Wet Adesion Paint Specs

March 14, 2019 | Author: Rajesh Chowhan | Category: Paint, Epoxy, Concrete, Corrosion, Silicone
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

paint specs...


FULATEX® PD-0435 all-acrylic latex can  be described as both “versatile “versatile and exceptional.” Developed for exterior use. TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Solids by Weight ……………52 - 54 % Weight/Gallon………………….8.9 lbs. Solids by Volume………………50 % Viscosity……………….1,000 Viscosity……………….1,000 - 3,000 cps pH…………………………….8.5 - 9.5 Tg ……………………………….11° C Particle Size …Less Than 0.40 Microns Surfactant System ……………..Anionic Appearance ……………….Milky White Mechanical Stability………….Excellent Stability………….Excellent Freeze-Thaw Stability………..Excellent Stability………..Excellent Film....................................Flex Film....................................Flexible, ible, tough.

NeoCryl XK-90 Key Benefits NeoCryl XK-90 is a 100 percent acrylic emulsion polymer designed for • High Gloss Development interior/ interior/exter exterior ior gloss gloss enamel enamel paints. paints. It • Low Cosolvent Demand provides an outstanding balance of high • Excellent Block Resistance gloss, early block resistance and • Wet Adhesion Chemistry excellent color development. • Resistance to Chalking NeoCryl XK-90 was developed in Europe • Resistance to Dirt Pick-up where high gloss decorative paints are most popular. popular. Its unique unique small small particle particle morpho morpholog logy y gives gives hard hard durab durable le paints paints with cosolvent demands as low as 3.5% on resin solids. Adhesion promoting technology provides outstand outstanding ing wet adhesion adhesion to aged and chal chalke ked d alky alkyds ds.. An Anot othe herr func functi tion on of  NeoCryl XK-90 is as a vehicle for industri industrially ally applied applied wood coatings coatings and  joinery. NeoCryl XK-90 can be used as the sole resin or as a modifier for other acrylic copolymer emulsions to improve the wet adhesion and block resistance of  the paint without sacrificing gloss or exterior durability. As a modifier NeoCryl XK-90 can be used at levels as low as 20% on solids replacement of the main resin. Increasing this level to 40% of the resin blend will provide the optimum effect. An added benefit from incorporating NeoCryl

XK-90 into an existing formula will be to reduce the cosolvent demand of  higher MFT polymers without sacrificing block resistance. Bulletin XK-90 NeoResins Inc.

TAMOL™ 165A High Performance Hydrophobic Copolymer Pigment Dispersant Description TAMOL 165A pigment dispersant is a high-performance dispersant for latex gloss through flat paint. It is an ammonium salt of a hydrophobic copolymer dispersant which provides enhanced properties to latex paints resulting from improved water resistance properties, including the following: Wet Adhesion Early Blister Resistance Water Spot Resistance Corrosion Resistance Wet adhesion is one of the most important properties for exterior paints. Without wet adhesion, properties such as resistance to dirt, alkali attack, chalking, cracking and flaking are meaningless. Water causes the paint film to soften and swell. Unless the adhesion to the substrate is strong, blisters will form. Early blistering usually indicates that future adhesion failures are likely for that film. Even though the blisters disappear when the paint film dries, the bond between the paint film and the substrate is weakened. The most important factor for minimizing adhesion loss is binder choice. Other factors influencing adhesion are the presence of water-sensitive ingredients such as surfactants, thickeners and dispersants. A balance is required to use the minimum level of additives to maintain application, performance and stability of the paint. In fog box tests, TAMOL 165A pigment dispersant provided significant advantages in early blister and wet adhesion compared to other polyacid and hydrophobic copolymer dispersants. In addition, it showed excellent gloss, corrosion resistance, and color acceptance. TAMOL 165A pigment dispersant is highly compatible with HEUR rheology modifiers such as ACRYSOL™ RM-825 and RM-2020NPR. Dispersing Efficiency TAMOL 165A pigment dispersant should be tested at 0.3% to 1.0% active ingredient based on total pigment weight. It is important to determine the proper level for the finished paint formulation. If a low level is used, the dispersion may be incomplete providing an inadequate grind that will not maximize gloss, hiding, or stability. High levels of dispersant may lead to increased water sensitivity. For more information about formulating with TAMOL 165A pigment dispersant, contact your local Rohm and Haas Technical Representative. Typical Physical Properties These properties are typical but do not constitute specifications.

Appearance Light yellow slightly hazy liquid Chemical type Hydrophobic copolymer polyelectrolyte pH (as shipped) 8.5 to 9.0 Solids, % 21.5 Brookfield Viscosity, cP as shipped 160 to 400 Specific gravity 21.5 Density, lb/gal 8.8 Solvent Water Bulking Value, gal/lb 0.1133

Page 2 Material Safety Data Sheets Rohm and Haas Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contain pertinent information that you may need to protect your employees and customers against any known health or safety hazards associated with our products. Under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, workers must have access to and understand MSDS on all hazardous substances to which they are exposed. Thus, it is important that you provide appropriate training and information to your employees and make sure they have available to them MSDS on any hazardous products in their workplace. Rohm and Haas Company sends MSDS for all its products, whether or not they are considered OSHA-hazardous, to both the "bill to" and/or "ship to" locations of all its customers upon initial shipment, including samples. If you do not have access to one of these MSDS, please contact your local Rohm and Haas representative for an additional copy.

