Working With Tugs.pdf

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WORKING WITH TUGS

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WORKING WITH TUGS A VIDEOTEL PRODUCTION

AUTHOR

Alan Palmer

p r o d u c t i o n s 84 NEWMAN STREET, LONDON W1T 3EU TELEPHONE +44(0)20 7299 1800 FACSIMILE +44(0)20 7299 1818 E-MAIL [email protected] WEB www.videotel.co.uk

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WORKING WITH TUGS A VIDEOTEL PRODUCTION in association with THE STEAMSHIP MUTUAL UNDERWRITING ASSOCIATION (BERMUDA) LTD

THE PRODUCERS WOULD LIKE TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE ASSISTANCE OF THE MASTERS, OFFICERS AND CREWS OF Arnold Maersk, Cornelius Maersk, Kirsten Maersk Evie Knutsen Svitzer Tugs Victory, Warden, Morag, Sir Bevois, Lady Madeleine, Lyndhurst, Bentley, Surrey and Sussex Solent Towage Tugs Tenax and Thrax The Pilots and Staff of ABP Southampton A.P. Møller – Mærsk A/S Bouchard Transportation Co., Inc. British Tugowners Association The China Navigation Co. Ltd. Great Offshore Ltd. HR Wallingford InterManager International Maritime Organization (IMO) Lamnalco Group Nautical Institute Rickmers Reederei GmbH & Cie KG CONSULTANTS: Damian Crowley / Jeremy Daniel Terry Lawrence / Matthew Winter PRINT AUTHOR: Alan Palmer PRODUCERS: Kathrein Günther / Peter Wilde DIRECTOR: Michael Caine WARNING Any unauthorised copying, lending, exhibition, diffusion, sale, public performance or other exploitation of the accompanying video is strictly prohibited and may result in prosecution. © COPYRIGHT Videotel 2008 This video and accompanying workbook training package is intended to reflect the best available techniques and practices at the time of production. It is intended purely as comment. No responsibility is accepted by Videotel, or by any firm, corporation or organisation who or which has been in any way concerned with the production or authorised translation, supply or sale of this video for accuracy of any information given hereon or for any omission herefrom.

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WORKING WITH TUGS

VIDEOTEL PRODUCTIONS

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS

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PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TODAY’S TOWING OPERATIONS PLANNING FOR SAFETY ASSESSING THE RISK BEST PRACTICE

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION

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THE MAIN CHALLENGES OF TOWING INTO/OUT OF HARBOURS CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION COMMUNICATION, COMMUNICATION, COMMUNICATION MOST COMMONLY USED HAND SIGNALS

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3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS THE MAIN CHALLENGES OF OFFSHORE TOWING OFFSHORE ADDITIONAL RISKS BEST PRACTICE OFFSHORE

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4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS

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5 SUMMARY – PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS

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7 FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND REFERENCE

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8 APPENDICES

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RISK ASSESSMENT FORM SHIP HANDLING WITH TUGS – SAFETY DOS AND DON’TS WORKING WITH TUGS – A QUICK GUIDE FOR THE CREW

9 TEST YOURSELF ANSWERS

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WORKING WITH TUGS

VIDEOTEL PRODUCTIONS

INTRODUCTION Towing one of today’s large vessels into or out of port – or towing offshore – is an operation that is fraught with potential danger. In port, you are often working in a restricted space with limited room for manoeuvre, whilst long-distance offshore tows have their own special problems. The loads and forces involved in towing are also high. Add to this the unpredictability of weather, tide and sea conditions and it is clear that towing can be a very dangerous operation. It is essential, therefore, to minimise risks by ensuring good operational procedures by everybody involved – by Masters, bridge team officers and deck crew, as well as Pilots and the Masters and crew of tugs. This guide is designed to help you work with tugs in the safest way possible. It is not a comprehensive guide as to how to work with tugs, but deals primarily with the safety issues involved. Use this guide alongside the companion video, ‘Working with Tugs’, to give your crew members more detailed knowledge on the subject. For further study, there is a separate Videotel training course available.

For clarity and to avoid confusion, it is important to note that throughout this booklet, the word ‘vessel’ or ‘ship’ refers to the ship that is being towed, not the tug.

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WORKING WITH TUGS

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN TODAY’S TOWING OPERATIONS Towing vessels by using tugs has always been a potentially hazardous operation. Today it has become even more so, for a number of reasons: INCREASED VESSEL SIZE due to economic pressures, today’s vessels are larger and more powerful, which often makes them more difficult to manoeuvre within the constraints of their draft and the size limitations of many ports. INCREASED TRAFFIC increased traffic and more complex harbour operations are making ever greater demands on tugs and their crews. GREATER VARIETY OF TUGS with many new types of tug now in operation, it is important that senior crew members are aware of the power or limitations of the tugs they are working with. COMMUNICATION ISSUES with many different ethnic crew members on board, each needs to understand what is going on and what is expected of them during towing operations. Communication is vital to ensure safe towing. PORTS REGULARLY HANDLE VESSELS AT THE OPERATIONAL EDGE – WITH RESPECT TO SIZE, DRAUGHT, NUMBER OF VESSELS AND CAPABILITY OF THE TUGS in order to maximise earning capacity – which severely limits the margins for error and calls for the most careful planning and implementation from all parties involved.

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WORKING WITH TUGS

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS PLANNING FOR SAFETY With so many inherent dangers involved in towing, it is important to remember that tug crews depend on the professionalism of vessel crews – and vice versa. In short, a safe tow depends on good teamwork between everyone involved. This in turn requires a shared understanding of towing techniques, tug capabilities and the ship’s requirements. It also requires effective communications to be established - and maintained - between the Master, the Pilot, the Tugmaster, the bridge team and deck crew. It is important that both crews fully understand what is going to happen. Where and when the operation will begin, and where and when it will finish, and what manoeuvres are entailed. For harbour operations it is, therefore, essential that a plan exists and that operational procedures are agreed in advance by Pilots, Tugmasters and port authorities. In planning a safe tow, it’s necessary to consider the following elements:

PLANNING BETWEEN THE PARTIES INVOLVED IN THE TOW Pilot/Vessel Master Exchange In addition to the standard information passed to the Pilot, it is recommended that the Master provide the Pilot with a deck General Arrangement showing the layout and safe working load (SWL) of the mooring fittings, where known, and inform him: • which fairleads, chocks, bitts and strong points can be used for towing • the SWL of this equipment • areas of hull strengthened or suitable for pushing and relevant identification marks employed (this information is needed due to variations in ship construction and the appropriate area frequently being out of line with the chock) • about using ships’ mooring lines as towlines, which is not recommended (except in an emergency) as the strength may not be in accordance with tug towing force and may therefore limit the tug’s performance • of any special features (i.e. controllable pitch propellers, thrusters, etc.)

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS The Pilot should advise the Master: • the tug rendezvous time and position • the number of tugs and the mode of towage • the type of tugs to be used and their bollard pull(s) • if escorting, the maximum towline forces that the tug may generate at escort speeds • maximum planned speed for the passage • the method by which the ship’s crew should take on board and release the tug’s tow line • the prohibition on the use of weighted heaving lines • that on release, the tug’s gear should be lowered back always under control • areas of the transit posing particular risks with respect to the possible use of the tug • intentions with regard to use and positioning of the tug(s) for berthing manoeuvres • intentions with regard to use of the tug(s) in an emergency (escort operations) • primary and secondary VHF channels for use in the operation

Pilot/Tugmaster Exchange The Pilot and Tugmaster should, as a minimum, discuss the following issues: • the SWL of the vessel’s chocks, bitts and strong points to be used for towing. (Failure to provide this information could result in broken equipment) • the tug hook-up point, taking into account the prevailing weather and sea conditions, for escorting operations (if appropriate) and berthing • if active escorting, the start point of the escorted passage • the maximum speed of the tug • passage details in their entirety while accompanied by the tug(s), particularly details of any swing manoeuvre, release position and sequence of release • berthing details in their entirety, including tug positioning around the vessel’s hull and the vessel’s required position on the berth • intended and emergency use of ships anchors • any unusual items regarding the particular vessel as identified during the Master/Pilot exchange • if appropriate, any shallow water or bank effect areas where significant surges may be experienced that might add to the tug loads • the Tugmaster should advise the Pilot if the tug is experiencing a failure or reduction in its ability to manoeuvre or deliver full bollard pull as far in advance as possible of the scheduled manoeuvre

The pilot should then keep the ship’s master informed of relevant information from the Pilot/Tugmaster exchange.

