World Food Safety Guide - Catering

July 23, 2017 | Author: Raluca Dudescu | Category: Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points, Food Safety, Foods, Risk Assessment, Safety
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World Food Safety Guide - Catering...

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World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

1

IFSA World Food Safety Guidelines 2016 Version 4

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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Table of Contents Preface

5

Acknowledgement

6

1.0 Introduction

7

1.1 Purpose and Scope

7

1.2 User Guide

7

1.3 Food Safety Management System

8

2.0 Standards and Guidelines

9

2.1 Accountability

9

2.2 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)

9

HACCP Application

10

2.3 Critical Control Points

18

CCP 1: Control of Food Cooking

18

CCP 2: Control of Food Chilling

19

2.4 Support Programs/Control Points(CP)/Standard Operation Procedures (SOP)

20

CP 1: Control at Receiving

20

CP 2: Control of Cold Storage

21

CP 3: Control of Food Processing

22

SOP: Product Design

23

SOP: Hazardous Meal Ingredients

24

SOP: Health Monitoring

25

SOP: Pest Control

26

SOP: Supplier Approval

27

SOP: Personal Hygiene

28

SOP: Food Safety Training

30

SOP: Temperature Instrument Verification & Calibration

31

SOP: Cleaning & Sanitizing

32

SOP: Physical Contamination (Foreign Object)

34

SOP: Food Handling

35

SOP: Stock Rotation/Date (Day) Coding/Time Control

37

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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Table of Contents (cont’d) SOP: Washing Raw Fruits and Vegetables

39

SOP: Thawing

40

SOP: Allergen Management

42

SOP: In-House Freezing

46

SOP: Dispatch, Transport and Aircraft Loading

48

SOP: Return Catering

49

SOP: Flight Attendant/Cabin Crew Training

51

SOP: Delay Handling

52

SOP: Product Recall

54

SOP: Food Safety Complaints

56

2.5 Food Safety Management System Verification

57

Appendix I: Microbiological Testing Guidelines

59

Appendix II: Flow Diagrams

62

Appendix III: Hazard Analysis Table with Risk Assessment

63

Appendix IV: Food Safety Process Table: Critical Control Points

73

Appendix V: Foods Requiring Temperature Control

77

Appendix VI: HACCP Record Examples

79

Appendix VII: Cooking Temperatures and References

83

Appendix VIII: Foreign Object Policy

85

Appendix IX: Global Food Safety Management System Training Organizations

86

Appendix X: Glossary of Terms

92

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Preface Food safety has long been recognized by the airline catering industry as a matter of paramount importance and this is reflected in its ongoing commitment to the development of industry guidelines. In writing this fourth edition of the World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering, our objective has been to provide a flexible food safety guideline that can accommodate our rapidly changing industry and ever increasing challenges. Most notable changes outlined in this version include a discussion and example of risk assessment and prerequisiteprograms in foods safety, as well as the addition of a decision tree for identification of CCPs. After an in-depth review of the CCPs, three CCPs were identified to have optional CCP or CP (Control Point) status depending on each company’s own assessment of their food safety program. Temperature control of food at receiving, storage and processing were modified to be either CCP or CP optional. Temperature control at cooking and chilling remain CCPs. Newly established SOPs in Version Four include Allergen Management and Return Catering SOPs. The audit tool was updated to reflect CCP, CP and SOP changes. Also, a resource list of global food safety management system training organizations and companies was added in Appendix XII. It has been recognized that to ensure the safety of food and drink when consumed onboard, a food safety management system that encompasses all stages of food production from product design through service onboard needs to be in place. As a result, this document is no longer aimed solely at flight caterers but rather at both airlines and suppliers from production to passenger service. It will provide a guideline and a reference document for all parties. The strategy in writing this revision is in line with that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for developing standards, including: • • •

The involvement of a broad spectrum of all stakeholders. The inclusion of leading industry food safety experts throughout the revision process. The development of simple, practical, risk and science based standards that are outcome based rather than prescriptive.

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Acknowledgement This revision has been made possible by the support and encouragement of the International Flight Services Association (IFSA) and the following individuals and their companies whose commitment, time and expertise was so generously provided in order to bring about this publication.

Laura Alvarez

Gate Gourmet

Zev Chernilo Muller

LAN Airlines

Barbara Boyer

Air Fayre

Zuzanne Peletier

Supplair

Nathalie Chesnais

Servair

Abelardo Rodriquez

Gourmet Foods

Dean Davidson

IFSA

Bernard Schnarwiler

Swiss Air

Joana Domingues

Gate Gourmet

Manjit Sohal

Emirates

Mary Ann Dowd

United Airlines

Robin Swenson

Delta Airlines

Ulrike Enneking

LSG Sky Chefs

Ingrid Timmermans

KLM

Suzanne Fisher

Gate Gourmet

Lianey Yeap

SATS

Neil Ylanan

LSG Sky Chefs

Jane-Marie Hawronskyj British Airways Felix Kaufmann

Swiss Air

Mary Pat Maher

Flying Food Group

We gratefully acknowledge the time and effort by the IFSA / IFCA / AEA and WHO contributors of the former editions for the support and direction provided to the committee.

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1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose and Scope The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering describes effective food safety control concepts applicable to the airline industry worldwide and is accepted as the basic reference document for all parties involved. NOTE: The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering are superseded by national food legislation whenever those local requirements are more strict.

1.2 User Guide The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering is written in the following format:

1.2.1 Standard The Standard specifies the requirements that a company must implement to ensure compliance with food safety controls in each respective step. The Standard generally consists of the following information: •

Definition



Purpose



Scope

The definition of the Standard is stated in a framed box, an example is as follows,

This is the World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

1.2.2 Guidelines Guidelines offer the user a method on how to achieve the standards. Guidelines are not mandatory allowing organizations the flexibility to use alternative methods based on risk assessment to achieve Standard compliance. The World Food Safety Guidelines is intended for the use of individuals with a comprehensive understanding of HACCP. This document is a generic guideline outlining the common flow processes in airline catering. The CCPs, CPs, SOPs, flow diagram, specifics in the hazard analysis and appendices outlined in this document may not apply in some instances. For this reason, individual companies and facilities must perform a facility specific flow diagram and hazard analysis. Examples of reputable HACCP training sponsors: http://www.haccpalliance.org/sub/training.html http://www.seafood.nmfs.noaa.gov/training/HACCPtraining.html http://ec.europa.eu/food/training/haccp_en.htm The Guidelines generally consist of the following information: •

Critical limits



Monitoring methods



Corrective action



Audit guidelines

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Icons indicated in Part 2.3 CCPs and 2.4 CPs, SOPs depict responsibilities as follows: : Flight Caterer

: Airline

1.3 Food Safety Management System Food safety management systems provide a structured approach to ensuring the safety of food and demonstrating due diligence. They enable the operators to identify the points in the food chain that are likely to have the most effective impact on the safety of the final product. The effectiveness of a system is reliant upon a corporate commitment to the programme. All levels within a company from top management down must be dedicated to its development, implementation and continuous review. A food safety management system is comprised of two components that are of equal importance – accountability and HACCP principles.

1.3.1 Accountability A food safety management system must include details of the positions that are accountable for ensuring food safety at each stage of the food chain and the boundaries of their responsibilities. The top management is ultimately responsible for food safety. The system details must be documented, communicated to the organization and updated whenever changes are made to the company structure.

1.3.2 Prerequisite Programs Prerequisite programs are procedures that address the basic operational and sanitation conditions within the facility. Verification of these programs is a requirement for most regulators. Clear support of their effectiveness is necessary to access the risks in a HACCP plan. They are implemented to: •

Protect products from contamination from biological, chemical and physical hazards



Control bacterial growth from temperature abuse



Maintain equipment

Prerequisite programs include such topics as: •

Vendor management



Training



Allergen management



First-In-First-Out (FIFO)



Sanitation SOPs (SSOPs)



Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance SOP

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2. Standards and Guidelines 2.1 Accountability Top management is responsible for developing and implementing a food safety management system and to allocate resources and expertise as necessary to enable its effective application and continued maintenance.

2.1.1 Management Responsibility Top management is ultimately responsibility of food safety. They may appoint a suitably trained food safety representative to technically support achievement of the objec-

tives.

2.1.1 1.2 Management Commitment Top management commitment can be demonstrated by, but not limited to: Communicating the food safety policies and strategies throughout the organization Food safety being included into the company objectives Resource management and budgetary planning supporting various food safety components Ensuring the timely implementation of appropriate corrective action where necessary Providing a continuous improvement culture

2.1.3 Organizational Structure The company shall have an organizational chart demonstrating the structure of the company. Documented, clearly defined responsibilities shall exist and be communicated to key staff with responsibility for food safety, legality and quality systems. Appropriate documented arrangements shall be in place to cover for the absence of key staff. Top management shall ensure that a description of general duties or work instructions are in place and communicated to all staff with activities relating to product safety, legality and quality.

2.1.4 Management Review of Effectiveness of Food Safety Management System Members of top management shall have regular meetings to review identified key performance indicators (KPIs), understand trends and work towards continual improvement of the food safety management system. There shall be a system in place to ensure that the company is kept informed of all relevant legislative, scientific and technical developments and industry codes of practice applicable in the country of operations.

2.2 HACCP A food safety management system based on the principles of HACCP must be applied by the responsible parties to all stages of the supply chain for which they are accountable

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Diagram 1 – Logic Sequence for application of HACCP Describe Product

Identify Intended Use

Construct Flow Diagram

On-site confirmation of Flow Diagram

Assemble HACCP Team

List all potential hazards/Conduct Hazard

Analysis/Consider control measures

Determine CCPs

Establish Critical Limits for each CCP

Establish Monitoring System for each CCP

Establish Corrective Actions

Establish Verification Procedures

Establish Documentation and Record Keeping World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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Flow Diagram 2 – INSERT COMPANY NAME’ Simplified General Version (Example)

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Diagram 2 – Example of Decision Tree to Identify CCPs (answer questions in sequence)* Q1. Do preventave control measure(s) exist?

Yes

No

Modify step, process or product

Is control at this step necessary for safety?

Yes

No

Stop**

Not a CCP

Q2. Is the step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of a hazard to an acceptable level?

Yes

No

Q3. Could contaminaon with idenfied hazard (s) occur in excess of acceptable level (s) or could this increase to unacceptable levels?

Yes

No

Not a CCP

Stop**

Q4. Will a subsequent step eliminate idenfied hazard (S) or reduce likely occurrence to an acceptable level?***

Yes

Not a CCP

No

Crical Control Point

Stop**

(*) – You can use different Decision Trees such as Codex Alimentarius; it follows same logic in defining CCP (**) – Proceed to the next iden+fied hazard in the described process (***) - Acceptable and unacceptable levels need to be defined within the overall objec+ves in iden+fying the CCPs of HACCP World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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HACCP study example and Risk Assessment (HACCP and Risk Assessment example for guidance purposes) HACCP is a management tool that provides a more structured approach to the control of identified hazards than that achievable by traditional inspection and quality control procedures. Quality Assurance and HACCP Systems considers the likelihood of a hazard occurring. Risk Assessment and Risk Management is a structured approach to help quantify these judgements. It is well recognised, at great cost, that raw materials are a major source of hazards in the final product.

Risk Assessment Raw material and process risk assessment, as a part of risk management, the method of identifying potential issues and hazards in incoming goods, assessing the probable severity and likelihood to determine where to implement safety procedures or boost prerequisite programs. Risk assessment is used to ensure that food safety control is effective, relevant, timely and responsive to threats. Food safety and security can be quite complex, even for well-established food manufacturers, and it is easy to apply too much safety (e.g. too many CCPs), not enough safety or the wrong safety factors, and spend too much money in the process without attaining the necessary objectives. Risk assessment helps us prioritize their risks and shows management the amount of control that should be applied to protecting against those risks in a sensible manner.

Prerequisite Programs Prerequisite programs are provisions of basic environmental and operating conditions focused on: •

Premises



Processes



People

These programs are required for production of safe, wholesome foods. Prerequisite programs are covering ‘low risk’ safety hazards, economic or quality issues. They are underpinning the HACCP plan and enabling it to function effectively. These programs must be in place and fully operational before the HACCP study is developed.

Examples of common prerequisite programs are: Cleaning Transport Temperature control Fabrication Pest Control Personnel Hygiene Specifications Supplier Approval Calibration

Maintenance Product Control Training Waste Management Product Recall Traceability

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Prerequisite programs are split into two categories: standard PRPs and operational PRPs Standard prerequisite programs control wider, lower hazards away from the product itself. Operational prerequisite programs control specific hazards that could potentially affect the product directly.

Standard PRPs are: Construction and layout Workflow Supplies of air, water, service Waste control Suitability of equipment Cleaning and sanitation

Operational PRPs are: Hand wash stations Glass & Brittle Plastic control Maintenance Allergen Control Foreign Body control

HACCP team should always consider hazards independently of prerequisite documents. Many control measures may be managed as part of the prerequisite programs. It is recommended to include prerequisite programs in the HACCP plan.

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Note: Please ensure that Process Steps in Risk assessment and HACCP study reflect exact Process Steps in Flow Diagram

Diagram 3 – Example of Risk assessment study based on Flow Diagram 2

Application of HACCP: The application of HACCP principles consists of the following tasks as identified in the Logic Sequence for Application of HACCP in the Codex Alimentarius 1997.

2.2.1 Assemble HACCP Team Each responsible party should ensure that the appropriate product specific knowledge and expertise is available for the development of an effective HACCP plan. This is accomplished by assembling a multidisciplinary team. For example the team may include, but not be limited to members from airline flight planning, cabin crew, QA, production, operations, engineering, purchasing or R&D teams. Where such expertise is not available on site, expert advice should be obtained from other sources. The scope of the HACCP plan should identify which segment of the food chain is involved and the hazards to be addressed.

2.2.2 Describe Products A description of the product groups should be included as well as relevant processes such as handling, packaging, storage and distribution.

2.2.3 Identify Intended Use The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the product by the end user or consumer. In specific cases, vulnerable groups of the population, e.g. institutional feeding, may have to be considered.

2.2.4 Construct Flow Diagram The flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team. The flow diagram should cover all inputs and subsequent steps in the operation. When applying HACCP concepts to a given operation, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation.

2.2.5 On-site Confirmation of Flow Diagram The HACCP team should confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate.

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2.2.6 Implementing the Seven Principles of HACCP Airlines and flight caterers must demonstrate their HACCP system in accordance to the system elements of Codex Alimentarius CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003 HACCP Principles:

Principle 1:

Conduct a hazard analysis:

The process of collecting and evaluating information on biological, chemical (including allergens) and physical hazards and the conditions leading to their presence To decide which are significant for food safety and therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan. Identified hazards at each flowchart step are determined for significance for food safety and addressed in the HACCP plan as controlled via CCP or a prerequisite program.

Principle 2:

Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs):

A critical control point is a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.

Principle 3:

Establish critical limit(s):

A critical limit is a criterion, which separates acceptability from unacceptability.

Principle 4:

Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP:

Monitoring is the act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control.

Principle 5: Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control: Corrective Action is any action to be taken when the results of Monitoring at the CCP indicates a loss of control.

Principle 6: Establish procedure for the verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively: Verification is the application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring to determine compliance with the HACCP plan.

Principle 7: Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application.

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2.3 Critical Control Points CCP 1: Control of Food Cooking Standard The company must have a food temperature control system for safe cooking of high risk foods Purpose Scope

To ensure a thermal kill or reduction of pathogenic bacteria and elimination of viruses and parasites High-risk raw foods

Guidelines Minimum required core temperatures:

Critical Limits

Poultry Meats1

74 °C / 165 °F 65 °C / 149°F

Meats, comminuted2

74 °C / 165 °F

Fish, Shell fish, Crustaceans

65 °C / 149 °F

2

70 °C / 158 °F 74 °C / 165 °F

Fish, shell fish, comminuted Un-pasteurized Eggs3

Monitoring

Corrective Action

Audit

Note: Parasite Destruction

Un-pasteurized Dairy3 72 °C / 162°F 4 Whole-muscle beef, lamb, fish seared on all external surfaces to effect a cooked color change. *Follow national regulations as appropriate Check and record food core temperature of each batch upon completion of cooking or surface color change where food has been seared. If critical limit is not met, continue cooking until limit is met. Randomly select some foods being cooked and verify compliance by core temperature monitoring. Randomly select some foods and verify control documentation. Parasites are destroyed in pork and fish by recommended temperatures above. As an exception, customers requesting raw fish requires the alternative process of destroying potential parasites by freezing in accordance to the following standards: -20°C/-4°F for 7 days -35°C/-31°F until solid and stored at -20°C/-4°F for 24 hours -35° C/-31° F or below until solid and stored at -35° C or below for 15 hours (2013 FDA Food Code)

1

Includes: beef, pork, lamb and other meats, which are not whole-muscle or comminuted. Ref: Temps 157°F with zero time Includes: ground, minced, re-formed and tumbled meats. 3 Use of these products is not recommended. See SOP: Hazardous Meal Ingredients 4 Includes: filet (tenderloin), sirloin, loin of lamb etc. 2

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CCP 2: Control of Food Chilling

Standard The company must have a control system for safe chilling of high risk foods after cooking

Purpose

Scope

To prevent growth of vegetative pathogenic bacteria during post-cook chilling processes

In-house cooked time/temperature control for safety food (TCS foods)

Guidelines

Critical Limit

Food core temperature to pass temperature interval of 60 °C / 140 °F to 10 °C / 50 °F within 4 hours. Or 57 °C / 135 °F to 21 °C/ 70 °F (core) within 2 hours and from 21 °C/ 70 °F to 5 °C / 41 °F in an additional 4 hours. (FDA Food Code) Or *Follow national regulations as appropriate

Monitoring

Check and record time and core food temperature at the thickest part of the product at start and finish of process Dispose of product.

Corrective Action

Audit

Randomly select some foods (preferably dense: e.g. mashed potatoes, meat loaf, lasagna, etc.) being chilled and verify compliance. Randomly select TCS foods in refrigerator that have been cooked / chilled within the past 24 hours and verify control documentation.

