazine 2006, laimai 44, veilam khawk-ah, hih bang-in gelh hi: Mikang kumpi hong khanga, tua tawh kiton-in Khristian biakna makaite zong Zogam hong tung uh hi. Tua hun lai-in Zomite in lai nei nai lo uh hi. Zopau tampi om hi cih a theih ciangun koi peen tawh lai bawl le’ng pha peen ding hiam ci-in kumpi lam pan hitaleh, biakna lam pan hitaleh a vaihawm uh hi. Tua thu tawh kisai-in Kawlgam Lai Siangtho thuvanpi Rev. Sherratt, Zogamah a zin kawikawi hi. Sherratt in London Lai Siangtho zumah thu a puakna lai July 7, 1913 sungah: kumpi lam pan leh biakna lam makaite ngaihsutna panin Tedim gam panin taangkam (lingua franca) piang thei peen leh kilawm hi, ci-in thupuak hi. Tua thu tawh kituakin Rev. J. H. Cope in a tei 1915 kuma kikhen Matthai bu pen Chin Hills sung Zopau tawh a kikhen masa peen Lai Siangtho hi pah hi. Tua hi-a, mipil masa, laithei masa Mikangte in zong Zopau bulpi khat-a a seh uh Tedim pau pen a manpha diak pau khat ahi hi. 21. Hih a tung-a lai sung-ah, kamvui (sentence) patna kammal Page 161 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan sung-a laimal masa peente CAPITAL LETTER kihisak hi. Kamvui sung-a kammal dangte, small letter kihisak hi. Aituam minte bel capital letter kihisak hi. Kamvui tawpna kammal nung-ah period kikoih hi. Period khit ciangin space khat kikoihin tua khit teh kamvui thak kipan hi. Khiatna (meaning) khat, ngaihsutna (idea) khat a nei kammalte, kammal khat-in kila-in, kimatsak hi. Tu-in a sim dan nuam-in, laigelhpa' deihna zong i thei thei hi.

C. Nungthuap (Appendix) Draft Zomi Orthography:

Zomi Polysyllabic Words Zomi Disyllabic Words Zomi Trisyllabic Words Zomi Quadrisyllabic Words

By Taang Zomi 1. Most of Zomi words are monosyllabic. 2. The following are some polysyllabic words. Disyllabic words are in black and white while trisyllabic and quadrisyllabic words are in bold underscored. A Aalu Ai-eng Ailam Aisa

Aisan Aklui Akpa Akpi Akpitangawnn = a kung nam Page 162 of 288

khat Aksi Akthei Amah Amau Ankam

Ankamlum Ansingteh Anthuul Anzoteh Awle B Baaklawng Baibek Balsan Balsau Bangkua Banla Banpi Banpuang Batsam Bawlung Bawngpi Bawngtal Begul Behiang = Besiang Be-ik Bekan Belawi Beleng Beli Bengngong = Bilngong Bepi Bepum Besan Besiang = Behiang Bikha

Zolai Gelhmaan Bikhalaap Bilbah Bilngong = Bengngong Bilpi Bipak Bokthok = Vokthok Buluh C Cialkhau Ciammui = Ciamnui Ciamnui = Ciammui Ciikpi Cimawh Cimbilik Cinghpi Citak Cithei D Daaideek Daidawng = Solnol; = Kawldawng Damiah Dangka Dangtaak Dawhdan Dawhkaan Deidan Page 163 of 288

Deihgawh Dektak Dokdawn Dolho Duhhop Dumde E Eimah Eimau Ek-awng G Gamdaai Gamla Gamlak Gamlum Gammaang Gampalak Gamsai Ganhing Gataam Gelsing Genthei Geukang Giautau Giitta Gilkial Gilo Gilphan Gilsan Gilvah Gina Golhguuk Gualheeu

Guaphel = Guasaili Guasaili = Guaphel Guasok Guatuai Gulchikchil Gulci Gulha Gulhik Gulngawngsan Gunkuang Guta H Haakkol Haampheeng Haamsia Habuuk Hakaai Haliam Hampha Hamsia Hanthawn Hausa Haza Hehneem Hehpih Heiga Heisa = Sahei Heisok = Ngeisok Heita Hiauhau

Zolai Gelhmaan Holim Hongma =Khongma Huaiham Huanghuang Huihtuun Huihtuuntal Humpi I Ihmu Ihsip Innhik Innka Innking Innkuun Innlawi Innliim Innsun Innteek Innteeng Inntual Iplah K Kaaiteem Kaampha Kaamsia Kaankang Kaamvaal Kaanglai Kahlei Kala-oh Kamkeii Page 164 of 288

Kauphe Kawcilik Kawkeek Kawlbot = Tangkun Kawldawng = Daidawng; = Solnol Kawkaai = Kawlkaai Kawkaaisan = Kawlkaaisan Kawlgiit Kawlkaai = Kawkaai Kawlkaaisan = Kawkaaisan Kawlkehawm Kawlmim Kawlsiing = Zasan Kawlsing Kawltu Kawsah = Kuasah [?] Keelkong Keimah Keising = Simbu Keivom Khaanglaang = Paicikhawm (Lushei) Khakham Khanglo Khangmoi

Khangmulong Khangno Khangtaak Khankha Khasia Khausing Khautang Khawhkheel Kheelbaai Khedap Khelbuuk Kheltat Kheme Khepeek Khephiau Khepp Khetbuuk Khetul Khingkhai Khomun Khongma = Hongma Khuacin’langh Khuadam Khuado Khuahun Khualum Khuaimu Khuaipi Khuaivah Khuaivalikaap Khuakhal Khuamial Khuangai Khuangbaai Khuaphialep

Zolai Gelhmaan = Khawphelep Khuangphilit Khuavak Khuazing Khumkham Khutbuh Khutme Khutpeek Khutpi Kiilling Kilawm Kimawl Kineih Kipawl Kiphasak Kisathei Kizen Komah Komau Komkiil Konlawh Kuasah [?] = Kawsah Kuhkal Kumpi Kumzawn Kunta L Laho Laina Lainat Laito Lalcin Lamdang Page 165 of 288

Lam-en Lampi Langbawm =Tawntel Leiko Leikha Leikheu Leitung Leivokkuang Lengla Lengmaseel Lengtong Lenmui Lenuai Liaktawp Liangko Liangzawl Limsing Lingkhaw Lingmaw Lingmaw Lingmin Lingpak Lonamsia Lopa Lothaang Lo-uih Lubawk Lungdam Lingmin Lingpak Lonamsia Lopa Lothaang Lo-uih Lubawk

Lungduai Lunggam Lungulh Lunghei Lunghiang Lungka Lungkhaap Lungkham Lungkia Lungngai Lungnuam Lungsim Lungso Lungtang Lungtom Lungzai Lutang M Mahmah Maikhing Maimial Maimom Maipuang Maitaang Maitai Maitang Mangbuh Mangkawlsing Mangngilh Mangtaaksing Mangthang Manta Mantakha = Mehkha

Zolai Gelhmaan Mantasan = Mehthuuk Mantep Mebuh Meengkeeng Mehkha = Mantakha Mehthuuk = Mantasan Meigong Meilah Meima Meisel Meitei Mihai Mihau Migi Mihing Miksa Miksi Minpha Minsia Minthang Mipil Misi Mizawng Mom-ai Mompi Mualtan Mubung Mudah Muiphei Muithal Muitung Mulkim Musane Page 166 of 288

Musi Muvanlai N Nahka Nahkia Nahtang Nahthak Nakguh Naksaal Namsau Namsia Nangawn = Natawm Nangmah Nasia Natawm = Nangawn Naungeek Naupang Nehno Neekngaih Neisok = Ngeisok Ngagul Ngahat Ngaihsun Ngaingaw Ngaklah Ngalkhuahang Ngaltaak Ngaltheen Ngaltuun Ngalulok Ngameisan

Ngami Ngapaak Ngapum (=Pumlum) Ngasan Ngavok Ngazo Ngeisok = Neisok Ngeitaal Ngentel Niangteh Niangtui Nikaai Nitaak Nomah Nomau Nuakik = Nawkik Nukik Numei Nungak Nungta Nunuun = Singtangmai Nupa Nuphal Nupi O Ong-e P Paakta

Zolai Gelhmaan Pa-akdangkaang Pa-akdangsan Pagul Pahtawi Paicikhawm =Khaanglaang Palaang Palau Palngul Palpi Pammaih Pamua Panaai Pangkhang Pangpaan Papaak Papi Papo Pasal Pasan Pasialthau Pasian Patau Patciang Pateh Patung Paulam Paunak Pemta Peengpelep Peuhmah Phamawh Phaitam Phalbi Phalvak Pheisam Page 167 of 288

Pheituam Phiaukawi Phihtu Phingpi Pholaak Phuisam [-] Phuisam [\] Phuitong Phulum Phulun Phuungbeem Pialkhang Piteek Poimawh Puan-ak Puanteen’ Puksi Pulaak Pusuak Pumlum = Ngapum Pusuak Puteek S Saakvaak Sabuai Sagih Saha Saham Sahang Sahawk Sahei = Heisa Sahia

Saidai Sa-ik Saili Sailung Sailungtang Saiseek Saisuang Sakahu Sakhi Sakhilunggam Sakhitalgawm Sakhituaitung Sakhuai Sakol Sakuh Samkhau Samkilh Samphok Samsia Samsih Sanah Sanang Sangai Sanggam Sangak Sansiim Saphulip Sapi Sapi-uumtuah Sapthei Sathei Saza Sathak Sazuk Seekpi Sehneel

Zolai Gelhmaan Sehtaak Selkeu Siakmit Sialkong Sialnah Sialsawm Sialkhum Sialthawl (?) Siangtho Sikha Sikkhu Siksem Sila Simai Simbeng Simbu = Keising Simheisa = Heisa = Sahei Simmawh Simtham Singgi Singnahtang Singsan Singvadangtu = Vasingdangtu Sinkha Singluang Sinnuam Sinso Singtangmai =Nunuun Sokpuang Sokval Solnol Page 168 of 288

= Daidawng; Kawldawng Suaklu Suakta Sualkal Sumkuang Suangkua Suangmuat Suangpaak = Suangvaupaak Suangsi = rock blood Suangvaupaak = Suangpaak Sukduk Sumkuang Sumtawng Sumto Sungpi Susia Sutpi T Taakdo Taaksing Taangman Taangsaam = a kung nam khat Tagah Tahum Taksang Talap Tamngai Tangciing

Tangho Tangkha Tangkun = Kawlbot Tangluang Tangmai Tangngol Tangteel Tangteuh Tangval Tanluan = Olive Tansing Tanu Tapa Tapkuang Tuangdung Tawbo Tawlbawk Tawlet Tawngum Tawntek Tawntel = Langbawm Tawsaw Teembaw Teengkol Teengta Tehno Teipi Teising Tengte Thaangling Thadah Thahpuang (?) Thaitheek

Zolai Gelhmaan Thaksiing Thalsing Thangpaai Thankik Thanuam Theiba Theidam Theihia Theitheek Theivatuktu Thokaangg Thokualong = Thokawlong Thopi Thopum Thosi Thovai Thukhual Thumaan Thumang Thunop Thunuam Thupi Thusa Toktol Tongdawn Tuahpha Tuahsia Tuaiteeng Tuangdung Tuantual Tuga Tuibuuk Tuili Tuipi Tuktum Page 169 of 288

Tukpeng Tulak Tungman Tungtuun Tupeek Tuunpi Tuzum U Uilut Uipa Uiphuk Uisan Uisul Uitawmm Ukeng Ukpi Ummawh Unau Upa Unok Utong V Va-ak Vacim Vagial Vagik Vahui Vaimim Vaka Vakaang Vakiang Vakhu

Valah Valuk Vamim Vamtui Vanbaal Vansam Vanungak Vantung Vaphual Vasa Vasingdang Vasingdangtu = Singvadangtu Vasukduk Vatawt Vaunga Veihnamkhau Vokkhial

Zolai Gelhmaan Vokpi Voktal Vokthok = Bokthok Vokthok-ek-tanal (?) Vompi Z Zabeel Zadang Za-ip Zanah Zanta Zasan = Kawlsiing Zato

Page 170 of 288

Zaupaan Zavaat Zawngkuh Zawngtah Zawngthal Ziakai Zingciang Zingsang Zoheisa = Heisa = Sahei Zongsang Zozam Zulei Zutang Zuthei

Zolai Gelhmaan

Magazine Bawlna-a Zat Zia Pawlkhat19 Malgawm Zia pawlkhat Hih a nuai-a thute pen, a cing, a kim hi lo hi. [Hih] Magazine etdikna (editing)-ah a kizang thu pawlkhat bek, ahi hi. Tampi om lai hi. Mai kum lam ciangin, hun a om leh, hong kigelh beh lai ding hi. Min malgawm zia

1. Mihing min malgawm zia Laigelhte’ min malgawm zia pen, amau’ zat dan mah kizui hi. Cin Za Lian, ahih hangin Chin Khua Khai Chin Khua Khai, ahih hangin Kam Khaw Thang Kam Khaw Thang, ahih hangin Son Kho Lian Son Kho Lian, ahih hangin Vum Ko Hau Hauzachin Suante, ahih hangin Ngaih Lian Swante Kham Lam Tuang, ahih hangin J. Gin Za Twang Kip Thian Pau, ahih hangin Salai Kipp Prof. Kam Za Mung, ahih hangin Dr. Kam Ya Dal A min neite in bang malgawm zangh hiam ci-a a kitheihpih kei leh, zat ngeina pen kizangh hi.