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS TYPE OF TUGS The type of tug used is largely dependent on those available.

Pilots and Tugmasters are accustomed to the assisting methods used in the port and to the type of tugs used in that port. Understanding the advantages and shortcomings of their tugs, they are able to advise the Master about their suggested use of tugs. Different tug types have different qualities, with each offering its own balance of power and manoeuvrability; each having its own capabilities and limitations: SINGLE SCREW TUGS Least manoeuvrable, yet still common in many places, they have similar characteristics as a single screw ship, yet the effects are more pronounced due to a larger propeller. Owing to relatively restricted manoeuvrability, single screw tugs are more dependent on holding themselves against the side of the ship and on lines to maintain their position. TWIN SCREW TUGS Twin screw tugs are more powerful, manoeuvrable, and reliable than single screw tugs. A twin screw tug has the ability, albeit limited, to maintain a 90 degree angle alongside through the use of opposed engines. TRACTOR TUGS/TUGS WITH DIRECTED THRUST Directed thrust tugs allow for much more manoeuvrability than twin screw tugs. Directed thrust allows use of full power in instances where a twin screw tug would use opposed engines. Variants include Voith Schneider, Azimuth Stern Drive, Z peller, fwd tractor

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WORKING WITH TUGS

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS NUMBER OF TUGS AND TYPE OF TOW The number of tugs required will depend not only on the type of tug but on the support needed:

TOWING POSITIONS

TUG EFFECT ON SHIP'S HEADING The different colours show the effect a tug will have on the ship’s heading = Braking/astern = Tugs creating a turning moment to starboard = Tugs creating a turning moment to port

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS STERN TOWS are still used for port manoeuvring in many parts of the world, but are better used for longer distances and in open waters. ALONGSIDE/HIP TOWS are used when tight control and manoeuvrability are required in restricted waters. ACTIVE ESCORT TOWS can assist steering and braking from the stern of the vessel. PASSIVE ESCORT is where the tug is standing close by the vessel in case it is needed. In this situation it’s important that both tug crews and ship’s crews remain at all times in a state of readiness as ‘passive’ escort can rapidly turn to ‘active’ when things go wrong.

METHODS OF ACQUIRING AND CASTING OFF THE LINES The vessel’s Master, Pilot and Tugmaster must also determine: • whether the vessel is reinforced to take the tug in the pushing position • whether the vessel’s lines or the tug lines are to be used • the best method for picking up and casting off a towline • where and how the lines from the tugs are being acquired • where the lines are being cast off

SAFE WORKING LOADS (SWL) The vessel’s Master and Tugmaster need to know the SWL for the vessel’s bitts and leads in order to avoid possible accidents.

SPEED OF TOW Everybody involved needs to know and agree on the minimum and maximum speed of tow, as well as the minimum steerage speed of the vessel.

WORKING CHANNELS FOR RADIO COMMUNICATIONS Tugmaster, Pilot and Master of the vessel need to agree and set the working channels for their radios to ensure the best communication.

LOCATION OF VESSEL’S BITTS The Tugmaster should be informed of the positions of the ship’s appropriate fairleads and bitts, as well as the SWL of those bitts.

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS ASSESSING THE RISK Once the Master/Pilot exchange card has been exchanged between the Master of the vessel, the Pilot and the Tugmaster, and a detailed towage plan has been discussed, the next stage is to assess the risks involved. The forces involved in towage operations are considerable – the weight of equipment to be manhandled; the power of winches, capstans and engines; and the forces of wind, wave and tide. There is also the relative difference in power, size and manoeuvrability of the vessels involved. Taken together, these can create a volatile and hazardous environment in which mistakes have serious consequences. A standard risk assessment should be carried out for each and every towing operation and varied for individual circumstances. The risk assessment should cover: • What hazards are involved in the manoeuvre? • What hazards will be represented by the equipment used? • Where would equipment failure present the greatest danger? • Who is most at risk on both vessels? • What will happen if communications fail? • Will other vessel movements create a hazard? And where? • What effect will wind and tide have? • Is visibility likely to deteriorate during the operation? • Does the cargo itself add to the risks involved? • If there is a problem, what action will be taken? The risk assessment should ascertain the level of risk (low, medium, high), what will be done to reduce the risk if it is unacceptable, and the residual risk when safeguards are in place. To help you check off these factors, you can find a Risk Assessment Form in Appendix A.

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WORKING WITH TUGS

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS BEST PRACTICE Accidents are often the result of a number of failures called an “error chain”. To prevent errors occurring, it is necessary for each party involved in the towing operation to understand exactly what is required at every stage of the operation. Operations such as mooring and towing impose great loads upon ropes or warps, gear and equipment. As a result of the imposed loads, sudden failure in any part of the system may cause death or serious injury to personnel. Masters should avoid crew members being stationed or necessarily working in the bight of warp or rope formed by the lead from the winch or windlass round and through the fairleads and over-side. In any case, the consequences of failure in any part of the system must be carefully considered and effective precautions taken.

Listed below are the best practice steps to be carried out to ensure safer towing operations.

REGULAR EQUIPMENT INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, TESTING AND CERTIFICATION All fixed and running gear, including ropes, must be regularly and carefully maintained, tested, certified and inspected for wear, damage and corrosion. In particular, it is necessary to ensure that pedestal roller fairleads, lead bollards, mooring bitts, etc. are: • used appropriately and within their design capabilities • correctly sited and effectively secured to a part of the ship’s structure which is suitably strengthened For the deck crew to perform their tasks effectively, equipment must work faultlessly. Roller pins on fairleads may wear and fracture if not regularly greased and inspected. A faulty fairlead can damage a costly rope, which may subsequently part, leading to personal injury. It is possible for a fairlead to be ripped off the deck. If there is an angle, the fairlead can fly across the deck and possibly hit someone.

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS Bitts and Smit brackets are subjected to heavy loads during towing operations. They should be inspected regularly, especially if they have been repaired, as welds have been known to fail.

Ropes and wires can also fail if not maintained. Wires should be checked for corrosion, kinks or worn individual wires or strands, and oiled or greased regularly. Ropes should be checked for damage, chafing and internal wear that indicates hard usage. Ropes with short splices along their length and those with eye terminations formed by a bowline should not be used for towing operations. A worn towrope or a bad lead may cause a line to part and control of the vessel may not be recovered before the initial accident causes significant damage and loss. When a line parts, there is extreme danger for anybody nearby.

It’s also essential that the tug winch on-load release should be tested regularly to ensure it is able to function under load.

ENSURING WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY OF TUGS When a tug is engaged in any towage operation, all watertight openings should be securely closed. In addition, all these openings should be marked with a sign stating that they are to remain closed during towage operations.

ON TIME ARRIVAL For tugs, punctuality is essential. It avoids any risks that may occur from hasty assessments and allows extra time for unforeseen difficulties with communications, crewing or equipment. In busy ports, port planners, Pilots and Tugmasters need to allow sufficient time between berthing operations of vessels and transfer to the next vessel.