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2.4 Support Programs / Control Points (CPs) / Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Support programs are systems that must be in place to support the HACCP system. They are often described as prerequisite programs, good manufacturing practices (GMPs), control points (CPs) standard operating procedures (SOPs). These are generally systems (e.g., supplier approval, personal hygiene, training, pest control, cleaning and sanitation operating procedures (SSOPs), equipment calibration, etc.) that will effectively design out generalized hazards that apply to the whole operation. This allows the HACCP process to deal with the specific product/process hazards. These support programs are normally in place before the HACCP system is developed. This document refers to these support programs as Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Note: The following Control Points (CP) CP 1-3 may be considered CCP’s by some company food safety programs. Each company should conduct a risk assessment to determine each step as a control point or critical control point.

CP 1: Control at Food Receiving Standard The company must have a food temperature control system for safe receipt of time/ Purpose Scope

To verify safe food temperature control during transport from the suppliDeliveries of refrigerated and frozen time/temperature control for safety

Guidelines Refrigerated (or chilled) foods shall be delivered at a maximum of 8 °C / 46 °F*. Critical Limit

Frozen foods shall be hard frozen and without signs of previous thawing at time of delivery such as frost build-up, discoloration, packaging integrity or freezer burn.* *

Follow national regulations as appropriate

Food temperature for refrigerated (chilled) foods is to be monitored and recorded for each delivery. Monitoring

The condition defined as “hard frozen” must be recorded. Note: Each delivery of refrigerated (chilled) and frozen food must be controlled, but not necessarily each food of a given delivery or consignment.

Corrective Action

Audit

Reject deliveries where critical limits are not met.

Verify control measures and documentation on possible deliveries taking place at the time of the audit. Randomly select recently delivered foods in refrigerators and freezers

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CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature Standard The company must have a food temperature control system for safe storage of time/ temperature control for safety foods. To prevent growth of pathogenic micro-organisms to harmful levels during storage

Purpose

Refrigerators for food storage

Scope

Guidelines Critical Limit

Product critical limit: 5 °C / 41 °F

Monitoring

Refrigerator gauges monitored and recorded at a frequency to ensure compliance and effectiveness If refrigeration temperature rises above 8 °C / 46 °F, check temperature of a representative sample of food items. If food temperature rises above 5 °C / 41 °F, determine the appropriate corrective action to be taken and document it accordingly. NOTE: Allowances may be made for food which has been recently returned following handling at higher temperatures.

Corrective Action

Check temperatures of randomly selected refrigerators:

Audit



Check gauge temperatures during tour of unit. If significant deviations are noticed, verify over next 1-2 hours that corrective action is initiated and effective.



Where continuous electronic surveillance systems exist: Verify that a procedure/schedule for monitoring screens or print-outs is in place and/or that an alarm system is active and monitored. Verify completion of documentation for randomly selected refrigerators.

Reference to 5 °C: USDA ARS, Pathogen Modeling Program Version 7.0 http://www.arserrc.gov/mfs/pathogen.htm

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CP 3: Control of Food Processing Standard The facility must have a time/temperature control system for safe handling of Time/ Temperature Control for Safety (TCS), ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Purpose Scope

To prevent growth of pathogenic micro-organisms to harmful levels during handling All TCS, RTE foods.

Guidelines

Critical Limit Options

Monitoring from maximum of 5°C / 41°F

Corrective Action

1. Room temperature is ≤ 5 °C/41 °F: No time or temperature control/record is required (Not a CCP or CP in this scenario). 2. Room temperature is > 5 °C/41 °F but ≤ 15 °C/59 °F: Food exposure time must not exceed 90 minutes. 3. Room temperature is > 15 °C/59 °F but ≤ 21 °C/70 °F: Food surface temperature must not exceed 15 °C/59 °F or food exposure time must not exceed 45 minutes. 4. Room temperature is > 21 °C/70 °F: Food surface temperature must not exceed 15 °C/59 °F and food exposure time must not exceed 45 minutes.

Check and record room temperature And: If Critical Limit Option 1 – no additional checks. If Critical Limit Option 2 – check and record food exposure time. If Critical Limit Option 3 – check surface temperature at the end of process OR food exposure time at end of process. If Critical Limit Option 4 – check surface temperature at the end of process AND food exposure time at end of process.

If critical limit is exceeded, discard food Randomly select foods/meals or batches and verify compliance.

Audit

Randomly select foods in refrigerators and verify control documentation.

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SOP: Product Design Standard Food safety must be incorporated into product design by all stakeholders Purpose

To minimize food safety hazards throughout the food chain to final consumption onboard the aircraft

Scope

Product brief to point of service including all applicable elements: food origin, flight duration, ingredients, processing, packaging, airline equipment, labeling, onboard equipment and onboard storage.

Guidelines The following should be considered when designing food products, equipment, kitchens and galleys: Food Product design • Shelf life • Time until consumption (including round catered, multi sector, overnight stop) • Labeling • Packaging • Storage environment • Down - route shipments • Hazardous food ingredients & dietary requirements • Traceability • Allergens (see SOP) Procedure

Food Contact Equipment & packaging design • Suitable for purpose (e.g. insulated container) • Food grade and non-porous or wrapped material • Easily cleanable, durable and non-porous Fixed Base Premises • Fit for purpose • Consideration of clean and unclean segregation (allergens) • Provision of hand cleansing facilities • Easily cleanable • Pest free through design • Waste disposal • Appropriate utility services supply

Specification review Audit World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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SOP: Hazardous Meal Ingredients Standard Certain foods are deemed by nature, by processing or source, to pose a specific food safety risk and are not recommended for use. A list of such foods needs to be established and considered in the menu design process, procurement and production. To prevent foodborne illness

Purpose • •

Scope

Menu design and planning Procurement of semi-finished or finished products

Guidelines The following table, which is not exhaustive, provides guidance as to meal ingredients and possible hazards:

Procedure Food Type

Examples of Possible Hazard(s)

A

Food under recall by a local regulatory authority or food involved in a foodborne illness investigation

Melamine contaminated food

B

Raw or undercooked food of animal origin

B1

Raw meat such as carpaccio or raw fish/shellfish such as sashimi, poisson cru, oysters, mussels, clams, cockles and fish roe

Bacterial / viral and parasitic pathogens

B2

Undercooked shell eggs or any menu item that contains uncooked or lightly cooked shell eggs (unless they are pasteurized.)

Salmonella species.

B3

Raw milk, unpasteurized dairy products made from raw milk, such as soft cheese. (Does not include unpasteurized hard cheeses such as parmigiano reggiano)

E.coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenese (Lm)

B4

Cold smoked fish

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)

C

Raw or undercooked food from plant origin

C1

Raw alfalfa sprouts, bean sprouts, micro greens, other sprouts or fresh herb garnishes that cannot be readily washed and sanitized

E.coli, Salmonella species, Listeria monocytogenes

C2

Raw ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables that do not undergo further processing and are grown by use of water contaminated with fecal matter or fertilizer

E.coli, Salmonella species, Listeria monocytogenes, parasites

C3

Raw coconut in ready-to-eat foods

Salmonella species

C4

Unpasteurized fruit or vegetable juices

E.coli, Salmonella spp., Lm, viruses

D

Toxic items

D1

Fish likely to be contaminated with ciguatera toxin. These include fish from tropical reefs of the Pacific, West Indies and Florida. Species to be avoided include (not exhaustive): Amberjack, Barracuda, Spanish Mackeral, Coral Trout, Moray Eel and Flowery Cod.

Ciguatera toxin

D2

Poisonous fungi, inedible flowers and plants.

Toxins

D3

Incorrect cooking of raw kidney beans

Haemagglutinating lectins

In addition, attention should be focused on other food products which may pose a health hazard:



Potentially unsafe food identified locally (e.g. by repeated unacceptable microbiological findings or governmental alerts)



Food ingredients which may be harmful to specific consumer segments, i.e. allergens. Caterers should be informed of governmental directives and the requirements of their individual airline customers on this issue.



A hazard analysis should be performed if B or C category products (above) are to be used. Supplier to present acceptable control documentation such as COA or HACCP plan.



Follow national regulations as appropriate

Misc.

Audit

Verify the presence of an up-to-date “Hazardous Meal Ingredients” list and a procedure to ensure the absence of the restricted ingredients during each meal presentation, menu design or similar event.

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SOP: Health Monitoring Standard Health monitoring procedures must be in place to prevent contamination of food through contact with infected people To prevent transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to food from infected employees and visitors

Purpose

New and existing employees

Scope

Visitors to the facility

Guidelines 1. Control of Employees •

Pre-employment Control Prior to employment, new employees shall be screened for current health status (e.g. questionnaires) and briefed on infection reporting requirements.



Annual Screening All employees are required to report to management whenever suffering from the specified symptoms: Confirm continued compliance by annual screening (e.g. questionnaire)

Corrective Action If an employee confirms suffering from any of the symptoms specified, the person shall not be employed or assigned for food handling or clean equipment handling until examined and subsequently cleared by a medical professional. If there is confirmation of a reportable illness by a medical professional, the person may be employed or assigned for a non-food or clean equipment handling task while awaiting clearance by the medical professional. 2. Control of Visitors Visitors must not touch open food or equipment (exception applies for auditors) at any time in production food handling areas. They may however touch and / or eat food provided at a menu presentation held outside areas where open food is being prepared or handled. Visitors are required to follow all facility GMPs.



Procedure

Audit



Visitor Screening Contamination of food from visitors entering food handling areas shall be prevented by one of the following measures: Visitor completes a Health Questionnaire for Visitors before entry or Visitor is presented with written instruction before entry or Visitor is presented with verbal instruction before entry.



Corrective Action Visitor who confirms suffering from intestinal infection or flu-like symptoms should not be allowed to enter food production areas. Visitor who confirms suffering from other symptoms specified in the questionnaire may be allowed to enter food production areas, provided that the person agrees to put on proper protective gear, e.g. bandage, glove, etc.



Verify that the documented procedure is in place and being followed.



Infection control procedure may be separated or included in training. This should be acceptable provided that the message is clear and that employees demonstrate acknowledgement.



Follow national regulations as appropriate



NOTE: National legislation on infection control varies greatly and that legislation may not allow certain sub-procedures, such as requiring employees to disclose previous or present diagnoses. Auditor may verify understanding by questioning employees during the audit.

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SOP: Pest Control

Standard

The operator must have a pest management system established

To prevent and exclude pests from the facility. (Prevent food and clean food contact surfaces being contaminated by pests.)

Purpose

Scope



Prevention and eradication of pests.

Guidelines



Ensure building design and maintenance prevents ingress of pests



Ensure that the cleaning regiment is sufficient to prevent the harboring of pests Establish an effective, documented pest control program that is conducted by competent persons This typically includes: - Location plan and type of interior, non-toxic traps and exterior bait points - Location plan, list and type of eradication devices - Planned frequency of premises inspection - Premises inspection report - Written evidence that corrective action is taken by both the contractor and caterer



Procedure

• •

Audit

Staff shall be trained in appropriate trap handling Site to have documented reviews of pest control performance: Review performance of the contractor through trend analysis, visual inspection of pest control operator (recommended twice per year or as needed).

Verify that a documented management system is in place for pest control. Visual observation during audit.

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SOP: Supplier Approval Standard An effective approval process must be in place to ensure safe food supply To ensure that food and packaging is bought from an approved source

Purpose

All food and food contact packaging suppliers must be approved prior to use of the product. In regard to airline nominated product, the approval process shall be determined between the airline and caterer during contract development. Proof of supplier approval documentation shall be provided to the caterer upon request.

Scope

Guidelines

• •



Procedure

• •

Audit

Approval process may be performed by: An “on-site audit” based on HACCP protocols, which includes an assessment of the HACCP control system as well as a physical inspection of premises. Assessment may also be undertaken by a system audit (paper audit), consisting of an assessment of a supplier’s documented food safety management system, without physical inspection of supplier’s premises. Approval may also be authorized by assessment of a supplier’s certification(s) by national authorities or by third party audits to a recognized accreditation standard for food safety. Approval frequency: Suppliers of TCS, ready-to-eat food should be approved before deliveries commence The audit frequency shall be defined by risk assessment which includes audit results, certificate grading, microbiological analysis, complaints and delivery reliability.

Randomly identify a selection of bought-in ready-to-eat food and food contact packaging items and confirm that suppliers have been correctly audited and approved.

Note: Suppliers should provide upon request the most recent local, state and federal regulatory reports.

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SOP: Personal Hygiene Standard Procedure must be in place to ensure personal hygiene standards exist and are maintained in areas where open food or clean equipment is handled Purpose Scope

To prevent microbial and physical contamination of food and equipment All employees and visitors

Guidelines

• •



Protective Clothing Suitable, clean protective clothing shall be worn The company is to ensure that the protective clothing worn by staff handling open food is cleaned to commercial laundry standards (e.g. including mechanical washing and rinse) Provisions should be made for the storage of clean protective clothing to prevent contamination



Adequate provisions should be made for the complete segregation between clean and soiled protective clothing



A designated area for returned soiled clothing is to be provided Protective clothing for food processing employees and visitors shall not be worn in restrooms or break rooms and clothing shall be exchanged if worn outside. In the canteen, protective clothing must be removed or protected upon return to food handling stations (based on risk assessment).





Employee Change Facilities Lockers are to be provided to secure personal possessions away from production areas



Clean or soiled protective clothing should not be stored inside lockers



Periodic checks should be carried out by management to ensure compliance No food shall be stored in employee personal lockers

Procedure

• •

• •

Protective Hair Covering Disposable protective hair covering should be worn by all persons working in or entering areas for handling of open food or clean equipment. Hair covering shall be applied prior to putting on protective coat. Coat to be removed prior to removing hair covering. Suitable head covering shall be provided and worn correctly to ensure complete enclosure of hair Beards and moustaches shall be covered with snoods

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SOP Personal Hygiene (cont’d)

Guidelines



Hand Hygiene Employees and visitors shall be required to wash their hands prior to entering food production and clean equipment areas



If hand sanitizers are used, they shall be applied after hand washing



Fingernails shall be kept short, clean and unvarnished



False fingernails are not permitted



Visitors should be asked to wear gloves if wearing false fingernails or nail varnish Gloves, if worn, should be suitable, disposable and changed frequently. If gloves are worn, hands must be washed prior to donning. Their disposal should be controlled to avoid product contamination. Cuts, grazes or wounds on exposed skin should be covered with a companyissued blue or appropriate colored waterproof dressing and covered by a disposable glove. Hands shall be washed and gloves shall be changed when changing tasks, products or when contaminated.









Procedure •



Audit

Jewelry All employees and visitors shall follow the company rules on jewelry when working in or entering food production/handling areas. The company rules must be based on the potential of physical and microbial contamination Eating, Drinking or Smoking Employees and visitors should be advised that eating, drinking and smoking are restricted to designated areas

Verify that adequate protection and control measures are in place and adhered to by all employees and visitors

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SOP: Food Safety Training Standard

A job-related food safety training program must be provided for employees and management To ensure required knowledge and skills for the safe handling and production of food

Purpose

Scope



All employees and management



New employee training and refresher training

Guidelines



Procedure

Audit

Management Training All management must be trained to have a good understanding of food safety procedures



New Employee Training Employees must be trained in food safety procedures specific to their jobs



Refresher Training Provides an ongoing reminder of food safety procedures



Updates and confirms knowledge and skills



The training frequency should be determined by the company



Effectiveness of Training Tests are given to employees and management to ensure correct knowledge and understanding



The test method should be determined by the company



Verify existence of an organized training procedure

• •

Verify training records (hard copy or a computer record on a training database) Verify that the training provides correct understanding as well as control competence relevant to the job. For example, verify by observing or talking to food handlers during inspection.



If the above elements are verified, the training procedure should be accepted.

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SOP: Temperature Instrument Verification & Calibration

Standard

Temperature measuring equipment used to monitor Critical Control Points and SOPs must be identified, verified and calibrated

Purpose

Scope

To maintain accuracy of thermometers and temperature gauges

Temperature monitoring devices relevant to food safety

Guidelines Verification of the accuracy of hand held thermometers as well as cold room, refrigerator and freezer thermometers are to be completed on a regular basis per company SOP. This shall be completed by methods relevant to the appropriate equipment. In general, the tolerance limits are: •

Probe thermometers: +/- 1° C (+/- 2°F) Infrared thermometers: +/- 2°C (+/- 4°F)



Refrigerators, cold rooms and freezers: +/- 1°C (+/- 2°F)



Procedure

Audit

or as stipulated in manufacturer’s guidelines Thermometers shall be identified by numbers or user names or similar, to ensure traceability of control. If verification shows thermometers are outside tolerance levels, the thermometer shall be calibrated or replaced.

Verify documentation is in place for verification and calibration of thermometers.

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SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing Standard Food must be prepared in a clean and hygienic facility to prevent contamination and be based upon a cleaning and sanitization schedule To ensure that food is not contaminated by unclean surfaces or chemicals Purpose • All food contact surfaces and equipment of food handling and storage areas Scope



Airline equipment



Food production facility

Guidelines General Requirements: A cleaning and sanitization program shall be in place for food contact surfaces and non-food contact surfaces. This typically includes specifying detergents and disinfectant concentrations, frequencies, responsibilities, cleaning instructions for specific equipment. The cleaning and sanitization method must be fit for purpose and executed through the utilization of manual or automatic cleaning systems Cleaning and sanitization is understood to be effective by an adequate combination of the following parameters: 1. Mechanical action 2. Temperature 3. Chemical:



Detergent



Sanitizer

4. Time Monitoring Procedures: Airline equipment and kitchen utensils: -Mechanical/physical cleaning: surfaces to be visibly clean

Procedure

Sanitation: 1. Temperature: Hot water mechanical dish machines temperature, shall comply with manufacturer recommended temperature and pressures. Or The dish surface temperature at exit shall indicate a time/temperature treatment corresponding to low pasteurization as verified by positive reaction of 71 °C (160 °F) (e.g. thermo label) and documented, e.g. thermo label used and recorded. 2. Chemical sanitation: Chemical concentration and contact (dwell) time as defined by the manufacturer shall be monitored, e.g. indicator paper and recorded. -Storage of clean equipment: Equipment shall be stored as to permit quick drying and not in a manner such as wet nesting or stacking. Equipment shall be stored upside down allowing to air dry. Facilities: -Mechanical/physical cleaning: surfaces to be visibly cleaned -Chemical sanitation: chemical concentration/contact (dwell) time as defined by the chemical manufacturer shall be monitored and documented -Verification of cleaning and sanitation effectiveness: microbiological swabs and/or ATP testing protocols

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SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing (cont’d) Verify cleanliness of equipment and facility by visual observation Understand cleaning/sanitization standard and verify standard application by: Audit



Cleaning schedules



Records Review results of microbiological swabbing, impression tests or similar testing if in place



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SOP: Physical Contamination (Foreign Object)

Standard

The company shall have risk-assessment based control measures to prevent physical contamination

Purpose

Scope

To prevent physical contamination of food and food contact surfaces

The company will have a “Foreign Object Policy” as appropriate to the nature of its business.