19 Taang Zomi, “Endikpi’ Lailam Pulaakna” (excerpt), Vahui Magazine 2006, Florida, USA: FZIUSA, 2006, pp. 18-20, 25-29. Page 171 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Ngul Za Pao ci-a hong kigelh leh, Ngul Za Pau kicihsak hi. “Pau” pen i zatzat ngei, a maan peen ahi hi. “Pao” a deih zaw ahih lam a kitheihpih leh, “Pao” kicihsak hi. Beh min malgawm zia A beh neite’ zat malgawm zia mah kizui hi. Zolai-ah “J” laimal nei lo, Zopau-ah J awsuah /ʤ/ nei lo i hih hangin, Zasuan cihsak lo-in, amau’ deih ahi Jasuan kizatsak hi. Tu-a i neih loh ahi J, Q, R, X ,Y cihte nidang ciangin i deih, i zat nop hun hong om kha ding hi. F pen Teizang kam-ah i zangh hi. “W” bel “A” khit ciangng i zangh-a, kammal patna-in bel i zangh kei hi. [Topa aw, awm natna a neite awng zo lo uh hi. Tua natna sung-ah awk den-a a om ding uh, awi na hi hiam? Ko lam-ah hong awn suk inla, amaute damsak in. Amaute a dam loh uh pen nawngkaai mahmah hi.] Khua min malgawm zia Tiddim, Tedim Tiddim pen Mangte’ hong lawhna hi-a, ei leh ei Tedim kici i hih manin, Tedim kizangh zaw hi. Kawl, Kawlpi, Kalemyo, Kalaymyo, Kaleymyo Kawlpi ci-a i theih khua pen Kawlte in Kalemyo ci uh hi. SPDC kumpi hong kah zawh ciangin, Kalaymyo ci-in a kigelhna hong om hi. Tua ahih manin, a nih-in kisaang hi. Kaleymyo bel kici ngei lo ahih manin, [hih] magazine sung-ah kizangh lo hi. Zangkong, Rangoon, Yangon Page 172 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih pen, a gelhte’ gelh zan kizuihsak hi. Gentehna-in “Zangkong Awging” a kici thuzaksakna lai pen, a neite in tu ciang dong, “Rangoon Awging” lah ci lo, “Yangon Awging” lah ci lo uh ahih manin, amau’ zat dan mah kizuihpih hi. Khalkha, Haka, Hakha, Halkha Nidangin, Haka a kici pen SPDC kumpi hun sungin, Hakha cia a kizatna hong om ahih manin, Hakha kizangh hi. Khua leh gam a neite in bang deih zaw uh cih a kitheih teh amau’ deih dan zuih ding ahi hi. Minam min malgawm zia Zomi, Chin Kawlte leh Mangte in “Chin” ci-a hong theih uh ahi ei minam pen, ei leh ei Zomi kici i hih manin, “Zomi” kizangh hi. A minam neite’ deih min, a kizatpih ahi hi. Mang, Mangkang, Mangvom, Mikang British-te, a diakdiak-in English-te pen Mang, Mangkang i ci hi. A lai uh ahi English pen Manglai i ci hi. Mikang cih pen a vun kaang ahi Europe mite ahi hi. Mangkangte zong Europe mi mah hi uh ahih manin, Mikang ahi uh hi. Mangkang khempeuh Mikang ahi uh hi. Ahih hangin, Mikang khempeuh Mangkang hi lo hi.

Kammal Kinaaisak zia leh Kihalsak zia Zolai pen, mailam-ah, i telkan toto ding hi. Telkanna kician i neih ma-in, a beisa hun-a i zatsate, i zangh lai ding hi. 1. Hih a nuai-a kammal leh a tak lam-a laimal/kammal-te kimat hi. Page 173 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan kiKimu; kiho; kithutuak; kipumkhat “ki” khit-a hong pai kammal (word) a patna laimal (letter) pen vowel ahih leh, “ki” leh tua vowel kikaal-ah hyphen om ding hi: ki-itna, ki-etna, ki-apna 2. Hih a nuai-a-te leh a vei lam-a laimal/kammalte kimat hi. -a tua huna kipan; tua muna i inn lam bel nuam saam ei. “a” ma-a hong pai kammal (word) a tawpna laimal (letter) pen vowel ahih leh, tua vowel leh “a” kikaal-ah hyphen om ding hi: amah pen pa-a nei; an ne-a; tua hi-a; u-a hong nei na hi hiam, nau-a hong nei na hi hiam? -ah tua munah; i gamah; i innah “ah” ma-a hong pai kammal (word) a tawpna laimal (letter) pen vowel ahih leh, tua vowel leh “ah” kikaal-ah hyphen om ding hi: tua khua-ah; i lo-ah va kuan ning. -in tua ahih manin, tua ahih hangin, tua ahih ciangin, “in” ma-a hong pai kammal (word) a tawpna laimal (letter) pen vowel ahih leh, tua vowel leh “in” kikaal-ah hyphen om ding hi: a mit na-in; an ne-in; tu hi-in, um lo-in; Pasian um-in -na itna, utna; hehpihna; hamphatna -pih mipih, sapih, paipih, dahpih Page 174 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan -sak seemsak; bawlsak, -te mite, thute, ute, naute, naupangte, makaite 3. Khua min, beh min cihte kimat hi. Tedim, Lailui, Tonzang Thawmte, Guite, Sukte, Bawmkhai 4. Khat-a a kingaihsun khawm thute, kimat hi. Nang k’ong it hi. A mah zong ka it hi. [Khial] Amah zong ka it hi. [Maan] Vai mim leh ga taam [Khial] Vaimim leh gataam [Maan] Bawng pi nawi va suuk ning. [Khial] bawngpi nawi va suuk ning. [Maan] Pa sian um in. [Khial] Pasian um in. [Maan] 5. Gamtatna a kizomzomte, kimat hi. Cingno kiang-ah Thangno khat vei a hawh hi. Cingno kiang-ah Khamno sawm vei a hawh hi. Cingno kiangah Khamno a hawhhawh hi. Meitei gun in kan’ hun nei lo-in luangluang hi. Ahi zongin theih ding khat: Amah in gal a sim ciangin a zozo hi. [zo suakuak] Page 175 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Zeisu in “A zo zo hi,” a ci hi. “zo zo” (=zo khin) hi-a, “zozo” hi lo.

Zat zia pawlkhat -in; in Ka lawmpa, kei kiang-ah hong pai-in, sa hong kholh hi. [declarative sentence] Hih pen a tung-a “-in” (#6.2) sung-ah i mu khin hi. Hong pai in. [imperative sentence] Hih pen sawlna hi-a, “in” leh a mai-a kammal kimat lo ding hi. Lawm aw, tho in. Kei zong tho-in pai ning. ke’n; kei’n Pai kei in. = Pai ke’n. Kei in hih bangin ka ngaihsun hi. = Kei’n hih bangin ka ngaihsun hi. pen; peen pen: Hih pen, Zolai leh Kawllai-ah, subject leh predicate zopna (copula) ahi hi. Solomon pen mipil ahi hi. peen tawh kisai: gol: adjective of positive degree gol zaw: adjective of comparative degree gol peen: adjective of superlative degree Amah pen gol hi. Amah pen a gol peen ahi hi. Amah pen a gol peenpeen ahi hi. Page 176 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan a; -a; aAmah a pai hi. Tua hun-a kipan Ahih hangin; ahi zongin Awtom leh awsau single vowel, double vowel Awsau lah nadingin, a kulna mun-ah double vowel kizangh hi. Tu ni-in amah in na nakpi-in seem [=to work] hi. Ama’ nasep pen sasem [meat carver], ahi hi. Sa a kigawh khit ciangin, amah’n sem [=to carve, to cut] hi. Amah hong pil seemseem [=progressively] hi. Zum-ah na seem [=to work] semsem [=unhesitatingly] hi. o, aw Awtom lahna-in “o” kizangh-a awsau lahna-in “aw” kizangh hi Huihpi in tuipi a lawk hi. [Khial] Huihpi in tuipi a lok hi. [Maan] Amah a gol a gawl hi. [Khial] Amah a gawl a gol hi. [Maan] i, ih, ii Kei ka pil hi. Ei i pil hi. Nang na pil hi. No na pil uh hi. Amah a pil hi. Amau a pil uh hi. Page 177 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan “Ei ih pil hi” cih bang-a i gelhna zong om-a, ahi zongin, tu laitak-in “ih” zangh lo-in “i” kizangh hi. “ii” pen Teizang-ah kizang phadiak hi. Topa ii hehpihna tawh Hih pen, Tedim-ah, apostrophe zangh-in, Topa’ hehpihna tawh kici hi. Ahi zongin, khat veivei, “ii” zangh leeng, a kitel zawkna om hi. Closed Quotation Zat Zia Tu laitak-in zat zia nam nih om hi. British English-ah: Zomi sung-ah “Tedim”, “Falam”, “Hakha” leh a dangdangte kihel hi. Closed Quotation Mark [”] khit ciangin comma [,] pai pan hi. American English-ah: Zomi sung-ah “Tedim,” “Falam,” “Hakha” leh a dangdangte kihel hi. Closed Quotation Mark [”] ma-in comma [,] pai hi. Rev. Pu Tg. Khup Za Go, Siapi Tg. Lian Za Go cihte pawl in British English dan zangh uh hi. Amau’ article-te-ah amau’ zat dan mah kizatpih hi. Quotation mark zat dan a tel khol lote’ article-te-ah American English dan kizatpih hi. Page 178 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Saturday, April 19, 2008

A Nostalgic Small Piece of Zolai Grammar By Taang Zomi Today (19 APR 08 SAT), I looked for and found a brief piece of writing on Tedim Zolai grammar, which I wrote way back in 1996 (some twelve years ago). In 1996, I began a newsletter-cum-mailing list, called The TBC (The Thang Bawi Communique, (http://web.archive.org/web/19991011083218/private.fuller.edu/ ~pthang/tbc1.html), which was a precursor of Zomi International Network (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi) and other yahoogroups and googlegroups. In March 1996, I began the first-ever Zomi websiste (The Thang Bawi Home Page, (http://private.fuller.edu/~pthang). This webpage is no longer valid, but most – but not all – of it is archived here: http://web.archive.org/web/19991010190932/private.fuller.edu/ ~pthang/ During 1996, Thuah Aung (Wilfred Bening), a famous singer and computer software programmer, also had his webpage (Rammawi Home Page (http://adams.patriot.net/~premil/rammawi.html), which was the third or fourth webpage after mine.

Page 179 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan He sent us a list of sentences in English to be translated into Tedim, Falam, Hakha, Matu, Mara, Cho, etc. He translated it into Falam. I translated it into Tedim. He put our translations on his webpage. Today, I looked for his webpage, and found out that the webpage no longer existed. I looked for the webpage on the Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org), but it was not there. I remember that Dr. Vum Son put my translation on his webpage (Information Central for topics related to Zo Reunification and Democracy and Federalism in Burma, (http://home.us.net/~suantak). When I tried to go there, I found out that the webpage was no longer in existence. I went to the Internet Archive, and fortunately the archive of the webpage is still there: http://web.archive.org/web/20031008112250/home.us.net/~suan tak/ Fortunately, my translation is still there: http://web.archive.org/web/20031029234540/home.us.net/~suan tak/l_tedim.htm In 1995-1996, I used Eudora Light 1.x for Macintosh (see http://www.eudora.com) as my main POP3 email client, which was plain text only (that is, it did not have RTF or HTML format). At that time web-based email (such as Hotmail or Yahoo Mail) was un-heard of. I used Monaco (fixed, monospaced font) 9 points when I wanted to write columnar tables, and Palatino (proportional font) 12 points when I wrote academic papers. (I used Micosoft Word 5.1 for formal writing.) Now that I use Windows operating system, I use Outlook Express 6 (both plain text and HTML) as one of my POP3 email clients. For tabulation, I use Courier New (fixed, Page 180 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan monospaced font) 10 points in place of Monaco, and for academic papers, I use Times New Roman 12 points in place of Palatino. (Actually, I now use OpenOffice.org Writer 2.420 to create tables.) There have been lots of changes within 12 years! With a deep feeling of nostalgia, I hereby reproduce my small piece of writing on Tedim Zolai grammar. We Zomis have not yet had a good, reliable grammar book. We are still in the process of developing grammar and a grammar book. I look forward to comments from my readers.

20 Now, in September 2010, I use OpenOffice.org 3.2.1 Page 181 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

http://web.archive.org/web/20031029234540/home.us.net/~suan tak/l_tedim.htm

Tedim ENGLISH ========

Tedim =====

How are you?

Dam maw?

I'm fine.

Dam mah.

Have you had your dinner (meal)?

Nitaak-an (An) ne khin maw?

Yes I have.

He, ne khin.

What's up?

Bang thu om a hia?

What are you up to?

Bang seem na hia?

Nothing much.

Bangmah seem khol ke'ng ee.

Where are you going? Koi-ah pai na hia? To “Van kau tlang”.

“Vankau Mual”-ah.

It's too hot.

Sa lua si.

Let's go to Church.

Kikhawm ve ni ee.

It's very delicious. Lim mahmah si. Give me that (something).

(Tua) hong pia ve.

Page 182 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Glossary: ====== Word or Phrase

Definition

dam*1

= (adjective or verb) healthy; be healthy

maw; hia; hiam

= end particle used to show that the sentence is a question

mah

= affirmative particle

nitaak-an

= (noun) dinner

an

= (noun) food, meal

ne

= (verb) eat

khin

= (verb to be) present/past perfect tense (adverb of frequency) already

he

= (adverb of affirmation) yes

bang

= (interrogative pronoun or interrogative determiner) what

thu

= (noun) news; event; word; case; matter

om

= (verb) exist; be

a*2

= copulative particle used to refer to third person singular

na*2

= copulative particle used to Page 183 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Word or Phrase

Definition refer to second person singular pronoun (nang; nangmah)

bangmah

= negative particle

seem

= (verb) work; do

khol

= (adverb of degree in a negative sense) not much

ke’ng

= short for "kei ing”

kei

= (adverb of negation) not

ing*3

= end particle for first person singular

ee

= cosmetic end particle used to enhance the beauty of the sentence

koi-ah

= (adverb) whither; to where

ah*4

= (postposition) to

mual

= (noun) hill; hillock; mount; mountain

sa*1

= (adjective/verb) hot; be hot

lua

= (adverb) too; excessivel

si

= end particle

kikhawm

= (verb) worship (at church, etc.) (literally) be gathered

ve

= cosmetic particle (to enhance the beauty of the sentence) Page 184 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Word or Phrase

Definition

ni

= (imperative or hortative mood of verb) let us

lim*1

= (adjective/verb) delicious; be delicious

mahmah

= (adverb of degree) very

tua

= (demonstrative pronoun; demonstrative adjective) that

hong*5

= adverbial particle used to refer to direction inward

pia

= (verb) give

_________________

Footnote *1 What is regarded as an adjective in English grammar can be regarded as a verb in Burmese, Zomi (Laimi) and Hebrew grammar. Look at the following sentences: (1) Amah hau (2) A

hi.

hau mi suak nuam

(He is rich.) ing.

(I want to become a rich man.)

In the first sentence, "hau" (=be rich) is a verb in Zomi (Laimi) and Burmese grammar. [In Burmese, the sentence reads: Page 185 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan "Thu chantha thi."] But in English, "rich" is a predicative adjective (an adjective used predicatively). In the second sentence, "a hau mi" means "a rich person". [In Burmese, it is: "chantha thaw thu".] Here "hau" is an attributive adjective (an adjective used attributively). In this case, Zomi (Laimi), Burmese and English grammars have the same opinion. Footnote *2 There are three such copulas, viz., "ka", "na" and "a". Look at the follwing sentences: (1)

Kei

ka

pai

hi.

( I go.)

(2)

Nang

na

pai

hi.

(You go.)

(3)

Amah

a

pai

hi.

(He goes.)

