WPA SHO P4
Work place assignmentr...
Report of Hazards at the Construction Site of NS Construction Sdn. Bhd.
By Index No: NS4367 IC NO: 620121-71-5465
Safety and Health Officer Examination (2/2008) Paper III Part 2: Workplace Assignment 18 June 2007- 31 June 2007
PERAKUAN TUGASAN TEMPAT KERJA WORKPLACE ASSIGNMENT VERIFICATION Adalah dengan ini saya mengaku bahawa dokumen ini disediakan untuk Peperiksaan Pegawai Keselamatan dan Kesihatan adalah berdasarkan hasil kerja asal saya sendiri kecuali sedutan atau petikan. I hereby certify that this document prepared for the Safety and Health Officer Examination is based on my original work except for citation and quotation made.
No. Kad. Pengenalan I.C.No.
No. Indeks Index. No
: 21 July 2007
Table of Contents No
WORKPLACE ASSIGNMENT VERIFICATION
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
List of Hazards
Impact on the most critical hazard
APPENDIX A – ORGANIZATION CHART APPENDIX B – SAFETY AND HEALTH COMMITTEE CHART APPENDIX C – PICTURES
ABSTRACT This report attempts to identify all hazards at a chosen workplace that leads to risks and how safety and health measures could bring about beneficial end results by containing or preventing these risks from bringing harm to the workers and the organization. The workplace identified in the assignment that could contribute to high risks and harm is the “Working At Height” and “Noise” at a Construction Site. The report sets out to identify the many forms of hazards at the workplace and a few suitable techniques that were selected to tabulate the risks involved. The risk assessment process was used as the main technique to access and evaluate the risks of the hazards identified. Among these, the most critical hazard was seen to be the working at height for safety hazard and noise for health hazard. The control measures to eliminate or reduce this critical hazard are then recommended based on the findings, results and reviews obtained with appropriate references/sources and appendices.
INTRODUCTION NS Construction Sdn Bhd was established in 1974 with its core business being the Building Construction work apart from dealing in other trades. The company was restructured in 1994 and had since been managed by the present Board of Directors. The nature of business is Building Construction and Civil Works. Organization Chart Director
Assistant Site Supervisor
Assistant Quantity Surveyor
Safety and Health Officer
Activities There are a lot of activities done in the construction site, but for the purpose of this assignment only building works are discussed. The activities that are discussed in this report are on how building works are carried out, erection of scaffolding, installation of roof trusses and roof coverings.
Work Environment The entire process and activities has various hazards. We may observe their existence from the initial stage of the building works. The hazard identified are working at height that can cause falling from height, falling object, slip, trip and fall from scaffold, heat stress, exposed to weather conditions (rain, drizzles etc) and health hazards due to inhalation of dusts.
Work Process a.
Before the work start safety induction will be given to all supervisors and workers for the work that involves.
Fabrication of roof trusses and roof covering are done in the factory according to the specification stipulated in the Contracts Document.
After the fabrication of roof structure completed, the roof structure will be transported to site and a 20 tone mobile crane is required to hoist the roof trusses and covering.
Scaffolding erection work is required to work at height for the installation of the roof structure.
Welding and painting works on the roof trusses are done on the ground before installing them.
When the roof is completed, plastering and painting works will follow suit. When all the building works are completed, dismantling work for the scaffolding, cleaning and clearing work at site will commence. Returning of tools and equipments to tools store requires very strict work ruling. The
supervision of the entire process is very critical to avoid any accidents through careless action of the workers.
A number of objectives will be fulfilled in this assignment, as follows: a.
Identification of signification safety and health risks posed at the workplace.
Identification of workplace safety and health risks and hazards.
Estimation of severity of the safety and health risks from each of the safety and health hazards.
Based on their risk rating, determine the likelihood and severity of each safety and health hazard by the use of Qualitative and Quantitative Risk Table.
Discuss control measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of most critical safety and health hazards.
Recommend post analysis of program to ensure continuity of effectively managing Safety and Health at the work place.
Hazard Identification The first step in the managing risk is through hazard identification at the workplace. All these hazards can be categorized into 5 categories: a.
Mechanical Hazard Machinery, its parts, tools, objects and materials processed or used in the work process are often a source of mechanical hazards leading to injuries.
Physical Hazard Any hazard associated with that could cause physical harm, including but not limited to corrosives, flammability, or explosion hazards. This hazard can cause explosions, fires, violent chemical reactions, or other hazardous situations.
Chemical Hazard A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm. Chemicals which are stored in the workplace and at the house and can result in serious injuries if were not properly handled.
Biological Hazard A biological hazard or biohazard is an organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health. This can include medical waste, samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health. It can also include substances harmful to animals. The term and its associated symbol are generally used as a warning, so that those potentially exposed to the substances will know to take precautions.