Guidelines The company will operate procedures designed to either remove or control potential sources of physical contamination of food and food contact surfaces by: Elimination: • Sources of physical contamination should be eliminated where possible through product design or HACCP based procedures

Procedure

Control: • Any risk of physical contamination that cannot be completely eliminated is to be protected against damage through controls. For glass, all lighting fixtures, including the flying insect control devices, in all production and storage areas can be controlled by enclosures or use of shatterproof materials. •

The company shall maintain a risk assessment indicating a register / list of foreign objects by department, e.g. glass, brittle hard plastic, staples (review past trend analysis for potential risks)

Training: • All staff should be trained in the prevention of physical contamination of food and food contact equipment. The training should ensure compliance with all applicable HACCP procedures and control measures including monitoring and corrective actions.

Audit

Verify that a documented “Foreign Object Policy” and procedure are in place that is appropriate to the nature of the business

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SOP: Food Handling Standard Procedures are in place to minimize microbiological contamination or growth, the introduction of physical contaminants or the introduction of chemical contamination during food handling To supply safe food for consumption

Purpose

Raw and ready-to-eat foods

Scope

Guidelines •

Prevention of Microbiological Cross Contamination of Ready-to-eat Food from Raw Food Designated handling areas - The areas for handling of raw foods and ready-to-eat foods shall be segregated by time or space • Designated equipment/utensils - Work tables, cutting boards, sinks, food preparation machines, etc. for preparation and handling of ready-to-eat foods must be segregated from raw foods, unless a documented procedure of cleaning and disinfection of equipment used for raw foods is in place. Prevention of Microbiological Cross Contamination of Ready-to-eat Foods from Food Handling Equipment •



Food handling equipment shall be cleaned and disinfected before use according to SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing Prevention of Cross Contamination of Ready-to-eat Foods from Food Handlers •



Procedures



Food handlers shall comply with the procedures of SOP: Health Monitoring and SOP: Personal Hygiene

Food handlers shall be trained in food safety topics relevant to their job as required by SOP Food Safety Training. Prevention of Microbiological Growth Food handling outside refrigeration shall be minimized: •





• •

After receiving, goods shall be moved into refrigerated or freezer storage within a reasonable amount of time such that food safety is not compromised Cold chain shall be risk assessed up to food service to the final passenger

Prevention of Contamination from Environment • The flow shall permit effective segregation between clean and unclean materials and processes • Food handling environment shall be maintained, kept clean and free of pests •

Outer packaging shall not enter food production areas



Wooden pallets shall not be used in food production areas

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SOP: Food Handling (cont’d)



Audit



Confirm that the documented procedures exist Observe the food handling practices during audit to confirm that the procedures are being followed

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SOP: Stock Rotation / Date (Day) Coding / Time Control Standard An effective stock control system is implemented to ensure that food is consumed within its shelf life To ensure identification of the age of food items so that the oldest stock is always used first (FIFO) and that all food items - particularly time/temperature control for safety foods - are consumed before the designated shelf life of product has expired

Purpose

All foods

Scope

Guidelines

Stock rotation can be maintained and controlled by the use of various date/day coding procedures suitable for the specific step in the process. For example, bulk food items may have a manufacturer’s product expiry date, which should be followed and adhered to throughout the complete supply chain. The process steps typically requiring date or day coding (but not restricted to) for stock control purposes are: - Receiving - Storage prior to use in the kitchen - Thawing – NOTE: Once thawed, items must be cooked or processed within its designated shelf-life for the product or according to the company specific SOP. - Storage after cooking Procedure

- In-process food items - Assembly / tray-set - Final holding •

Shelf life & Time Control: Operators need to establish internal shelf life standards for foods to ensure food safety and quality: - Maximum 72 hours for hot food from cooking to the scheduled time of departure - Maximum 48 hours for cold food from start of preparation/end of thawing to scheduled time of departure - Airlines additionally need to consider the intended time until consumption depending on their time/temperature regime available on board until service to the passenger NOTE: Certain products, due to their pH value and/or water activity, may have a substantially longer shelf-life than stated above

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SOP: Stock Rotation/Date (Day) Coding/Time Control (cont’d) Guidelines



Date or Day coding methods: The following are suggested methods but are not exhaustive. Many of the label options are commercially available as set out in product catalogues. - Color coding for the day of the week - Date labeling

Procedure

- Colored marker pens (food grade) that correspond to day of the week - Manufacturers’ “Use By” or “Best Before” Whatever system is used, it must be clearly documented in writing and all staff should receive appropriate training on the correct use of the date/day coding system(s). Standards must be followed and outdated food discarded

Audit

Randomly select samples from each process step and verify if standards are met

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SOP: Washing Raw Fruit and Vegetables

Standard

A procedure must be in place to reduce contamination on raw unwashed fruit & vegetables

Purpose

Scope

To ensure raw fruit and vegetables are thoroughly washed in order to reduce physical, chemical and microbiological surface contamination

All unwashed fruit and vegetables

Guidelines

Raw vegetables and fruits should be washed in clean, cold potable water. Where permitted, a suitable chemical wash should be used in accordance with the chemical manufacturer’s instructions. • Raw fruit and vegetables must be washed in clearly labeled, cleaned, and disinfected designated sinks or containers. •

Procedure

• • • • •

Audit

The sinks or containers must be regularly cleaned and sanitized. Remove all exterior packaging / stickers such as rubber bands, films, plastic, wires and twist ties Remove layers or leaves of products such as lettuce, celery to ensure proper washing. Remove pineapple tops. Inspect the final product to ensure it is visually clean and free of debris and dirt. If not, repeat the process. The chemical used must have concentration levels verified and recorded following chemical manufacturer’s instructions or caterer’s SOP. All prepared fruit and vegetables must be date or day marked, covered and stored under refrigerated conditions until ready to use

Check records and use direct observation of the process to ensure compliance to the procedure

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SOP: Thawing Standard All frozen products must be thawed in such a way that prevents the growth of pathogens and cross contamination To control the growth of pathogens during the thawing of raw and ready to eat (RTE) foods and cross contamination prevention of RTE foods during thawing

Purpose

All frozen raw and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods

Scope

Guidelines

Foods must be thawed in an approved and safe manner to ensure that the product surface does not exceed8°C/46°F upon completion. Where local regulation is more strict follow local regulations (e.g. US: 5°C / 41°F). Ensure raw and RTE food remains segregated throughout the process. Approved Thawing Methods: • Under refrigeration below 8°C/46°F – No record is required under these conditions •



Procedure • • •





Outside of refrigeration – The surface temperature of the food must not exceed 8 °C/46 °F and must be recorded. Once thawed using this method, the product must be immediately processed or sent to storage at or below 5°C / 41°F. Under cold running potable water - The product must be completely submerged in running water in a sealed package or a clean container. Water velocity must be sufficient to agitate and float off loose particles in the overflow. The surface temperature of the food must not exceed 8 °C/46 °F and must be recorded. To prevent the risk of cross contamination the sink must be clean and sanitized. Automatic defrosting machines may be used provided the manufacturer’s instructions are followed and the appropriate records are maintained Thawing of raw meat, poultry and seafood must be done while elevated on a drain rack (perforated trays) and not allowed to thaw in its own natural juices Decanting of meat, poultry and seafood shall be performed in a location that shall prevent cross contamination. It is recommended that this take place inside the chiller if possible. The company should establish an internal shelf life for thawed products considering the freezing process leads to cell destruction which causes thawed items to spoil faster than fresh products. Re-freezing of thawed products is only allowed after heat-treatment Additional Seafood Constraints: (US Specific) Frozen seafood packaged in reduced oxygen packaging (ROP) must be removed from the ROP state prior to thawing.

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SOP: Thawing (cont’d)

Audit



Review the thawing process and check product labeling



Check food surface temperatures



Verify control documentation



National regulations shall apply

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SOP: Allergen Management Standard

Procedures must be in place to minimize the risk of undeclared allergen inclusion in food & drink and to ensure that accurate, up to date allergen information is available for allergic passengers where legally required.

Purpose

To ensure provision of accurate allergen information to enable passengers to make an informed food choice upon request - when departing from countries where legally required and according to countries’ legislation. As well as to minimize allergen cross contamination for SPML’s with allergen claims. All food and beverages, including SPMLs, all responsible employees

Scope

The allergens controlled must be those required for mandatory declaration of local authority. Guidelines

Mandatory Allergen Declarations As a minimum the allergens controlled on site must conform to the requirements of the legislation in the country of operation. Examples: EU allergen list:

• Cereals containing gluten, namely: wheat, rye, barley, oats, spelt, kamut or their hybridized strains,

Procedure



Crustaceans (e.g. prawns),



Egg,



Fish,



Peanuts,



Soybeans,



Milk,

Examples: USA allergen list: Milk Eggs Fish (e.g. salmon, cod etc) Crustacean shellfish (e.g. prawns etc) Tree nuts (e.g. almonds, hazelnuts etc) Peanuts Wheat Soybeans

• Nuts, namely: almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, cashews, pecan nuts, Brazil nuts, pistachio nuts, macadamia or Queensland nuts, •

Celery,



Mustard,



Sesame seeds,



Sulphur dioxide & sulphites at >10mg/



Lupine,



Molluscs (e.g. squid).

kg,

EU Food Information to Consumers Regulation No 1169/2011, Food Allergen Labeling and consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA). FDA Food Code 2013.

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SOP: Allergen Management (cont’d) General Principles of Allergen Management Goods In • All in-bound ingredients shall have ingredient declaration or a product specification available through the supply chain. • Controls must be in place to minimize cross contamination. A risk assessment shall be in place to identify facility specific risks. When goods delivered do not meet the same specification as those ordered, consideration must be given to the presence of any new or additional allergens and whether allergen information must be amended. Storage • Allergenic materials must be stored in a manner that minimizes the risk of cross contamination e.g. goods must be fully sealed or enclosed, allergens of a similar nature stored together, allergens stored on the lowest shelf. • Allergenic materials must be clearly identifiable e.g. labels &/or color coded storage for special meals containing allergen claims e.g. NLML Segregation, Sanitation, Separation & Labeling • Based on the facility specific risk assessment a kitchen may have dedicated tables & equipment for handling allergens. Controls include: segregation, separation, sanitation and labeling of the specific allergens. A plan for segregation can be obtained by the use of suitable alternative methods e.g. • Segregation by time (production planning) followed by a full clean down with chemical detergent and sanitizer •

Segregated dedicated area for allergen production



12” / 30 cm or more separation of allergens being controlled



Clear labeling in language or icons understood by line staff

Hot Kitchen • Sanitation and production scheduling should be used to prevent cross contamination. Holding Chillers & Blast Chillers • Allergenic materials must be stored in a manner that minimizes the risk of cross contamination based on facility specific risk assessment. Personal Protective Clothing • Staff outer wear for those handling allergen and items that have specific allergic claims on specials meals shall be appropriate to prevent cross contamination. Hygiene & Cleaning • Where dedicated equipment is not available, a full clean down with chemical detergent and sanitizer must be carried out after handling allergenic ingredients at the special meal work station or any work space where the control of allergens is implemented. • Cleaning cloths used to clean up spillages of allergenic foods, or disposable wiping cloths must not be reused as these may contaminate surfaces or equipment.

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SOP: Allergen Management (cont’d) Training • All appropriate staff on site must be trained in allergen awareness as part of the induction process on the first day of employment. •

Training must include an understanding of the implications of errors.



The requirement to wash hands between moving from allergenic to non-allergenic foods must be emphasized. The importance of not making unauthorized recipe changes or substitutions must be emphasized. Staff involved in the production, preparation and tray set of allergen friendly special meals must have enhanced training in allergen awareness and have their competency assessed.

• •

Special Meals - Undeclared/Accidental Allergen Inclusion • Particular care must be taken in the production and handling of allergen controlled special meals e.g. NLML, GFML. Bought In Special Meals • An allergen trained competent individual must be responsible for checking that the contents of any bought in special meal meet the requirements e.g. NLML, GFML. Special Meals Made In-House • The general principles of allergen management as detailed above must be followed. •

Detailed specifications must be available to staff involved in the preparation of special meals.

Special Meal Tray Set Up • Additional care must be taken to ensure that allergenic materials are not placed onto special meal trays. E.g. regular bread roll placed onto gluten intolerant meal trays or dressings containing milk placed onto a lactose intolerant meal tray. Crew Communications • The caterer must provide cabin crew with allergen information for all food & beverages loaded according to contractual agreements or local regulatory requirements. Meal Substitutions • Where meal substitutions are required, the caterer must provide revised allergen information to the crew when required by contractual or local regulatory requirements. Airline Communications • The airline must ensure that passengers know that they may ask about food allergens where contractually or legally required • Information may be provided for food allergy enquiries via the airline website, menus, food packaging, inflight communication, or verbally by cabin crew.

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SOP: Allergen Management (cont’d) Undeclared/Accidental Allergen Inclusion If a caterer discovers that a product accidentally contains an undeclared allergen, or if a product has been incorrectly labelled they must take the following action: Where possible withdraw or correct the meal. If it is not possible to withdraw the meal, provide crew with supporting documentation clearly identifying the allergen present. Contact the airline to communicate the issue. Audit Observations Observe that specifics of the allergen risk assessment are applied in the facility. Observe if the storage areas reflect the allergen labeling and separation stated in risk assessment. Observe staff practices when moving from handling allergens to handling foods that do not inherently contain allergens. Check the contents of a GFML or NLML tray set. Audit

Verify that staff is demonstrably competent. For example, by observing or talking to food handlers during inspection. Paperwork Audit Review the site information plan regarding all allergens present or handled on site by a “Review of site risk assessment” Check a meal specification against the allergen information provided to crew. Verify allergen awareness training records. Review the site allergen complaints.

NOTE: Materials used to create this SOP include:



Legislation references as above.



UK FSA – Safer Food Better Business for Caterers – Food Allergies Section



http://www.food.gov.uk/business-industry/caterers/sfbb



UK FSA – Allergen Control Checklist: Catering Premises (a checklist provided for local authority enforcement officers).



http://www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/multimedia/pdfs/publication/allergencatering0908.pdf



US FDA Food Code 2013 – (Annex 4 – Management of Food Safety Practices – Achieving Active Managerial Control of Foodborne Illness Risk Factors)



US FDA - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Allergens, including the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Edition 4); Final Guidance



http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ucm059116.htm



US FDA - Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-282, Title II)



http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Allergens/ucm106187.htm



US FDA - Food Allergen Labeling And Consumer Protection Act of 2004 http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/ GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/Allergens/ucm106890.htm

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SOP: In-House Freezing Standard A process which controls in-house freezing of products must be established To ensure a controlled process and to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria Purpose when freezing products All products frozen in-house, not previously frozen.

Scope

Guidelines In-House Prepared Products to be Frozen •

If finished product (that is specified as fresh) needs to be frozen, the caterer should obtain approval from the customer



Products frozen in-house need to be labeled with the original shelf life issued by the original manufacturer or by the caterer



Products to be frozen in-house must be frozen as close as possible to the production date.



All products must be fully covered. Raw and cooked products must not be mixed in the same container.



Products must be frozen in small batch sizes to facilitate quick freezing, i.e. single layers, individual components, etc.



Products must be labeled with the original production date, a ‘Frozen On’ date and a ‘Use By’ date



As a guideline, in-house frozen product must not have longer than 12 weeks of shelf life. However the caterer can deviate from this guideline by shelf life testing or other recognized methods (e.g. through chemical analysis).



A method must be in place to ensure proper stock rotation and that products are used within their allotted shelf life



Thawing of products must comply with the thawing process outlined in SOP: Thawing Chilled bought-in Products to be Frozen In-House

Procedure •

To allow shelf life extension, the original manufacturer shall provide written, evidence based, documentation supporting the additional time



Products frozen in-house shall be labeled with the original shelf life as issued by the manufacturer or caterer



Products must have a minimum of three days of shelf life remaining



Where possible, the original manufacturer’s date marking must remain on the packaging to provide traceability and to demonstrate that the product has not been frozen on the last day of its shelf life.



Products must be fully covered. Raw and cooked products shall be kept in separate containers.



Products must be frozen in small batch sizes to facilitate quick freezing, i.e. single layers, individual components, etc.



Products must be labeled with a ‘Produced On’, ‘Frozen On’ and ‘Use By’ dates



National regulations shall apply Approved Methods of Freezing



Conventional freezing under deep freezer conditions



Accelerated freezing techniques, e.g. blast freezing, cryogenic freezing, liquid nitrogen, etc.

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SOP: In-House Freezing (cont’d) NOTE 1: Once defrosted, no products that were previously frozen, shall be re-frozen without the permission from the customer

Procedure (cont’d)

Audit

NOTE 2: Ad hoc in-house freezing is not a preferred manufacturing practice. When this occurs regularly it is recommended that a root cause and corrective action process be initiated. Check stored items in the freezer against the records Verify documentation Visually check labels on products

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SOP: Dispatch, Transport and Aircraft Loading Standard Loaded food must be transported under controlled conditions from the caterer to the aircraft Purpose

Scope

To prevent growth of pathogens during dispatch, transportation and aircraft loading All TCS food for consumption on aircraft

Guidelines

Dispatch: • Cold Food: - Ensure that temperature prior to dispatch does not exceed 5°C/41°F •

Hot Food: - Ensure that core temperature prior to dispatch is not lower than 63°C/145°F Transportation and Loading: Transportation and loading of food is executed in such a way that:

Procedure



Cold Food:



- Food surface temperature does not exceed 10°C/50 °F Hot Food:



- Food surface temperature is not lower than 60°C/140°F 21 CFR Part 1250 – Interstate Conveyance Sanitation (US): 1250.27 Storage of perishables. All perishable food or drink shall be kept at or below 10 °C/50 °F, except when being prepared or kept hot for serving.