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1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS PROPER BRIEFING AND COMMUNICATION The Tugmaster should assess the Pilot’s instructions and query any that seem unworkable, or suggest a suitable alternative whenever it is considered better. The tug deck crew should also be properly briefed on the operation by way of a toolbox talk and risk assessment of the job ahead. It is equally important that the vessel’s deck crew is briefed on the plan and what is required of them at each stage.

ESTABLISHING THE CORRECT BITTS Sometimes there can be confusion as to which bitts are designed for low stress tasks, such as tying up and securing barges alongside, and those which are designed for towage. Get it wrong and it is possible for bitts to be torn out of the deck, because of the large forces involved in towing. Masters should know the safe working loads of the bitts on their vessels and provide this information to the Pilot. Winches on vessels should never be used to make fast towing lines. They should always be made fast to bitts designed for towing operations.

PROPER IDENTIFICATION OF MESSENGER AND TOW LINES It is essential that the vessel’s deck crew clearly identifies which lines should be used in towing. This should be achieved through a toolbox talk explaining that the tow line will be heaved aboard by a messenger. In the past, it has been known for crews to mistake a tug’s messenger line for the towline and make fast with this. The result of this misidentification can vary from delay to the securing operation, to a parted messenger line and loss of control of the vessel. Lighter messenger lines can also be deceptive. The vessel’s deck crew may start hauling the messenger line by hand but then struggle when the heavier tow line hits the water. This causes delays while the messenger is stoppered and transferred to the winch. It is important to control and care for lines when passing them from tug to ship, and vice versa, to avoid contact with the tug thrusters and propellers. The bridge of the ship should be kept fully informed by deck and tug crews when lines are clear of the water and when it is safe to use the propelling machinery. [Image 246]

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION THE MAIN CHALLENGES OF TOWING INTO/OUT OF HARBOURS Operating in a harbour or port brings its own set of specific challenges. With heavy shipping traffic, limited manoeuvring space and time pressures, care and vigilance must be maintained at all times if a safe towing operation is to be carried out.

It is also worth remembering that most harbour towage operations are conducted under contracts which impose liability upon the owner of the towed ship for any loss or damage that it causes to other vessels or port installations – even if it is the tug that is at fault. This legal liability means that it is particularly important for those on board the towed ship to do everything within their power to ensure that the towage proceeds without incident. Careful planning is essential and that should include an assessment of the worst case situations, with agreed actions to be taken by all persons involved in the tow. The over-riding objective is an incident-free operation, avoiding injuries to personnel, damage to the environment and property loss.

CONVENTIONAL TOWING A great deal of the world’s towing operations take place using conventional tugs with a single screw and the towline connected to a towing hook. In this situation, tugs can often deliver an unwanted force that increases the ship’s speed. A forward tug on a line can assist in steering to both sides, but a stern tug at higher speeds can only give steering assistance to one side. So only at very low speeds is steering control to both sides and control of the ship’s speed possible. Capsizing (girting) is possible with both a forward and a stern tug, as a result of the position of the towing point and the induced strong transverse forces (should the tug fall off position). To minimise the risk of girting, a completely reliable quick release system should be used. A radial towing hook or equivalent system also decreases the risk of capsizing. The ability to provide stopping assistance is nil for forward tugs towing on a line and limited to very low speeds for stern tugs towing on a line. Ship’s engines should be handled with care when tugs are close to the stern. Tug positions should always be carefully planned in advance.

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION In short, the pushing effectiveness of conventional tugs decreases quickly with increasing ship’s speed: pulling is only possible at zero or low speeds, depending on whether a stern line is used. Ship’s speed should be carefully controlled to take account of the limited capabilities of a conventional tug operating at a ship’s side.

CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION BEFORE THE OPERATION BEGINS • The Master of the vessel must be satisfied that the tugs being used are adequate for the task, i.e. that they have both the right power and speed to be able to complete the towing operation, taking into account any unexpected contingencies • The Tugmaster and Pilot must be made aware of the minimum speed of the towed vessel, i.e. the speed at which steering control can be maintained • The Pilot must know the power of the tugs, which is important if s/he asks for full power at any point during the tow • Communications channels must be established and agreed by vessel Master and crew, Pilot and Tugmaster and crew (see Section 8)

DURING THE OPERATION Establish Good Communications between Vessel Master, Pilot and Tugmaster Good communication from the bridge of the vessel must be established between the Pilot and the Tugmaster as frequently the tugs will be out of sight. Therefore, it is also important that the Pilot keeps the vessel’s Master fully informed of orders given and confirmed by the tugs. When the Pilot and Tugmaster communicate in a national language not understood by the Master, then the Master should be informed in English. The Tugmaster should keep the Pilot fully informed of his/her manoeuvres.

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION PROTECT THE VESSEL DECK CREW Towing necessarily involves the vessel’s deck crew in handling lines. Every precaution should be taken and procedures adhered to in order to prevent accidents and injuries:

• Make sure the working area is safe and free from trip or slip hazards • Remain alert to what the crew is doing • When casting off, as the line is slackened, the swell will often drop the tug and tighten the line. This can be dangerous for the deck crew on the larger vessel handling the line, which may be snatched taut causing injuries to those in close proximity. Crew should stand well clear until the tow line has been sufficiently slackened to avoid any injury or damage • Deck crews must keep well clear of towlines as weight is put on. Best practice requires that people are not on the mooring deck in the vicinity of a tow rope under strain • Ensure the crew are wearing the proper personal protection clothing. Normally this would be: safety helmets, safety shoes, close-fitting boiler suit and gloves

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION DANGER TO THE TUG AND CREW One of the greatest moments of danger for the tug is when picking up or passing a towline from the bow. The vessel’s overhang can make it difficult for the tug to close. At speed, the tug’s steerage can be affected by large bow waves. Hydrodynamic forces can push the tug away and then suddenly suck it into the bows. At this point it is possible for the tug to be overrun. By operating at a safe speed this interaction can be reduced:

• When making fast and casting off at the vessel’s bows, a heaving line that is long enough and light enough to allow the tug to stand off as far as possible should be used • When the line is acquired by the vessel, its deck may be out of sight of the tug. The tug’s crew need to know when the line has been made fast, as the tug cannot leave its station until this is confirmed • It has been known for a vessel’s deck crew to walk away without informing the tug that the line is ‘made fast’, leaving the tug in a potentially dangerous position where it is unable to move for fear of injuring the vessel’s crew • When casting off at the stern, it may be tempting to drop the line onto the tug’s deck below. But with freeboards of six metres or more, a heavy rope will acquire enough energy to seriously injure the tug crew below. It may also foul the tug’s propulsion system if released before the tug is ready to take the line • It is also important that the tug does not heave in the towline rapidly and heave the messenger taut while the vessel’s crew are still manhandling the messenger. Many vessels’ crew are injured in such circumstances, with hands trapped in parts of the messenger and the bitts or legs struck by the snaking messenger as it disappears overboard. Good communication and understanding between the vessel and tug at this important part of the operation is essential • The risk of injury is particularly high at the end of an operation, when the crew of the vessel may be relaxed and less vigilant and when the tug crew may be anxious to move on to their next job. This can entail the tug crew retrieving their lines at an inappropriate speed, causing danger for the vessel’s crew • It is important that the towing line is lowered carefully and that any messenger line is not released until the tug is in a position to retrieve it safely • Many injuries have been caused by throwing weighted heaving lines onto a tug’s deck. Heaving lines should contain no additional weight within the monkey’s fist • Stern tugs in the escort role can suffer from loss of power as the wash from the vessel can disrupt the propulsion system on the tug. It is essential that the vessel increases power only when the tug is ready and in the escort position • Equally, when a Pilot or Master goes astern or ahead without warning, the tug can be pulled towards the vessel. Any significant change to engine speed, direction or rudder angle must be notified in advance and acknowledged by the Tugmaster

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION DANGER – BULBOUS BOWS Vessels with bulbous bows can present an added hazard to tugs, especially when the vessel is laden and the bulb is out of sight under the water or when operating at night. The vessel Master must make the Pilot aware of any underwater obstacles. Warnings should be clearly marked on the vessel’s hull. Thrusters can also be hazardous to tugs and should not be used when tugs are manoeuvring close alongside in their vicinity at either the bow or stern.