"Ka" is the pronominal copula21 joining the subject "kei" (first person singular pronoun) and the verb "pai". "Hi" is the end particle used to signify that the sentence comes to an end. "Na" is the the pronominal copula joining the subject "nang" (second person singular pronoun) and the verb "pai". "A" is the pronominal copula joining the subject "amah" (third person singular pronoun) and the verb "pai". 21 In English, a copula is a verb-to-be (be, is, am. are, was, were, etc.). Here, I use the word copula to mean a word used to join two elements. I call it pronominal prefix elsewhere. Page 186 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Footnote *3 When we want to omit a pronominal copula, such as "ka" or "na", we replace the end particle "hi" with the pronominal particle concerned. Look at the following sentences: (1)

Kei

ka

Kei (2)

Nang

Amah Amah

hi.

pai na

Nang (3)

pai

pai

ing hi.

pai a

teh

pai

hi.

pai

hi.

In the first sentence, we omit the pronominal copula "ka" and the end particle "hi". In place of "hi" we put the prominal end particle for first person singular "ing". In the second sentence, we omit the pronominal copula "na" and the end particle "hi". In place of "hi" we put the pronominal end particle for the second person singular "teh". In the third sentence, we omit the pronominal copula "a". But we do not omit the end particle "hi" because there is no separate pronominal end particle for the third person singular to replace "hi". Page 187 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Footnote *4 In English, the preposition (pre-position) is one of the eight parts of speech. The word that is put before (=pre) a noun or a noun equivalent is called a preposition. Look at the following sentence: (1) Tedim-ah va pai in. (Go to Tedim.) (1)

Tedim-

ah va

pai

in.

(Go to Tedim.)

Here, in the sentence in English, the word "to" is put _before_ a noun (Tedim). Therefore "to" is a preposition. But in Zomi (Laimi) and Burmese grammar, "ah" ("to" in English) is put _after_ (=post) a noun (Tedim) or noun equivalent. Therefore we should call it "postposition" (post-position) instead of "preposition". I think Japanese grammar is the same as ours in this case. Footnote *5 There are two adverbial particles used to refer to direction of movement, viz., "hong" and "va". Look at the following sentences: (1)

Hong

pai

in.

(Come here.)

(2)

Va

pai

in.

(Go there.)

In the first sentence, the vocative of address is omitted. The sentence is the same as the following:

Page 188 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan (1)

(Nang) hong

pai

in.

[(You) come here.]

"Hong" is used to refer to direction inward, or to a destination directed toward the person speaking. In the second sentence also, the vocative of address is omitted. The sentence is the same as the following: (2)

(Nang) va

pai

in.

[(You) go there.]

"Va" is used to refer to direction outward, or to a destination directed away from the person speaking. Our special thank goes to Rev. Pau Cin Thang for his contribution of Tedim dialect. Back to Dialect Back to Rammawi

Page 189 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Zolai Gelhmaan Bulpi Pawlkhat Some Basics of Zolai Grammar By Taang Zomi K'ong it USA Thupuak Editor aw, 1. Hih bangin, Zolai tawh kisai, na lunghihmawhna n’ong pulaak ciangin, lai mi mahmah hong sa-in hong paakta ing. Vahui Magazine 2006 bawlna-ah i kithuah pen nuam ka sa mahmah-a, tu-in, USA Thupuak-ah pang khawm leeuleeu thei i hih manin, ka aangtang mahmah hi. 2. Zolai Gelhmaan (Zolai Grammar) pen English Grammar tawh kibang lo-in, Burmese Grammar tawh kinaai hi. 2.1 Zolai, Burmese, Latin, etc.-ah definite article (“the”) kinei lo.22 English-ah definite article om. German, French, Spanish, etc.-ah definite article dilhpi-in diil! 2.2 Zolai, Burmese, etc.-ah sentence word order pen SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) hi-a, English-ah SVO (Subject-VerbObject) ahi hi. 22 Siapi Vul Za Thang le J. Gin Za Twang in bel “Tua a laibu” cih bang-ah “a” pen article hi, ci uh hi. A ngaihsut huai thu khat ahi hi. Vul Za Thang and J. Gin Za Twang, Chin-English Dictionary (Tiddim Chin), Tiddim: self-published, 1975, (the dictionary portion, which is the second portion of the book) pp. 1, 3 Page 191 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan S (Subject)

O (Object)

V (Verb)

Tg. Thang Ho in

bawng khat pen

go hi.

Maung Ba thi

nwa tit kaung ko

that thi.

ေမာင္ဘ သည္

ႏြား တစ္ေကာင္ ကုိ

သတ္ သည္။

S (Subject)

V (Verb)

O (Object)

David

slaughtered

a cow.

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/1470/chap-2-42.html http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/Linguistics/LinguisticsG lossary.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_order 2.3 English-a a om lo, Zolai le Burmese-a a om khat pen, Nominative affix (“in”) ahi hi. Tua pen, subject tawh kimat (written solid) lo-in, a tuam-a gelh (written open) ding hoih ka sa hi. S (Subject)

O (Object)

V (Verb)

Simple Subject

Nominative Affix

Simple Object

Object- Pronom- Simple ive Affix inal Verb Prefix

Assertive End Affix

Tg. Thang Ho

in

lo

(pen)23

kho

hi.

Maung Ba

thi

lay

(ko)23

htun

thi (i)

ေမာင္ဘ

သည္

လယ္

(ကုိ)23

ထြန္

သည္

a

(၏)။ 23 Sentence-ah, hih objective affix pen kikoih lo thei hi. Page 192 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 2.4 English-a a om lo, Zolai le Burmese-a a om dang khat pen, Imperative End Affix (“in”) ahi hi. Tua pen verb tawh kimat loin, a tuam-a gelh ding hoih ka sa hi. S (Subject)

O (Object)

V (Verb)

Vocat- Vocat- Simple Nom- Simple Object- Simive of ive Subject inative Object ive ple Address Affix Affix Affix Verb

(Nang (Thin

in)25 thi)

25

Lai

(pen)24

gelh

in.

Sar

(ko)24

yay

bar.

24

စာ

(ကုိ)

ေရး

ပါ။

lai

(pen)24

sar 25

Imperative End Affix

(ko)

gelh

in.

24

yay

bar.

24

(သင္

သည္)

စာ

(ကုိ)

ေရး

ပါ။

(Tg. Thang Ho

aw,)26

(nang

in)25

lai

(pen)24

gelh

in.

(Maung Ba

yay,)26

(thin

thi)25

sar

(ko)24

yay

bar.

(ေမာင္

26 ေရ) ေရ)

(သင္

သည္)25 စာ

(ကုိ)24

ေရး

ပါ။



3. Tu-in i subject pi (main subject) lam-ah pai ta ni. 3.1 Personal Pronoun le Pronominal Prefix-te:

24 Sentence-ah, hih objective affix pen kikoih lo thei hi. 25 Sentence-ah, hih subject le nominative affix pen kikoih lo thei hi. 26 Sentence-ah, hih nominative of address le address affix pen kikoih lo thei hi. Page 193 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Person Number Personal PronomPronoun inal Prefix (1)

(2)

(3)

First Person

Singular Kei Keimah Plural

Verb

Pluraliz- Asserting ive End Verbal Suffix Suffix

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

ka

pai

i

pai

(uh)27

hi.

ka

pai

uh

hi.

na

pai

na

pai

a

pai

a

pai

hi.

Ei Eimah Eimau Eite

Plural

Ko Komah Komau Kote

Second Person

Singular Nang Nangmah

Plural

hi.

No Nomah

uh

hi.

Nomau Note Singular Amah Third Person

Plural

hi.

Amau Amaute

uh

27 Hih mun-ah pluralizing verbal suffix pen kikoih khin khol lo hi. Page 194 of 288

hi.

Zolai Gelhmaan 3.2 Pronominal Prefix (“Ka, na, a”) tawh a form kibang napi, a zatna tuamdang khat om leeuleeu-a, tua pen Possessive Adjective ahi hi. Person

Num- Poss- Noun Pluber essive ralAdizing Nomjective inal Suffix

PluPro- Tran- Innomi sitive tran- ralnal Verb sitive izing PreVerb Verbfix (Ad- al jectiv Suffix e)

Assertive End Affix

(1)

(2)

(6)

(7)

(10)

First Person

Sing- Ka ular Ka

laibu

ka

sim

inn

a

Plural I (InI clusive)

laibu

i

inn

a

Plural Ka (ExKa clusive)

laibu

uh

ka

inn

uh

a

Sing- Na ular Na

laibu

na

inn

a

Plural Na

laibu

uh

na

inn

uh

a

Second Person

(3)

Na

(4)

(5)

Third Sing- A Per- ular A son

laibu

a

inn

a

Plural A

laibu

uh

a

inn

uh

a

A

Page 195 of 288

(8)

(9)

hi gol

hi.

sim

hi gol

sim

hi.

uh gol

hi. hi.

sim

hi. gol

sim

hi. uh

gol

hi. hi.

sim

hi. gol

sim

hi. uh

gol

hi. hi.

Zolai Gelhmaan 3.3 “Kei ka pai hi,” hi zaw maw, “Kei kapai hi,” hi zaw maw, cih tawh kisai-in, “Kei ka pai hi,” cih ding hoih zaw ka sa hi. Dr. Joseph Herbert Cope’ hun, Rev. Sukte T. Hau Go’ hun, Rev. Kam Khaw Thang’ hun-te-ah, “Kei ka pai hi,” cih dan mah kizangh hi. Bangbang ahi zongin, i zat khat pen zat paisuak (consistent) ding kisam hi. “Kei kapai hi,” cih pen hoih zaw i sak leh zong, tua dan-a zat paisuak ding hi-a, khat vei leh “Kei ka pai hi,” ci zeel, khat vei leh “Kei kapai hi,” ci zeel, cih bang-a i om loh ding thupi hi. 3.4 Kammal a kimat-a gelh ding dan tawh kisai-in, a beisa hun (May 24, 2007 ni)-in, “Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding? (1)” [“Which Words are to be Written Solid? (1)”] cih khat, ka gelh ngei hi. May 24, 2007, 5:18 PM (Eastern Daylight Time) Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding? (1) http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/27266 August 10, 2007, 05:41 PM (Eastern Daylight Time) Bang Kammalte.pdf http://www.zocia.org/forum/showthread.php?t=91 4. Mailam-ah Zolai a hoih seemseem nading-in, hanciam-in seem khawm ciat ni. ---------- Forwarded message ---------From: Myanmar Mission Date: Mon, Mar 31, 2008 at 11:33 AM Subject: Fwd: USA Thupuak ( March 2008) To: Cin Do Thawng , kamkhan thawn , Dr paumung , En Lian Pau Page 196 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan , gk tuang , Gin Khan Tuan , Kham K Hang , HANG Z SUAN , Kam Thawn , Kham Do Thang , Khen Sian , Kham Khai , thawng-suantak , Neng N Lian , Neng K Pau , [email protected], Pau Lian Nun , Pau Khai , "Rev.Kam Hau" , Pau Khan Khup , Thang Suan Mang , Pum Chin , Taang Sianpu , suan tawng , [email protected], Tun G Lian , [email protected], kap pu , Zomi Innkuan Denmark , Simon Muan , Vungh Pian Sing Dear Khazih sungah u leh nau, USA Thupuak tha n'ong piak ciat manun, lungdamna k’ong ko uh hi. Ihkipat a kipan tuciang dong a haksa khat pen i Zolai gelh dan nahi hi. Gelh dan tuamtuamte kaet koikoi ciangin hoih thei napi, kasan’ zawh lohna pawlkhat om pahpah mawk hi. Zopau leh Mangpau gualh dan kilehbulh keii napi, Mangte’ grammar Page 197 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan khawng ihzat pih nop ciang ong buaihuai thei zel hi. Khat veivei, grammar leh rule-te nak let lua le hang, ihpau dan nangawn khel kik nop hun om thei hi. Aihang in, ‘kampau’ pen a omsa hi a, ‘lai’ pen akiphuak tawm khat nahi lel hi, cih i thei hi. Ei Zopau tawh akituak pen ding-- Manglai alphabets mah maw, a dang phuah tawm theih khat peuh maw, grammar a tuam khat maw—-mun khat teitei ah om ding hi cih zong ngaihsut hun om hi. Bangbang ahi zongin, tu a dan mah tawh kikalsuan ding ahih main, a nuai-a zat dan nam li-te kakhel pakna n’ong theih siam dingun ong gen nuam ing. Hih teng zat dan akibang hi. ( ‘a’ ‘ka’ ‘na’ ‘i.’) Gentehna:(1) Thunget ding i phawk hiam? (2) Thunget ding ihphawk leh thu ngen ni. (3) Thunget ding na ut hiam? (4) Thunget ding na-ut leh thu nangen in. Ngaihsut dan tuamtuam naneih leh [email protected] ah ong theisak in. Lungdamna tawh, ( Editor, USA Thupuak, Myanmar Mission Church, Florida, USA)

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Zolai Gelhmaan Monday, July 16, 2007

Gelhmaan (Grammar) Telkan (Research) Ka Bawl Dan By Taang Zomi 1. A omsa thu 1.1 Mimal-in hi ta leh, kipawlna min-in hi ta leh, Zolai tawh kisai a gelh om ngei khin hi. 1.2 Gentehna-in: 1.2.1 Mimal: Tg. Cin Sian Pau, Tg. H. Gin En Cin, Rev. Tg. Khup Za Go, Dr. Tg. H. Kam Khen Thang, etc. 1.2.2 Kipawlna: ZCLS, ZOLUS, etc. 2. Kei’ pat dan 2.1 A gelh ngeisate’ gelhna sung-ah a hel khak loh uh, a phawk khak loh uh, leh thu neuno khat-a ngaihsut khak uh thute pan-in, ka kipan hi. 2.2 Gentehna-in: 2.2.1 Mun-awng (Space) tawh kisai thu pen, ei mi genloh Mangkangte nangawn in tam gelh kha nai lo uh hi. F.Z.I. (U.S.A.) ding pen F.Z.I.(U.S.A.) ci kha; F.Z.I. ( U.S.A.) ci kha. 2.2.2 Tomlaakna (Abbreviation) tawh kisai thu pen, Kawlgam phadiak-ah a maan lo-in kizangh mahmah hi. E.C. Member ding pen E.C Member ci kha; Ph.D. ding pen Ph.D ci kha; Z.B.C.M. Page 199 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan ding pen Z.B.C.M ci kha; R.C. pawlpi ding pen R.C pawlpi ci kha. 2.2.3 Punctuation tawh kisai-in, punctuation mark-te lak-a a thupi mahmah ahi, Comma thu, hoih tak-a a kigelhna om nai lo hi. 2.2.4 Kammal Kinaai ding leh Kigamla Ding tawh kisai pen, hoih tak-a a kigelhna om nai lo hi. “Pasian in hong it mahmah hi,” cih ding pen “Pa sian in hong it mah mah hi,” ci kha; “Pasianin hongit mah mahhi,” ci kha. 3. Mailam Thu 3.1 Morphology sung-a a kihel Kambul (Morpheme) tawh kisai thu (Morphemics) pen a kilawm ciang ngaihsutna nei khin ka hih manin, damdam-a gelh tohtoh ding hi. Hih pen Noun leh Verb tawh kisai hi phadiak hi. 3.2 Phonology sung-a a kihel Awbul (Phoneme) twh kisai thu (Phonemics) pen a bulpi pawlkhat ka ngaihsutsa hi-a, tu laitakin, Awsaang-awniam (Tone) thu ka ngaihsut laitak hi. Ka gelh nop thute: Morphophonemic Changes; Tonemes; The Difference between English and Tedim Phonemes; etc. 3.3 Tua kawmkaal mah-in Kamvui (Sentence) tawh kisai thu (Syntax) zong, hun ngahna tawh kizui-in gelh ding, ka sawm hi. 3.4 Hun ka ngah teh ka gelh nop thute: The Polygeny (or Polygenesis) of Koine Tedim; The Endangerment of Our Language in the Face of Assimilation; etc. 4. Ma Pan’ Khop Ding Zotna 4.1 Hih thute, khat guak’ sep dingin, baih pak lo ding hi. 4.2 Zolai khan’toh ding a lunggulh khempeuh in ma pang khawm ni. Page 200 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Saturday, February 2, 2008 Zomi National Day 2008:

