WISH CLAUSES EN INGLÉS.docx
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WISH CLAUSES EN INGLÉS: CONSIDERACIONES GENERALES Llamamos wish clauses a las oraciones que comienzan con I wish. Según el tiempo verbal que las acompañe, pueden usarse para describir difer entes estados de ánimo y hablar de distintos momentos en el tiempo. Algunas cosas que debes saber: Además de I wish, también puedes expresar este tipo de deseos con if only (se consideran sinónimos). Por lo general, en las cláusulas en pasado simple se usa la forma subjuntiva (were) en lugar de was, aunque ambas son válidas. I wish I were/was taller so I could work as an air hostess. Tanto I wish como if only se pueden usar solos para significar "¡ojalá!". Would you come to Sarah's party? I wish! I have to study a lot this weekend. Wish clauses: sentences I wish + past simple
Usamos este tipo de wish clause para...
Hablar de cosas que no se han hecho realidad en el presente (y que nos gustaría que lo fueran): I wish I were on holiday right now –I'm –I'm so stressed! Hablar de cosas que podrían hacerse realidad en el futuro: I wish I could speak French properly. Hablar de cosas que desearíamos cambiar en el futuro, pero que no van a ocurrir: I wish I could come with you next week. Las reglas de formación son muy fáciles, se trata de I wish (o If only) + la forma de pasado del verbo.
I wish + past perfect Esta fórmula se usa únicamente para hablar del pasado y expresa arrepentimiento. Hay dos variantes: Hablar de cosas que hicimos en el pasado (y que ahora no nos parecen tan buena idea): I wish I hadn't gone to the beach instead of studying. Hablar de cosas que no hicimos en el pasado y desearíamos haber hecho: I wish I had studied harder for my Advanced exam. Para formar esta wish clause, debes usar I wish (o if only) + had o hadn't + el participio de pasado.
Suelen ser equivalentes a «if only» y casi siempre son intercambiables, pero este último es más intenso. Descubre más sobre cómo usar if only y i wish en el artículo Usos prácticos de «if only» y «I wish».
I wish + would Por último, el tercer tipo de wish clauses expresa malestar o enfado ante una situación que deseamos que cambie en el futuro. La diferencia con el pasado simple es que en el primer caso el hablante está más bien triste o decepcionado, mientras que aquí se expresa irritación. Otra cosa importante a recordar es que esta fórmula solo puede usarse si hay dos sujetos distintos (no se puede decir I wish I would). Queremos que alguien o que algo cambie, no nosotros mismos. Por ejemplo: I wish my mother wouldn't drive so slowly –it really gets on my nerves! I wish my students would behave better in class. I wish my neighbour would stop playing music because I can't hear myself think.
wish + infinitive We sometimes use wish + infinitive as a formal alternative to want or would like with reference to present and future wish situations: I wish to make a complaint and would like to see the manager. I do not wish to renew my subscription and would be grateful if my name could be deleted from your database. I don't ever wish to see you again! she said and stormed out of the restaurant. I don't wish to seem ungrateful, but I already have all the T-shirts I need.
wished + infinitive Note that wished to + infinitive is not so often used to describe past wishes. Instead, we would normally use wanted to + infinitive for this purpose: We wanted to see the Crown Jewels but couldn't because the Tower of London had already closed. I wanted to work from home last Friday but my boss wouldn't let me. Wished to + infinitve is possible in these examples, but it sounds a bit stilted. wishing for the impossible: wish that + past tenses
To express wishes for unlikely or impossible situations and to express regrets, we use wish that + constructions with would, could, was, were or past tenses. Note that although we are using past tense forms, we are talking about present and future situations. Compare the following: I don't speak any foreign languages, but I wish (that) I could speak Spanish. I'm hopeless at foreign languages, but I wish I spoke Spanish and French. I'm not hard-working at all - I'm really lazy - but I wish (that) I weren't. It's only Tuesday today, but I wish it was Saturday. Note that was and were are fully interchangeable with first, second and third person pronouns, singular and plural. Arguably, were sounds more formal than was. Note also that that is optional in all these that-clauses. My wife has to work such long hours, but I wish she didn't (have to). I have to prepare all the meals. I wish (that) I didn't. And now the dishwasher doesn't work. I wish it did. Note also that we use wish that + could when we are talking about people's ability to do things and wish that + would when we are talking about things that we would like people to do or not to do. I can't eat anything with nuts in - I'm allergic to them - but I wish I could. I know your parents won't let you come to the nightclub, but I wish you could. I know you don't really want to come to the nightclub, but I wish you would. He keeps sending me text messages, but I wish he wouldn't.
hopes and wishes: hope that + present / future Note that for wishes about things that are positive and seem likely in the future, we normally use hope + that-clause with present simple or future will forms: I hope you'll get top marks in your English test (NOT: I wish you'll get…) I can see you're not well now, but I hope you recover in time for the match. (NOT: I wish you recovered… OR I wish you'd recovered… OR I wish you'll recover…)
past regrets: wish + past perfect To talk about wishes and regrets about past situations, we use wish with the past perfect, as in your example, Carlos, where you have use the shortened form of the past perfect: I didn't ever receive the parcel from my granny, but I wish I had (received it). The parcel never arrived. I wish (that) it hadn't got lost in the post.
Note that wish with past tenses and with past perfect is used in a similar way to conditional sentences and that if only can sometimes be used as an alternative to wish: I wish I had worked harder at university. If only I had worked harder at university, I would've got a better job. I wish I had done more travelling in my youth. If I had travelled more widely, I am sure I would be more open-minded now. I wish you could come with me to Cancun this summer. If you could only come with me to Cancun, that would make it a perfect summer. REFERENCIA: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/learnit/learnitv301.sht ml
I wish that a. desearía que I wish that my dog could talk//.Desearía que mi perro pudiera hablar.
b. me gustaría que I wish that we didn't live so far apart.//Me gustaría que no viviéramos tan lejos el uno del otro.
c. ojalá I wish that I was never sick.//Ojalá nunca me enfermara. I wish that for you and for all of us, because we are a Community. //Lo deseo por ustedes y por todos nosotros, puesto que somos una comunidad. Social solidarity, democracy, rule of law: I wish that Parliament was more in tune with these values!// Solidaridad social, democracia, Estado de derecho: me gustaría que el Parlamento estuviera más en sintonía con estos valores. I wish that were the case on more matters. //Desearía que este caso se repitiera en más ocasiones. I wish that other Member States would make this a subject of study in schools. //Desearía que algunos otros Estados miembros lo hiciesen también objeto de formación en las escuelas. I wish that every Member of this Chamber could say the same thing.// Me gustaría que todos los diputados al PE pudieran decir lo mismo. REFERENCIA: http://www.spanishdict.com/traductor/i%20wish%20that