COMMUNICATION, COMMUNICATION, COMMUNICATION With so many potential sources of danger and misunderstanding in towing operations, the one element which is crucial to all tug operations is good, clear and effective communication between all parties involved in the tow. Tug personnel, bridge teams and ship deck crew must all be able to contact one another using the most appropriate means of communication. Most often this will be by two-way VHF radio.

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION VHF RADIO VHF communication is a vital component of safe towage operations. It is essential that those onboard the vessel, the tug(s), where appropriate the mooring/line boats, and those on the berth, are able to communicate promptly throughout the towage operation, should the need arise.

Prior to towing operations being undertaken, the Master, Pilot and Tugmaster(s) should establish suitable means of communication, exchange relevant information (e.g. speed of vessel), and agree a plan for the towage operation. Before operations begin, all radios should be tested to ensure that the Pilot can talk to the Tugmaster and the vessel Master to his/her crew. Pilots and linesmen should also carry a fully charged spare battery for their handheld VHF. Once VHF communications have been established, tested and Pilot/Tugmaster/linesmen and boatmen information has been exchanged, personnel should restrict transmissions to the essential business in hand. During operations, it is important that effective communications should be maintained between: (a) the tug and the bridge team (b) the ship’s tow party (ies) and the bridge team There is no verbal standardisation for VHF communications with tugs, though the following guidance is suggested: • Give the tug name prior to the command • Do not give the name of the operator- this could be confusing • Use power references (EASY - 1/3; HALF - 2/3; FULL - 100 percent) • Reference tug commands to ownership (for example, “GUARD pull easy to port”) • When asking for push or pull, include the direction that the force is to be applied, port, starboard, forward, aft (for example: "Pull easy to starboard; Pull easy to starboard 45 degrees forward”) • In any event, the Tugmaster should repeat any order that he has been given • The Tugmaster should maintain the action of the last command until changed by another command • In the event of VHF communication failures between the vessel and tugs, many ports prescribe local sound signals for maintaining communications. Reference should be made to port directives and the Pilot’s advice sought in such circumstances

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION PILOT AND MASTER The Pilot and the Master should exchange information regarding the Pilot’s intentions, the ship’s characteristics and operational parameters as soon as possible after the Pilot has boarded the ship.

The ICS Master/Pilot Exchange Forms (Annexes A1 and A2 of the ICS Bridge Procedures Guide) or the company equivalent format should be completed by both the Master and Pilot to help ensure ready availability of the information and that nothing is omitted in error.

The exchange of information regarding pilotage and the passage plan should include clarification of: • Roles and responsibilities of the Master, Pilot and other members of the bridge management team • Navigational intentions • Local conditions including navigational or traffic constraints • Tidal and current information • Berthing plan and mooring boat use • Proposed use of tugs • Expected weather conditions After taking this information into account and comparing the Pilot’s suggested plan with that initially developed on board, the Pilot and Master should agree an overall final plan early in the passage before the ship is committed. The Master should not commit his/her ship to the passage until satisfied with the plan. All parties should be aware that elements of the plan may change. “No go beyond points” should be established, in the event that the tug’s arrival is delayed – for whatever reason. Contingency plans identifying possible abort points and safe grounding areas should also be made and followed in the event of a malfunction or a shipboard emergency. These should be discussed and agreed between Pilot and Master. The Pilot must keep the vessel’s Master fully informed of orders given and being confirmed by the tugs. Where the Pilot and Tugmaster communicate in a national language not understood by the Master, the Master should be informed in English. The Master must also advise the Pilot when the tugs have been made fast – or let go – and their position as advised by the deck teams.

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION The Master should also advise the Pilot when his/her mooring teams advise that tugs are secured, in order that this information can be relayed back to the tugs by the Pilot. The Tugmaster should not put weight on the towline until such positive confirmation from the Pilot is received. Visual signals directly from the mooring party to the Tugmaster can be misinterpreted.

PILOT AND TUGMASTER When communicating with the tugs, the Pilot’s orders should be clear, have only one interpretation and be addressed to a named vessel. The Tugmaster should acknowledge the instruction and identify his tug. Remember that any misinterpretation of verbal instructions could have severe consequences, leading to damage, accidents and even fatalities.

VESSEL DECK CREW AND VESSEL BRIDGE CREW The Master must keep the bridge and deck teams fully advised of the towing and berthing plan. The deck teams, in turn, must confirm back to the Master when tugs have been made fast or let go, and of any abnormalities to the plan, e.g. excessive weight on the tow line, excessive vessel speed for the tug to approach, tug under the bow or stern, etc.

VESSEL DECK CREW AND TUG CREW It’s often difficult for the vessel’s deck crew to communicate directly with the crew on the tug. Yet this is an area which can affect the whole viability of the operation.

In most cases, hand signals should be used by both sets of crew during the towing procedure. The most common standard hand signals should be used. These are featured below. Make sure all deck crew are familiar with them.

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2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION MOST COMMONLY USED HAND SIGNALS Photocopy this page and distribute to crew so they can learn and be tested on their hand signals.

STOP

EMERGENCY STOP

One hand raised above the shoulders, with open palm facing forward

Both hands raised above the shoulders, with open hands facing forward

RAISE or HEAVE AWAY

LOWER

A circular movement of the hand above the head

An outstretched arm downwards with hand open and circulating

TAKE THE STRAIN or HOIST SLOWLY A raised hand with the fist being clenched and unclenched (inching)

SECURE, MAKE FAST or IT IS MADE FAST Crossed arms in front of the body

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3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS THE MAIN CHALLENGES OF OFFSHORE TOWING Offshore operations entail all the risks associated with harbour operations but longer timescales and distances make it even more challenging, with a need to pay particular attention to: • Planning and risk assessment – such as the development of a tow plan • Condition, size and loading of the towed vessel or platform • Effect of wind, tide, current and sea conditions • Details of destination berth • Multiple towing operations • Working language of vessel and tug crews • Contingency planning

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3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS OFFSHORE ADDITIONAL RISKS Towing offshore carries a number of additional risks over and above those encountered in harbour and port situations:

CHANGING WEATHER, WIND, TIDE AND CURRENTS On a long tow, there’s more time for the conditions to change. Winds, tides and currents can affect the tow differently at various stages in the operation. If the weather deteriorates, you need to know how much extra power is required and available to tow the vessel in heavy seas. There also has to be awareness of the state of the tides at the time of arrival at the destination. Should the weather worsen, contingency plans to find the nearest port of refuge en route need to be made.

DAMAGE/FAILURE OF EQUIPMENT On a long tow, there is also more strain on equipment and more time for it to fail. The tow line should be paid out periodically to avoid chafing at the same spot in contact with the towing vessel’s stern. A suitable protector should be fitted to the tow wire to mitigate damage caused by the wire rubbing the stern roller, crash rails, stern gate or tow rail. Particular care needs to be taken to monitor the similar chafing contact point on the vessel being towed and if necessary the contact point freshened. On offshore structures and vessels this is usually alleviated by the use of short lengths of chafe chain leading from the Smit Bracket through the overside lead. The strain should be taken off the tow wire while physical visual inspection is being performed.