Monitoring procedure: • Temperature is to be taken as close to the point of dispatch time as possible National regulations shall apply

Audit

Verify that meal temperatures are controlled at time of dispatch. If temperature cannot be taken, verify that transportation and loading method is risk assessed.

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SOP: Return Catering Standard The menu selection and specification must be based on an assessment for adequacy or appropriateness for return catering by the airline in relation to cold storage capability during the flight. Taking into consideration aircraft type, duration, storage condition, packaging, and any other factor that To minimize food safety hazards during return catering

Purpose Scope

All TCS foods which are catered in a station and will be consumed during the return flight after departure.

Guidelines Menu selection or specification Food items must be suitable for return catering, i.e. no critical or hazardous meal ingredients based on risk assessment (seafood, etc.) Time-Temperature Control for safety • Prior to dispatch and sealing, temperature of food items must be verified. • Food Trolleys with food items for return catering should be sealed, segregated and properly labeled • Food items for return catering must be stowed in a refrigerated position (in galley or belly) or with dry ice (refer to decision tree for Return Catering) • It is highly recommended to monitor the temperature of food items during the outbound flight with data loggers or smart labels Storage of Return Catering Meals Procedure • •

Meals are stowed in the galley with galley cooling system • the refrigeration must be ‘turned on’ Meals are stowed in the belly • the time and temperature during and after uplift at the outstation should be monitored If there is no temperature control for ex-sector meals, consume within 4 hours. Refer to local legislation for all time temperature control guidance in country of origin



In case of need for storage food during night stop, the airline acts as supplier in the logistic chain. Adherence to caterers’ HACCP program, local legislation and liability risks need to be clarified up-front with the caterer.

Food items for return catering must be microbiologically tested and meet the Microbiological Guidelines in this standard (Appendix 1) Only where possible: •

Audit

The responsibility is mainly at the airlines – data might not be available at the caterer

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Decision Tree for Return Catering World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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SOP: Flight Attendant/ Cabin Crew Training Standard Flight A6endant / Cabin Crew shall be adequately trained in safe food handling pracces applicable to their work

To ensure that flight attendant/ cabin crew have sufficient knowledge to enable them to handle food safely

Purpose

All flight attendants/ cabin crew

Scope

Guidelines Food safety handling procedures are to be included in flight attendant training and refresher courses as necessary. Training can be delivered by a variety of methods including lecture, written material, computer based training, etc. All training should include recorded assessment/testing. Points to be covered: • Personal hygiene including: proper hand washing prior to beverage service and meal service; reporting illnesses • Cooling methods used to maintain proper food temperatures on board the aircraft until all food service(s) is complete •

Cooking, re-heating and/or maintaining hot food temperatures Prevention of food and equipment biological, chemical and physical contamination (e.g. rims of cups/glasses, service equipment, food allergen crosscontact, ice.)



Food complaint procedures



Proper segregation practices for keeping dirty equipment segregated from food that has not yet been served During interval between first and second service, meals should not be placed into a warm oven. (Cooking time instructions to be followed.) Do not pre-heat ovens unless short haul service requires expedited meal preparation.



Procedure

• • •

Airline Audit

Proper de-catering processes for all crew food / meals

Review training procedures and available documents

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SOP: Delay Handling

Standard The company shall have a food safety based plan in place in the event of an aircraft delay To determine whether food will be safe at the point of service in Purpose the event of an aircraft departure delay All flights where the departure has been significantly delayed. All Scope TCS food.

Guidelines The guidelines for decision making regarding food safety risks in case of aircraft delays along with proper preventive actions to execute are described in the following flowcharts. The information relating to times, food temperatures, actions taken and decisions made shall be documented The final decision is the joint responsibility of the airline and caterer depending on chain of custody:

Procedure •

To notify the caterer of the delay for consultation



For the decision to serve or not to serve the food Recording of corrective action(s)



Delay Handling Process Flow A: For meals loaded chilled

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SOP: Delay Handling (cont’d)

Delay Handling Process Flow B: For meals loaded hot

Audit:

Airline audit:

Verify that a documented delay procedure is in place

Verify recording of delayed departures and corrective actions taken

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SOP: Product Recall Standard

A company shall have a defined plan and system in place to effectively manage food incidents that result in a product recall throughout the supply chain

Purpose

Scope

To prevent consumer consumption of adulterated food that could pose a health risk

All ingredients and finished products

Guidelines A comprehensive product recall procedure shall be established in the company crisis management program. This typically includes: •

A Recall Team



A communication plan with internal and external contacts The caterer must communicate with the customer prior to public notifications The plan should include procedures to manage a market withdrawal or product ban/ internal quarantine. (These may lead to an actual recall.) A plan of action to withdraw the offending item from the supply chain (this may include on board the aircraft) A complete, documented root-cause analysis is undertaken in each case of product recall caused by the caterer Training on the product recall procedure shall be given to Recall Team members and other relevant staff

• • •

Procedure • •

It is required that a test of the recall system be exercised at a minimum frequency of once per year - determined by the operator - to ensure that the procedure works effectively and efficiently (recommended elapsed time: 4 hours). The company reviews results of the trials or actual recalls for continuous improvement of its food safety procedures (including recall procedure if not fully effective in removing product involved). The Recall Program shall be included in the company crisis management program/ incident management program. World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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SOP: Product Recall (cont’d) Guidelines

Recall Procedure Process flow

Verify that a documented procedure for product recall is in place and tested in accordance with the frequency determined by the operator Audit

A record of disposition of product must be retained for 2 years Confirm that the contact information of all concerned parties is available and up-to-date The operator shall demonstrate recall team ready and preparedness.

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SOP: Food Safety Complaints

Standard

The company shall have a documented system for the effective receipt, recording and management of food safety related complaints

Purpose

Scope

To take necessary action to avoid reoccurrence

Customer complaints related to food safety

Guidelines

A procedure for customer complaints handling should be developed and documented. The procedure typically includes: •

A checklist used to collect pertinent information regarding each incident



If possible, recover a sample or obtain a photo of the evidence A system for receipt and recording of customer complaints Requirement that investigations are only to be performed by competent persons A clearly defined process for the investigation and communication of complaints throughout the business unit



Procedure

• • •

A requirement that corrective action is taken when necessary and that investigation findings are communicated to the customer as appropriate

The complaint handling procedure should ensure that regular reviews of complaint data are conducted to identify potential trends, to avoid recurrence and to aid continuous improvement of product safety. Audit

Check that a documented procedure of food safety related complaints is in place Confirm that the procedure is being implemented and followed

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2.5 Verification Food Safety Management System (FSMS) Verification Standard A verificaon process must be in place for each stage, incl. HACCP. Purpose Scope

Verification activities confirm that the FSMS is implemented and operating according to plan. •

Suppliers, Caterers, Airlines

Guidelines

Verification is achieved by various tools and techniques of which auditing, observation and monitoring (including records review) are among the most important. Audits: Audits are systematic and independent examinations to determine whether activities and results comply with procedures, whether these procedures are implemented effectively and whether they are suitable to achieve the objectives. Examples are: •

Internal Audits - Internal audit elements include review of the FSMS, process flow diagram, CCPs and SOP procedures as well as the monitoring of control procedures. They verify that SOPs and HACCP processes are in compliance. - Recommended audit frequency depends upon the type of operation and shall be based on a risk evaluation. The audit may take place in full or in parts over a certain time period.

Procedure •

External Audits - External audits are conducted by customers, regulatory agencies or third parties. They may independently provide information relevant to the verification process, but may not replace the internal audit as a verification tool. Records Review Review of control records is important in order to assess whether the records are: • •

Maintained at the appropriate frequency Shown to be reliable and in compliance with critical limits

Inclusive of corrective actions taken NOTE: An annual system review shall be performed by senior management to demonstrate accountability •

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Food Safety Management System (FSMS) Verification (cont’d) Paper audit: Review of internal audits Review environment and product microbiological analysis and test results

Audit

Determine whether there is an adequate record review and record data reliability Determine adequacy of annual system review

Physical audit: Auditors should confirm that the procedures and records reflect the operation’s actual performance

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Appendix I Microbiological Testing Guidelines Environmental and Finished Product Testing: The limited value of microbiological testing as a control method is confirmed by various scientific sources, e.g. ICMSF: Microorganisms in Foods Volume 4 Application of HACCP, where use of microbiological testing is recommended as verification for the HACCP plan. Caution: In the US, it is not recommended to conduct pathogen testing without the ability to test and hold product. Scope of microbiological analysis includes: 1. In-house produced ready-to-eat food 2. Purchased ready-to-eat food 3. Potable water and ice: caterer or aircraft 4. Cleaning effectiveness In-House Produced Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Food Random sampling and analysis of a limited number of TCS ready to eat foods may provide valuable information regarding effectiveness and reliability of a facility’s GMP and sanitation procedures (SSOPs). If an internal audit verifies food safe procedures and the microbiological results of in-house produced foods are satisfactory, the auditor has verified that the implemented control system works. If an internal audit verifies food safe procedures and the microbiological results of in-house produced foods identify unsafe food properties, there are weaknesses in the control system. These weaknesses must be identified and corrected. Testing frequency depends on the performance of the control system as assessed by the internal audit in addition to other factors. These factors include the frequency of alleged or confirmed food safety related customer complaints. Food safety related customer complaints may indicate the need for additional microbial testing even when other records may indicate confirm satisfactory control. Purchased RTE Food Microbiological testing of purchased RTE foods is often the most appropriate option for verification of product safety as alternative measures may be expensive (audits of remote manufacturing facilities). The frequency of testing should be determined primarily by performance history, such as alleged or confirmed problems with the purchased product in question as expressed through customer complaints or observations in-house.

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Potable Water and Ice: Caterer or Aircraft Microbiological analysis is the most appropriate method of verification of safe, potable water and ice. Ice may be made at catering units or may fall into the “purchased ready-to-eat foods” category and therefore must be sourced with certificates of analysis from the supplier. Analysis of water and ice may be performed by health authorities, the caterer or the airline. Refer to established guidelines for drinking water quality standards: https://www.iata.org/whatwedo/safety/audit/Pages/idqp.aspx http://water.epa.gov/drink/standardsriskmanagement.cfm http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en/ Cleaning Verification Various testing methods are available to verify the effectiveness of the cleaning procedures for direct food contact surfaces and hands. Examples include:



Swabbing (indicator organisms)



Impression tests



ATP

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World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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4

(Cold water for food us e)

3

0/100M L 0/100M L

0 / 100m l

A bs ent

A bs ent

< 10

< 10

< 10

< 10

< 10

< 10

cfu/g

** E.Coli

0 / 100m l

< 10,000

< 10,000

< 10,000

cfu/g

Ente roba cte ria ce a e

< 20

< 100

< 100

< 100

< 100

< 100

< 100

( Coag + ve)

cfu/g

7

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

cfu/g

S.a ure us B.Ce re us

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

< 1,000

cfu/g

C. P e rfringe ns

Absent in 25g

Absent in 25g

A bs ent in 25g

A bs ent in 25g

A bs ent in 25g

A bs ent in 25g

in 25g

S a lm one lla

in 25g

< 100/g

< 100/g

< 100/g

< 100/g

< 100/g

< 100/g

It should be noted that where legally required s tandards are available for a c ountry ,then that c ountry 's s tandards m ust apply .

but can be inc luded on Cooked V egetables and ready m eal com ponents (i.e. c ooked m eat ) .

Cam py lobacter jejuni Test as part of c om plaint inves tigation or based on risk as sess m ent e.g. if Fruit /V eg from Organic soils , unwashed Fres h Herbs , unwas hed fruit (ie soft berry fruits ) .

V ibrio parahaem oly tic us tes ting as part of c om plaint inves tigation or if Seafood ,S hrim ps or Fis h from warm /Tropic al waters .Not nec es sary if s ourced from Northern waters .

6

B ac illus c ereus tes t on Rice /Pasta/ Cereals / Dairy based Dess erts

A s per Guidelines for Drink ing water Quality ,W orld Health Organis ation & A EA Guidelines

5

7

A erobic P late Count at 30c , 48 hrs 72hrs .

4

W here a c ountry 's s tandards or c riteria are m ore s tric t ,then the country's criteria take precedenc e .

3

2

Liste ria M onocytoge ne se

Te sts a s pe r Supplie r M icrobiologica l Spe cifica tion ( or a s a bove w ith a dditiona l te sts a s a pplica ble i.e . Liste ria on long she lf-life chi

N/A

< 10 6

< 10 6

< 10 6

Count cfu/g

P la te

Ae robic

* Testing must be conducted by laboratory compliant or certified to ISO 17025

1 Ready to E at inc lude heat -treated (c ooked ,bak ed ,pasteuris ed ) foods of anim al and vegetable origin ,c leaned raw vegetables and fruits & or s m oked foods ,water and ic e .

Proce sse d in -house :-

e .g. Bought-in RTE Foods & P roducts to be

In - com ing Ra w M a te ria ls :

W ater Ice 4

(Direc t Food c ontac t Surfaces)

Hand Swabs Surface Swabs

Cooke d M e als w ith lightly or partially cooked com ponents , a ferm ented ingredient , raw garnish or w ith raw ingredients added after cooking - T o be se rv e d H ot . De sse rts ( e.g. C heesecakes or those with raw com ponents ie raw fruit , unwashed fruit ) De sse rts Hot or C old (other than cheesecakes & with fully processed com ponents )

- T o be se rv e d Hot

Cooke d M e al compone nts -

- T o be se rv e d Cold as part of R T E Foods .

Cooke d M e al compone nts -

Fres h Herbs, Ferm ented M eats /Fish /Cheese etc .

etc . containing raw V eg / Fruit, Lettuc e

Appetis ers , Sandwiches , Canapes, S us hi, Snac ks

RT E C old Foods e.g. Cold m eals, S alads,

Type

Microbiological Guidelines

Appendix II Flow Diagram Flow Diagram 1- Production

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Appendix III Hazard Analysis Table

Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment Example for Guidance Purposes Following construction of the process flow diagram, the HACCP team should then ensure that all conceivable hazards are identified. Once the hazards are identified for each process step, decisions should be made on how the process step should be controlled based on the likelihood and justification of the potential hazard(s). The Decision Tree (Codex 1997) can be used to determine whether the hazards identified at a particular step shall be controlled by a Critical Control Point (CCP). If not, it may be controlled as a CP (control point) or Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). A CCP is a step, location, practice or procedure at which control can be applied and which is essential to prevent, eliminate or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) or Control points (CPs) are defined as steps or procedures that control the operational conditions within a food establishment. When documenting SOPs and CPs the frequency of monitoring and corrective action must be included. The controls of CCPs, CPs and SOPs in the HACCP plan form the foundations for food safety. Table 1 summarizes a typical hazard analysis process for airline and airline catering operations. TABLE 1 Step No

Process Step

Hazard Type

Potential Hazard and Cause

1 (A)

Product Design

Biological

Microbiological growth due to improper time/ temperature conditions

Food Product Design

Pathogen contamination by the nature of the product and degree of suitability for airline catering

Justification





Increased storage time on board until consumption due to round catering, multi sector flights, long haul flights and overnight stops Increasing customer requests for hazardous meal ingredients such as raw fish

Likelihood of occurrence if hazards are not identified either in the risk assessment or menu development stage.

Example Control Measures

Control By

Menu selection according to outcome of:

SOP: Product Design



Route assessment



Cooling assessment



Restriction of hazardous meal ingredients from the menu

Control of liability : Inform customers of potential risk and agree on disclaimer

Chemical

Physical

Chemical contamination from meal ingredients such as toxins in fish

Scientific literature or supplier information reported presence of toxin in foods

Allergens

Allergens can cause serious health consequences

Physical contamination not removed by subsequent processing

Likelihood of occurrence resulting from product selection and type

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering



Restrict hazardous meal ingredients or products under recall from the menu- Labeling verification of sub component ingredients and processing aids i.e. spray release

Restrict high risk products with limited control from physical contamination at product design stage.

