What Are the Uses of Sulphuric Acid in Daily Life
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What are the uses of sulphuric acid in daily life? There are many uses for the acid including the manufacture of fertilisers, rubber, other acids, detergents, dyes, some medicines and in oil refining. Because it is so widely used in industry, exposure may occur in many work places. Burning fossil fuels also releases sulphur dioxide which can react with water in the air to form sulphuric acid. Sulphuric acid is also used to harvest potatoes; the acid damages the leaves killing the plant and making it easier to lift the potatoes from the ground. At home the main sources of sulphuric acid are lead-acid car batteries and some solutions forunblocking drains. Sulphuric acid is not persistent in the environment, being quickly neutralised. in medicine,colors,plastic mass,filling the accumulatoretc :P
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Debactoral is a chemical cauterizer. It is composed mostly of 30% sulfuric acid (H 2SO4), 4% phenolsulfonic acid, and a 24% sulphonated phenolics compound which is made from beechwood creosote. Debacterol usually comes in a swab form, but is also available in a vial. Its formulation is documented more deeply in U.S. Patent 6,596,299 and U.S. Patent 6,830,757.
DEBACTEROL® is sold in the United States by prescription only and is not offered directly to consumers. DEBACTEROL® Canker Sore Pain Relief is a liquid, topical, debriding agent used for treating ulcerating oral mucosal lesions, commonly referred to as canker sores, aphthous ulcers, or oral ulcers, as well as minor oral abrasions. DEBACTEROL® has unique chemical and physical properties that are particularly beneficial whenever a dental or medical procedure in the mouth requires controlled, limited debridement of necrotic or damaged tissues. DEBACTEROL® is prescription treatment for Aphthous Stomatitis that completely stops oral ulcer pain, seals damaged oral mucosal tissues, and forms a protective barrier after just one application.
Acid rains Coal-burning power plants are a significant source of Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are major players in acid rain and ground level ozone (smog). Nitrogen oxides are also greenhouse gasses that react with organic compounds to form smog, which damages plant life, making it vulnerable to disease and extreme weather. It can also impair human health by causing increased risk of asthma, lung damage and premature death.
Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water vapor in the atmosphere to create sulfuric and nitric acids.
Acid rain occurs when SO2 and NOX interact with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the air to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid. This toxin can fall from the sky in rain over a widespread area, killing fish and plants. Forests are also impacted via direct damage to foliage and where forest soils have been stripped of nutrients by acid rain. The shocking impacts of acid rain on forests around the world have led to progress, in curbing toxic rain in the US and Europe for example, but it is estimated that acid rain still falls on 30 percent of the land in China, and on hundreds of its cities. The fact remains that coal is still by far the single biggest source of sulphur emissions caused by power generation. In 2004, 95 percent of the 10.3 million tons of SO2, and 90 percent of the 3.9 million tons of NOx, released into the atmosphere by US power plants came from ones fuelled by coal
Fertilizer & Agriculture Agricultural industries are the major users of ammonia, representing nearly 80% of all ammonia produced in the United States. Ammonia is most commonly used as a fertilizer and applied directly to the soil from tanks containing the liquefied gas. Ammonia is a very valuable source of nitrogen that is essential for plant growth. Ammonia is used in the production of liquid fertilizer solutions that consist of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea and aqua ammonia. The fertilizer industry also uses ammonia to produce ammonium and nitrate salts. Ammonia and urea are used as a source of protein in livestock feeds for animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Ammonia is used as a pre-harvest cotton defoliant, an anti-fungal agent on certain fruits and a preservative for the storage of high-moisture corn.
Ammonia is a colorless gas, and actually has to be dissolved in water before we can use it for these household applications. NEVER use ammonia with bleach or any other product containing chlorine! The fumes are HIGHLY toxic! Work in a well ventilated space and avoid breathing ammonia vapors. Wear rubber gloves and avoid skin contact. Store out of the reach of children. Remove paint from clothes by saturating the items several times with half ammonia, half turpentine solution, and then tossing them in the wash. Use as plant food. Ammonia can be used on alkaline-loving flowering plants and vegetables like clematis, lilak, hydrangea and cucumbers. Occasionally treat your plants with a shower of 1/4 cup ammonia mixed with 1 gallon of water. Stop mosquito bites from itching. If you have not yet scratched the bite open, put one drop of ammonia directly on the bite. Clean crystal. Bring back the sparkle by mixing a few drops of ammonia in 2 cups water and wiping with a cloth. Rinse in clear water and dry with a different soft cloth.
Nitrogen fertilizer component
1 Ammonia is one nitrogen fertilizer component that can be synthesized from in-expensive raw materials. Since nitrogen makes up a significant portion of the earth's atmosphere, a process was developed to produce ammonia from air. In this process,
natural gas and steam are pumped into a large vessel. Next, air is pumped into the system, and oxygen is removed by the burning of natural gas and steam. This leaves primarily nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is removed and ammonia is produced by introducing an electric current into the system. Catalysts such as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) have been used to improve the speed and efficiency of ammonia synthesis. Any impurities are removed from the ammonia, and it is stored in tanks until it is further processed.
2 While ammonia itself is sometimes used as a fertilizer, it is often converted to other substances for ease of handling. Nitric acid is produced by first mixing
ammonia and air in a tank. In the presence of a catalyst, a reaction occurs which converts the ammonia to nitric oxide. The nitric oxide is further reacted in the presence of water to produce nitric acid.
3 Nitric acid and ammonia are used to make ammonium nitrate. This material is a good fertilizer component because it has a high concentration of nitrogen. The two materials are mixed together in a tank and a neutralization reaction occurs, producing ammonium nitrate. This material can then be stored until it is ready to be granulated and blended with the other fertilizer components.