I am Proud of Zomi I am Proud of a Zomi I am Proud of Being a Zomi By Taang Zomi Hih bangin, Zomi Nam Ni muakna laimat (sticker) a kihawmkhiat pen thupi sa ing. Gelhmaan (grammar) pen ka uukna khat ahih manin, “I’m Proud of Zomi” cih laigelh tawh kisai-in, ka ngaihsutna hong gelh nuam ing. I am Proud of Zomi I am Proud of a Zomi I am Proud of Being a Zomi Hih a tung-a teng pen a khial om lo hi. Ahi zongin a khiatna (semantics) kibang lo hi. “I am proud of Zomi” (“I am proud of a Zomi” hi lo) ci-a i gelh ciangin, Zomi a kici mi, thu, na, silsiam pen a huampi-a i genna ahi hi. “I am proud of a Zomi” (“I am proud of Zomi” hi lo) ci-a i gelh ciangin Zomi a kici mi, thu, na, silsiam sung pan-a khat, i genna ahi hi.

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Zolai Gelhmaan “I am proud of a Zomi” a ci nu/pa pen Zomi khat hi tuan lo thei hi. Mangkangte khat in nang hong paakta mahmah leh, ama’ lawmte kiang-ah, “I am proud of a Zomi” ci-in nang tawh kisai, na gen thei ding hi. Amah pen Zomi khat hi lo-in, nang pen Zomi khat na hi hi. Nang Zomi khat pen amah’n hong aangtan’pih ahi hi. A aangtangpa pen Mangkang khat ahi hi. Nang pen Zomi khat na hih-a, Zomi khat na hihna a aangtang na hih leh, “I am proud of being a Zomi” na cih ding, ahi hi. Tua tawh kizom-in, gen suak lai leeng: Tuma kum tam sim lai (1960 ma)-in, Rangoon University HillChin Student Union (RUHCSU) in motto (thubulphuh) khat neih ding na vaihawm uh-a, I was born as a Chin I shall live as a Chin I shall die as a Chin na ci uh hi. Ei Zokam-in letkhia leeng, Zomi khat bang-in ka suak hi Zomi khat bang-in ka nungta ding hi Zomi khat bang-in ka si ding hi cih hong suak hi. Grammar tawh kisai-in a khialhna om lo hi. Ahi zongin, i cihnopna taktak sukha lo hi. Zomi khat bang-a suak na hih leh, nang pen Zomi ahi lo zong, na hi thei hi. Page 202 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Tua lai hun pen Sia Taang Go Suan Nang, sangnaupang ahih laitak ahi hi. Ama’ u, Taang Ginkhatsuan in, “Tu-a na lai gelh uh maan kei. Ei pen Zomi khat bang-a a suak hi lo hi hang. Zomi ahisa-a a suak hi hang. Ei pen Zomi hi hang. Zomi a bang, hi lo hi hang. Tua ahih manin, na laigelh uh, hih bangin kheel un,” ci-in hih a nuai-a bangin, na gelh hi: I was born a Chin I shall live a Chin I shall die a Chin Tua pen, na mang uh-a a kizangh suaksuak ahi hi. 1973-1974 Rangoon Universities Chin Literature and Culture Subcommittee Annual Magazine-ah Tedim Editor le English Editor ka sep hun pan-a kipan-in, hih bang-in ka na gelh hi: I was born a Zomi I shall live a Zomi I shall die a Zomi A nunung peen-in, Vahui Magazine 2006 sung-ah zong tua bangmah-in ka na gelh hi. (Taang Sianpu in Vahui Magazine a lei kha lo, a ngah kha lote in zong a sim theih nadingin, zocia.org website (http://zocia.org) hiam khat-ah “koih ding na phal hiam,” hong ci-a, “Phal mah ung,” na ci ing. A sawt lo-in mi kim’ et theih dingin hong kikoih ding hi.)

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Zolai Gelhmaan Monday, July 14, 2008

Tedim Labu a Lui le a Thak Etkaakna Tawmno (01) By Taang Zomi 01. Tu sawng tengin, Tedim Labu a lui le a thak a om manin, lasak dan a nop lohna thu, kigen hi. A thak bawl huai lo hi, a ci zong om hi. A lui khet kik ding hoih lo hi, a ci zong om hi. 02. Tua bang-a a sak a nop lohna pen, i zongsat khitsa khat hong kikheel ciangin, a thak pen hoih zaw kha phial ta leh, a lui pen ciapteh nop zaw ahih man, ahi hi. 03. A lui khempeuh hoih lo khin lo-a, a thak khempeuh zong sia khin lo hi. 04. A lui peuhmah ahih leh hoih lo hi, a’ihke’h a thak peuhmah ahih leh hoih lo hi, cih ding hi lo hi. Amau’ hoihna, hoih lohna pen i et cian khit ciangin, khentatna (thukhupna) nei pan leeng, maan thei peen ding hi. 05. Tu-a k’ong gelhna-ah, la a sak a nuam le a nuam lo tawh kisai hi lo zaw-in a thu a maan le a maan lo tawh kisai hi zaw hi. 06. Kei kiang-ah Tedim Labu om lo ahih manin lawmte’ aa khat ka et leh, a laidal kim nawn lo ahih manin, a thu a cing-in mu lo hi’ng. Tua laibu zong, tu mahmah-in kei kiang-ah om lo hi. Ka et laitak-a ka ciaptehna: Tedim La Bu Page 205 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan TBCEU May 14, 1969 Hih ka ciaptehna pen maan hiam, maan lo hiam, tel lo hi’ng. Hih pen Labu #1 ci ni. 07. A bu dang khat, ka mu leeuleeu hi: Tedim Labu Thak Hymns of Heaven & Our Eternal Hope Compiled by Rev. Thang Khawm Pau January 24, 2004 Hih zong, tu laitak-in kei kiang-ah om lo hi. Hih pen Labu #2 ci ni. 08. A thumna khat ka mu leeuleeu hi: TEDIM LABU TEDIM HYMN BOOK Tonic solfa Notation ZOMI CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 2001 TEDIM LABU Tonic Solfa Notation, 7th Revised Eition 1999 © Copy Right Reserved ZCLS 1st Reprint 2001 Printed at Swapna Printing Works (P) Ltd, 52, Raja Rammohan Sarani, Calcutta-700 009 Hih laibu pen kei kiang-ah, tu laitak-in om hi. Page 206 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih pen Labu #3 ci ni. 09. I etkaak pak dingin, hih a nuai-a la, k’ong teel hi. Labu #1 sung-ah hih bangin kigelh hi: 249

NIH VEI NA SUAK KIK IN Ye Must Be Born Again

Doh is Eb 1. Upa khat zan lai Zeisu kiangah pai-a, Gupna ngahna ding khuavak lampi dong hi. Topa in a tel tak a hilh kik-a, “Nih vei na suak in in,,” ci. SAKKIK: Nih vei na suak kik in, Nih vei na suak kik in. A maan tak-in kong ci hi, kong hilh kik hi. Nih vei na suak kik in.

2. Topa Zeisu thu hilh kikna a pha hi. Leitung mihingte ngaihsut ding kilawm hi. A thupiakna a mawkna hi lo ding hi. “Nih vei suak kik in,” ci. 3. A teel mite tawh lungdam-in la sa ta. Mi phate’n a min thang lung dam in nuam-a Hin’ tawntung lungdamna nuam na ngah nop leh, “Nih vei suak kik in,” ci. 4. Na muh nop mihingte vantung khuapi-ah A siangtho kong biangah nang hong ngak uh hi, Tua bang na muh nang hih thu piakna ngai in. “Nih vei suak kik in,” ci. Page 207 of 288

M. 366

Zolai Gelhmaan 10. Khial ka sakna mun pen font bold red28 tawh ciamteh-in, a khial ahi khin pah lo ka sak mun pen bold violet (or bold magenta)29 tawh ciamteh-in, maan ka sakna mun pen bold blue30 tawh ka ciamteh hi. 11. Hih la pen ka neu lai pek-in, ka mu hi. Ka Tan Khat lai, ka Tan Nih lai pawl hi kha ding hi. Ka neu lai pek mah-in maan ka sa kei hi. Mi khat pen, a nu’ sung pan-in a suah ciangin, khat vei a suak, ahi hi. A nu’ sung pan a suah khit teh, “khat vei suak kik” leh, a kigawm-in nih vei a suak, ahi hi. “Nih vei suak kik” leh a kigawm-in thum vei a suak, ahi hi. 12. Nicodemus pen khat vei a suaksa ahi hi. Jesus in, “Khat vei suak kik in,” a ci hi leh-a, amah zong “khat vei suak kik” leh, a suah pen a kigawm-in nih vei hong hi ding hi. “Nih vei suak kik in,” Jesus in a ci hi leh-a, Nicodemus zong “nih vei suak kik” hi leh, a suah pen a kigawm-in thum vei hong hi ding hi. 13. Tua ban-ah, Jesus in Nicodemus kiang-ah, “Khat vei suak kik in,” lah ci lo-in, “Nih vei suak kik in,” lah ci lo hi. “Suak kik in,” ci bek hi. “Khat vei” a’ihke’h “nih vei” pen a kibehlap kha, ahi hi. 14. Stanza #1, Line #4: “Nih vei na suak in,” ci.

pen maan thei teei hi. A suah khat veina leh a suah nih veina, a kigawm-in “nih vei suak” ding, ahi hi. “Nih vei suak kik” ding ci lo hi. “Khat Khat vei na suak kik in,” in a ci hi leh zong, maan thei teei hi. “Khat vei a suah” khit ciangin, “khat vei suak kik” leh, a kigawm-in nih vei a suak, ahi hi. 28 Bold red mun-ah Comic Sans MS Bold Italic 10 pt. kizangh. 29 Bold violet (or bold magenta) mun-ah Curlz MT Bold Italic 12 pt. kizangh. 30 Bold blue mun-ah Times New Roman Bold Italic 12 pt. kizangh. Page 208 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Khat vei suak = Nu’ sung pan suak Khat vei suak kik = Nih vei a suak hi ta. Nih vei suak = Nih vei a suak hi ta. Nih vei suak kik = Thum vei a suak hi ta. Khat vei suak kik = Nih vei suak Nih vei suak = Khat vei suak kik A tung-a para #12 sung-a ka gen mah bang-in, “Nih vei” cih pen a kibehlap kha ahi hi. 15. A Manglai-ah hih bangin kigelh hi: YE MUST BE BORN AGAIN John 3:5 (John 3:3-7) Lyrics: 1877

Music:

William True Sleeper

George Coles Stebbins

(1819-1904)

(1846-1945)

1. A ruler

once came to Jesus by night To ask Him the way of salvation and light; The Master made answer in words true and plain, “Ye must be born again.”

REFRAIN: “Ye must be born again, Ye must be born again, I verily, verily, say unto thee, Ye must be born again.” Page 209 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 2. Ye children of men, attend to the Word, So solemnly uttered by Jesus the Lord; And let not this message to you be in vain, “Ye must be born again.” 3. O ye who would enter that glorious rest, And sing with the ransomed the song of the blest, The life everlasting if ye would obtain, “Ye must be born again.” 4. A dear one in Heaven thy heart yearns to see, At the beautiful gate may be watching for thee, Then list to the note of this solemn refrain, “Ye must be born again.” 16. Hih la pen John 3:3-7 sung pan a kila hi-a, a thulu pen John 3:7 pan a kila ahi hi. A kilaakna Lai Siangtho pen King James Version ahi hi: John 3:5-7 (King James Version) 5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. 17. Hih mun-ah “Ye” a cih pen “Nang” (second person singular nominative) hi lo-in “No” (second person plural nominative) ahi hi. Nicodemus pen mi khat bek hi na pi-in, Jesus in a hopih ciangin, “Thou must be born again,” (“Nang na suak kik in”) ci lo-in “Ye must be born again,” (“Note na suak kik un”) ci hi. Second person singular accusative pen “Thee” hi-a, second person plural accusative pen “You” ahi hi. [Nominative Pronoun–Accusative Pronoun–Possesive Adjective–Possessive Page 210 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Pronoun: Thou–Thee–Thy–Thine; Ye–You–Your-Yours] Ahi zongin, hih thu pen, tu-a i thulu in huam kha taktak lo ahih manin, gen beh dah ni. 18. Labu #2-ah hih bangin kigelh hi: KISIKNA LE KIHEELNA

144

SS 366

NIH VEI NA SUAK KIK IN

W. T. Sleeper

Ye Must Be Born Again

(1840-1920)

Zawhang 3:3

George C. Stebbins

Key E 1. Upa khat zan-in Zeisu kiang va pai a, Hotkhiatna ngah nading khuavak lampi dong hi. Topa’n zong man tak tel takin na hilh a, “Nih vei na suak kik in.”

SAKKIK: Nih vei na suak kik in, Nih vei na suak kik in. A maan taktak-in nang tung K’ong gen ding hi: “Na suah kik loh phamawh.”