SOP: Hazardous Meal Ingredients Advice on the menu card handed out to the passenger

SOP: Hazardous Meal Ingredients SOP: Allergen Control Measures

SOPs: Physical Contamination; Supplier Approval

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Step No

Process Step

Hazard Type

Potential Hazard and Cause

Justification

1 (B)

Product Design

Biological

Introduction of new types of packaging or equipment due to trends, innovation or marketing

Equipment or packaging specification suitable for purpose and for effective cleaning and sanitization

SOP: Product Design

Food Contact Equipment & Packaging Design

Bacterial harborage due to uneven surfaces, design and material (e.g. soup flasks)

Chemical

Chemical contamination of food due to non-food grade equipment or packaging

Introduction of new types of packaging or equipment due to trends, innovation or marketing

Equipment or packaging specification suitable for purpose

SOP: Product Design

Allergens

Cross contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

Physical

Physical contamination due to nature of equipment and packaging

Introduction of new types of packaging or equipment due to trends, innovation or marketing

Equipment or packaging specification suitable for purpose

SOP: Product Design

Biological

Survival and contamination of pathogens in high-risk ready-to-eat foods

Ineffective supplier food safety controls at all stages to point of delivery

Purchase high-risk ready-to -eat foods from approved suppliers

SOP: Supplier Approval

Chemical

Antibiotics, growth hormones and pesticides in foods

Incorrect use of antibiotics, growth hormones or pesticides may result in unsafe level of residues in food

Purchase foods from approved suppliers

SOP: Supplier Approval

Allergens

Allergen exceptions to printed menu and label components

Substitutions reviewed for allergens and approval

SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination not removed by subsequent processing

Likelihood of occurrence resulting from insufficient supplier controls

Purchase from approved suppliers according to specifications

SOP: Supplier Approval

Biological

Growth of pathogens in chilled foods due to temperature abuse during transportation

Insufficient temperature control during transportation causes pathogen growth

Measure temperature of chilled foods at receiving

CP 1: Control at Food Receiving

Chemical

Chemical contamination of open food if segregation of food and chemicals is not adhered to

Likelihood of occurrence resulting from insufficient procedures and controls

Visual inspection of delivery and evidence of any taints and odors

SOP: Supplier Approval

Substitutions are frequent and unpredictable

Substitutions reviewed for allergens and approval

2

3

Purchasing

Receiving

Allergens

Example Control Measures

Control By

SOP: Allergens

SOP: Product Handling / Receiving SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination of food

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Likelihood of occurrence resulting from insufficient transport procedures and delivery controls

Inspection of integrity of packaging

SOP: Supplier Approval SOP: Product Handling

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Step No 4 (A)

Process Step

Storage (chilled) - RTE Foods

Hazard Type

Potential Hazard and Cause

Biological

Growth of pathogens in ready-to-eat foods due to exceeding storage temperature or time

Justification





Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Improper storage temperature and/or time exceeding acceptable shelf life can allow pathogen growth

Example Control Measures

Control By



Control storage temperature

CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature



Control storage shelf life/ time

SOP: Date Coding and Stock Rotation

No subsequent step to eliminate or reduce the hazard to acceptable level

Chemical storage segregated from product storage

Good Manufacturing Practices

Cross- contact if segregation not in place

SOP: Receiving

SOP: Allergens

Allergens

4 (B)

Storage (frozen) Frozen Products

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

None

Allergens

Cross-contact

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Chemical

Chemical contamination of food if segregation of food and chemicals is not realized

Likelihood of occurrence resulting from insufficient procedures and controls

Clear segregation policies

None

SOP: Allergens

5

Storage - Dry Foods

Good Manufacturing Practices

Allergens

SOP: Allergens

Cross-contact

Physical

Physical contamination of food

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Likelihood of occurrence resulting from insufficient procedures and controls



Effective pest control measures



Storage procedures

SOP: Physical Contamination SOP: Pest Control

65

Step No 6

Process Step

Hazard Type

Washing of raw fruits and vegetables for raw service

Biological

Potential Hazard and Cause Survival of surface pathogens due to ineffective washing processes

*See country guidelines on allergen management

7

8

Thawing - Raw Foods

Thawing - RTE Foods

Justification



Incorrect washing processes can allow pathogen survival



No subsequent step to eliminate or reduce the hazard to acceptable level

Example Control Measures

Control By

Effective washing and / or washing with chemicals (where permitted) procedure

SOP: Washing of Raw Fruits and Vegetables

Chemical

Contamination with chemical washes where used incorrectly

Likelihood of occurrence if correct procedures are not followed

Follow chemical manufacturer’s instructions and procedure

SOP: Washing of Raw Fruits and Vegetables

Physical

Contamination with foreign objects due to ineffective washing process

Likelihood of occurrence if incorrect washing and insufficient agitation causes incomplete removal of foreign objects

Effective washing procedure

SOP: Washing of Raw Fruits and Vegetables

Biological

Growth of pathogens in raw foods due to exceeding time and temperature

Products should be thawed under refrigeration

SOP: Thawing



Increasing time and temperature during thawing allows for pathogen growth



Subsequent step eliminates the hazard (except for raw fish)

Chemical

Allergens

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination of food

Likelihood of residues from packaging / labels

Visual inspection

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

Growth of pathogens in ready-to-eat foods due to exceeding time and temperature

Products should be thawed under refrigeration

SOP: Thawing





Increasing time and temperature during thawing allows for pathogen growth

SOP: Product Handling

No subsequent step to eliminate or reduce the hazard to acceptable level

Chemical

Physical

Allergens

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical contamination of food

Likelihood of residues from packaging / labels

Visual inspection

SOP: Physical Contamination

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Step No 9

Process Step

Hazard Type

Preparation - Raw Foods

Biological

Biological

Potential Hazard and Cause Growth of pathogens in raw foods due to exceeding preparation temperature and time

Contamination or cross contamination of pathogens from unclean food contact surfaces and poor hygiene practices

Justification



Increasing preparation temperature and time allows for pathogen growth



Subsequent step eliminates the hazard

Poor hygiene practices and unclean food contact surfaces allow for pathogen contamination

Example Control Measures

Control By

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Product Handling

Food contact surfaces to be cleaned and sanitized as required per standard

SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing



Control cross contamination

SOP: Personal Hygiene SOP: Raw Meat Processing



Effective personal hygiene control



SOP: Product Handling

Chemical

Physical

Allergens

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practice and SSOPs

SOP: Allergen

Physical contamination of food *

Contamination during butchering and preparation

Visual inspection and risk awareness

SOP: Physical Contamination SOP: Product Design

10

Storage (chilled) Raw Foods

Biological

Growth of pathogens in raw foods due to exceeding storage temperature and time





11

Cooking

Chemical

Allergens

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Biological

Survival of pathogens due to insufficient cooking temperature Contamination of pathogens from unclean food contact surfaces and unclean handling

Increasing storage temperature and time allows for pathogen growth Subsequent step eliminates the hazard

Cross-contact Low likelihood of product contamination Undercooking and/or incorrect temperature measurement may result in survival of pathogens Unclean handling/ processing and unclean food contact surfaces may cause pathogen contamination



Correct food storage procedure



Control of refrigerator temperatures



Control of storage time

SOP: Date Coding and Stock Rotation SOP: Product Handling CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergen

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination



High risk raw foods shall be cooked to safe core temperatures



Measure food core temperature upon completion of cooking to meet standards



Food contact surfaces to be cleaned and sanitized

CCP 1: Control of Food Cooking SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing

Chemical

Allergens

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination of food

Contamination during cooking

Foreign object risk assessments

SOP: Physical Contamination

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Step No

12

13

14

Potential Hazard and Cause

Justification

Biological

Growth of pathogens in cooked foods due to slow cooling process

Slow cooling allows spore germination and toxin production

Chemical

Allergens

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination of food

Contamination during chilling

Foreign object risk assessments

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

No significant hazard identified

Upper temperature range well below danger zone

Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Chemical not stored in freezer. Inbound frozen items are delivered separately

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Biological

Growth of pathogens in ready-toeat foods due to exceeding storage temperature and time

Increasing storage temperature and time allows for pathogen growth

Chemical

Allergen

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practice

SOP: Physical Contamination

Process Step

Hazard Type

Chilling

Freezing

Storage (chilled) – RTE Foods

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Example Control Measures Foods shall be cooled rapidly after cooking

Control By

CCP 2: Control of Food Chilling

SOP: In-House Freezing



Control storage temperature



Control storage time

CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature SOP: Date Coding and Stock Rotation

68

Step No

15 16

Potential Hazard and Cause

Justification

Biological

Growth of pathogens due to exceeding food temperature or exposure time

Increasing food temperature or prolonged preparation time allows for pathogen growth

Biological

Contamination or cross contamination of pathogens from unclean food contact surfaces and poor hygiene practices

Poor hygiene practices and unclean food contact surfaces allow for pathogen contamination

Process Step

Hazard Type

Preparation and Assembly - RTE Foods

17

18

Storage (chilled) – RTE Foods

Example Control Measures

Control food temperature or exposure time



Food contact surfaces to be cleaned and sanitized as required per standard



Control cross contamination



Effective personal hygiene control

Control By

CP 3: Control of Food Processing

SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing SOP: Product Handling SOP: Personal Hygiene

Chemical

Allergen

Cross-contact

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination of food

Contamination during preparation / assembly

Foreign object risk assessments

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

Growth of pathogens in ready-toeat foods due to exceeding storage temperature and time

Increasing storage temperature and time allows for pathogen growth

Allergen

Low likelihood of product contamination

Chemical



Control storage temperature



Control storage time

CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature SOP: Date Coding and Stock Rotation

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Cross-contact

19

Re-heating: Hot Delivery to Aircraft

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

Growth of pathogens in re-heated food due to slow and/or insufficient heating process

Food temperature in danger zone allows for pathogen growth

Food products to be re-heated and held at safe temperature close to dispatch time

CCP 1: Cooking

Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practice

None

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practice

SOP: Physical Contamination

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SOP: Dispatch, Transportation and Loading

69

Step No 20

21

22

Process Step Preparation, Assembly, Tray-set (RTE Foods)

Storage - Final Holding

Dispatch

Hazard Type

Potential Hazard and Cause

Justification

Biological

Growth of pathogens due to exceeding food temperature or exposure time

Increasing food temperature or prolonged preparation time allows for pathogen growth

Biological

Contamination or cross contamination of pathogens from unclean food contact surfaces and poor hygiene practices

Poor hygiene practices and unclean food contact surfaces allow for pathogen contamination

Example Control Measures

Control By



Control food temperature or exposure time

CP 3: Control of Food Processing



Food contact surfaces to be cleaned and sanitized as required per standard

SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing



Control cross contamination



Effective personal hygiene control

SOP: Product Handling SOP: Personal Hygiene

Chemical

Allergen crosscontact

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Allergens

Physical

Physical contamination of food

Contamination during preparation / assembly and tray-set

Foreign object risk assessments

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

Growth of pathogens in ready-toeat foods due to exceeding storage temperature and time

Increasing storage temperature and time allows for pathogen growth

Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamina-

Good Manufacturing Practices

None

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamina-

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

Growth of pathogens due to exceeding food temperature prior to dispatch



Control storage temperature

CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature



Control storage time

SOP: Date Coding and Stock Rotation



Increasing food temperature allows for pathogen growth



Measure temperature of TCS foods prior to dispatch or security sealing where applicable



Final holding time necessary to achieve correct dispatch and delivery temperature



Production planning

SOP: Dispatch, Transportation and Loading

Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamina-

Good Manufacturing Practices

None

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamina-

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

70

Ste p No

Process Step

Hazard Type

23

Transport

Biological

24

Aircraft Loading

25

Storage On Board

Potential Hazard and Cause

Justification

Growth of pathogens due to time/temperature abuse during transport

Increasing temperature and prolonged transportation time allows for pathogen growth

Example Control Measures



TCS foods to be transported under controlled conditions by caterer, airport handler and airlines



Measure temperature of TCS foods at loading if possible or conduct risk assessment

Control By

SOP: Dispatch, Transportation and Loading

Chemical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

None

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

Growth of pathogens due to time/temperature abuse during storage

Increasing storage temperature and prolonged transportation time allows for pathogen growth



TCS foods to be stored under refrigeration on board



Equipment / galley design

CP 2: Control of Cold Storage Temperature SOP: Product Design SOP: Crew Training

Chemical

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Physical

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood of product contamination

Good Manufacturing Practices

SOP: Physical Contamination SOP: Pest Control

26

27

Preparation On Board

Re-heating On Board

Biological

Contamination of pathogens from cabin crew

Likelihood of occurrence in case of direct food contact

Effective personal hygiene procedure

SOP: Crew Training

Chemical

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Physical

Contamination of foreign objects from cabin crew

Likelihood of occurrence during food handling and service

Biological

No significant hazard identified

Low likelihood if food is provided cooked according to CCP 3

Chemical

Contamination by incorrect equipment

Likelihood of occurrence when equipment is not fit for purpose

Physical

Contamination during heating

Likelihood of occurrence when open food is being re-heated

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering



Effective personal hygiene procedure

SOP: Crew Training



“Good Service Practice”

SOP: Physical Contamination



“Good Service Practice” (e.g. not to load ovens too far in advance of service)



Following heating instructions

Equipment specification



Design and maintenance of ovens



Design of product packaging

SOP: Crew Training

SOP: Product Design SOP: Physical Contamination SOP: Product Design

71

Step No

Process Step

28

Cooking Raw Ingredients On Board

29

30

31

Service

Aircraft Stripping

Equipment Washing and Sanitizing (kitchen and aircraft equipment)

Hazard Type

Potential Hazard and Cause

Justification

Biological

Survival of pathogens due to too low cooking temperature



Undercooking results in survival of pathogens



High risk raw foods shall be cooked to safe core temperature



Incorrect temperature measurement (e.g. surface temperature) causes undercooking



Measure food core temperature upon completion of cooking

Chemical

Contamination by incorrect equipment

Likelihood of occurrence when equipment is not fit for purpose

Physical

Contamination during heating

Likelihood of occurrence when open food is being heated

Example Control Measures

Control By CCP 1: Control of Food Cooking

Equipment specifications

SOP: Product Design



Design and maintenance of ovens

SOP: Product Design



Design of product package

Biological

Pathogen contamination from cabin crew

Likelihood of occurrence in case of direct food contact

Effective personal hygiene procedure

SOP: Crew Training

Chemical

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Physical

Contamination with foreign objects from cabin crew

Likelihood of occurrence during food handling and service



Effective personal hygiene procedure

SOP: Crew Training



“Good Service Practice”

SOP: Physical Contamination

Biological

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Chemical

No hazard identified

None

None

None

Physical

Contamination from pests

Low likelihood of occurrence



Pest control on aircraft



Flight origin



Food contact surfaces must be cleaned, rinsed then sanitized by heat or chemical sanitization and air dried

Biological

Survival and growth of pathogens Post-sanitizing contamination





Physical

Contamination with cleaning chemical

Physical contamination of clean equipment

Food residues on washed equipment allow for pathogen growth



Cleaning and sanitizing procedure



Machines must be fit for purpose

Likelihood of occurrence when chemicals are not used at the correct concentration or as per manufacturer’s instructions



Concentration controls



Follow manufacturer’s instructions

Likelihood of occurrence when cleaning procedures are not followed including storage after cleaning



Manufacturer’s procedure for use of ware wash machine



Visual inspection of cleaned equipment



Cleaning procedure/ equipment storage



Chemical

Insufficient ware washing rinse temperature and/or sanitizing chemical concentration

Re-contamination due to improper handling and/or storage

SOP: Pest Control

SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing SOP: Product Design

SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing

SOP: Cleaning and Sanitizing

NOTE: Process step numbers refer to those described on Appendix II: Flow Diagram 1 * Physical Contamination Examples: Glass, Wood, Stones, Plastic, Metal

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

72

Appendix IV: Food Safety Process Table: Critical Control Points / Control Points The table below is an example of how to establish the Critical Control Points / Control Points for airline and airline catering operations. Please note that the airline and airline caterer should assign a person, or position responsible for monitoring frequency, corrective action and verification steps.

CCP / CP

Process Step(s)

CP 1

Goods Receipt

Hazard

Control Measures

Biological Growth of pathogens

Monitor temperature of TCS foods upon receipt

Critical Limits

Monitoring Procedures and Frequency

Chilled Foods

Chilled Foods

≤ 8 °C/46 °F

What: Food surface temperature How: Measure surface temperature

Recommended Corrective Actions Chilled Foods If food surface temperature is above 8 °C/46 °F, appropriate corrective action must be taken

Verification



Review monitoring and corrective action records



Review thermometer calibration records (according to respective SOP)



Perform routine microbiological analysis of food products sampled at receiving

When: Each delivery of chilled TCS food

Frozen Foods Frozen solid without signs of prior defrosting, e.g. soft surface or ice crystals

Frozen Foods What: State or appearance of food

How: Physical and visual inspection

When: Each delivery of frozen foods

Frozen Foods If food is not in frozen state or shows sign of defrosting, appropriate corrective action must be taken OR food must be rejected

Record: Record corrective action in Food Receiving Log

Record: Food Receiving Log

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

73

CCP / CP CP 2

Process Step(s) Storage Final Holding

Hazard

Control Measures

Biological Growth of pathogens

Store TCS foods under refrigeration

Critical Limits

Food temperature ≤ 5 °C/41 °F for chilled food

(Storage On Board)

Monitoring Procedures and Frequency What: Refrigerator temperature How:



Read temperature from thermometer gauges



Read temperature from continuous recording equipment

Recommended Corrective Actions When refrigerator temperature is above 8 °C/46 °F, check food surface temperature and if food surface temperature is above 5 °C/41 °F, appropriate corrective actions must be taken

Verification



Review monitoring and corrective action records



Review thermometer calibration records (according to respective SOP)



Microbiological analysis of food products sampled from cold storage



Review monitoring and corrective action records



Review thermometer calibration records (according to respective SOP)



Microbiological analysis of food products sampled after cooking process

When: Each shift or at a frequency considered effective

CCP 1

Cooking (Including Cooking On Board)

Biological Survival of pathogens

Record: Cold Storage Temperature Log

Record: Record corrective action in Cold Storage Temperature Log

Cooked Foods

Cooked Foods

Cooked Foods

Cooked Foods

Cook raw foods to safe core temperatures

For minimum cooking temperatures, refer to CCP 3 chart or apply national standards where stricter

What: Food core temperature

If food core temperature is lower than minimum cooking temperature requirement, continue cooking until the required temperature is met

How: Measure food core temperature When: Each batch of high risk food at the end of cooking process

Or: Discard food

Record: Food Cooking Log

Seared Foods Seared Foods

Seared Foods

Sear raw whole muscle meat to achieve color change and temperature on all external surfaces

Color change on all external surfaces





How: Visual inspection of food external surfaces Food surface temperature

When: Each batch of seared food at the end of cooking process

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Record: Record corrective action in Food Cooking Log Seared Foods If color change is not achieved on all external surfaces of food, continue cooking until food displays color change on all external surfaces Or: Discard food

74

CC P/ CP

Process Step(s)

CC P2

Chilling or Freezing (rapid cooling)

Hazard

Biological Growth of pathogens

Control Measures Chill foods rapidly after cooking

Critical Limits

Food core temperature must be reduced according to one of the following critical limits:

Monitoring Procedures and Frequency

Recommended Corrective Actions

What: Food core temperature

How: Critical Limit 1:

Critical Limit 1:

Measure food core temperature and time at start and finish of chilling process

If critical limits are not met, re-cook or discard food

Critical Limit 2:

Critical Limit 2:

Critical Limit 2:

From 57 °C/135 ° F to 21 °C/70 °F in 2 hours; and from 21 °C/70 °F to 5 °C/41 °F in the next 4 hours. (FDA)

Measure food core temperature and time at start of chilling, after 2 hours of chilling, and at the end of chilling process

After 2 hours of chilling, if critical limits are not met, accelerate chilling process

Or local legislation where stricter

When: Each batch of cooked TCS foods

Critical Limit 1: From 60 °C /140 ° F to 10 °C/50 °F in 4 hours (EU)

Record: Food Chilling Log

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Verification



Review monitoring and corrective action records



Review thermometer calibration records (according to respective SOP)



Microbiological analysis of food products sampled after chilling process

After 6 hours of chilling, if critical limits are not met, re-cook 165F/ 74C or discard food

Record: Record corrective action in Food Chilling Log

75

CC P/ CP CP 3

Process Step(s) Processing of TCS ready-toeat foods, e.g. meal assembly, portioning, tray-setting

Hazard

Biological Growth of pathogens

Control Measures Control of food temperature and/ or time of exposure to ambient temperature during processing

Critical Limits

Cases 2, 3 or 4 when food is removed from refrigeration of 41°F / 5°C.