Read more: How fertilizer is made - material, production process, making, history, used, components, composition, product, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process, Quality Control http://www.madehow.com/Volume3/Fertilizer.html#b#ixzz1zGbhqoNf Nitrogen fertilisers Making nitrogen fertilisers involves producing ammonia, which is then reacted with oxygen to produce nitric acid. Nitric acid is used to acidify phosphate rock to produce nitrogen fertilisers. The flow diagram below illustrates the processes that are involved. Each of these steps will be examined in more detail.
Figure 1: Flow diagram showing steps in the production of nitrogen fertilisers 1. The Haber Process The Haber process involves the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. Nitrogen is produced through the fractional distillation of air. Fractional
distillation is the separation of a mixture (remember that air is a mixture of different gases) into its component parts through various methods. Hydrogen can be produced through steam reforming. In this process, a hydrocarbon such as methane reacts with water to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen according to the following equation:
CH4+H2O→CO+3H2 Nitrogen and hydrogen are then used in the Haber process. The equation for the Haber process is:
N2(g)+3H2(g)→2NH3(g) (The reaction takes place in the presence of an iron (Fe) catalyst under conditions of 200 atmospheres (atm) and 450–500 ℃)
Interesting Fact: The Haber process developed in the early 20th century, before the start of World War 1. Before this, other sources of nitrogen for fertilisers had included saltpeter (NaNO3) from Chile and guano. Guano is the droppings of seabirds, bats and seals. By the 20th century, a number of methods had been developed to 'fix' atmospheric nitrogen. One of these was the Haber process, and it advanced through the work of two German men, Fritz Haber and Karl Bosch. They worked out what the best conditions were in order to get a high yield of ammonia, and found these to be high temperature and high pressure. During World War 1, the ammonia that was produced through the Haber process was used to make explosives. 2. The Ostwald Process The Ostwald process is used to produce nitric acid from ammonia. Nitric acid can then be used in reactions that produce fertilisers. Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in two stages. First, it is oxidised by heating with oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst to form nitric oxide and water. This step is strongly exothermic, making it a useful heat source.
4NH3(g)+5O2(g)→4NO(g)+6H2O(g) Stage two, which combines two reaction steps, is carried out in the presence of water. Initially nitric oxide is oxidised again to yield nitrogen dioxide:
This gas is then absorbed by the water to produce nitric acid. Nitric oxide is also a product of this reaction. The nitric oxide (NO) is recycled, and the acid is concentrated to the required strength.
3NO2(g)+H2O(l)→2HNO3(aq)+NO(g) 3. The Nitrophosphate Process The nitrophosphate process involves acidifying phosphate rock with nitric acid to produce a mixture of phosphoric acid and calcium nitrate:
Ca3(PO4)2+6HNO3+12H2O→2H3PO4+3Ca(NO3)2+12H2O When calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid react with ammonia, a compound fertiliser is produced.
Ca(NO3)2+4H3PO4+8NH3→CaHPO4+2NH4NO3+8(NH4)2HPO4 If potassium chloride or potassium sulphate is added, the result will be NPK fertiliser. 4. Other nitrogen fertilisers
Urea ((NH3)2CO) is a nitrogen-containing chemical product which is produced on a large scale worldwide. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogeneous fertilisers in common use (46,4%) and is produced by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide. Two reactions are involved in producing urea: 1. 2.
Other common fertilisers are ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate. Ammonium nitrate is formed by reacting ammonia with nitric acid.
NH3+HNO3→NH4NO3 Ammonium sulphate is formed by reacting ammonia with sulphuric acid.
Advantage of alloy Less Weight
One of the main benefits of alloy wheels is the fact that they are generally--but not always--lighter than something like a steel rim. Alloys reduce the unsprung weight of a car's suspension, which is the amount of weight carried by just the suspension. Fitting lighter alloy wheels to a car pays off with an improvement in steering response and agility, particularly during aggressive driving.
Because of their aluminum construction, alloy wheels are also very strong and much more resistant to bending than wheels made of other materials such as steel. Alloy wheels dissipate heat better, which minimizes cracking to the metal. This superior heat dissipation can even promote better braking, since heat around the brakes in minimized. Another aspect that contributes to brake cooling is the open construction of many alloys, where air around the spokes lets more air cool the brakes.
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Because of their tremendous popularity, there is an extremely large selection of alloy wheels to choose from. It should be kept in mind though that some cars have unusual bolt patterns and therefore have a limited number of alloy wheels that will fit. But for cars with a common bolt pattern like a VW or Honda there are many choices, from as small as a 13-inch wheel to something as large as an 18-inch or even larger.
Aluminum alloys are better looking than standard steel wheels. They come in a wide variety of finishes, including polished, chromed and painted. You can also order custom alloy wheels from some companies with the finish that you want.
Improve Car's Value
Installing a set of alloy wheels will usually improve the value of your vehicle, or at least its desirability, making it potentially easier to sell. Because alloys have multiple benefits, from increases performance to better looks, they are generally considered a plus when fitted to a car.
Read more: The Advantages of Alloy Wheels | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_5516232_advantagesalloy-wheels.html#ixzz1zGi90AUb
It's built from ‘duralumin’, an aluminium alloy commonly used in the aviation industry. It's stronger than aluminium and still light
Lens Materials In the past, lenses were made only from real glass. However, today’s modern technology has allowed manufacturers to create and use other materials that are lighter and easier to use like Polycarbonate, Trivex, High Index Plastic, Aspheric, Photochromic and Polarized lenses. Each of these materials has their own special features and benefits.
. Electrospun nanostructures on FTO conducting glass plate which is clipped for electrical connection
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