2. Leitung mimal kim in pha tak ngaihsun un. Topa Zeisu in thupi tak-in hong hilh hi. A hong hilh thu a mawkna suaksak kei un. “Nih vei na suak kik in.” 3. Vantung-ah tawldam nuamna a ngah nuamte, Tatkhiatsa mite tawh la sa khawm nuamte aw, Hin’ tawntung lungdamna nuam na ngah nop leh, “Kikheel-in suak kik in.” 4. Van-a na muh nop na lunggulhte khat in, Page 211 of 288

(1846-1945)

Zolai Gelhmaan Nang tun’ ding ngak-in kongpi-ah hong ngak gige, Tua hi a, hih thu lim tak-in ngaihsun pha in, “Nih vei na suak kik in.”

19. Labu #1 bangmah-in khial lai hi. Ahi zongin, Sakkik Line #4-ah “Na suah kik loh phamawh,” ci-in, “khat vei,” “nih vei” kammal zangh lo ahih manin, maan hi. Stanza #3, Line #4-ah, “Kikheel-in suak kik in,” ci-in, “khat vei,” “nih vei” kammal zangh lo ahih manin, maan hi. 20. Labu #3-ah hih bangin kigelh hi: NA SUAK KIK TEITEI IN Ye Must be Born Again W.T. Sleeper

Johan 3:3

(1819-1904)

249 S.S.366 G.C. Stebbins (1846-1945)

Dob is Eb 1. Upa khat zanlai Jesuh kiang va pai a, A kihotkhiat nang khuavak lampi dong a; Topa in tel tak-in a mah na hilh hi. “Na suak kik in,” ci hi. SAKKIK: “Na suak kik teitei in! Na suak kik teitei in! A man tak-a nang kiangah kong gen-in ah, “Na suak kik teitei in!” 2. No mihingte aw Topa’ thu ngai dih un. Topa Jesuh’n a cih takpi hi, zui un; A hong thupiak a mawkna hi lo ding hi, “Na suak kik in,” ci hi. 3. A tawldam nuamte Ama kiangah pai un, Page 212 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan A tatkhiatsate tawh phatna la sa un; Tawntung nuntakna na ngah takpi ding hi. “Na suak kik in,” ci hi. 4. Na muh nop mahmah vana na itpa in, A etlawm kongpi ah nang hong ngak lai-in, Hih thupha limtakin na ngaihsun ding hi, “Na suak kik in!” ci hi. 21. Hih Labu #3-ah “Khat vei suak kik” ding lah ci lo, “Nih vei suak kik” ding lah ci lo-in “Suak kik” ding bek ci hi. 22. A lui sangin a thak a hoih loh zawkna om thei-a, a lui sangin a thak a hoih zawkna om thei hi. 23. Hih la (“Ye Must Be Born Again”) tungtaang-ah a lui sangin a thak hoih zaw hi.

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Zolai Gelhmaan Saturday, June 7, 2008

Noun pen Capital Letter tawh Gelh Ding Vai le Zolai Vai Tuamtuam By Taang Zomi 1. Hih bangin, i kikup khop theih manin, lungdam hang. 2. Noun pen capital letter-a gelh ding cih pen ngaihsutna (idea) hoih khat ahi hi. 3. German kam-ah noun ahih nak leh capital letter tawh kigelh hi. 4. Tua ban-ah pronoun sung panin, second person singular pronoun pen informal (familiar) tak-a a gelh uh ciangin du (small letter)-in gelh uh-a second person plural pronoun pen ihr (small letter)-in gelh uh hi. Formal (unfamiliar; polite; respectful) tak-a a kizat ciangin singular hi ta leh plural hi ta leh Sie (capital letter) ci-in zangh uh hi. 5. Spanish-ah zong, informal tak-a a zat ciang-un second person singular pronoun pen tu (small letter) ci uh-a, formal tak-a a zat ciang-un Ud. (a sau-in, Usted) ci-in capital zangh uh hi. 6. English leeuleeu-ah first person singular pronoun pen I (capital letter) ci-in gelh uh hi. 7. Tu ciangciang, i Zolai-ah English kibulphuh ahih manin, noun-te-ah, proper noun cih simloh, capital letter kizangh lo hi. Page 215 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 8. Nidangin English-ah zong noun teng-ah capital kizangh-a tua zat zia pen a beibei lam hi ta hi. David Crystal31 (formerly Professor of Linguistics, University of Reading32) in ama’ laibu gelh By Hook and By Crook: A Jourmey in Search of English sung-ah hih bangin na gelh hi:33 At the end of the Portmadog cob, on the left if you are driving towards Portmeirion, is a small house where until recently you had to pay a 5p toll per car – an unusual practice, to say the least, on a British A-class road. It’s a legacy of William Madocks’ original toll, which helped rescue him from financial difficulty. But it is no more. The road was nationalized by the Welsh Assembly in 2005. The opening paragraph of the old toll-board is a Roget’s Thesaurus of early nineteenth century vehicle names: TO BE TAKEN AT THIS GATE For every Horse or other Beast of Draught drawing any Coach, Sociable, Berlin, Landau, Chariot, Vis-a-Vis, Chaise, Calash, Chais-marine, Curricle, Chair, Gig, Whisky, Caravan, Hearse, Litter, Waggon, Wain, Cart, Dray, or other Carriage, any Sum not exceeding One Shilling: For every Horse, Mare, Gelding, or Ass, laden or unladen, 31 http://davidcrystal.com/David_Crystal/biography.htm http://david-crystal.blogspot.com/ http://www.bangor.ac.uk/linguistics/about/davidcrystal.php.en http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Crystal 32 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Reading http://www.reading.ac.uk/ 33 David Crystal, By Hook and By Crook: A Journey in Search of English, (Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press, 2008), pp.37-38 http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0007235577/crystalrefere21 Page 216 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan and not drawing, the Sum of Sixpense: but if there shall be more than one such Horse, Mare, Gelding, Mule, or Ass, belonging to the same Person, then the Sum of Sixpense shall be paid for one of them only, and the Sum of Threepense only for every other of them: For every Drove of Oxen, Cows, or Neat Cattle, any Sum not exceeding Five Shillings per Score, and so in proportion for any greater or less Number: For every Drove of Calves, Pigs, Sheep or Lambs, any Sum not exceeding Three Shillings and Sixpense per Score, and so in proportion for any greater or less Number: And for every Person crossing or passing on Foot, without any beast34 or Carriage, any Sum not exceeding Two-pense. The sign shows the eighteenth-century liking for capital letters on nouns considered to be important – Coach, Mare, Pigs, Horse, Berlin, Person, Chaise ..., of course, as these are the factors; but also Numbers, Sum, and Foot, which the sign-writer felt needed extra prominence. The fashion for noun capitalization died out by the end of the century. 9. Mailam-ah kikum toto ni. ----- Original Message ----From: anthony lian To: [email protected] Sent: Tuesday, June 03, 2008 3:01 PM Subject: Re: [ZONET] Zolai Kammal Kaihkhop Ding Vai - II 34 beast (small letter) of Carriage: Hih zong noun mah ahih manin, capital letter hi lo ding hiam, ci-in ka ngaihsun hi. Laimai 39 ka et leh, hih a tung-a lai ii photocopy om-a, tua sung ka et leh Beast (capital letter) of Carriage na ci hi. Hih a tung-a lai pen misprint ahi hi. Page 217 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Guai, Hih bangaa Zolai khantoh nang ki kupna atuamtuam te i sim khak ciang tha ngah huai mahmah hi. Mai lam ah apicing Zolai ki nei in, Minam picing ihih ding hun hong nai tektek zong cih theih lailai hi. Bangmah kuppih theih luat na ding theihna ki cing i neih loh hangin, i tun gam leh muhna tawh ki zui-in them hong kup pih nuam ing. Ih Zolai Kammal aki at ciangin Noun aki ciNungtakna anei, aneilo van khat peuhpeuh leh NI le KHA aki lawng thei leh aki lawng theilo (Chemical) min khat peuh i at ciangin Liamal gol tawh pan leng hoih ding hi. Mangte´n tau dan a at loh hang poi kei na ven maw! EU sungaa gamtampi te lai at ka etet ciangin Noun ahih nak leh laimal gol (capitalletter) tawh pan-in, amau lai ahilo khat azat uh ciangin zong laimal gol mah tawh pan uh hi. Bang mah i theih loh hangin Min khat hi´n teh ci´n akhiatna zon noptheihnop- khiatnop pah hi. Ei Zolai ah zong Laimal kibang in, khiatna ki bang lo tam ahih man-in tuadan zangtheileng hoih ka sak thu khat hi. Tuaciang-in Zolai kammal ahilo Kammal- Lai khat peuhpeuh i at ciangin, ei ma lai ahih lohman-in Laimal gol mah tawh ki pan leh ci´n hong kuppih nuam ing. Zolai leh Manglai asiam te´n Manglai Grammer etteh in, Zolai grammer hong ki vai hawm leh mailam ah ki zang thei mahmah dingin um ing. Hong kuppih, A.Lian Frankfurt

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Zolai Gelhmaan Thursday, June 26, 2008 Zolai Tongphan:

Awmung Nih Kithuap le Pawfi Zatna (The Use of the Double Vowel and the Apostrophe) By Taang Zomi 1. Tu laitak manlah pian ka hih manin, July kha sungin, kei’ ngaihsutna, a sau zaw deuh-a, k’ong gelh zawh na’ng, hong hanciam ning. 2. Awmung Kithuap (Double Vowel) Zatna: Awmung nih kithuap pen aw a sau lahna-in kizangh hi. Thumaanna = Truthfulness A kitelkhial thei kha ding munte-ah awmung kithuap (double vowel) zat ngam lah loh ding, ahi hi. “Nargis huhau-a neek ding nei lote, an le tui ka ka va piak uh leh, a lungdam mahmah kei uh hi.” (awmung [e] khat bek = [e].) Lungdam lo uh, a ci suak hi. “Nargis huhau-a neek ding nei lote, an le tui ka ka va piak uh leh, a lungdam mahmah keei uh hi.” (awmung [e] kithuap = Page 219 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan [ee].) Lungdam uh, a ci suak hi. 3.Pawfi (Apostrophe) zatna: Pawfi pen: 3.1 Neihsa lahna-in kizangh hi. Kei inn “Kei” le “inn” a cihna suak thei. Kisaina om lo. Kei ii inn = nga ih ein = nga-ih-ein = (ငါ ၏ အိမ္) Inn khat om. Tua inn a neipa pen kei. Kei’ inn = ngah ein = ngah-ein = (ငါ႔ အိမ္) Kei ii inn = Kei’ inn (“ii” taangin pawfi kizangh.) 3.2 Laimal (letter) a’ihke’h kammal (word) taangin kizangh hi. “Amah thumang hi.” (He is obedient.) “Ama’ thuman’na pen hoih mahmah hi.” (His obedience is very good.) Hih mun-ah pawfi pen laimal “g” taangin kizangh hi. “Ama’ thumangna pen hoih mahmah hi,” kici lo-in, “Ama’ thuman’na pen hoih mahmah hi,” kici hi. Tedim Labu La #340 “Ciamna Kip Thupha” (Blessed Assurance) Dawng #2 le Dawng #3 khawng khat-ah “Thumanna” kammal om hi. Mi tampi tak in, “thumaanna” sa kha uh hi. A Manglai-ah i et ciangin, Truth, Honesty, Page 220 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Truthfulness, Faithfulness, Justice cih kammalte na om lo-in Submission na om hi. Tua ahih manin, “thumanna” ci-a a kiletkhia pen “thumaanna” hi loin, “thuman’na” (submission; obedience) na hi zaw hi. “Thumang” pan-a hong pai, ahi hi. ZCLS in 2001 kum-a hong khet kikna-ah a thulu pen “Lungmuanna Thupha” hong ci uh-a, “perfect submission” pen “ki-ap siang ta ing,” ci-in hong puahpha uh-a, kitel zaw hi. (Tua kei’ zat dan bang hi leh “Lungmuang” pan-a hong pai ahih manin, “Lungmuan’na Thupha” cih ding ahi hi. Ahi zongin “Lungmuanna Thupha” i cih zong, tel loh nading om tuan saam lo hi.) 4. Coach le Mentor vai pen, tu laitak, ngaihsun man nai ke’ng. 5. Lawmte pawlkhat in Tedim Lai Siangtho (Puahphatna, 2004) pen bulphuh ding hoih hi, a cih uh tawh kisai-in, kei’ ngaisutna, mai lam-ah hong gelh ning. ----- Original Message ----From: Jhum To: [email protected] Sent: Tuesday, June 24, 2008 11:57 PM Subject: [ ZOGAMNET ] Zolai gelh zia dotna Lawmte, zolai in a nuai a te bang ci igelh tam? Hong kuppih dih ve vua. Thumanna (thuman'na)? ; truthfulness thumanna: thuma'nna?; obedience mentor: coach: John Hum

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Zolai Gelhmaan Thursday, July 3, 2008 Zolai Tongphan:

Awmung Nih Kithuap le Pawfi Zatna – 2 (The Use of the Double Vowel and the Apostrophe – 2) By Taang Zomi 1. Zolai-ah kammal i neih beh ding a hoih khat om hi. Tua in, truthfulness le loyalty a tuam tuaka neih ding, cih ahi hi. Ngaihsunsun leeng, a pian’ theihna khat hong om ding hi. 2. Lai Siangtho a maan peenpeen-a i letkhiat nop leh, Lai Siangtho a gelhte (Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Matthew, Paul, etc.) in a zat uh lai pan-in letkhiat ding hoih peen hi. Thuciam Lui pen Hebrew lai tawh kigelh (mun tawmkhat pen Aramaic tawh kigelh; ahi zongin Hebrew le Aramaic pen kibang dektak hi)-a, Thuciam Thak pen Greek tawh kigelh ahih manin, tua laite pana letkhiat ding, hoih peen hi. Hebrew pan Manglai-ah kiletkhia, Manglai pan Kawllai-ah kiletkhia, Kawllai pan Zolai-ah kiletkhia cih bang hi leh Hebrew-a a kigelh peen le Zolai-a a kigelh peen, hong kilamdang mahmah ta ding hi. 3. Hih Paunak 3:3-ah “Do not let love and loyalty leave you” pen “Thumanna leh itna khahsuah ngei kei in,” ci-a kiletkhia ahih leh, tua mun pen bang Lai Siangtho pan-a a kiletkhia hi ding hiam, theih masak huai hi.