Monitoring Procedures and Frequency

Recommended Corrective Actions

What:



Ambient temperature



Food exposure time



Food surface temperature

Verification



Review monitoring and corrective action records



Review thermometer calibration records (according to respective SOP)



Microbiological analysis of food products

Immediate cooling when critical temperature or time is reached

Discard when critical temperature and time limit is reached

How and When: Case 1: (See Cold Storage SOP) Ambient temperature is ≤ 5 °C/41 ° F Ambient temperature must not exceed 5 °C/41 °F Case 2: Ambient temperature is > 5 °C/41 ° F but ≤ 15 °C/59 °F Food exposure time must not exceed 90 minutes

Case 3: Ambient temperature is > 15 °C /59 °F but ≤ 21 °C/70 °F Food exposure time must not exceed 45 minutes or food surface temperature must not exceed 15 °C/59 °F

Case 4: Ambient temperature is > 21 °C/70 °F Food exposure time must not exceed 45 minutes and food surface temperature must not exceed 15 °C/59 °F

Case 1: Measure ambient temperature each shift or at a frequency considered effective. No monitoring on food is required.

Case 2:



Measure ambient temperature each shift or at a frequency considered effective



Measure food exposure time for each batch of TCS ready-to-eat food

Case 3:



Measure ambient temperature each shift or at a frequency considered effective



Measure food exposure time or food surface temperature for each batch of TCS ready-to-eat food

Case 4:



Measure ambient temperature each shift or at a frequency considered effective



Measure food exposure time and food surface temperature for each batch of TCS ready-to-eat food

Record: Record corrective action in Food Processing Record.

Record: Food Processing Log

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

76

Appendix V

Foods for Temperature Control

High-risk foods are foods known to commonly harbor microbial pathogens and/or support growth of microbial pathogens. The term Time and Temperature Control for Safety or TCS foods includes cooked vegetables in addition to high-risk foods. The term high-risk is better defined than TCS foods but as the World Food Safety Guidelines already operates with the term TCS, it is maintained here. It is common to group foods into: 1. Raw foods, which need to be cooked or washed prior to service 2. Ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, which are in principle ready for consumption It is likewise common to divide each of the two groups into: 1. Time and Temperature Control for Safety (TCS foods) - known to commonly harbor microbial pathogens and/or support growth of microbial pathogens 2. Non-TCS foods – not known to commonly harbor and/or support growth of microbial pathogens 3. Foods originating from areas where international food safety standards do not prevail, may pose additional risks. These risks should be assessed by the caterer and airline jointly. •



Raw TCS Foods include: • Raw foods of animal origin (e.g. poultry, raw eggs, meats, fish, shellfish) - to be cooked before service • Raw fruit and vegetables for service and consumption in raw state - if grown by use of fecal contaminated fertilizer Ready-to-eat TCS Foods which support rapid growth of pathogens when exposed to unsafe temperatures

Core groups of ready-to-eat high-risk foods include: •

Cooked poultry, eggs, meat, fish, shellfish, rice, pasta, sauces and soups



Composite products which contain such foods, e.g. meals, pâtés, terrines and salads



Dairy foods, e.g. pasteurized milk, cream and soft cheeses

• •

Cream, custard desserts and pastries Mayonnaise and dressings with pH above 4.5



Cold-smoked foods, e.g. fish



Dried foods, e.g. dried meats with aw above 0.85



Hot-smoked foods, e.g. fish, poultry

High-risk foods are targets for control whereas the low-risk foods are of less concern in a food safety context as they do not support growth of bacterial pathogens. World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

77



Raw and ready-to-eat non-TCS Foods This group includes foods which in general do not harbor vegetative pathogens in harmful amounts and which do not support rapid growth of such pathogens. Non-TCS foods include a variety of commonly used foods, e.g. bread, sweets, pastries, marmalades, fruits and vegetables (except if grown in an environment with fecal matter contact), pasteurized fruit juices, blanched/cooked vegetables, various preserved retail foods e.g. mustard, ketchup, acid dressings, canned foods, and well-dried meats (aw < 0.85).

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

78

HACCP Record Examples

Appendix VI CP 1 – Receiving Checks Time Temperature Control for Safety Foods

Receiving Temperature:

Meat, seafood, poultry, egg, dairy, cream desserts,

Refrigerated food: reject if more than 8 °C / 46 °F

cooked pasta/rice, soup, sauce, stew, cooked vegetables, etc.

Frozen food: Frozen solid with no signs of prior thawing

Verification Signature: ______________________________ Date

Supplier

Product

Temp (oC) (F)

Employee Initials

Accept

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Corrective Action: If shipment is rejected, record package lot codes to ensure same batch is not re-shipped at a later date

Reject Reason

79

CP 2: – Cold Storage Temperatures Date of Calibration (D / M / YY): __________

Refrigerator temperature: Target: 5 °C / 41 °F. When temperature is above 8 °C/46 °F, check food surface temperature. If food temperature is above 5°C/ 41°F initiate corrective action.

Cleanliness Check Date of Fan / Evaporator ______________

Date

Unit No ______________

Check ( ) if Refrigerator _______ or Freezer _______

Time

Time

Temp1

Initials

Temp2

Initials

Time

Temp3

Initials

Corrective Action

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

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CCP 1 & 2 – Cooking / Chilling Checks Quick Chilling of TCS Foods Chill from 60 °C / 140 °F to 10 °C / 50 °F in 4 hours or less or 60 °C 57°C / 140°F 135°F to 21 °C / 70 °F in 2 hours and from 21 °C/ 70 °F to 5 °C/41 °F in the next 4 hours Verification Signature: ____________________ Date: ___________ Food Item

Airline

Cooking Temperature

Check No. 1

Time

Temp

Initial

Corrective Action

Quick Chilling of TCS Foods

Time

Temp

Final Check

Initial

Time

Temp

Initial

Insert probe into thickest part of food. Use only shallow containers / pans (5 cm / 2 inch or less) and place in quick chill unit immediately after cooking

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

81

CP 3 – Food Preparation, Assembly and Tray Set-Up

Ambient Room Temperature 5° C / 41 °F and 15 °C/ 59°F => Food exposure time may not exceed 90 minutes or Ambient Room Temperature greater 15 °C / 59 °F and less than 21 °C / 70 °F: => Food exposure time may not exceed 45 minutes or food temperature at or less than 15 °C/ 59 °F or Ambient Room Temperature greater than 21 °C / 70 °F: => Food exposure time may not exceed 45 minutes and food temperature at or less than 15 °C/ 59 °F

Time and Temperature Control for Safety Food Meat, seafood, poultry, egg, pasta, rice, dairy, cream, desserts, soup, sauce, stew, cooked vegetables, cut melon Date: ____________________ Food Item

Verification Signature: ______________________________

Airline / Class

Temp (As needed)

Time

Time Out

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Employee Initial

Corrective Action

Time In

82

Cooking Temperatures and References

Appendix VII Food Group Dairy Products

Poultry & Eggs

Fin Fish

Shell Fish / Crustaceans

Meats

Pathogens that may be present in

Most likely and hardest to kill target organism and rationale for recommended cooking treatment

Salmonella Campylobacter Listeria monocytogenes E. Coli Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Campylobacter Listeria monocytogenes Staphylococcus aureus Clostridium perfringens

Salmonella – Readily destroyed at pasteurization time / temperatures.

71.7 °C / 161 °F, 15 seconds

Salmonella – Minimum pasteurization treatments allow sufficient safety margins to ensure destruction of pathogens

Listeria monocytogenes Clostridium botulinum Salmonella Vibrio spp. especially V.parahaemolyticus Campylobacter

V. parahaemolyticus – predominant pathogen in seafood.

FSIS (2001)

70 °C / 158 °F for eggs & omelets

FDA (2013)

65 °C / 149 °F core for raw fish

63 °C / 145 °F, 15 seconds

Vegetables & Fruit

Bacillus cereus Clostridium perfringens Listeria monocytogenes E. Coli Salmonella Clostridium botulinum Bacillus cereus

FDA (2013)

Boulton & Maunsell (2004); Food Standards Agency Scotland (2005) ICMSF(1996) AIFST (1997)

ICMSF (1996) AIFST (1997)

70 °C / 158 °F for comminuted fish

FDA (2013)

> 65 °C / 149 °C core

ICMSF(1996) AIFST (1997)

63 °C / 145 °F, 15 seconds FDA (2013) > 60 °C / 140 °F

Salmonella – FSIS suggests a 6.5D reduction.

Salmonella: > 70 °C / 158 °F for comminuted and mechanically tenderized meats

FDA/CFSAN (2000) FSIS, (2001) FDA, (2013) Jay, (2000)

VTEC – For a 6 log reduction: 70 °C / 158 °F for 2 minutes or 80 °C / 176 °F for 6 seconds

VTEC: 80 °C / 176 °F EHEC: > 68 °C / 154 °F

FDA does not specify cooking process for starches as cooking will not destroy spores of Bacillus cereus or C. perfringens. Adequate cooling is imperative to prevent germination and growth of spores. Blanching at 95-99 °C/ 203-210 °F for 1-5 minutes should destroy non-spore forming pathogens. Pasteurization temperatures (71,7 ° C / 161 °F, 15 sec) will destroy Listeria spp. Adequate cooling is imperative to prevent germination and growth of spore forming pathogens.

ACMSF (1995) Codex CX/FH 03/5

Searing: Cooked on both the top and bottom to a surface temperature of 63 °C / 145 °F or above and a cooked color change is achieved on all external surfaces (for whole muscle, intact beef)

Rice / Pasta / Cereals

ICMSF (1998)

74 °C / 165 °F 15 seconds for poultry

75 °C / 167 °F core temperature Parasites – Pasteurization temperature to allow sufficient time to ensure destruction

References

Jay (2000)

Minimum pasteurization treatments allow sufficient safety margins to ensure destruction of pathogens likely to be present initially in raw milk.

Clostridium botulinum Vibrio spp Parasites Salmonella Campylobacter Listeria monocytogenes

E. coli O157:H7 Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus Parasites Campylobacter Clostridium perfringens Yersinia

Cooking treatment *

(2003) FDA (2013)

FDA/CFSAN (2000) N/A

ICMSF (1996) FDA/CFSAN (2001)

N/A Jay (2000)

ICMSF (1996)

* Temperatures are based on core temperatures at the slowest heating point, unless otherwise specified. An “instantaneous” time was assumed to be less than 10 seconds.

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

83

References: 1. ACMSF (1995) Report on Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli. London: HMSO 2. AIFST (NSW Branch) Food Microbiology Group (1997), Food-borne Microorganisms of Public Health Significance, 5th Ed. 3. Boulton, D. J. & Maunsell, B (2004) Guidelines for Food Safety Control in European Restaurants. Teagasc – The National Food Centre. Republic of Ireland 4. FAO/WHO (2003) Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program. Codex Committee on Food Hygiene - 35th Session. Risk profile for Enterohemorrhagic E.coli including the identification of the commodities of concern, including sprouts, ground beef and pork. CX/FH 03/5-Add 4 5. Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) (1999): The prevention of E. coli O157:H7 infection: a shared responsibility. Food Safety of Ireland. Dublin. 6. Food Standards Agency Scotland (2005) CookSafe Food Safety Assurance System. Scottish HACCP Working Group. 7. USDA FSIS (2001) Draft Compliance Guidelines for Ready-to-Eat Meat and Poultry Products 8. ICMSF (1996). Microorganisms in Foods 5: Microbiological Specifications of Food Pathogens. Blackie Academic and Professional, London 9. ICMSF (1998) Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. Blackie Academic and Professional, London 10. Jay, J.M (2000) Modern Food Microbiology, 6th ed. Aspen Publishers, Gathersberg 11. SCVPH (Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health) (2003). Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) in Foodstuffs. http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scv/out58_en.pdf#search=%22verotoxigenic%20E.%20coli% 20in%20foodstuffs%22 12. UK Food Standards Agency (2005) Guide to Food Hygiene, P 14 .Minimum cooking times for meat: WWW.food.gov.uk 13. US FDA (2013) Food Code 14. USFDA/CFSAN (2000) Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies. Overarching Principles: Kinetics and Pathogens of Concern for all Technologies.

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

84

Foreign Object Policy

Appendix VIII Foreign Object Source Examples Packing materials: glass, wood, rubber bands, staples, soft plastic

Equipment: airline equipment/ personal equipment (e.g. glass thermometers): metal shavings from can opener, knives, nuts/ bolts, bandage, hair, rubber bands, paper clips, hard plastic, glove fragments, buttons Building / Premises: items such as light bulbs, wooden shelves, glass windows, dirt, pests

Food: Bone, plastic, pests, stones

Prevention



Eliminate all glass and wood from food handling areas



Purchase food items in containers that are not made of glass / wood



Substitute wooden pallets with non-wood, e.g. plastic in food production fridges. Wooden pallets are acceptable in receiving storage area.



Prohibit the wearing of watches in food production areas



Design and layout of premises



Replace wooden shelves with a material that is more easily cleaned

Training on: SOP: Foreign Objects; SOP: GMP SOP: Supplier Approval; SOP: Receiving

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Control to be Implemented Where Risk Cannot be Prevented



Where glass jars / bottles are purchased, the contents should be decanted into lower risk containers, where practical or store glass containers on lower shelves



Invert crockery and do not stack too high



Dispose of chipped glassware



Visual inspection



Light bulbs are to be shielded, protected or coated with an antishatter film

Detection equipment; visual observations

Corrective Action



Breakage policy to be followed which includes instructions for disposal of glass and food that may be affected as well as identification of sources



Staff training



Breakage policy



Staff training



Breakage policy



Staff policy

Supplier feedback

85

Training Company Name

RMK - The Experts

Thani Murshid Est.

TÜV Middle East

Boecker Food Safety

Country

Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi

[email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

[email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

[email protected] [email protected]

[email protected]

Email / Website

Abu Dhabi Free Port Area, Store No. 66, Mina, Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi ADCP Building - AlMussafah - P/576, Plot No. 101

P.O Box 46030, Abu Dhabi, United States Emirates

+971(0)25599789 +971(0)43311789 Mobile: +971(0)50583518

Mobile: +971(0)556673124 +971(0)506672746 +971(0)506736524

+971(0)24478500

+971(0)26732047 +971(0)26732320 +971(0)26732584 Mobile: +971(0)506110749 +971(0)505815140

Abu Dhabi Airport Road, Al Mushriff Area, Street # 7, Villa # 1, Musabah Rashed AlDarmaki Building

Mobile: +971(0)506767969 +971(0)501725475

+971(0)26738340 +971(0)26738341 Mobile: +971(0)506767969 +971(0)506842015 +971(0)37646104

Telephone

Al Ain Al Sarouj area - Mohammed Al badi Building - 1st Floor, Office No. T-103

Abu Dhabi: Shekh Omar Bin Zayed Building 3rd Floor, Office 303 Opposite Abu Dhabi Mall Tourist Club Area

Address

+971(0)25599319

+971(0)24478600

+971(0)26731498

+971(0)26738344 +971(0)3-7646105

Fax

Appendix IX List of Global Food Safety Management System Training Organiza-

86

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

87

Australia

Intertek

BV - Bureau Veritas

Europe

Europe Switzerland

China

China

SGS-CSTC Standards Technical Services Co. Ltd. China Quality Mark Certification Group 方圆标志认证中心 China Quality Certification Centre 中国质量认证中心

SAI Global Australia

Abu Dhabi

China

[email protected] [email protected]

National Business Development & Training

Jean-Francois Prône

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

http://www.sgsgroup.com.cn/en

[email protected]

[email protected] [email protected]

GHP Quality Consultants

Abu Dhabi

Email / Website

Training Company Name

Country

+971(0)26508064 Mobile: +971(0)505853518

Abu Dhabi M-02,Penguin Laundry Bldg., Behind Decolite, Al Salam St, Abu Dhabi. P.O. Box 111751

Bureau Veritas Certification (Switzerland) AG, Grossaecherstrasse 25/ Postfach CH-8104 Weiningen/ Zurich OR: Route de Cosonay 28b, PO Box 172, Prilly, Lausanne CH-1008

a lot of locations and contact points in Europe - see webpage

1300 727 444

Level 37, 680 George Street, Sydney NSW 2000 GPO Box 5420 Sydney NSW 2001

+41 21 646 36 08

OR:

+41(0) 44 752 11 15

+46 8 750 03 33

+86(0)1083886608

+86(0)10 88411888

+86(0)1068456699

+971(0)26780810 Mobile: +971(0)504449742 +971(0)559220480

Abu Dhabi Khalifa Street, Opposite Sheraton Hotel P.O. Box 25328

www.ghpgroupme.com

Telephone

Address

+41 44 752 11 99

na

+86(0)1083886282

+86(0)1068415033 / 88414325

+86(0)1068457979

+971(0)26780850

+971(0)26508074

Fax

World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering

88

Campden BRI (UK)

TÜV Rheinland

Europe UK

Europe Germany

Investe Consulting

SAI Global Indonesia

Premysis Consulting

REI Sistem Indonesia

SGS Indonesia

India

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

Indonesia

India

India

India

The British Standards Institution (BSI) TUV Nord Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance (LRQA) Diversey Sealedair

SGS Academy

Europe UK

India

Training Company Name

Country

[email protected] gmail.com [email protected] Com

www.saiglobal.com [email protected] [email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

na

na

Email / Website

Ruko Legenda Wisata, Newton Square Blok U 11 No. 17, Jl. Alternatif Cibubur Cibubur, Indonesia Cilandak Commersial Estate #108C Jl. Raya Cilandak KKO Jakarta 12560

+62 217818111

+62 87881102060 +62 81380602166 +62 81380334898

+62 215762727

+49(0)221/806-0

TUV Rheinland AG, Am Grauen Stein, 51105 Köln (Headquarter is located in Cologne "Köln" Germany)

Menara Rajawali 11th Floor Jl Mega Kuningan Lot.5.1 Jakarta 12950

+44 (0)1386 842000

Campden BRI (Campden site), Station Road, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, UK, GL55 6LD

+62 217206186 (ext.122) +62(0)81931118899 +62(0) 81310425353

+44 (0) 1276 697 777

SGS House, 217-221 London Road, Cmberley, Surrey, GU15 3EY, United Kingdom

Graha Iskandarsyah, 4th fl. Jl. Iskandarsyah Raya no. 66-C Jakarta 12160, Indonesia

Telephone

Address

+62 2129066467

+62 215762736

+62 217206207

+40(0)221/806-114

+44(0)1386 842100

+44 (0) 1276 697 696

Fax

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+603-7804 7811/22

Unit No. 625 & 627, 6th Floor, Block A, Kelana Centre Point, 3, Jalan SS 7/19, Kelana Jaya, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia Contact Person: Ms Tye Su Reen [email protected] Angel Barnes Jr Sonnyboy M. Sucayan [email protected] Sandra Bucao [email protected] Melisa Caranto [email protected] Nino "Onin" M. Salvacion [email protected]

Josie Arcega-Climacosa [email protected]

Q-Venture Consulting (M) sdn Bhd

Novo Quality Services (M) Sdn Bhd

TUV SUD PSB (M)

3M Philippines Food Safety Division

SGS Philippines

Intertek Testing Services Philippines

Sealed Air (Diversey Philippines)

Neville Clarke Philippines

Rosehall Management Consultants Inc.