CATENARY OF THE TOW WIRE In offshore tows a major consideration is the depth of water and clearance depth of obstructions in relation to the depth of the catenary of the tow wire. A detailed passage plan is required to consider avoiding underwater obstructions snagging the tow wire or the wire chafing on the seabed, this is particularly relevant in areas like the North Sea and parts of the Baltic. It may be necessary to reduce the length of the tow wire when nearing the coast to avoid such obstructions and seabed chafing.

LACK OF IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE If something goes wrong, emergency assistance is further away.

COMMUNICATIONS DIFFICULTIES With more than one tug normally involved and with larger vessels being towed, communications can be more difficult, increasing still further the need for careful planning and good communications. In short, with longer timescales and added distance, offshore operations require even more careful planning and risk assessment.

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3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS OFFSHORE UNITS Offshore units, such as semi-submersible rigs, jack-up rigs and barges may have unusual hull shapes giving rise to unpredictable towing characteristics. Extra care has to be taken when towing these structures, especially in confined waters or busy shipping lanes. Many offshore towing operations involve two or more tugs arranged in parallel. Double, tandem or inseries tows may also be encountered. All such operations restrict the ability of the tug and tow to manoeuvre and so extra care must be taken with passage planning to ensure that the operation is conducted safely. Special considerations include the provision of adequate searoom and concise communication between all the vessels involved.

Wires, shackles, links and other towing equipment used in the offshore industry is generally much larger than that used in harbour towing activities. Personnel engaged in handling such equipment should take extra care and use lifting appliances and other handling aids so far as possible to minimise the risk of personal injury.

BEST PRACTICE OFFSHORE INSPECT ALL EQUIPMENT THOROUGHLY BEFORE COMMENCING TOWING OPERATIONS As re-rigging a tow in heavy weather is a difficult and dangerous task, it is essential that all equipment – lines, winches, and bitts - is in good order before setting out. Emergency tow lines must also be available on the towed vessel.

Check and Protect Tow lines Offshore, towlines tend to be longer, allowing a greater catenary effect and safeguarding bitts and lines. With the varying movement of towing vessel and tow there is rarely a constant distance between the towing vessel and tow. As the towing power is increased, the tow line will start to lift out of the water and it is possible for the tow line to become tight and exert a sudden shock load to the towing systems. The catenary effect helps to avoid shock loads as the weight of the tow line absorbs the load. Additional measures taken to minimise shock loads in towlines offshore, especially in shallower water, are the use of surge chains and nylon stretchers in the tow arrangement between towing bridle and tug towline. However, wear and tear on lines is much greater, with chafing a constant threat. This can be minimised by changing the length of line slightly, at frequent intervals, so that wear at the lead or rail is minimised.

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3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS Use Correct Navigation Lights and Day Signals/Navigational Warnings The greater the distance between the tug and tow, the greater is the hazard to both and other shipping. It may not be obvious that the tug and tow are linked and vessels may try to pass between them. To avoid this risk, correct navigation lights and day signals must be used. Tug searchlights may also be used – so far as is possible – to illuminate the tow line and indicate the relationship between the tug and the towed object. In congested waters navigational security warnings should be broadcast.

Maintain Vigilance at all Times Being vigilant and aware of the situation at all times and by all means available is vital. Busy sea lanes are particularly hazardous – especially near harbour entrances where crossing traffic is encountered. It is essential to observe the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (1972).

A careful lookout using all available means will go a long way to mitigating risks, by ensuring that the Tugmaster has a comprehensive picture of traffic around the tug.

Whilst engaged in collision avoidance, the handling characteristics of the tow and the time taken to take appropriate readily apparent action has to be borne in mind. In addition, when towing in busy shipping channels the dangers of overtaking vessels with high closing speeds has to be remembered.

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4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS INTRODUCTION Steering and propulsion failures may occur on any type of vessel. All vessels should prepare for emergency towing by maintaining emergency towing equipment on board, installing procedures for when and how to deploy it, and training personnel in the implementation of those procedures. Ideally, these procedures and these training and equipment requirements will be incorporated into each ship’s ISMapproved Safety Management System. This section covers the emergency towing arrangements required by vessels. Each emergency fitting or item of equipment provided must be clearly marked with any restrictions associated with its safe operation, taking into account the strength of its attachment to the ship’s structure.

TANKERS The IMO regulations state that emergency towing arrangements must be fitted at both ends on board every tanker of not less than 20,000 tonnes deadweight. For tankers constructed after 1 July 2002, the arrangements shall at all times be capable of rapid deployment in the absence of main power on the ship to be towed and easy connection to the towing ship. At least one of the emergency towing arrangements should be pre-rigged ready for rapid deployment. In addition, emergency towing arrangements at both ends should be of adequate strength, taking into account the size and deadweight of the ship, and the expected forces during bad weather conditions. For tankers constructed before 1 July 2002, the design and construction of emergency towing arrangements must be approved by the Administration, based on the guidelines developed by the IMO.

SHIPS Ships must be provided with an emergency towing procedure. Such a procedure must be carried aboard the ship for use in emergency situations and should be based on existing arrangements and equipment available on board the ship. The ‘procedure’ should include: • Drawings of fore and aft deck, showing possible emergency towing arrangements • Inventory of equipment on board that can be used for emergency towing • Means and methods of communication • Sample procedures to facilitate the preparation for and conducting of emergency towing operations

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4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SHIPS WITHOUT EMERGENCY TOWING EQUIPMENT ON BOARD STRONG POINTS If the vessel does not have dedicated emergency towing equipment installed (such as a Smit Bracket system), identify strong points forward and aft to which an emergency tow line can be attached.

It is important to identify the strong points on the ship that may be used for emergency towing before an emergency towing situation occurs. Mooring bitts fore and aft must be secured to structural members to be strong enough to withstand the force of a tow line in the event of an emergency. A towing bridle of suitably strong material may be used to distribute the force between mooring bitts. Another strong point used successfully for emergency towing is the anchor windlass on the bow. A large chain may be secured around the base of the windlass with shackles so that an emergency tow line can be attached. The anchor chain itself may be used as an attachment point for the tow line if the chain is secured from running out.

TOW LINES, PENNANTS, AND MARKER BUOYS Tugs and other rescue vessels that provide emergency towing are equipped with tow lines that can be passed to a disabled vessel. However, under adverse weather conditions, it may not be possible to successfully pass a tow line to the deck of a disabled vessel, which may also have no power. The vessel should ideally maintain a towing pennant or bridle of adequate strength that may be attached to a strong point(s) and passed through a chock(s) to the water. A brightly-coloured floating buoy should be secured to the end of the pennant or bridle via messenger lines of suitable size and length so the tow vessel can easily locate, retrieve, and secure it to their tow line. A disabled vessel with no power for deck winches will have to pay out one or more tow lines to the tow vessel in a controlled manner. Many ships today use Spectra, Plasma, or other very strong synthetic mooring lines which may be adequate to arrest the drift of the vessel until a stronger tow line is deployed. Other types of mooring lines are not recommended for emergency towing.

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4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS All emergency towing gear should be approved by a naval architect or marine engineer and endorsed by the appropriate classification society prior to use. This is essential to ensure the safety of personnel deploying this equipment.

EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES, TRAINING, AND DRILLS Having suitable emergency towing equipment on board your vessel is the first step. The next step is to establish procedures for when and how to deploy the equipment. The best way to ensure readiness is to have clearly written emergency towing information and procedures that include: • Identification of the location and capacity of each strong point • Location, capacity, and use of shackles, connecting links, and other connection equipment • Connection procedures, including use of a line-throwing gun, if available • Basic towing safety, including emergency release procedures • Lights and day shapes to be displayed and radio broadcast warnings In addition to clearly written procedures, it is essential to ensure crew members are trained to safely connect and deploy the equipment under emergency conditions. The crew should conduct regularlyscheduled emergency towing drills. An emergency towing drill is recommended at least every six months or when a significant number of crew members are replaced.