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Zolai Gelhmaan Tua n’ong gelh Manglai liinlian a kiletkhia ahih leh bel: (1) “Ngei” pen a kibelap hi ding hi: “... khahsuah ngei kei in.” A Manglai-ah “Do not” ci-a “Never” ci lo hi. “...khahsuah kei in,” hi zaw ding hi. (2) A gualh zia kilehbulh hi: A Manglai-ah “Love and loyalty” ci ahih manin, “Itna leh thumanna” hi zaw leh, a kilawm zaw kha tam, cih nop huai hi. (3) Tua Laisiangtho mun (passage) na muhna Tedim Lai Siangtho sung, a mun (passage) dangte-ah obedience, truthfulness, faithfulness, loyalty cihte bangci bangin kiletkhia hiam cih theih huai hi. A mun (passage) dangte-ah, loyalty, truthfulness, etc, pen “thumanna” ci-a a kiletkhiat naak leh, tua pen letkhia khial kici thei tuan lo ding hi. Obedience zong “thumanna” a cih veve leh bel, letkhia khial kici thei ding hi. Tedim Lai Siangtho (Puahphatna, 2004) sung-ah “thumang” cih kammal mun (passage) 6 bang om hi: Paikhiatna 24:7 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Tua ciangin amah in thuciamna laibu la-in, mite’ zakin tua laibu a sim hi. Amaute in, “Topa’ gensa khempeuh kote in ka hih ding uh a, kote ka thumang ding uh hi,” a ci uh hi. Zefaniah 3:1 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Ama mite mah nengniamin, thumang loin a tatsia, Jerusalem khuapi in gimna ngah ding hi. Timoti Masa 1:9 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Ahi zongin i phawk dingah, mi hoihte-a' dingin thukham a kibawl hilo a, thukham zuilote, thumang lote, Pasian' deih bangin a gamta lote leh mawhneite, biakna lungsim a neilote leh kam kilawmlo a paute, nute pate a thatte, midang a thatte, Titus 3:3 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Bang hang hiam cih leh eite zong nidangin haitatin, Page 224 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan thumang loin, vakvai-in, duhna deihna a tuamtuamte thuaklahin, thusia leh en'na lungsim tawh a gamtate, mite in hong mudahin, eite khatlekhat zong a kimudah ngeite ihi hi. Hebru 5:8 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Amah, Pasian' Tapa hinapi-in a thuakna tawh thumang ahih theihna ding a na kisin hi. Hebru 10:31 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] A nungta Pasian' khutsungah thumang loin i tun'khak ding a lauhuai mahmah ahi hi.

“Thuman” pen 469 sangin a tam zaw om hi: 6 khawng khat lakhia pak leeng: Piancilna 6:9 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Noah’ tangthu hih bang ahi hi. Noah a thuman mi khat hi a, ama khangah paubaanglo hi. Noah pen Pasian tawh kikhawl hi.*6:9 2 Pe 2:5. Piancilna 7:1 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Tua ciangin Topa in Noah kiangah, “Nang leh na innkuanpih mi khempeuh teembaw sungah pai un. Bang hang hiam cih leh hih khang mite sung panin nang bek a thuman na hihna ka hong thei hi. Piancilna 18:19 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Im kei ning. Bang hang hiam cih leh Topa in Abraham' tunga a ciamsa thu a tun'sak theihna dingin ama khita a tate leh a innkuanpihte in thuman leh thutangin nasepna tawh Topa' thupiakte a zuih theihna dingun a hilh dingin amah ka teel khin hi,” a ci hi. Piancilna 18:23 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Tua ciangin Abraham in hong naihin, “Thuman mite, migilote tawh susia khawm takpi ding na hi hiam? Piancilna 18:24 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Tua khuapi sungah thuman mi sawmnga bang om leh, tua sunga om thuman mi sawmngate' hangin khahloin tua Page 225 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan khua susia teitei ding na hi hiam? Piancilna 18:25 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Thuman mite, migilote tawh a kibatna dingin migilote tawh thuman mite thahkhawm ding, hi thei ding ahi hiam? Tua pen hi theilo ding hi. Leitung khempeuh Thukhenpa a manin gamtalo ding ahi hiam?” a ci hi.

“Thumanna” pen mun 113 om hi. 6 khawng lakhia pak leeng: Piancilna 24:27 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] “Ka topa' tungah a itna kip leh a thumanna a pelhlo, ka topa Abraham' Pasian, Topa in thupha ngah ta hen. Kei ka hih leh, ka topa' behte' inn zuatna lampi-ah Topa in hong paipih hi,” a ci hi. Piancilna 30:33 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Tua ahih ciangin nang' tung pana ka thaman a en dingin nong pai ciangin ka thumanna na hong nung muh ding hi. Keel lakah a puanglo leh a giallo peuhmah leh tuuno lakah a vomlo peuhmah, kei kiangah a kimuh zenzen leh, gukin kiseh pah ding hi,” a ci hi. Siampi Laibu 19:15 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] “Note in thukhenna-ah thu a tangloin na khen kei ding uh hi. Mizawngte langgen loin, a liante' thu zuiloin, thumanna tawh na vengte uh thu na khen ding uh hi.*19:15 Pai 23:6-8; Thkna 16:19. Thu Hilhkikna 6:25 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Amah in eite hong thupiak bangin Topa i Pasian' mai-ah hih thupiakte khempeuh limtakin zui lehang eite-a' dingin thumanna hi ding hi,’ na ci ding uh hi. Thu Hilhkikna 9:4 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] “ Topa na Pasian un note mai panin amaute a nawhkhiat khit ciangin, na lungsim uhah, ‘Hih leitang a luah dingin Topa in hong paipihna pen komau' thumanna hang ahi hi,’ ci kha kei un. Topa in na mai uhah amaute a hawlkhiatna pen hih minamte' gitlohna hang hizaw hi. Page 226 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Thu Hilhkikna 9:5 [Judson-Tedim] [WEB-Tedim] Na thumanna hang uh ahi a, na lungsim manna hang uh tawh ahi zongin amau' leitang a luah ding na hi kei uh hi. Topa na Pasian un na mai panun amaute a hawlkhiatna pen hih minamte' gitlohna hang leh Topa in na pu na pate uh Abraham, Isaac, leh Jakob tungah a thuciamna kammal a kipsak theihna ding ahi hi.

“Thuman’na” cih kammal om lo hi. “Obey,” “obedience” cih bang kammalte pen “thumang” ci-in kiletkhia-a, ahih hangin, “Na thuman’na hangin k’ong paakta hi,” cih bang mun-te-ah, “thuman’na” cih kammal kizangh lo-a, “Thumang na hih man-in k’ong paakta hi,” cih bangin kiletkhia hi. Tua bang-a a kiletkhia suaksuak (translated consistently) ahih naak leh, kiletkhia khial kici thei lo ding hi. 4. Kei’ letkhiat ding bang hi leh bel, loyalty cihte pawl pen “thumaanna” ci-in, obedience pen “thuman’na” ka ci nuam hi. 5. “Na degree ngah kisaktheihpihna’n nei kei in”: Hih mun-ah pawfi (apostophe) pen neihsa lahna-a a kizang hi lo hi. Laimal (letter) or kammal (word) a kilokhia lo (omitted) taang-a a kizang (substitute) ahi hi. Kisaktheihpihna-in = Kisaktheihpina’n Pawfi pen “in” sung-a om “i” taang-a a kizangh ahi hi. 6. Kikum to zeel ni. ----- Original Message ----Page 227 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan From: Jhum To: [email protected] Sent: Friday, June 27, 2008 2:00 AM Subject: [ ZOGAMNET ] zolai gelh zia Lawmte aw, Abeisa a kong dot te, Ka telnop takpi kong dot a hi a, limtak nong dawn man un ka lungdam hi. anaui a te zong hong kuppih lai un. 1. Paunak 3:3 ah, laitei pa in" Thumanna leh itna khah suah ngei kei in" cih pen " Do not let love and loyalty leave you". Hih pen "thumaanna" cih zawk ding ahia leh. (Pawlkhat te cih dan hi leh laitei pa-in tei khial ai tam. 2. ( ’ ) apostrophe pen neihsa lah na mun ah ki zangh ci leeng, gentehna in: Na degree ngah kisak theih pih na'n nei kei in, ci leeng a ki ci thei na. Ahih kei leh, aw sau ahih teh: "kisak theih pih naan nei kei in, ci zaw ding maw.( tunai zolai kihawm khia pawl khat te ah tua ci zat ziau ka muh man hi)

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Zolai Gelhmaan Tuesday, May 27, 2008 Attachments: (1) Lungdampih Ankuang Uum Khopna [Puahphatna].pdf. (2) Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding (1).pdf

Zolai Vai Pawlkhat le Zokam Tone Vai By Taang Zomi K’ong it Tawi Lun’ Pa, 1. N’ong email khak, lungdamna tawh na ngah ing. 2. Mitpil tak-in a khialhna n’ong kawkkhiat manin, nuam ing. I pau pen puah theih ahih hangin, puah thei luat om lo-a, i lai bel puah tohtoh ding, ahi hi. 4. Hih bangin, i muhnate kihawm, kidong, kikum-a i om pen nuam [nuaàm] mahmah hi. Zong nuam [nuaǎm] mahmah ing!:) 5. Zan lam deuh-a n’ong lai khak zong, k’ong thuh zawh teh hong thuk ning. Tone vai hi-a, tu laitak, ka uuk mahmah khat hi. [Hih laikhak a tawpna lam-ah tawm hong maleep ing.] 6. Ka laigelh tawh kisai:

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Zolai Gelhmaan Attachment: Lungdampih Ankuang Uumkhopna.pdf pen Attachment: Lungdampih Ankuang Uum Khopna.pdf ding hi zaw hi. Tua mah bangin, Miami khua-a om Taang Lian Hau Mung (Tg. Hau Mung) in zong, lungdampihna ankuang umm khopna khat hong vaihawm hi. pen Miami khua-a om Taang Lian Hau Mung (Tg. Hau Mung) in zong, lungdampihna ankuang uum khopna khat hong vaihawm hi. ding hi zaw hi. A gelh khial hi ing. Niang kiang-a information ka nget pen ka ngakngak hangin, hong tung thei lo; Hau Mung in hong sap tuam vilvel ahih manin, a ziakai lua lo-a suaksak nuam; computer problem omin, nai nih hal-in system shut down om; tua ahih manin, nawh tat mahmah-in, ka man khit teh khak pah; ka khak khit Monday khawng teh, a khialte pawlkhat mu kik. Nang’ muhte (hih a tung-a-te geel) ban-ah pawlkhat khial. Gentehna: p. 2, para 3, line 3 (Corner Stone University) pen Cornerstone University ding hi zaw; Page 230 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan p. 3, para 1, line 1 (Southampton United Kingdom) pen United Kingdom ding hi zaw; p. 3, para 7, line1 le p. 4, para (p. 3 pan para kizom), line 1: Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics nuai-ah School 8 leh Institute/Center 4 om hi: Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences (LASS) nuai-ah School 6 le Institute/Center 2 om hi. [“hi” khit teh colon kikoih kha hi.] pen Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics nuai-ah School 8 leh Institute/Center 4 om hi. Faculty of Law, Arts and Social Sciences (LASS) nuai-ah School 6 le Institute/Center 2 om hi. [“hi” khit teh period ding hi zaw hi.] ding hi zaw. Ka khialhna a dang zong om lai kha-in teh. A maan khin kei zongin, ka puahphatsa pen hong khak ing. 7. Kammal Kinaaisak Zia ka gelhsa khat [Bang Kammalte Kinaaisak Ding? (1)] hong khak ing. (2) pen gelh man nai lo hi’ng. 8. Tone (aw saang-niam) pen a saan’na a niamna (pitch) le a tomna a sauna (length) tawh kizui-in, hih bangin mu ing. 8.1 Pitch pen li phasak ing: 8.1.1 Falling-Rising (tawmkhat nuaikiat, tua teh kahto, kawito). Nuam [Nuaǎm] mahmah ing. Tui [tuǔi] duh ing. A mai [maǎi] a tai hia? Page 231 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 8.1.2 Rising (kahto) Na hai [haái] tawh tui suak in. Hih laimal na kheel [kheél] a hia? Ka pa’ [paá] laibu a sim hi ve’ng [veéng] aw [áw]. 8.1.3 Level (pheipai) Paipai [Paīpaī] lecin tualpi [tuaālpi] zang [zaāng] khat na mu ding hi. Tua tualpi [tuaālpi] pen Tualzang [Tuaālzaāng] kici mai lo dia?! 8.1.4 Falling (nuaikiat) Hau [haàu] leeng [leèng] nuam [nuaàm] hi [hiì], kici [kìciì] hi [hiì]. Khial [Khiàl] leeng [leèng] mawh [màwh] maaisakna [maàisàkna] om hi. 8.2 Length pen li phasak ing. 8.2.1 Partial (A bup kilo kha lo) Hih Partial pen tone li pha lo-in thum bek pha hi. Falling: Ka [Kà] nu le ka [kà] pa ka it hi. Level: Ing-ga-land [ī ng-gā-laānd] gam pen tuikulh ahi hi. Rising/Falling-Rising: Ka [ká/kǎ] pian’na khua-ah va hawh ning. Ka [ká/kǎ] laibu na [ná/nǎ] sim ve. Hih pen koi hi zaw hiam, khen hak mahmah hi. Glottal Stop/Creaky Page 232 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Hih Creaky zong tone thum bek mah pha hi. Falling: Hong hawh [hàwh] pahpah [pàhpàh] o! Level: Hih zong, a aw i lawh theih hangin, kammal i zat taktak tam lo hi leh kilawm hi. Rising/Falling-Rising: Ama’ hehna [háhna/hěhna], ama’ dahna [dáhna/dǎhna] cik teh[téh/těh] bei ding? Hih zong koi peen hi zaw, tel hak hi. 8.2.3 Short (aw tom) Hih pen tone li pha hi. Falling: Tum [tùm] peuh leng [lèng] ngah lel ning. Hih mun-ah, peuh le ngah pen Short hi lo-in Creaky ahi hi. Level: Lengtong [Lēngtōng] Pauno na thei hia? Rising: An na kham [khám] dong na ne o [ó]! Falling-Rising: An [ǎn] na kham dong [dŏng] na ne [neě] o! 8.2.4 Long (aw sau) Long zong tone li mah pha hi. Falling: Seem [seèm] in la, ne in. Level: Hiah tu [tuū] in la [laā], pau [paāu] kei in. Page 233 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Rising: Zomi na hi [hií] hiam [hiaám]? Falling-Rising: Zomi [Zomiǐ] na hi hiam? 8.3 Tone pen li nei hang-a, tonemic 16 nei hi hang. Ahi zongin, a tung-a i muh mah bangin, 14 bek a taktak ahi hi. 2 pen a thu bek hi-a a taktak-ah kizang thei lo hi. 8.4 Nung-a na gen: Thunget ding i phawk hiam? Thunget ding ihphawk leh thu ngen ni. cih tawh kisai-in, Thunget ding i [ì] phawk hiam cih pen Partial Length sung-a Falling Pitch peen hi. See para 8.2.1 and Table 2, #01 Thunget ding ih [í/ǐ] phawk leh thu ngen ni. cih pen Partial Length sung Rising/Falling-Rising peen hi. See Para 8.2.1 and Table 2, #03 8.5 Theih ding: 8.5.1 Hih mun-ah aw tom ahih lam pen vowel khat tawh kilak hi. Van [Vàn] = goods. Aw sau ahih lam vowel a kibang nih tawh kilak hi. Van [Vaàn] = sky 8.5.2 Hih mun-a a kizang terminology pen i gen thu a kitel pak nading cihna hi-a, mai lam-ah a hoih zaw, a maan zaw i muh ciangin, a kikheel thei ding, ahi hi. 8.5.3 Awsuah (pronunciation) pen square bracket nih kikaal-ah kikoih hi. Page 234 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Gen = [Geěn] 8.5.4 Phoneme pen slash nih kikaal-ah kikoih hi. ph = /f/ 8.5.5 Laimalte pen angled bracket nih kikaal-ah kikoih hi. kh = 8.5.6. Lim (figures, digarms, charts, graphs, tables, etc.) pen a kitheih tuam khak leh cihna bek hi-a, a suaih dan kisiam nai lo hi.