Quality Plus

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Philippines

Delia Alkuino [email protected]

Unit 1405 Prestige Tower, F. Ortigas Jr. RdOrtigas Center, Pasig City 1605 Philippines

Operations Support Group, Customer Service and Telemarketing Associate, Ground Floor 2229 Alegria Bldg, Chino Roces Avenue Makati City Intertek Building, 2307 Chino Roces Avenue, Makati City

+603-8073 2633

F-3-16, IOI Boulevard, Jalan Kenari 5, Bamdar Puchong Jaya, 47170, Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Contact Person: Desmond Wong Mobile No: +6019 322 6911

Proxsis Consulting

Indonesia

+63 922.899.0134 (mobi 0917 805 9858 (mobiel) +632 633.4733 / 631.2924 / 637.5202 (+632) 910.5032 (Direct Line) (+63) 922.855.4292 (mobile)

+632. 819-5841 to 47

+63 2 588–9100 +63 2 7849400 loc 831

+603-5103 8128

+62 2183708679/80 +62 2183708681

Permata Kuningan Bld; 17th Floor Jl. Kuningan Mulia Kav. 9 Kawasan Bisnis Epicentrum, Jakarta

[email protected]

Telephone

Email / Website

Address

Training Company Name

Country

+632 631.2875

+632.892-7043

+ 63 2 798–0257 +63 2 8182971

+603-5103 8129

+603-7804 3609

+603-8073 2688

+62 2183708681

Fax

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[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

[email protected]

http://www.cieh.org

https://www.rsph.org.uk

At-Sunrice Global Chef Academy

Neville-Clarke International Pte Ltd

Neville-Clarke (Singapore) Pte Ltd

TÜV SÜD PSB

SGS Singapore

Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI)

The Chartered Institute of Environmental Health

The Royal Society for Public Health

NSF

Singapore

Singapore

Singapore

Singapore

Singapore

Sri Lanka

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

United States

http://www.nsf.org/trainingeducation/training-food-safety/

[email protected]

Email / Website

Training Company Name

Country

John Snow House, 59 Mansell Street, London, E1 8AN

Chadwick Court, 15 Hatfields, London, SE1 8DJ

1 734 827 5600 1 800 673 6275

Tel: +44 (0)20 7265 7300

Tel: +44 20 7928 6006

Fax: +44 (0)20 7265 7301

+94 11267213

+65 67797088

+94 1126756772 (ext. 387) +94 112672613

+65 67787777

No. 1 Science Park Drive 118221 Singapore

+65 67338114

+65 67790527

+65 67358984

Neville-Clarke Singapore 545 Orchard Road #10-11 Singapore 238882

+65 67338113

+65 64166609

Fax

+65 63790111

+65 67358983

Regioal Head Office 545 Orchard Road #10-11 Singapore 238882

3 Toh Tuck Link, #01-02/03 Singapore 596228

+65 64166688 +65 64166626

Telephone

28 Tai Seng Street Level 5 Singapore 534106

Address

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https://www.servsafe.com/home

http://www.gftc.ca/

http://www.nfstp.ca/

Serv Safe (Individual training companies & classes found on the

SAI Global

GFTC

National Food Safety Training Program

United States

United States

Canada

Canada

http://www.saiglobal.com/training/ assurance/Food-safety/

Email / Website

Training Company Name

Country

Address

1 877 426 0714

Telephone

Fax

Glossary of Terms

Appendix X Word Additives (food additives)

Definition

Source No.

Amendment

Any natural or synthetic material, other than the basic raw ingredients, used in the production of a food item to enhance the final product, e.g. colouring, preservative. An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gas. Aerosols may cause microbial cross contamination in catering establishments, particularly when using high pressure cleaning methods. A specific food protein, which causes allergic reactions by stimulating the immune system of sensitive persons, e.g. peanuts. A single food can contain multiple food allergens. Carbohydrates or fats are not allergens. The adverse reaction by a sensitive person to an allergen. To avoid confusion with other types of adverse reactions to foods, it is important to use the terms “food allergy” or “food hypersensitivity” only when the immune system is involved in causing the reaction. Refers normally to air temperature in a food preparation area (room temperature) or to the temperature of the air outside the catering building. Any change or event or other matter that means that the programme is no longer appropriate to the business.

Anaerobic Bacteria

Bacteria, which cannot grow in the presence of oxygen but will survive in the absence of oxygen.

1

Analytical Method

A detailed description of the procedures to be followed in performing tests for conformity with specification. Acceptable to the regulatory authority based on a determined conformity with principles, practices, and generally recognized standards that protect public health. A supplier who by an approval audit has demonstrated the ability to consistently meet purchasing specifications, including food safety requirements and service delivery requirements.

3

Aerosols Allergen (food allergen) Allergy (food allergy) Ambient Temperature

Approved Approved Supplier Aseptic Filling Assembly Audit aw (water activity) Bacterium (bacteria pl.) Bait Point Bank Meals Batch Batch Manufacturing Record Batch Number Beverage

A method of filling product into a sterile container, within a sterile environment. The placing of prepared food into airline dishes. Also may be referred to as “meal assembly”, “portioning”, “hot pack” or plating. A systematic and independent examination to determine whether activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve set objectives. A measure of the free moisture in a food, water activity is the quotient of the water vapour pressure of the substance divided by the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature. See also Water Activity A living organism, which is invisible to the naked eye, some forms of which can cause food poisoning. (Often called a ‘bug’ or ‘germ’). Most bacteria need to grow to high numbers in order to cause illness. Physical location of bait station Extra meals that are made for last minute additional passengers, supplied at the gate area either in one of that caterer’s trucks or in a permanent location used by the caterer, and boarded as needed at the last minute prior to the aircraft’s departure. Also called top-off, supplementary or standby meals. The quantity of product which has been produced during a defined period of manufacture. A ‘batch’ may actually have been produced by a batch-wise process, or may correspond to particular time duration of a continuous process run. See also Lot. A document giving details of the raw materials used and operations carried out during the manufacture of a given batch, including details of in-process controls and the results of any corrective action taken. It should be based on agreed manufacturing instructions and be compiled as the manufacturing operation proceeds. A unique combination of numbers, letters, or both, used to identify a batch of product and to permit its history to be traced.

10 3 10 10 1 2

11 3 3 16 2 11 4

1 3 3 3

A liquid for drinking, including water. A cooling unit used for fast chilling of cooked food after cooking completion and before subsequent storage or handling. The cooling medium is usually air, liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide. A freezer unit used for fast freezing of cooked or cook-chilled food before subsequent freezer storage. The freezing medium is usually air, liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide. Potable water that is sealed in bottles, packages, or other containers and offered for sale for human consumption, including bottled mineral water.

11

1

Building Services

See Bank meals. Includes ventilation, water, drainage, lighting, process air and other gases along with their associated pipes and fittings.

12

Bulk Product

Refers normally to a ready-to-eat food batch not yet portioned out into meals.

3

Calibration

3

Carrier, healthy

Checks to ensure that critical items such as scales and thermometers are accurate and precise. A person who harbours and may pass on harmful bacteria without showing signs of illness themselves. (Also known as an asymptomatic excreter )

CCP

See Critical Control Point.

CCP Decision Tree Certificate of Analysis (COA)

A sequence of questions to assist in determining whether a control point is a CCP.

9

Signed document showing results of analysis carried out on a product. Perishable foods, which are kept under refrigeration temperature to extend the time during which they remain wholesome. Cleaned in place. By the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces that require cleaning, such as the method used, in part, to clean and sanitize a frozen dessert machine.

3

Blast Chiller Blast Freezer Bottled Drinking Water Buffer Meals

Chilled Foods CIP

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1

11

4

3

92

Clean

Free of extraneous visible matter and objectionable odor.

13

Cleaning

The removal of soil, food residue, dirt, grease or other objectionable matter.

15

Codex Alimentarius

8

Colour Coding

The Codex Alimentarius Commission - a body set up by WHO to coordinate food standards internationally. Refers to the practice of affixing colored stickers coded to the day of the week a product is produced or otherwise handled on all freshly prepared or purchased items. Color coding may be done in accord with industry wide colour codes for the seven days of the week.

Comminuted

Reduced to small fragments such as ground meat/minced meat.

11

Confirmation Confirmed Food Poisoning

Is the validation that a program is adequate in delivering the stated outcome A food-borne disease outbreak in which laboratory analysis of appropriate specimens identifies a causative agent and epidemiological analysis implicates food as the source of the illness.

2

Consumer

A person (passenger or crew-member) who consumes an airline catering meal. Any microbiological or chemical agent, foreign matter, or other substance not intentionally added to food, which may compromise food safety or suitability. Dispenser intended to provide each user with an area of cloth to be used only once, as it remains after its use in a separate part of the dispenser, inaccessible to the users. The towel, once entirely used, can be laundered and reused.

11

The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met, e.g. under control. To take all necessary actions to ensure and maintain compliance with criteria established in the HACCP plan. Any action or activity that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.

3, 6

Contaminant Continuous Towel Dispenser Control (noun) Control (verb) Control Measure Control Point

1

11

15 12

3, 6 3, 6

Controlled Atmosphere Packaging

Any step at which biological, chemical, or physical factors can be controlled. A packaging method in which the composition of the atmosphere in the pack is different from air. Continuous control of that atmosphere may be maintained, such as by using oxygen scavengers or a combination of total replacement of oxygen, non-respiring food, and impermeable packaging material. See also MAP.

11

Convection Oven

An oven that heats (or re-thermalizes) products by means of rapid circulation of heated air.

1

Cook-chill (cook-

On completion of the cooking process foods are rapidly chilled or frozen, either in bulk or as pre-plated

1

COP Corrective Action (Applicable to HACCP)

Code of Practice

8

Covered

Any action to be taken for re-establishing control when the results of monitoring at the CCP indicate a loss of control Sufficiently wrapped, packaged or enclosed to prevent the introduction of contaminants. See also Protected.

Criterion

A requirement on which a judgement or decision can be based.

Critical Control Point

A step at which control can be applied and which is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or

Critical Ingredient

Ingredient added to food, which is high risk and may cause contamination of product A provision of this Code that, if in non-compliance, is more likely than other violations to contribute to food contamination, illness, or an environmental health hazard.

Critical Item Critical Limit

Delay

A criterion, which separates acceptability from unacceptability. Direct or indirect transfer (contamination or spread) of micro-organisms, foreign bodies or chemicals from raw foods, food handlers, food contact surfaces and equipment to ready-to-eat foods. Direct transfer takes place primarily by direct contact between the source and the ready-to-eat food, while indirect transfer takes place by contact primarily through contaminated surfaces, utensils or hands of food handlers. The temperature range between 41°F and 140°F (5°C to 60°C). Many food pathogenic or food spoilage bacteria will multiply in food held within this range. Product that does not fully meet the product specification as defined by the client. This invariably includes product that does not fully meet internal product/process specification. The failure of a scheduled passenger flight to depart at the scheduled time. A delay that is caused by an inflight caterer could result in the caterer being assessed a substantial monetary penalty by the airline.

Detergent

Mixture of chemicals designed to remove a given soil (dirt) from a surface.

Deviation Direct Food Contact Surfaces

Failure to meet a critical limit.

Disinfectant Disinfection

A chemical, which reduces harmful bacteria to a safe level. The reduction, by means of chemical agents and / or physical methods, of the number of micro-organisms in the environment, to a level that does not compromise food safety or suitability.

Dispatch

Time when product is removed from holding coolers to trucks for transport to aircraft

Document Control

The controls necessary to ensure only current documents are used. All the written production procedures, instructions and records, quality-control procedures, and recorded test results involved in the manufacture of a product. The bulk transportation of meals or meal components for future flight use from another port or catering centre (currently not allowed in the United States). Food that has a low water activity (aw), being less than the minimum growth water activity of the microorganisms of significance for the particular food. Solidified carbon dioxide (CO2) by means of great pressure or as a result of rapid evaporation of liquefied CO2. Used as a refrigerant.

Cross-contamination Danger Zone Defective Product

Documentation Down Route Shipment Dry Food Dry Ice

9

3, 6 12 9 3, 6, 9 7 11 3, 6

4 1 3 1 3 3, 6, 9

A surface of equipment with which food comes into contact.

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4 15

3 3

12 1

93

Dry Storage Area Easily Cleanable

A room or area designed for the storage of shelf stable packaged or containerised bulk food that is not potentially hazardous as well as dry goods such as single-service items.

11

Easily Movable

A characteristic of a surface that allows effective removal of soil by normal cleaning methods Portable: mounted on casters, gliders, or rollers; or provided with a mechanical means to safely tilt a unit of equipment for cleaning; and Having no utility connection, a utility connection that disconnects quickly, or a flexible utility connection line of sufficient length to allow the equipment to be moved for cleaning of the equipment and adjacent area.

Equipment

Any machine, instrument, apparatus, utensil or appliance (other than a single-use disposable item) used or intended to be used in or in connection with food handling. This includes any equipment used or intended

13

Establishment

Equipment used to assist in the elimination of pests, e.g. electronic bug lights. Any building or area in which food is handled and the surroundings under the control of the same management.

15

Filling

Transfer of product into the primary packaging.

3

Final Holding

The last storage period for food products that have been prepared and packaged or packed into boarding equipment for later transport to an aircraft. Generally, the final holding area for food products is a holding

1

Eradication Device

Finished Product Flight Kitchen Flight-Type Dishwasher Flow Diagram Food

Food Business Food Establishment Food Handler Food Handling Area Food Handling Operation

A product which has undergone all stages of manufacture including primary packaging A production kitchen facility operated by an in-flight caterer for the purpose of preparing food products for boarding onto passenger aircraft. Finger belt conveyor dishwashers where dishes, glassware etc. can be placed directly onto the finger belt and passed through the machine A systematic representation of the sequence of steps or operations used in the production of a particular product Any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw which is intended for human consumption, including drinks, chewing gum and any substance which has been used in the manufacture, preparation or A business, enterprise or activity (other than primary food production) that involves: Handling of food intended for sale, or Sale of food This includes businesses, enterprises or activities of a commercial, charitable or community nature or involves the handling or sale of food on one occasion only. An operation that stores, prepares packages, serves, vends, or otherwise provides food for human consumption. Any individual working with food, food equipment, utensils or food contact surfaces and is therefore expected to comply with food hygiene requirements

11

11

3 1 1 3, 6 14

13 11 11

An area used for handling of open food Any activity involving the handling of food. All conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability of food for human consumption at all stages of the food chain. The exposure of food to sufficient radiant energy (gamma rays, x-rays and electron beams) to destroy micro-organisms and insects. The effect of food irradiation is comparable to pasteurization. The actual origin of the food component itself or the country of origin of a flight containing that specific food item. Illness associated with consumption of food which has been contaminated, particularly with harmful microorganisms or their toxins. Assurance that the food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. A documented (and HACCP-based) system that clearly outlines how things are done in food premises to achieve food safety. The deterioration of food including that caused by the growth of undesirable micro-organisms including those that may result in fermentation, mould growth and development of undesirable odors and flavors. Disease, usually gastrointestinal, caused by organisms or their toxins carried in ingested food. Also commonly known as “food poisoning”.

13

11

Food-Borne Illness

The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. Any illness, the cause of which - whether bacteria, viruses, toxins, or other contaminants - is passed to victims through the food they eat

Food-Contact Surface

A surface of equipment or utensil with which food comes into contact.

11

Foreign Matter

3

FSMS (Food Safety Management System)

Anything physical that should not be in the product. An all encompassing food safety program which includes HACCP, SOPs, pest control and other prerequisitecomponents and provides a comprehensive framework by which an operator can effectively control risk factors.

FSP Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)

Food Safety Program The combination of manufacturing and management procedures aimed at ensuring that products are consistently manufactured to meet specifications and customer expectations.

Food Hygiene Food Irradiation Food Origin Food Poisoning/ Food-borne Illness Food Safety Food Safety Program (FSP) Food Spoilage Food-borne disease Food-borne disease outbreak

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3 15 3 3 10

1

3

94

GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) (US only) HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)

GRAS is the regulatory status of food ingredients not evaluated by the FDA prescribed testing procedure. It also includes common food ingredients that were already in use when the 1959 Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was enacted.

10

Hazard Analysis

A system, which identifies, evaluates, and controls significant food safety hazards A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food processing chain including receipt of raw materials, from primary production to final consumption. A document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure control of significant food safety hazards in the segment of the food chain under consideration. The group of people who are responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining the HACCP system. Includes the making, manufacturing, producing, collecting, extracting, processing, storing, transporting, delivering, preparing, treating, preserving, packing, cooking, thawing, serving or displaying of food. A biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food with the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety reasons and therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan.

Hazard Identification

The identification of known or potential health effects associated with a particular agent.

14

Hermetically Sealed Hermetically Sealed Container

Air-tight, completely sealed and impermeable to gas. A container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of micro-organisms and, in the case of low acid canned foods, to maintain the commercial sterility of its contents after processing. Foods, which have high protein content and readily support bacterial growth and will not be cooked again before eating. A group of persons who are more likely than other populations to experience food-borne disease. This includes: individuals with low immune systems; older adults; individuals in a facility that provides health care or assisted living services, such as a hospital or nursing home; or pre-school age children in a facility that provides custodial care, such as a day care centre. An oven designed to maintain a near-constant temperature level, which will hold preheated meals at temperatures at least equal to 140°F from the time they are loaded into the oven until they are served to the passengers on board the aircraft.