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4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS SAMPLE EMERGENCY TOWING CHECK LIST SOME ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN BY THE MASTER (M) OF THE DISABLED VESSEL AND THE TOWING VESSEL OPERATOR (TVO) 1

M

Establish communication with local maritime authorities and towing vessel.

2

M/TVO

Maintain radio communication while connecting tow line and during emergency towing.

3

M/TVO

Radio broadcast warnings are periodically transmitted (every 15 minutes).

4

M/TVO

Display appropriate lights and day shapes for the vessel not under command and for the owing vessel.

5

M/TVO

Plot the disabled vessel’s position frequently, and calculate set and drift. Communicate position, set and drift frequently to local authorities and the towing vessel(s) assisting.

6

M/TVO

Determine whether the disabled vessel should be towed from the bow or the stern to minimise damage or improve handling under tow.

7

M

Determine the most suitable strong points for tow line connection, taking into consideration the safe working load and breaking strength of tow lines.

8

M/TVO

Consider size, horsepower, and manoeuvrability of towing vessel when deciding upon towing arrangement.

9

M

If available, ensure that electrical power, hydraulic pressure, compressed air, or steam is available for deck machinery such as winches and windlasses.

10 M

Choose fixed fairlead or chock with the largest possible radius of curvature for the tow line or bridle to ensure optimum manoeuvrability while under tow.

11 M/TVO

Determine how the tow line will be transferred between the disabled vessel and the towing vessel, including use of line-throwing appliance, if available. If a helicopter is to assist in the operation, make preparations for helicopter operations.

12 M/TVO

Ensure proper personal protection equipment is worn (gloves, eye protection, etc.) by personnel involved in the towing operation. ENSURE THAT PERSONNEL STAY OUT OF THE LINE OF PULL OF THE TOW LINE, PENNANT, AND BRIDLE LEGS.

13 M/TVO

Ensure that proper tools are readily available near tow line or bridle connection point(s).

14 M/TVO

Ensure that tow line connection points are as free of obstructions as possible.

15 M/TVO

Decide on the towing plan and how often communications will occur once the tow is undertaken.

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4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS ADDITIONAL FACTORS TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION 1 If it is not possible to pull the towing vessel’s tow line on board the disabled vessel, consider the possibility of using the anchor chain as the point of connection. If this method is used, take precautions to ensure that the anchor chain does not run out. This may be accomplished by employing pawls or other chain stoppers. DO NOT DEPEND ON THE ANCHOR WINDLASS BRAKE ALONE 2 The greatest tow line stress occurs when the inertia of the disabled ship is overcome and later, if yawing is experienced. It is at these times that the tow line is most likely to part 3 If the disabled vessel has steering, the vessel’s rudder may be used to maintain a steady course astern of the towing vessel 4 If the vessel being towed does not have steering, the rudder should be secured amidships to minimise damage to the rudder, steering gear and hull in heavy seas. If the disabled vessel is being towed from the stern, a rudder not secured amidships will tend to go hard-over as the ship gathers sternway and make it extremely difficult to manoeuvre during towing 5 If the disabled vessel has no steering but does have propulsion, the engines of the disabled vessel may be used to assist in getting the tow underway. SHIP’S PROPULSION SHOULD NOT BE USED UNLESS ADVISED BY THE TOWING VESSEL 6 Consider altering the trim of the disabled vessel to improve manoeuvrability under tow The above sections printed with the kind permission of Captain Laura Stratton, MNI Vessel Inspector/Policy Analyst, Washington State Department of Ecology Spill Prevention, Preparedness, and Response Program

TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON EMERGENCY TOWING For additional information on emergency towing, including appropriate equipment, tow line breaking strength guidelines, and detailed emergency towing procedures, see: Peril at Sea and Salvage – A Guide for Masters by the International Chamber of Shipping (OCIMF).

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5 SUMMARY – PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Whether undertaking harbour or offshore operations, following the best practice of these guidelines will help Masters, Pilots and Tugmasters to work safely and efficiently. There is much the Tugmaster can do to reduce risks to both the vessel, crew, and - very importantly - to the mooring crew of the vessel being towed, while ensuring that the customer remains satisfied with the service. Understand the constraints under which other vessels are operating. Exchange information about minimum steerage speeds, the best speed for making fast, winch loads and bollard design strength. For HARBOUR OPERATIONS, standard operating procedures should exist and be updated regularly. For OFFSHORE OPERATIONS a plan should be created before commencing the tow. Reflect on the risks, and assess ways of reducing them. Then define and agree the best risk management strategy in each case. Ensure COMMUNICATIONS are sufficient to achieve good cooperation between the bridges of the tug and towing vessel, and from those bridges to their respective deck crews. Slow down. The vessel’s speed is crucial. If it is travelling too fast there is a real risk of accidents; if it is too slow before the tugs are secured, control of the vessel may also be lost. Inform the other vessel and get confirmation before making any significant changes to speed or rudder angles, and before initiating any significant manoeuvres. Power should be used with care both by the Pilot and Tugmaster. Be sure about the capability of bitts – which ones are for mooring and which for towing operations. Masters need to know the safe working limits for each. Treat lines under load with great respect. Tugs can put more than one hundred tonnes bollard pull on a line. Some tugs in the offshore industry have maximum bollard pulls well in excess of 300 tonnes. Anyone caught by a line is likely to sustain serious injury. Ensure all equipment is regularly inspected, well maintained and ready for use. Ensure the correct number of tugs are available, well in advance. With proper planning, maintenance and training, towage will be a safer, more effective activity for everyone.

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS 1

WHAT MAKES TOWING BY TUGS MORE HAZARDOUS THAN IT USED TO BE? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e f g

2

Increased vessel size making them more difficult to manoeuvre More traffic in general Smaller, less powerful tugs More complex harbour operations Unpredictable weather Greater variety of tug types Difficulties in communication

WHEN YOU ARE PLANNING A SAFE TOW, WHICH OF THE ACTIONS BELOW ARE IMPORTANT? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a Good teamwork between everyone involved b Understanding of towing techniques, tug capabilities and the ship’s requirements c Effective communications between the Master, the Pilot, the Tugmaster, the bridge team and deck crew d Agreeing a plan and operational procedures in advance

3

WHEN PLANNING A TOW BETWEEN THE PILOT AND THE MASTER OF THE VESSEL, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE AND WHICH ARE FALSE? a The Master should provide the Pilot with a deck General Arrangement showing the layout and safe working load (SWL) of the mooring fittings b The Master should inform the Pilot which fairleads, chocks, bitts and strong points should be used for towing c The Pilot should inform the Master of the SWL of the tug’s equipment d The Master should inform the Pilot of which areas of his/her vessel’s hull are strengthened or suitable for pushing e The ship’s mooring lines should be used as towlines

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 4

WHEN THE PILOT IS ADVISING THE MASTER OF THE VESSEL ABOUT A TOW THAT IS ABOUT TO TAKE PLACE, WHICH OF THESE PIECES OF INFORMATION SHOULD BE GIVEN? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e f

5

The tug rendezvous time and position The number of tugs and the mode of towage The type of tugs to be used and their bollard pull(s) Maximum planned speed for the passage The method by which the ship’s crew should take on board and release the tug’s tow line Primary and secondary VHF channels for use in the operation

WHEN THE PILOT AND TUGMASTER ARE PLANNING A TOW, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE AND WHICH ARE FALSE? a There is no need to check the SWL of the vessel’s chocks, bitts and strong points to be used for towing b The maximum speed of the tug should be communicated c The weight of the freight on board the vessel needs to be communicated c The passage of the vessel into the harbour details while accompanied by the tug(s) should be communicated in advance