Tone Marks for Zolai

` ¯ ´ ˇ

[grave accent] = falling [macron] = level [acute accent] = rising [caron or hacek] = falling-rising

1. nuaikiat ` [U+0060] à [0224] [U+00E0] è [0232] [U+00E8] ì [0236] [U+00EC] ò [0242] [U+00F2] ù [0249] [U+00F9] 2A. pheipai ¯ [0175] [U+00AF] Page 235 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

ā [U+0101] ē [U+0113]] ī [U+0128] ō [U+014D] ū [U+016B] or 2B. pheipai ¨ [0168] [U+00A8] ä [0228] [U+00E4] ë [0235] [U+00EB] ï [0239] [U+00EF] ö [0246] [U+00F6] ü [0252] [U+00FC] 3. tangkahto [a tang tak-a kah to] ´ [0180] [U+00B4] á [0225] [U+00E1] é [0233] [U+00E9] í [0237] [U+00ED] ó [0243] [U+00F3] ú [0250] [U+00FA] 4. kawikahto [a kawi-a kah to] ˇ [U+02C7] ǎ [U+01CE] ě [U+011B] ǐ [U+01D0] ŏ [U+014F] ǔ [U+01D4] Page 236 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Diagrams

Diagram 1: Falling-Rising Tone

Diagram 2: Rising Tone

Diagram 3: Level Tone

Diagram 4: Falling Tone

Diagram 5: All Four Tones

Page 237 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Tables Table 1: Theoretically 16 Tonemes Length

Partial

Glottal (Creaky?)

Short

Long

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Falling-Rising (04) tǎ

(08) tǎh

(12) tǎng

(16) taǎng

Rising

(03) tá

(07) táh

(11) táng

(15) taáng

Level

(02) tā

(06) tāh

(10) tāng

(14) taāng

Falling

(01) tà

(05) tàh

(09) tàng

(13) taàng

Pitch

Table 2: Practically only 14 Tonemes Length

Partial

Glottal (Creaky?)

Short

Long

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Falling-Rising (03) tǎ tá Rising

(06) tǎh táh

(10) tǎng

(14) taǎng

(09) táng

(13) taáng

Level

(02) tā

(05) tāh

(08) tāng

(12) taāng

Falling

(01) tà

(04) tàh

(07) tàng

(11) taàng

Pitch

Page 238 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

----- Original Message ----From: [email protected] To: [email protected] Sent: Monday, May 26, 2008 11:58 PM Subject: Re: [ZOMIFLA] Lia Kham Man Niang in Ph.D. a Ngah Lungdampih Ankuang Uum Khopna ?

Dear Sia Thangbawi, Dam maw? HIh lai nagelhna ah color tawh kahihnate na-et pak sak ve. Uumkhopna (avekpi kizom) aci zaw dan mah hi ni teh maw. Tuaciang, ankuang uum cih zangh leng zu umm cih dan in zangh maw, a tuam khat zangh nahia? Khatveivei, kigelh khial thei-in, tua lamsang a gen nuam hi keng. Nagelh dan athei nuam hi zaw ing. Tawilun'pa == In a message dated 5/25/2008 8:11:40 P.M. Eastern Daylight Time, [email protected] writes:

Attachment: Lungdampih Ankuang Uumkhopna.pdf Taang Lian Hau Mung’ Thusiamna Tawh Lia Kham Man Niang in Ph.D. a Ngah

Lungdampih Ankuang Uum Khopna

Page 239 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

By Taang Zomi 2007 kum-in Lia Kham Man Niang in University of Southampton pan-in Ph.D. (Electronics and Electrical Engineering) ngah hi. Leitung mun tuamtuam panin kilungdampih ciat hi.

Miami khua-a om Taang Lian Hau Mung (Tg. Hau Mung) in zong, lungdampihna ankuang umm khopna khat hong vaihawm hi.

==xxooxx== Date: Mon, 12 May 2008 08:18:29 -0700 (PDT) From: Myanmar Mission Subject: Re: Fw: [Zolite] Some Basics of Zolai Grammar To: Zomi News Relay Service , [email protected], [email protected] CC: [email protected] Dear Tg Zomi, Hih bangin veina lianpi tawh thu n'ong kup kik pen nakpi takin manpha leh lungdam huai sa ing. Na lungsim sung a om bangbang, sit nei lo in n'ong suut khiat den ding pen aki lunggulh den hi. Nacih nopna zong ong theih pih ing. Thupi leh kician mahmah hi. Tutung kei' cih nopna pen tuam pai pian in mi a tam zaw in sang zo lo ding in lamen ing. Kei' muh dan akicing zaw in na-et kik sak phawtphawt in. Thuletpi ding (1) Leitung ah Zopau lian bek mi khempeuh in pau ziahziah, Mangpau, Kawlpau cih bang om vet lo cih dan in ngaih sun phawtphawt ding. ( Pau nam tuamtuam tawh meh lo ding cihna) (2) Tua Zopau pen mantak in akicih kik theihna dingin Alphabets ( a-z) leh punctuation teng ciang suakta takin zangh Page 240 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan ding. (3) Zolai tawh kisai buaina a-om simin Zopau bulphuh in puah kik ding. HIh a tung a thum teng kei ma letpi thu khat hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh Manglai leh ei lai kibang lo lua kisa in, zong kilehbulh lo lai hi. Kisai vet lo i ci diam maw. Zolai siamna dingin Manglai siam phawt zong kisam lo hi. Zopau siam phawt ding kisam hi. Ih Zolai pen Mangte' ong phuah sak ahih manin, aphawk khak loh uh na tampi om pah hi. Mangte' aa a val in i laak dan Gentehna in min ( Cin) pawlkhatte bangin Zolai in (C) ihneih hang Mangte in i ( C) alawh uh ciang ( S) in ging sak, (CH) tawh Zopau in khiatna nei lo, aging mawk khat suak, ahi zong in tua (CH)pen mah kilai teitei; tua min neite' lai gelh sim leng lah amin lian uah ( CH) akoih pong uh hang thu leh la agelhna uh ah (C) mah zang veve; mipil in ih upmawhte tata hi sawnsawn. Nung a kacih nopte: Gentehna: Thunget ding i phawk hiam? Thunget ding ihphawk leh thu ngen ni. Atung ah, (i) or (ih) tuaktuak a khiatna kibang na pi amasa pen ah kidam lawh in a nunung pen kinak lawh den hi. Dam lawh na ding mun leh nak lawh ding mun pen tua laigual ihsim khit teh kithei pan hi. Tua pen, khuamial ah lampai tawh kibang in, guam neu ah i khe a kiat vat leh lampi peuh na sang vat in ihpai khit teh kithei pan tawh kibang hi. Nuam lo duaiduai mahmah hi.Tua bang a-om loh theitheina dingin kagualh kholhna hi. Mangte leh Kawlte kiangpan kalaak hi lo hi. Kacihnopna ah, Manglai leh mite' pau tuamtuam tawh Zolai Page 241 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan ihpuah sawm leh bangmah kagen ding om kei. Zopau tawh i puah sawm leh bek kei a lunglut mahmah khat hi mawk ing. Atung a kacih dante tawh kisai n'ong behlap nop a-om leh ong gelh lai in. Nagen nop a-om pak kei leh zong mai ah ihkikup nop pen kammal guak om sak ding maw gawm khawm ding cih tawh kisai thei cian nuam ing. Tua teng lak ah, ( Sak ) cih tawh kisai hi. (Sak) cih kammal pen amah guak omsak ding maw, amah guak om tawntung sak lo ding maw. Natheih bangbang, ong thei kik pahpah sak in...., cih dan hi. ( Zopau bulphuh in ong kum kik in.) Hih tawh kisai kakan san laitak hi. Lungdamna lianpi leh lametna lianpi tawh, Editor USA Thupuak

Page 242 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Tuesday, October 10, 2006 Zolai Gelhmaan:

Title Suan’na, Degree Suan’na, Apostrophe Zatna, etc. By Taang Zomi Hih pen, min mai-a Title (Rev., Dr., Prof., Col., Tg., U, Salai, Saw, Mahn, Sai, etc.) suan'na, min nung-a Degree (B.A., M.A., Ph.D., etc.) suan'na, le kammal (word) sung-a om laimal (letter) taang-a Apostrophe zatna, cihte bangci zat ding cih tawh kisai, Dr. Tg. Neng Ngaih Lian tawh email zangh-a ka kikupna uh hia, aituam thute pen phiat-in tua a kiphiat mun-ah x x x x x x x x x x ka koih hi. == [01]

D.Min. Ngah Ta Ing ----- Original Message ----From: Neng Lian To: [email protected] Sent: Sunday, August 20, 2006 10:53 AM Subject: D.Min. Ngah Ta Ing Sanggamte aw, Page 243 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan August 18, 2006 ni in ka D.Min. Certificate ong tung khongkhong ta hi. Sum tawh tha tawh ka buaipih khat hi a, ka lungdamna ong ko hi ing. Seminary min nei leh zahtak huai bel hi kei, a hi zongin Zomite kihai lai, kizawng laite lakah kihel lai ka hih manin kei adingin manpha bek hi lo in ka hihtheih tawpnahi ta hi. Maban bel certificate ngahna dingin laisim ngap nawn keng. xxxxxxxxxx Ka mawtaw leh doctorate boih lawm khawm nuam mahmah ing, dolla mah a om kei leh vai kihawm zo kei veh, x x x x x x x xxx Sia Khup Za Go Biography ka bawl zo ta ing, Aug 23 in release ding. A lemtang khat in ong fwd ning. Cihtaak ta kei leh ong simsak le uh cin maw,na man uh ciangin. Tg. Lian Gauhati == [02]

Dr. Neng Ngaih Lian Aangtan’pihna ----- Original Message ----From: Taang Zomi News Relay Service To: Neng Lian ; [email protected]ups.com ; [email protected] ; [email protected] ; [email protected] ; [email protected] ; [email protected] ; [email protected] Page 244 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Sent: Sunday, August 20, 2006 4:55 PM Subject: (Blessed Zomi) Dr. Neng Ngaih Lian Aangtan’pihna Dr. Neng Ngaih Lian Aangtan’pihna By Taang Zomi Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante ci-a ih theih ih lawm Ngaih Lian in, Andersonville Theological Seminary, Camilla, Georgia panin, Doctor of Ministry (D. Min.) degree hong ngah ahih manin, lungdampih-in ih aangtan’pih hi. Min. certificate pen August 4, 2006 ni-in, kikhak-a, August 18, 2006 ni-in, ama’ omna Indiaah ngah hi. Dr. Neng Ngiah Lian in M.R.E. zong a ngahsa ahi hi. Oakland Park, Florida-a a om sung-in, M.R.E. ngah-in, tua khit ciangin, D. Min. sin to hi. D. Min. a ngah ma-in, India-ah va ciah hi. Amah pen, Rev. Khup Za Go’ sanggampa’ tapa ahi hi. Mipil innkuan hi uh ei! Ama’ mailam ding khempeuh, Topa Pasian in na makaih, lam na lak hen! == [03]

Re: x x x x x x x x x x ----- Original Message ----From: Neng Lian To: Taang Zomi News Relay Service Sent: Saturday, September 23, 2006 4:52 AM Subject: Re: x x x x x x x x x x Page 245 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Sia Thangbawi, Doctorate ngah nong lungdampihna na sim ing. Ka Lungdam mahmah hi. Sept 02 in Lamka ah Pawlpi mite tawh Lungdamkohna hun vok khat go in na bawl ung. Manpha sa ing. Maban pen Pasian thuthu hi. Kuamah peuh na hoihkim ding uh kong lamen hi. Taang pen Doctor/Dr in i kheng mai diam or any suggestion? Tg. Dr. Ngaih Lian Swante Gauhati == [04]

Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante ----- Original Message ----From: Zomi News Relay Service To: Neng Lian Cc: [email protected] ; [email protected] Sent: Sunday, September 24, 2006 1:58 PM Subject: Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante K’ong it Ngaih Lian, 1. Thu kiza thei zeel ih hih manin, nuam ing. 2. Doctorate ngahna lungdam koh pawi, na bawl thei na hih man-un, lungdam huai seem hi. Page 246 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 3. Suggeted Order of Words: (1) Rev. Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante (Hih bel, ordained pastor na suah leh, zat ding, ahi hi.) Rev. masa ding. Dr. in zom ding. Tg. in zom ding. Min mai-ah Dr. kisuang khin zo ahih man, min nung-ah D. Min. suan’ kul nawn lo. Dr. Rev. hi lo. Tg. Dr. hi lo. Tg. Rev. hi lo. Tg. Dr. Rev. hi lo. Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D. Min. hi lo. (2) Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante (Hih bel, ordained pastor na hih kei leh, zat theih, ahi hi.) Tg. Dr. hi lo. Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D. Min. hi lo. (3) Dr. Ngaih Lian Swante Dr. Ngaih Lian Swante, D. Min. hi lo. (4) Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D. Min. Min mai-ah Dr. kisuang lo ahih manin, min nung-ah D. Min. kisuang thei. 4. Kawlgam-ah hih bangin kizang hi: Page 247 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Dr. U Kyaw Than U = Tg. Dr. U Kyaw Than = Dr. Tg. Kyaw Than Rev. Dr. U Ba Han U = Tg. Rev. Dr. U Ba Han = Rev. Dr. Tg. Ba Han Rev. Dr. Daw Eh Wah Daw = Lia Rev. Dr. Daw Eh Wah = Rev. Dr. Lia Eh Wah Col. (Dr.) (U) Hla Han Col. (Dr.) (U) Hla Han = Col. (Dr.) (Tg.) Hla Han Amah pen, galkap bu (colonel) hi-in, siavuan (doctor) zong, ahi hi. Galkap a sep laitak-in, a min mai-ah Dr. kisuang khol lo-in, Col. Hla Han kici hi. Ahi zongin, khat veivei, siavuan a hih lam a kitheih ding a kul hun om thei ahih manin, Col. (Dr.) Hla Han kici thei hi. Kawlgam-ah, galkap za min khit teh U kisuang lo hi. Tua ahih manin, Col. U Hla Han kici lo-in Col. Hla Han bek kici zaw hi. Galkap a sep nawn loh ciangin a min mai-ah Col. kisuang nawn khol lo-in Dr. U Hla Han kici hi. 5. Hih a nuai-ah, ka gelhsate pawlkhat hong lak ing. ZoNet na sign-up nading-a na zat, na yahoo.com email address tawh na lut lecin. Lia & Taang, Nu & Pa, leh Pi & Pu Gelhtu: Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/14420 Min Mai-a Lia/Taang, Nu/Pa, Pi/Pu Zatna By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/15457 http://www.geocities.com/tgzomi/ Page 248 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan “Lia” leh “Taang” Zatna Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17056 “Pi Lia” leh “Pu Taang” Thu By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17318 “Pi Lia” leh “Pu Taang” Thu (Revised) [Discard the previous posting] By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17321 Lia leh Taang, Nu leh Pa, Pi leh Pu Thu Gentel Kikna (1) By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17387 Lia leh Taang, Nu leh Pa, Pi leh Pu Thu Gentel Kikna (2) By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17390 Lia leh Taang, Nu leh Pa, Pi leh Pu Thu Gentel Kikna (3) By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17392 Lia leh Taang, Nu leh Pa, Pi leh Pu Thu Gentel Kikna (4) By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17393 Lia leh Taang, Nu leh Pa, Pi leh Pu Thu Gentel Kikna (4) [Correction; please discard the previous posting] By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17394 Page 249 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Lia leh Taang, Nu leh Pa, Pi leh Pu Thu Gentel Kikna (5) By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/17448 6. Topa in thupha hong piak behbeh hen. N'ong it, Thang Bawi == [05]