12

HACCP - Step HACCP Plan HACCP Team Handling of food Hazard

High Risk Foods Highly Susceptible Population Holding Oven Incubation Period In-flight Food Safety Auditor Ingredients Injecting In-Process Control Label Late Up-count Meals Lot Lot Identification Low-risk Foods Manual Washing Manufacture Menu Cycle (Cycle Menu) Menu Presentation Mechanical Washing

The length of time between eating infected food and the first signs of illness. Onset period. A representative of an airline or an in-flight catering firm that goes to a product supplier’s facility for the purpose of conducting a food safety audit on the products, practices and processes used by the airline or the caterer. All materials, including raw materials, gas addition, water, additives, and compounded foods, which are included in the formulation of the product. Manipulating a meat through tenderizing with deep penetration or injecting the meat by processes known as “injecting”, “pinning”, or “stitch pumping”. These practices may cause infectious or toxigenic microorganisms to be introduced from its surface to its interior. A system of measurements and checks taken during the course of manufacture to ensure that materials at any stage comply with the specification at that stage as well as the process and processing environment is in compliance with the conditions stated in the processing specifications. Any tag, brand, mark or statement in writing as well as any representation or design or descriptive matter on or attached to or used in connection with food or packaging. Meals prepared and supplied on short notice due to an increase in the number of passengers estimated for a particular flight. Also referred to as “top off meals” or “up-counts”. A quantity of food, which is prepared or packed under essentially the same conditions usually: a) From a particular preparation or packing unit; and b) During a particular time ordinarily not exceeding 24 hours. See also Batch. Information which indicates, in a clearly identifiable form, the: a) Premises where the food was packed or prepared; and b) lot of the food in question. Foods which do not readily support bacterial growth and which do not commonly contain microbial pathogens in harmful amounts. Process of cleaning food and beverage equipment by hand. The complete cycle of production of a food product from the acquisition of raw materials through all stages of subsequent processing, packaging, storage and dispatch of the finished product. A period of time for which a particular set of menus is planned (or the menu set planned for that period). At the end of the predetermined time period, or cycle, the menu set is repeated. This cycling of menus continues until a new menu set is prepared. Then it starts anew. The presentation by a caterer to an airline of proposed meal services, menus and dishes for evaluation and adjustment in terms of content and cost prior to production.

3 3, 6 9 13 3, 6, 12, 15 6

11 4

11 1

1 3 11 3 5 16 5 5

3 1 1

Process of cleaning food and beverage equipment by use of a machine. Actions or conditions such as lowering the pH, lowering the water activity level of products or regulating the cooking/storage temperatures used, that will prevent further microbial development in the particular food product.

Microbial Barriers Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)

6, 15

1 The introduction of an alternative atmosphere inside of a food package with the purpose of enhancing shelf life. MAP includes: reduction in the proportion of oxygen, total replacement of oxygen, or an increase in the proportion of other gases such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen. See also controlled atmosphere packaging.

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95

Monitor Multi - Sector Non-potable water Off-Loading (also referred to as stripping or strip)

The act of conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control.

3, 6

Flight catering boarded at originating city for more than one flight segment. Any water that does not conform to the definition of potable water and is therefore unsuitable for human consumption.

12

The complete removal of catering equipment, including trash and garbage stored in equipment, from the galleys in an aircraft.

1

Outer Packaging

See Incubation Period A coding system used by a manufacturer to indicate the expiration date of food and beverage products utilizing readily understandable calendar time or dates. The final packaging layer that protects the primary packaging of, or the direct contact of, any food, equipment or packaging from introduction of external contaminants.

12

Outsourcing

Buying goods or services from an external company.

1

Overnight Stop

Pasteurisation

Flight catering boarded at originating city for service on a following day’s flight. The wrapping or container used to encase a food, but does not include: a) containers used for the purpose of transporting bulk foods; b) pallet overwraps; c) crates and packages which do not obscure labels on the food; or d) transportation vehicles. Bottled, canned, cartoned, securely bagged, or securely wrapped, whether packaged in a food establishment or a food processing plant. A heat process that kills most pathogenic bacteria in food and slows down the growth of others. Food is heated to a specific temperature for a specified length of time.

Pathogen Pest Management Programme

Any disease-producing organism. A documented programme/system that covers all pest control activities on a site including: records of visits, chemicals, bait station locations, etc. relating to the control and/or management of pests.

1

Pests

Birds, rodents, insects and arachnids.

13

PET

Polyethylene trichloride, the soft plastic that is used to make packaging containers. The symbol for the measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Values between 0 and 7 indicate acidity and values between 7 and 14 indicate alkalinity. The value for pure distilled water is 7 and is considered neutral. The structure of interior surfaces and facilities of a food establishment including accessories such as soap and towel dispensers and attachments such as light fixtures and heating or air conditioning system vents. Substances that are not intended for ingestion and may include: Cleaning and sanitizing agents: caustics, acids, drying agents, polishes, and other chemicals Pesticides which include substances such as insecticides and rodenticides Substances necessary for the operation and maintenance of the establishment such as non-food grade lubricants and personal care items that may be deleterious to health. Frozen individual entrees pre-made to airline specifications by commercial food product manufacturers that are packaged in plastic formed to the shape of the entree dish. When the entree is plated for use, it is pushed out, or popped out of the plastic form onto the serving plate or casserole. Small items, such as condiments, crackers, nuts, etc., that are packed into individual portions. They are generally served to the diner in unopened packages. Sometimes also referred to as PCs. Water that does not contain chemical substances or micro-organisms in amounts that could cause a hazard to health. References: WHO, Geneva, 1971 and NZ Standards. A food that is natural or synthetic and which requires temperature control because it is capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic micro-organisms. The physical facility, its contents, and the contiguous land or property under the control of the occupant; or The physical facility, its contents, and the land or property not described under paragraph (a) of this definition if its facilities and contents are under the control of the permit holder and may impact food establishment personnel, facilities, or operations, and where a food establishment is only one component of a larger operation such as a health care facility, hotel, motel, school, recreational camp, or prison. Activities carried out on raw or cooked foods that include but are not limited to the following: slicing, dicing, chopping, mixing, piping, blending, mincing, coating, marinating and cutting. Procedures, including Good Manufacturing Practices that address operational conditions providing the foundation for the HACCP system. Methods of destroying, delaying or inactivating the enzymes and micro-organisms responsible for food spoilage.

1

Onset Period Open-Coding System

Package Packaged

pH Physical Facilities

Poisonous or Toxic Materials Pop-Out Meals (popouts) Portion Packs Potable Water Potentially Hazardous Food

Premises Preparation Prerequisite Preservatives Process (verb)

4 1

5 11 3

3

11 11

11 1 1 3 11

11 16 9 3

Process Specification

Includes kill, slaughter, dress, cut, extract, manufacture, pack, preserve, transport and store. A document or documents identifying the raw materials, with their quantities, to be used in the manufacture of a product. Includes a description of the manufacturing operations and procedures including identification of the plant and facilities to be used, processing conditions, in-process controls, packaging materials to be used and instructions for the removal of finished product to storage.

Process Step

See Step

Processing

The separate operations involved in the manufacture of a product.

3

Protected

Sufficiently wrapped, packaged or enclosed to prevent the introduction of contaminants. Clothing provided for wear in the workplace to protect food from contamination risks: overalls, coats, hat, gloves, shoes, boots, etc. Activities undertaken by a firm or organization to control the quality level of a product or service provided or received. Quality assurance activities are designed to ensure that the performance is in accord with product or service quality standards established at the beginning of the relationship.

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Protective Clothing Quality Assurance

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Quarantine Raw Material Raw Food Ready-to-eat (RTE) Food Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP) Refuse Regulatory Authority

Reheat Risk Risk Analysis Risk Assessment Risk Characterization Risk Factor Risk Management Rotable Equipment Round Catered (Down Line Catered) Safe and Suitable Food Safe Material

Sanitary Design Sanitation Sanitize Sanitizer Sealed Separate by Distance Separate by Time Separate Physically Servicing Area Severity Sewage Shelf life Shelf-Stable

The status of any materials or product set aside while awaiting a decision on its suitability for its intended use or sale. Any material, ingredient, starting material, semi-prepared or intermediate material, packaging material, etc., used by the manufacturer for the production of a finished product. Foods of animal or vegetable origin, which normally require cooking (meats, poultry, eggs, fish, shell fish, certain vegetables) or washing (vegetables, fruit) prior to consumption. Food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation by the food establishment or the consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form. The reduction of the amount of oxygen in a package by: removing oxygen; displacing oxygen and replacing it with another gas or combination of gases; or otherwise controlling the oxygen content to a level below that normally found in the surrounding atmosphere (21%).

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Solid waste not carried by water through the sewage system. (garbage/waste) The local, state, or federal enforcement body or authorized representative having jurisdiction over the food establishment. To heat a food product that has been previously cooked, portioned, and chilled or frozen for storage back to the proper temperature for service to the foodservice’s clientele. Common regeneration procedures include the use of microwave ovens, convection ovens, or specialized equipment (sometimes referred to as hightech transport equipment in the in-flight foodservice industry) that reheats products by conduction. Also referred to as reconstitution or re-thermalization. A function of the probability of an adverse effect and the magnitude of that effect, consequential to a hazard (s) in food. The risk of a hazard may in a simple way be expressed as the probability with which a hazard may occur.

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A process consisting of three components: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. The scientific evaluation of known or potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to food -borne hazards. Integration of hazard identification, hazard characterization and exposure assessment into an estimation of the adverse effects likely to occur in a given population, including attendant uncertainties. A risk factor is anything statistically shown to have a relationship with the incidence of a disease, however it does not necessarily infer cause and effect. The process of weighing policy alternatives to accept, minimize or reduce assessed risks and to select and implement appropriate options. Equipment, such as china, glassware, or reusable plastic ware that can be washed and reused as service ware for in-flight food and beverage service.

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Single flight catering components boarded for next immediate return flight Food which is fit for human consumption. 13 Materials which have been designated as being safe for packaging and wrapping of food. Equipment, structures designed and constructed so that it: Meets the requirements appropriate to its use Can be readily maintained, cleaned, sanitized (and sterilized where required) to ensure that it is free from contaminants and vermin Is easily accessible for maintenance, cleaning, operation, checking and inspection Does not allow contaminants to come in contact with any food or other equipment Precludes the harboring of accumulation of any contaminants or vermin The application of cumulative heat or chemicals on cleaned food-contact surfaces to the extent that, when evaluated for efficacy, is sufficient to yield a reduction of 5 logs (99.999% reduction) of representative disease micro-organisms of public health importance.

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The process of freeing a surface or object from dirt and micro-organisms. A substance, that reduces the microbial contamination on inanimate surfaces to levels that are safe from a public health stand point. Europeans equivalently use the word disinfectant.

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Free of cracks or other openings that allow the entry or passage of moisture. To separate to such an extent so as to avoid any possible contact, splash, contamination, etc., between specific functions, processes or personnel. To end one function or process prior to starting a different function or process, with a cleaning operation in between. To separate by floor to ceiling solid walls and doors, or to fully protect product by pipelines, enclosed vats, etc. An operating base location to which a mobile food establishment or transportation vehicle returns regularly for such things as vehicle and equipment cleaning, discharging of liquid or solid wastes, refilling water tanks and ice bins, and boarding food.

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The seriousness of the effect(s) of a hazard. Liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution and may include liquids containing chemicals in solution. Period of time during which a food remains fit for consumption if maintained throughout the period under controlled conditions pre-designated by the manufacturer. Able to be stored at room temperature without spoiling. Shelf-stable products do not require refrigeration or freezing, they are typically canned products or products packaged in a way such that micro-organisms cannot grow in the product (rice, flour, noodles, etc.).

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Single-service Articles Single-Use Articles

Tableware, carry-out utensils, and other items such as bags, containers, placemats, stirrers, straws, toothpicks, and wrappers that are designed and constructed for one time, one person use after which they are intended for discard.

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Utensils and bulk food containers designed and constructed to be used once and discarded. An instrument, apparatus, utensil or other item intended by the manufacturer to only be used once in connection with food handling including disposable gloves. The process of moderating the temperature of a food by allowing it to gradually increase from a temperature of -23°C (-10°F) to -4°C (25°F) in preparation for deep-fat frying or to facilitate even heat penetration during the cooking of previously block-frozen food such as spinach (see tempering). A food-contact surface having a surface free of pits and inclusions with a cleanability equal to or exceeding that of (100 grit) number 3 stainless steel A non food-contact surface of equipment having a surface equal to that of commercial grade hot -rolled steel free of visible scale A floor, wall, or ceiling having an even or level surface with no roughness or projections that render it difficult to clean Generally non-hazardous materials such as paper, paperboard, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics, metals, textiles, or wood. There is also hazardous solid waste, which is composed of items such as light fixtures, chemicals, and medical or biological waste. The in-flight caterer should normally generate only a low level of hazardous waste.

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Standard Operating Procedure. A detailed description of how a particular task is to be carried out. Meals prepared especially for a passenger’s diet, taste or religious preference and prepared under the airline’s specifications. International special meal codes and guidelines have been agreed upon by the airline industry in an effort to improve the consistency of special meals for passengers. A document giving a description of material, machinery, equipment, process or product in terms of its required properties or performance. Where quantitative requirements are stated, they are either in terms of limits or in terms of standards within permitted tolerances. A process in food which makes the food unsuitable for human consumption through incorrect or prolonged storage.

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Spores

Micro-organisms which cause food spoilage when present in perishable food in high numbers. A resistant resting-phase of bacteria protecting them against effects of extreme temperatures. Resistant resting phases of some bacteria e.g. B. cereus, CI. perfringens, CI. botulinum protects them against the effects of extreme temperatures. Spores of such pathogens may survive normal cooking temperatures for many minutes or hours, depending on the type of pathogen.

SSOP

Standard Sanitation Operating Procedure

Single-use Item Slacking

Smooth

Solid Waste SOP Special Meals Specification Spoilage Spoilage Organisms

STD Stakeholder Standard Steam Autoclave Step Sterilization Store Supplier (Vendor)

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Scheduled Time of Departure A person, group, or organization that has a direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization's actions, objectives, and policies An established norm or requirement documenting uniform processes or practices. A piece of equipment in which steam, under pressure, reaches high enough temperatures to sterilize the material placed inside the equipment. A point, procedure, operation or stage in the food production chain including raw materials, from primary production to final consumption. The process of destroying micro-organisms. A facility used for the storing of containers, ingredients, chemicals, finished shelf-stable or chilled and frozen foods that are protected by outer packaging. A store may be refrigerated or non-refrigerated and may utilize wet or dry cleaning procedures dependent upon construction standards.

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Tempered

The packer, manufacturer or importer of the food in question. TCS stands for Time and Temperature Control for Safety. TCS foods are predisposed to pathogenic growth. A thermometer, thermocouple, thermistor, or other device that indicates the temperature of food, air, or water. A product that has been gradually thawed to refrigerator temperature. The purpose of tempering a product is to reduce the time required to reheat (re-thermalize) when it is to be used for meal service. Generally, products are tempered in refrigerator units. In the in-flight industry, most portioned frozen items are tempered for approximately 24 hours prior to boarding on the aircraft for meal service. Also called slack or slacking.

Thawing

A controlled process for defrosting frozen products.

Thermal processing

Utensil

The application of heat that will result in complete or partial preservation of products. The placement of assembled food and other airline equipment such as glassware, cutlery, and condiments onto individual trays prior to stowage into airline carts / trolleys etc. A food-contact implement or container used in the storage preparation, transportation, dispensing or service of food, such as kitchenware or tableware that is multiuse, single-service, or single-use. This also includes gloves used in contact with food and food temperature measuring devices.

Vacuum packaging

Hermetically seal packaging that has had air removed creating a vacuum inside the package.

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Validation

Obtaining evidence that the elements of the HACCP plan are effective. The application of methods, procedures, tests and other evaluations, in addition to monitoring, to determine compliance with the HACCP plan.

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The cleaning and sanitizing of utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment. Any item which is not fit for human consumption or any product or by-product which was never intended for human consumption and which requires safe and legal disposal. The relationship between the moisture content of the product and the relative humidity of the air surrounding it. A factor, which represents a ratio of the vapor pressure of food to that of pure water. It indicates how much available water is in a product that micro-organisms can use for growth. Products that have very low water activity levels, or are very dry, will not support microbial growth.

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TCS Temperature measuring device

Trayset

Verification Ware Washing Waste Water Activity Water Activity Level

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Water Reticulation

The system of water supply throughout the premises from the source to the point of use. It includes the source of supply, means of treatment, storage, temperature modifying devices, distribution pipe-work, backflow protection devices etc.

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Wet Ice

Frozen water. It is called wet ice because it turns to a liquid (water) as it melts, as opposed to dry ice,

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Wrapping

Any material that is intended to protect food, equipment, packaging or other item and comes into immediate contact with the food, equipment, packaging or item.

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cfu/g

Colony forming units per gram

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mg/l

Milligrams per liter, the metric equivalent of parts per million (ppm)

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References for Glossary of Terms: Source No.

Reference

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Inflight Catering Management, Audrey C. McCool, 1995 Draft Risk Management Programme Manual Food Industry Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice (NZ Institute of Food Science and Technology (Inc)) Hygiene - A Complete Course for Food Handlers (Hazelwood & McLean) Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System and Guidelines for its application

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annex to CAC/RCP 1 - 1969, Rev 3 (1997), Codex Alimentarius MAF Quality Management Code of Practice for the development of a Food Safety Programme for a Foodservice Operation National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (US) IFIC Foundation (International Food Information Council) Food and Drug Administration /2013 Food Code (US Dept of Health and Human Services) MAF RA (Ministry of Agriculture Regulatory Authority) ANZFA Food Safety Standards Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standards Issues (FAO/WHO) Suggested links:

http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/RiskSafetyAssessment/ https://www.google.com/search? q=food+safety+risk+assessment&biw=1600&bih=720&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0CDYQsARqFQoTCO O4iaz-v8cCFYppPgod4UcDTg&dpr=1 http://www.who.int/foodsafety/risk-analysis/riskassessment/en/

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Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene

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CAC/RCP 1 - 1969, Rev 3 (1997), Codex Alimentarius. Pers. Com. - Ms Lin & Parrish 2001

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