Ergonomic Hazard Ergonomic Hazards includes workplace hazard which related between man and machine. Material Handling and Back Injuries provides information on back belts, lifting, pushing and pulling, and material handling aids. Repetitive Motion Injuries provides information on musculoskeletal injuries, risk factors, design hazards, wrist splints, and ergonomic hand tools. Hazards could be identified through many methods such as identification, inspection, data analysis, interviews, or hazard reporting system by workers.
Identification Method Through this method, we can easily identify any hazard exist at the workplace. Every job performed must be classified into various steps to ensure the hazards could be identified including the risk.
Inspection Method By doing inspection at the workplace, we could also identify hazards. Inspection should be done on schedule basis or by ad-hoc.
Data Analysis Method Through this method, all data such as the accident data could provide us the information on the existing hazard occurs; it includes also the near miss and the diseases infection data.
Risk Assessment All hazards identified must be assessed of its risk. Risk assessment will be performed through risk estimation and risk evaluation. This value is represented by two parameters that are probability and severity. Every probability and severity is
valued accordingly by high or low of the hazardous event as per Figure 1 and Figure 2. PROBABILITY Very likely Likely Unlikely Highly unlikely
DEFINITION Can happen frequently Could happen occasionally Could happen, but not rarely Could happen, but probably never will Figure 1 – Valuation on Probability
SEVERITY Fatality Serious Injury Injury Small Injury
DEFINITION Death Sick leave for more than 4 days/permanent disability Sick leave maximum of 4 days/permanent disability Near miss/First Aid Figure 2 – Valuation on Severity
This type of assessment is called Qualitative Risk. Events or situations assessed as very likely with fatality consequences are the most serious (HIGH) risk and those assessed as high unlikely with negligible injuries are the least serious (LOW) risk. This can be seen on Figure 3 below for the Qualitative Risk Table. Consequences Fatality Major injuries Minor injuries Negligible injuries
Very likely High High High Medium
Likelihood Likely High High Medium Medium
Unlikely High Medium Medium Low
Figure 3 – Qualitative Risk Table From definition, Risk = Consequences X Likelihood
Highly unlikely Medium Medium Low Low
In real scenario, we could not explain the risk by saying high or low because sometimes there are existing two types of hazard and with the same level of risk high, but the question is how high it is. So to differentiate the level of risk, the estimate risks were represented by numbers. Numbers are given to present the level of “likelihood” and “severity”. This numbers can be multiply, and ranked by value for 4 – higher and 1 – low. This type of assessment is then called Quantitative Risk. This can be seen on Figure 4 and 5 below. VALUE 4 3 2 1
PROBABILITY Very likely Likely Unlikely Highly unlikely
DEFINITION Can happen frequently Could happen occasionally Could happen, but not rarely Could happen, but probably never will
Figure 4 – Valuation on Probability VALUE 4 3 2 1
SEVERITY Fatality Serious Injury Injury Small Injury
DEFINITION Death Sick leave for more than 4 days/permanent disability Sick leave maximum of 4 days/permanent disability Near miss/First Aid
Figure 5 – Valuation on Severity For example: Likelihood:
Very Likely (Daily)
High Unlikely (Yearly)
Fatality or Permanent Disability
Major Injuries (more than 4 days MC)
Minor Injuries (less than 0r 4 days MC)
Negligible Injuries (first aid and near miss) = 1 Calculation example: Likelihood of hazard is estimated
The severity is estimated
Then, the risk will be
This risk assessment can be seen on 2 D Matrix Table on Figure 6 below. Consequences Very likely (4) High (16) High (12) High (8) Medium (4)
Fatality (4) Major injuries (3) Minor injuries (2) Negligible injuries (1)
Likelihood Likely (3) High (12) High (9) Medium (6) Medium (3)
Unlikely (2) High (8) Medium (6) Medium (4) Low (2)
Highly unlikely (1) Medium (4) Medium (3) Low (2) Low (1)
Figure 6 - Risk Assessment on 2 D Matrix Table
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
List of hazards After performing the hazard identification and risk assessment, here are lists of hazard found on the work area. These hazards were categorized on the level of their risk. The higher the risk, the hazard will be placed on top among them. a.
Safety Hazard i.
Working at height
Erection of scaffolding/roof structure
Health Hazard v.
Prioritizing Hazard Prioritization of hazards was conducted by applying risk assessment method. Risk Assessment Matrix designed for each hazard at the workplace. Through this matrix, all hazards that were identified through the above methods were weighted by their risk elements through respective data and tables, their possible occurrences and risks involved. The combination of all components in each activity was able to provide a comprehensive tabulation as on Figure 7 below (from descending order):
Type of hazard Safety hazard
Hazard Working at height Erection scaffolding/roof structure Welding Loading/unloading material Noise Heat Stress
Severity 4 4
Likelihood 4 3
Risk 16 12
Value High High
Figure 7 – Hazard List and Risk Value Table 5.2
Impact on the most critical hazard a.
Working at height (safety hazard) Risk
Probability X Severity
Hazard Effect Effect on this hazard will cause severe injuries and sometimes causing death to the victim. Most of the work processes were done at height. The work environment consists of working on high rise building or erection tower. The chances or probability of getting involved in chances of fall from height are very great and be valued as 4 (can happen frequently) and the severity was also high and valued as 4 (fatality).