6

THE NUMBER OF TUGS REQUIRED FOR TOWING WILL DEPEND ON (SELECT ONE FROM THE FOLLOWING ANSWERS): a b c d

7

The type of tug used The weight of the vessel to be towed The support needed to tow the vessel to its destination The type of tugs used and the support needed

MATCH THE TYPE OF TOW WHICH IS BEST SUITED TO THE TOWING SITUATION. IF YOU THINK A STERN TOW IS BEST USED FOR LONGER DISTANCES PUT 1 WITH A AND SO ON. 1 Stern tows 2 Alongside/hip tows 3 Active escort tows 4 Passive escort

a When tight control and manoeuvrability are required in restricted waters b Where assisted steering and braking from the stern of the vessel is required c Better used for longer distances and in open waters d Where the tug is standing close by the vessel in case it is needed

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 8

ANSWER TRUE OR FALSE TO THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a The vessel’s Master and the Tugmaster do not need to know the SWL for the vessel’s bitts and leads b Everybody involved needs to know and agree on the minimum and maximum speed of the tow c The minimum steerage speed of the vessel is not important in a tow d It is not necessary to inform the Tugmaster of the positions of the ship’s appropriate fairleads and bitts and their SWL

9

WHEN CARRYING OUT A RISK ASSESSMENT FOR A TOWING OPERATION, WHICH ONE OF THESE STATEMENTS IS CORRECT: a A standard risk assessment should be carried out only in exceptional circumstances b A standard risk assessment should be carried out for each and every towing operation c A standard risk assessment should be carried out for each and every towing operation, but varied for individual circumstances d A standard risk assessment need not be carried out for most common towing operations

10 WHICH FACTORS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN CARRYING OUT A RISK ASSESSMENT? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e f g h

The hazards involved in the manoeuvre The hazards involved in the equipment used The people most at risk on both vessels The communications between tug and vessel towed The possible hazards caused by other vessel movements The effects of wind and tide Visibility Risks posed by the cargo

11 IN MOORING AND TOWING, WHAT IS THE MAIN DANGER TO SEAFARERS ON THE DECK OF THE VESSEL BEING TOWED? SELECT ONLY ONE FROM THE LIST BELOW: a Running aground b Collision with another vessel c Death or injury caused by the failure of on-board ropes and gear

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION 1

IF YOU HAVE A COLLISION WITH DOCK INSTALLATIONS, JETTIES OR ANOTHER VESSEL WHEN BEING TOWED, WHO IS RESPONSIBLE BY LAW FOR THE DAMAGE CAUSED? a b c d

2

The Tugmaster The Master of the vessel being towed The Pilot The owner of the towed ship

WHAT SHOULD THE PILOT AND TUGMASTER DO BEFORE CARRYING OUT A HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION? ANSWER TRUE OR FALSE TO THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a The Tugmaster and Pilot must be made aware of the minimum speed of the towed vessel b The Pilot must know the power of the tugs c Communications channels should be left open and adaptable to further agreement

3

DURING A HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ARE TRUE AND WHICH ARE FALSE? a Good communications must be established between vessel Master, Pilot and Tugmaster b The Tugmaster can operate independently of the Pilot

4

TOWING NECESSARILY INVOLVES THE VESSEL’S DECK CREW IN HANDLING LINES. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE IMPORTANT IN ENSURING THAT ACCIDENTS AND INJURIES ARE PREVENTED? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a Ensuring that the working area is free from trip or slip hazards b When casting off, stand well clear of the tow line c Keep well clear of tow lines as weight is put on d) Wear the proper personal protective clothing

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 5

WHAT SHOULD A VESSEL’S CREW DO WHEN MAKING FAST AND CASTING OFF A TOW LINE? ANSWER TRUE OR FALSE TO THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a Ensure that the heaving line is long enough and light enough to allow the tug to stand off as far as possible b Confirm to the tug’s crew when the line has been made fast c When casting off at the stern, drop the line onto the tug’s deck below d Be careful and vigilant right to the end of a towing operation

6

TWO-WAY VHF RADIO IS A VITAL COMPONENT OF SAFE TOWAGE OPERATIONS. ANSWER TRUE OR FALSE TO THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a It is essential for everyone involved in the towing operation to communicate promptly throughout b All radios should be tested before operations begin to ensure they are working properly c Radios should be used to exchange all types of information regardless of its relevance to the towing operation in hand d If you are involved in the operation, you should always give your name when talking on the radio e The Tugmaster should never repeat any order that s/he has been given

7

WHEN PILOT AND MASTER EXCHANGE INFORMATION, WHAT SHOULD THAT INFORMATION INCLUDE? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a The roles and responsibilities of the Master, Pilot and other members of the bridge management team b Navigational intentions c Local conditions including navigational or traffic constraints d Tidal and current information e Berthing plan and mooring boat use f Proposed use of tugs g Expected weather conditions

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 8

DECK CREW AND TUG CREW ARE OFTEN REQUIRED TO COMMUNICATE BY HAND SIGNALS. MATCH THE HAND SIGNALS BELOW TO THE MEANINGS.

a A circular movement of the hand above the head

b A raised hand with the fist being clenched and unclenched (inching)

c One hand raised above the shoulders, with open palm facing forward

d Both hands raised above the shoulders, with open hands facing forward

e An outstretched arm downwards with hand open and circulating

f Crossed arms in front of the body

1 “Stop” 3 “Take the Strain” or “Hoist Slowly” 5 “Lower”

2 “Emergency Stop” 4 “Raise” or “Heave Away” 6 “Secure”, “Make Fast” or “It is Made Fast”

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS 1

WHEN TOWING OFFSHORE, WHICH OF THESE STATEMENTS ARE TRUE OR FALSE? a b c d e f

2

WHICH OF THESE FACTORS IS IMPORTANT ON A LONG TOW? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e

3

Wind speeds Knowing how much extra power the towing tugs can generate State of the tide at your destination Speed and direction of any currents The nearest port should an emergency occur

WHAT MEASURES SHOULD BE TAKEN TO STOP THE TOW LINE CHAFING AND ENDANGERING THE TOW? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e

4

It is important to develop a tow plan before the operation begins A risk assessment is not necessary It is important to consider the condition, size and loading of the towed vessel or platform Wind, tide, current and sea conditions are all important to take into account Details of the destination berth can be sorted out nearer the arrival time If something goes wrong, a contingency meeting should be held

Pay out the tow line periodically Fit a suitable protector to the tow line Keep the tow line in one position Change the tow line when worn Monitor the tow line on the vessel being towed and freshen the contact point if required

IN OFFSHORE TOWING, WHICH OF THESE STATEMENTS IS TRUE AND WHICH IS FALSE? a The depth of water and clearance depth of obstructions in relation to the depth of the catenary of the tow wire is very important b Underwater obstructions need to be dealt with as they are encountered c In shallow sea areas like the North Sea and parts of the Baltic, when nearing the coast, the length of the tow line could be reduced to avoid sea bed obstructions d Communications between vessels on a long tow is easier e Towing offshore units such as rigs and barges is safer than normal towing

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 5

WHICH EQUIPMENT NEEDS TO BE CHECKED THOROUGHLY BEFORE OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e f

6

Lines Bitts Winches VHF radios Protective personal clothing Spare tow lines

IT IS IMPORTANT TO CHECK AND PROTECT TOWLINES REGULARLY WHEN OFFSHORE TOWING. WHY? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a Because towlines tend to be longer b Because there is rarely a constant distance between the towing vessel and tow, putting its own stress on the lines c To minimise shock loads to the tow

7

WHEN TOWING OFFSHORE, WHICH OF THESE STATEMENTS IS TRUE AND WHICH IS FALSE? a Navigation lights and day signals must always be used b The greater the distance between the tug and tow, the greater is the hazard to both and to other shipping c Never use tug searchlights to illuminate the tow line d Do not broadcast navigational security warnings in congested waters