Re: x x x x x x x x x ----- Original Message ----From: Neng Lian To: Zomi News Relay Service Sent: Monday, September 25, 2006 2:23 AM Subject: Re: x x x x x x x x x Sia Thangbawi, Lungdam hi. Ko lam hoihtek buang ung. Zanin Sia JM Paupute tawh Gauhati ah ZCF kikhopnaah kimu ung. Amau innah kikhop tawp ciangin baang ing. Kikhopnaah doctorate ngah Pawlpite tung ah lungdam lahna in niangtui leh moh na in na vak ing. Kikhop tawp in innkongah dawn ngengngang ung. Topa thupha hi. xxxxxxxxxx Ka mawtaw a nunglam truckkhat in ong nawk sak zek kha a, tua bawlsaka paihi ing. Tuni la khia ta ning. Minor damage hi. Page 250 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Kithuza zel ni. Tg. Ngaih Lian == [06]

Re: Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante ----- Original Message ----From: Neng Lian To: Zomi News Relay Service Sent: Monday, September 25, 2006 2:31 AM Subject: Re: Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante Sia Thangbawi Suggestion hoihtak nong pia a, nuam ing. Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian in na gelh ning. Lamka CBA sunga ka mission secy. uh Rev. a ngah ma in Ph.D. ngah zo a a khua nungin ordination ngah hi. Aman Dr. Rev. ci in at hi. Dr. ngah masa zaw ahih mana a masasa a at um ing. Tua mah bangin JM Paupu, leh etc in Rev ngahmasa uh a a khua nungin doctorate ngah uh a, Rev. Dr. ci ahi tam ci ing. Nang cih bangin Rev. Dr. cih pen ahi zaw ding mah in tuat ing, ngah nunung/masak cih bang hi lo in. Lungdam Topa thupha! Dr.Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante == [07] Page 251 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante / Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D.Min. ----- Original Message ----From: [email protected] To: Neng Lian Cc: [email protected] ; [email protected] Sent: Tuesday, September 26, 2006 3:11 PM Subject: Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante / Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D.Min. K'ong it Ngaih Lian, Title (Rev., Dr., Prof., etc.) leh Degree (B.A., M.A., Ph.D. , etc.) suan’ zia tawh kisai, ka gelhsa khat, k’ong piak ding mangngilh kha ka hih manin, hih mun-ah hong pia ing. Yahoogroup (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi) pen, na subscribe-na Yahoo email tawh kilut thei ding-a, forum (http://zocia.org/forum; http://www.zogam.com) pen na sign-up phot kul ding hi. Rev., Dr., Prof., etc. ih Suan’na Ding Mun leh Hun By Taang Zomi http://groups.yahoo.com/group/zomi/message/14325 http://zocia.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=270 http://zocia.org/forum/viewtopic.php?t=270&highlight=rev+ +prof http://www.zogam.com/modules.php? name=Forums&file=viewtopic&t=1598 http://www.zogam.com/modules.php? Page 252 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan name=Forums&file=viewtopic&t=1598&highlight=rev++prof N’ong it, Thang Bawi == [08]

Re: Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante / Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D.Min. ----- Original Message ----From: Neng Lian To: [email protected] Sent: Thursday, September 28, 2006 6:37 AM Subject: Re: Dr. Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante / Tg. Ngaih Lian Swante, D.Min. Sia Thangbawi Lungdam hi, i kiho thei zel nuam hi. Damin website na en ning. Thukhat pakah “K’ong” na cih pen LS ah “Ko’ng” kici zaw hia le, ken “ko’ng” ci in na gelh zel ve’ng in. Koi zaw amaan ahia? Thudang genpak ding om kei, kithuza zel ni. Ngaih Lian Swante Gwahati == [09] Page 253 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan

K’ong, N’ong, etc. ----- Original Message ----From: [email protected] To: Neng Lian Cc: [email protected] ; [email protected] Sent: Thursday, September 28, 2006 7:05 PM Subject: K'ong, N'ong, etc. K’ong it Ngaih Lian, 1. N’ong email khak, lungdam ing. 2. Apostrophe Zatna K’ong = Ka ong = Ka hong N’ong = Na ong = Na hong Thu k’ong gen hi. = Thu ka ong gen hi. = Thu ka hong gen hi. Thupha n’ong pia hi. = Thupha na ong pia hi. = Thupha na hong pia hi. Apostrophe pen laimal khat or khat sang-a tam zaw taang-a a kizangh ahi hi. Hih mun-ah: Apostrophe pen "-a" taang-a a kizangh ahi hi. Ka ong = K’ong Na ong = N’ong Apostrophe pen "-a h-" taang-a a kizangh ahi hi. Ka hong = K’ong Page 254 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Na hong = N’ong Ko’ng No’ng ci-a a gelh ding hi lehang, apostrophe pen bang laimal taang-a a kizangh hi ding? 3. Thu kikum toto ni. N’ong it, Thang Bawi == [10]

Re: K'ong, N'ong, etc. From: Neng Lian To: [email protected] Sent: Tuesday, October 03, 2006 6:18 AM Subject: Re: K’ong, N’ong, etc. Sia Thangbawi Lungdam ing. Kician mahmah hi, nong hilhcianna thu. Lai Siangtho ah Sia Kam Khaw Thang leh aseppih mi tuamtuamte’n bang dinga nang cih bangin na zang lo uh ahi tam, cih simsim om lai, tawmno khat. English a ‘do not’ pen ‘don’t’ paizia pan ci leng lah ...... na gen pen kip zaw mah. xxxxxxxxxx

Page 255 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Lungdam mahmah hi. Ong phawk den, Dr.Tg.Ngaih Lian Swante Gauhati

Page 256 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Monday, January 14, 2008

Zomi Culture 2008:

Zomi Mimal Minnote Vai (The Issue of Zomi Personal Diminutive Names) By Taang Zomi 1. Pu Tong Seal’ lai gelhte, i sim khak loh hong sawt pian ta ahih manin, tu'n i muh kik teh, i lung khat bang hong nuam tuam liang hi. 2. Pu Tong Seal’ gen bangmah-in, Pi Julia Haukhek’ lai gelhte pen, thugil-in, sim ding leh zuih ding-a a kilawm mahmahte ahi hi. 3. Postscript sung-a a gelh “Sia Lialian” cih tawh kisai pen, amah’n zong hong gelh kha ding hi ta leh, kei’n zong, kei’ aituam-in hong gelh nuam ing. 3.1 “Lialian” sung-a “Lia” a cih pen lakam-a “Lia” (numei; female) a cihna peen hi lo hi. Sia Hang Khan LIAN’ minno (diminutive) sung-a a kihel min hi. 3.2 Minno pawlkhat pen hih bangin kinei hi:

Page 257 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Minpi Tawpna Minno or Minpi Sung-a Khat peuh

Gentehna

CIN

Cicin

Tg. Thang Khen CIN; Rev. Tg. Thawng Khan CIN

CING

Cicing

Lia Niang Hau CING

DIM

Didim

Lia Cing Khan DIM

GIN

Gigin [tu’n Tg. En Suan GIN Suanpi kici ta.]

HAU

Hahau

Lia Niang HAU

LAM

Lalam

Lia Ciin LAM Niang [?]

LIAN

Lialian

Tg. Hang Khan LIAN; Lia Niang Ngaih LIAN

LUN

Lulun

Lia Lian Khan LUN

KHAI

Khakhai; Khaikhai

Tg. Khup Sian Nun KHAI

MAN

Maman

Lia Ciin En MAN

MANG

Mamang

Tg. Kham Khan MANG

SIAN

Siasian

Tg. Thang SIAN Lian

SUAN

Suasuan

Tg. Gin Za SUAN

THAWN

Thawthawn

Tg. Thang Za THAWN

3.3 Suahsak ding-a ka sawm nai loh ahih hangin, Zomi Personal Names (draft) hong khahkhia ing. A kiman hi nai lo hi. Behlap nopna, laakkhiat nopna a neite in, hong huh thei ding cih lametna tawh, k’ong khahkhiat hi. 4.1 Lakam “Lia” pen, min mai-ah i koih ciangin, a tam zaw in, Page 258 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan nungak’ min mai-ah koih uh hi. Pasal (husband) a neih uh ciangin, a min mai uah “Lia” koih nawn lo uh hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, “Lia” pen nungak a cihna kisa kha ahih man hi. Tua mah bangin “Taang” pen, min mai-ah i koih ciangin, a tam zaw in, tangval’ min mai-ah koih uh hi. Zi a neih uh ciangin, a min mai uah “Taang” koih nawn lo uh hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, “Taang” pen tangval a cihna kisa kha ahih man hi. “Lia” pen numei cihna hi-a, “Taang” pen pasal cihna ahi hi. Kum tam, kum tawm tawh kisai lo, pasal/zi neih leh neih loh tawh kisai lo, ta/tu neih leh neih loh tawh kisai lo hi. 4.2.1 1250–1950 kikaal sung, bang kum hiam khat-a a kiphuak, Hauzel Beh Lapi sung-a om Tanu Khakna La-ah hih bangin na om hi:35 3. Tukawl tawi ing, khawh louma va zam ing e, Ka sial za-in tam, ka chiin lianu ngai ing e, Lakmai ka luankhi’n zel hi e. ciin = u lia = nu; numei ciin lia = unu, u numei 4.2.2 Tua Hauzel Beh Lapi sung-a om Ton’ La-ah hih bangin na om hi:36 3. Ka pahtaangah ni nel sum bang kai e, Aisa phek nangin hon zial hi e, Ka tuai lianu’n siktui bing bang khai hi e. tuai = nau lia = nu; numei tuai lia = naunu; nau numei 35 H. Lianzamang Guite, Hauzel Genealogy (ed. J. Thang Lian Pau) (Aizawl, Mizoram: Haukhum Hauzel, 2006), p. 101 36 Ibid., p.102 Page 259 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan 4.2.3 Tua hun pawl mah-a a kiphuak Dousel Beh Lapi sung-a om Tanu Khaakna La-ah hih bangin na om hi:37 3. Mazam loin kum khua vei ing e, Mazap hon sui ding chiin lianu lah Khulsin tang tah e. ciin = u lia = nu; numei ciin lia = unu; u numei 6. Von lianu lah mu bang ngai nang e, Khulsin dawhtam tungah aw, Zanga phualmul pha bang hei nah e. von = ta lia = nu; numei von lia = tanu; ta numei

37 Ibid, p. 104 Page 260 of 288

Zolai Gelhmaan Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Zomi Mimal Minte (Zomi Personal Names – Draft) By Taang Zomi

Minpite A

D

Ai Aih Al Alh Am Awi Awih = Oih Awn Awt = Ot

Bawi Beel (nuaikiat) Bia Biak

Dah Dai Daih Dal Dam Deih Deng Diah Din Dim (awphei) Dim (nuaikiat) Do (awphei) Do (aw nuaikiat) Don Dong Dot

C

E

Ciang Ciin Cin [=Cin’] Cing Cingh (nuaikiat)

El En Eng Eu (kahto)

B

G Page 261 of 288

Gawh Gen Giah Giak Gin [=Gin’] Ging Go Goih Gul H Hang Hau Hauh Heh Hen Hil Ho Hon Hong Hua = Haw Huai Huam Huat Hum = Vum

Zolai Gelhmaan Hung I It K Kaangg Kai Kaih Kam Kap Khaam Khai Khaat Kham Khan (pheipai) Khan (nuaikiat) Khat Khawl (nuaikiat) Khawm Khen (awsau) Khen (awtom) Khoi Khua [= Khaw] Khual Khup Ki Kim (awphei) Kimm (awtungkah) Kimlai King [=kumpi] Kip Koh Komm Kop Kung L Laan (=Laan’) Laang

Lai Lal Lamm (awkah) Lamh (awkia) Laang Langh Leengh (= le hangh) Let Liah Lian Liang Liap Liing Lo (nuaikiat) Luai (awphei) Luai (nuaikiat) Luan Lun Lut M Man Mang (awsau) Mang (awtom) Min (awphei) Minh (nuaikiat) Muan [=Muan’] Muang Mun Mung N Na Nang Nawl Nawn Neek Neem (pheipai) Neem (nuaikiat) Nei Neih Page 262 of 288

Nen Neng Ngai Ngaih Ngam Ngem Ngul (awphei) Ngul (awnuaikiat) Ngulh Nial Nian Niang (awphei) Niangg (awkahto) Ning No (pheipai) Nok Non Nuam Nun [= Nun’] Nung (← Tungnung) Nuun (pheipai) O Oih = Awih Ot P Pau Pha Phal Phat Phawng Phungh Phut Pian [=Pian’] Piang Pil Pum S

Zolai Gelhmaan Saan Saang Sawm (aw pheipai) Sawmh (nuaikiat) Sawnh Sawnn Seel Shwe (=khamh) Sial (nuaikiat) Siam (pheipai) Siamm (kahto) Sian (nuaikiat) (
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