Noise (health hazard) Risk
Probability X Severity
Noise is the most common hazard in the workplace. It comes from the machine. Effect on this hazard is very severe. The damage impact on the ear takes on gradually effect without the knowledge of the worker. Most of the damage is permanent. 6.0
Control measures The most critical hazard either safety or health must be controlled. The control measures of these hazards were done in according with means of hierarchy of control. The steps are as follows: a.
Working at height (Safety Hazard) i.
Elimination This method of control of hazard is the most effective way of controlling. By eliminating the hazard then there will be no more hazards exist. But it is impossible to use this method because we have
to work at height. Even though this most effective method, but it is rather unpractical to exercise. No working at height means no high rise building will exist. So we have to go to the next method. ii.
Substitution This second method of control under the hierarchy of control is by substituting the hazards. Now we know that the hazard is working at height. What can we do to substitute by not working at height? The entire jobs performed are on the high rise building. Whether we like or not the world today, we must build high rise building to save area. There is no other means of technology to replace high rise building for people to work with. So to replace working at height with other means of technology is impossible. Substitution of other methods is unpractical even though is good. So we have to go the next method that isolation.
Isolation This method is rather practical to perform. We cannot isolate people from working with height. In construction industry, most of the jobs are working at height if we want to erect new building. How can we perform our job such as installing roof structure for high rise building by working from the ground level? We have to go up. The only way we can do is by isolating other people who are not involved with the task to work at height, but working at height for the concerned workers must be done. This method is not practical.
Administrative Control Through this control, we can administer the workers who must work at height, by authorizing designated workers who must work at height to work on that height. For non-concerned workers we must restrict them to work at heights. We must permit certain workers only by issuing them permit to work with height. For those who are without permit are not authorized to work at height.
Engineering Control The next method is engineering control. Engineering control by barricade and guarding the entrance of building to prevent unauthorized personnel to work at height. Signages must be posted to inform workers who are not involved with working at height to clear off from the building.
Personal Protective Equipment This is the last resort of controlling method. To do this, we have to issue all personnel who are working at height with proper PPE such as full body harness. All workers who are working at height are to ensure to use this PPE for their own safety. Monitoring and surveillance must be done as regular as possible to ensure these workers obey the rules to use this PPE. By wearing this PPE, hazards of falling from height can be reduced. Workers must be taught to use this harness and how to take care of this PPE. Once the PPE is damage, employer must replace them as soon as possible.
Noise (Health Hazard) i.
Elimination Through this method we have to eliminate all machineries that produce noise at the workplace. All machines produce noise. It is impossible to practice since we have to use the machine to perform our task, even though through elimination we can eliminate the noise hazards.
Substitution Substitution method is by substituting all machines which are much quieter than the existing machines. It can be done but it will costly to replace the machines. We have to consider the amount we have to spend on buying new and quieter machines. This method is good but costly.
Isolation By isolating the machines from the workplace is rather unpractical. The only way we can do is by isolating non-involved personnel from the noisy area. But what about the working personnel who is directly involved with the machines? To do this we have to use other control to overcome this. So, isolation is good but needs other control methods to make it better.
Engineering Control Through this control it can be done by designing noise absorption device on the machineries so that the noise created can be reduced.
Even though by doing this is practical but the cost that makes it hard to consider. Then we have to go to the next control method. v.
Administrative Control This method of control will involve management. Through this method we have to limit the exposure of noise to workers, install proper signage on noise, monitoring on workers condition and health, and conduct training on noise for workers such as work safe procedure and noise conservation program.
Personal Protective Equipment This method of control is the last resort on controlling risk. Every worker must be provided with PPE such as ear muff or ear plug whenever they are involved with noisy area.
Review Reviewing on the recommendation for improving any lacking and to ensure the effectiveness of the control measures proposed must be performed. This review process must be done ongoing in accordance with necessity such as for example if there is a change in the work process or work procedure. The review process should be done through: a.
Referring to the accident records for comparison from time to time.
Getting feedback from workers on the effectiveness of the control measures through discussion, meeting, questionnaires and reports.
Medical records of workers from Occupational Health Doctor.
Surveillance and implementation on using of PPE with workers whether they are suit to them, knows how they are being utilized, taking care and used.
To the Company i.
will increase productivity.
will give good reputation to the Company
will reduce the number of accident
will follow all the laws and regulations
For Workers i.
will increase awareness and knowledge on the importance of practicing safety and health at the workplace
will reduce accident to the workers
will produce a good working environment
will ensure the safety and health of workers being taking care of
will follow the required laws and regulations of the government
ILBS, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514) & Regulations and Orders, International Law Book Service
ILBS, Factories and Machinery Act 1967 with Regulations, International Law Book Service
NIOSH, Module 1 – Occupational Safety and Health Management, NIOSH Publisher, 2004
Guidelines on Working at Height by DOSH.