8

WHICH REGULATION IS IT ESSENTIAL TO OBSERVE WHEN TOWING OFFSHORE? SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: a Marine Highway Code b International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (1972) c IMO Working with Tugs offshore regulation 1.26

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS 1

WHERE SHOULD EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES AND TRAINING AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS BE RECORDED ON BOARD? SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: a On posters displayed prominently b In the Master’s log c In the vessel’s ISM-approved Safety Management System

2

EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS MUST BE FITTED AT BOTH ENDS OF TANKERS BUT WHAT SIZE OF TANKER SHOULD THIS COVER? SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: a 5,000 to 9,000 tonnes deadweight b 9,000 to 20,000 tonnes deadweight c Over 20,000 tonnes deadweight

3

SHIPS MUST ALSO BE PROVIDED WITH EMERGENCY TOWING PROCEDURES. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MUST BE CARRIED ON ALL SHIPS? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d

4

Drawings of fore and aft deck, showing possible emergency towing arrangements Inventory of equipment on board that can be used for emergency towing Means and methods of communication Sample procedures to facilitate the preparation for and conducting of emergency towing operations

IF YOUR SHIP DOES NOT HAVE EMERGENCY TOWING EQUIPMENT ON BOARD, WHAT SHOULD YOU DO? SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: a Wait until an emergency and hope for the best b Identify strong points forward and aft to which an emergency tow line can be attached c Discuss the problem with the Master of the vessel

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6 TEST YOURSELF QUESTIONS 5

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING POINTS ON A SHIP SHOULD BE CONSIDERED FOR ATTACHING AN EMERGENCY TOW LINE TO? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a Structural members b Anchor windlass on the bow c Anchor chain – if secured from running out

6

WHO SHOULD APPROVE ALL EMERGENCY TOWING GEAR? SELECT AS MANY ANSWERS AS YOU THINK ARE CORRECT FROM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS: a b c d e f

7

HOW OFTEN SHOULD EMERGENCY TOWING DRILLS BE CARRIED OUT ON THE VESSEL? SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: a b c d

8

The Master of the vessel A naval architect A marine engineer The Pilot The Tugmaster The appropriate classification society prior to use

Once a year Once a month Every 3 months Every 6 months or when a significant number of crew members are replaced

IF THE VESSEL IS DISABLED AND HAS TO BE EMERGENCY TOWED, WHICH OF THESE STATEMENTS IS TRUE AND WHICH IS FALSE? a Communications must be established with local maritime authorities and the towing vessel b Radio communication should not be made while connecting the tow line and during the emergency towing c The disabled vessel’s position should be plotted frequently and reported to the local authorities and assisting vessel(s) d The size, horsepower, and manoeuvrability of the towing vessel should be considered when deciding upon the towing arrangement e A towing plan should be decided upon only after towing has begun f The disabled vessel’s rudder should not be used during the tow, even if it has steering capability g If the disabled vessel has no steering but does have propulsion, the engines of the disabled vessel may be used to assist in getting the tow underway h The ship’s propulsion should not be used unless advised by the towing vessel i The trim of the disabled vessel should never be altered under tow

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7 FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND REFERENCE FURTHER READING Bow Tug Operations with Azimuth Stern Drive Tugs, Captain Hank Hensen (Nautical Institute) Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen, Maritime and Coast Guard Agency (ISBN 0 11 5523693) International Best Practices for Maritime Pilotage, International Chamber of Shipping (ICS)/Intertanko/Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) Peril at Sea and Salvage – A Guide for Masters, International Chamber of Shipping (OCIMF). Recommendations on Training and Certification and Operational Procedures for Maritime Pilots, IMO Resolution A.960 (23) Tug Use in Port, Captain Hank Hensen (Nautical Institute) Tug Use Offshore in Bays and Rivers, Captain Hank Hensen (Nautical Institute)

VIDEOTEL PRODUCTIONS Interaction, Code 13 Pilot on Board! Working Together, Code 945 Risk Assessment at Sea Training Course, Code 867 Who Needs It? Personal Protective Equipment, Code 597

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8 APPENDICES

Severity

Likelihood

APPENDIX A: RISK ASSESSMENT FORM DESCRIPTION: DEPARTMENT:

Hazard

Consequences to people

Initial risk factor

Actions to reduce risk

Reduced likelihood

Final risk factor

DATE: RISK ASSESSMENT NO.:

Reduced severity

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8 APPENDICES APPENDIX B SHIP HANDLING WITH TUGS – SAFETY DOS AND DON’TS Do: • • • • • • • •

Make sure the tugs are ordered in good time Give clear instructions to the Tugmaster Listen to any advice offered by the Tugmaster Advise the Tugmaster prior to each stage of the manoeuvre Advise the tug prior to all engine movements Give the Tugmaster time to react Advise the Tugmaster of any areas which cannot be pushed Lower the tug's rope when letting go

Do not: • • • • • •

46

Make the tug fast against the advice of the Tugmaster Manoeuvre the vessel without advising the tug Use excessive speed with the tug made fast (maximum 8 knots) Drop the tug's rope into the water Let go of the tug without advising the Tugmaster Work against the tug

VIDEOTEL PRODUCTIONS

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8 APPENDICES APPENDIX C: WORKING WITH TUGS – A QUICK GUIDE FOR THE CREW MAKING FAST • • • • • • •

All crew to wear full protective clothing Do not wear rings, bracelets or anything which might catch on equipment Crew to be properly briefed and clear signals agreed Establish clear communications Working area to be free of slip and trip hazards Ensure all equipment is in good order Throw heaving lines into clear area, not directly at tug-crew

UNDER TOW • • • • •

Do not stand on bights, ropes or lines Stand away from tow rope in a place of safety Whenever possible, use Panama leads in preference to roller leads Supervisor to keep tug in sight but move clear at first sign of tow rope stress Do not place eye of tow rope under horn of inboard bitt. Although this seems to be common practice, the correct method is the upright closest to the fairlead, as there is less tearing stress on the welds holding the bitts to the deck • Keep decks clear and never allow ropes to tangle

LETTING GO • • • • •

Be aware that the tow may release without warning Release tow only after the weight has been eased and when ordered to do so Tow line must always be released in a controlled way by means of a messenger line Ensure that messenger line has adequate turns on the drum end to control it One crew member guides tail of messenger, remainder stand clear

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9 TEST YOURSELF ANSWERS 1 CARRYING OUT SAFE TOWING OPERATIONS 1

a, b, d, f, g

1

d

2

a,b,c,d

2

3

a b c d e

a True b True c False

3

a True b False

4

a, b, c, d

5

a b c d

True True False True

6

a b c d e

True True False False False

7

a, b, c, d, e, f, g

8

1 2 3 4 5 6

True True False True False

4

a,b,c,d,e,f

5

a b c d

False True False True

6

d

7

1 2 3 4

c a b d

8

a b c d

False True False False

9

c

10 a, b, c, d, e, f, g 11 c

48

2 CARRYING OUT A SAFE HARBOUR TOWING OPERATION

c d b a e f

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9 TEST YOURSELF ANSWERS 3 OFFSHORE TOWING OPERATIONS 1

a b c d e f

True False True True False False

4 EMERGENCY TOWING ARRANGEMENTS 1

c

2

c

3

a, b, c, d

4

b

2

a, b, c, d, e

5

a, b, c

3

a, b, e

6

b, c, f

4

a b c d e

7

d

8

a True b False c True d True e False f False g True h True i False

True False True False False

5

a, b, c, f

6

a, b, c

7

a b c d

8

b

True True False False

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p r o d u c t i o n s 84 NEWMAN STREET, LONDON W1T 3EU TELEPHONE +44(0)20 7299 1800 FACSIMILE +44(0)20 7299 1818 E-MAIL [email protected] WEB www.videotel.co.uk

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