Updated MSDS are sent upon revision to all customers of record. In addition, MSDS are sent annually to all customers receiving products deemed hazardous under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. MSDS should be obtained from your suppliers of other materials recommended in this bulletin. Rohm and Haas Company is a member of the American Chemistry Council and is committed to ACC’s Responsible Care ®

Program. TAMOL and ACRYSOL are trademarks of Rohm and Haas Company, or of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and are intended to designate goods marketed in North America; the same goods may be marketed in other countries, generally under other company trademark designations. These suggestions and data are based on information we believe to be reliable. They are offered in good faith, but without guarantee, as conditions and methods of use of our products are beyond our control. We recommend that the prospective user determine the suitability of  our materials and suggestions before adopting them on a commercial scale. Suggestions for uses of our products or the inclusion of descriptive material from patents and the citation of specific patents in this publication should not be understood as recommending the use of our products in violation of any patent or as permission or license to use any patents of the Rohm and Haas Company. ©Rohm and Haas, 2007 All rights reserved. December 2000 81A233

This is the html version of the file http://www.ae-sys.com/pdf/Case%20studies %20PDF/Alocit/2006%20underwater%20and%20wet.pdf  . Google automatically generates html versions of documents as we crawl the web.

Page 1


The most common reaction coating surfaces underwater is first to express amazement that it is possible and then to ask  why anyone would want to. As for ‘why’, we will come to that later but when it comes to ‘how’, the answer is simple - Alocit Systems. What is amazing about using the Alocit 28 series underwater is the ease with which it can be applied. You can even apply it straight from the can with a simple hand brush or, if  you have large areas to cover, cost-effective pumped systems can be utilised. On wet areas too, such as splash zones and sweating pipes, Alocit products make coating easy, adhering strongly and providing excellent anti-corrosion protection - they can even be applied to oily surfaces! These pages deal with some of the background to sub-sea and wet area application: areas of use, surface

preparation, equipment issues, techniques and frequently asked questions. to the concept of 

www.ae-sys.com Underwater . Splash Zones No Heavy Metals . Zero VOCs Wet or Dry Steel and Concrete Oil Contaminated Surfaces Hulls Bilges Tanks Tunnels . . . Sweating Pipes Steel Piles . Cost-effective Durable . Protects against MIC/ALWC Manual or Pumped Systems Above: In deep water off Argentina, using a hand brush to apply the mixed material straight from the can! Below: Applying Alocit to pipes using a p umped brush system

Alocit 28 Series Coatings

Area Applications Underwater & Wet Page 2 Always use a firm circular action when applying underwater using a minimum two-coat index system SURFACE PREPARATION ON STEEL Remove surface contamination; corrosion deposits, marine growths etc., to reveal a clean steel substrate with a surface profile of a minimum 50 microns/2 mil using: ! High pressure water blast (15-20,000psi) ! UHP hydroblasting (30/40,000psi) ! Blasting with Grit or Garnet

Notes: UHP and High Pressure water blasting may be employed with added abrasive Stains of rust, paint or mill scale remaining on the surface do not present a problem providing minimum surface profile criteria are met SURFACE PREPARATION ON CONCRETE The substrate should be free from high levels of laitence, oil contamination, large surface voids etc. Use hydroblasting for large areas. Large cracks/surface voids should be repaired prior to coating. BASIC FACTS  How does it work? The Alocit 28 series is specially engineered to displace water and oil; consequently, application underwater requires a firm circular motion in order to obtain maximum adhesion.  How does it bond? The material does not form a chemical bond with the substrate but bonds mechanically to the surface profile. What about surface prep? Proper surface preparation (a brief outline is given below) is the key to successful application.  How is it  applied ? Alocit can be applied underwater using a hand or pumped brush; equipment details are provided later in this document.  How hard is it to use? Not hard at all; Alocit material goes on as easily under water as it does above. What about salt water? Applications in salt or fresh water are equally effective. Right side shows cleaned steel piles after hydroblasting

Page 3 Won’t the salt be trapped on the surface? Dissolved salt will be displaced with the water during application. Low levels of residual salt will be encapsulated by the material and present no problem. Proper surface preparation is needed to remove the high levels of salt contamination sometimes found in old steel piles, for example.  Is it effective against MIC and ALWC? Alocit has proved to be extremely effective in preventing microbially induced corrosion and accelerated low water corrosion.

 How long will it last? Properly prepared and applied, Alocit should provide a minimum of 10 years protection. Records show applications remaining in good condition for over thirty years! Why do I need to paint underwater? There are many reasons. Sheet piles, for example, can lose as much as 5mm a year from ALWC. Coating repairs to installations such as offshore platforms must be completed in situ which will involve subsea applications and repairs to coating damage on ships can be completed without dry-docking. Above: Brush application in the splash zone CASE STUDY - TEXAS With severe corrosion conditions in constantly sweating low-temperature pipes on one of the largest refineries in the US, solutions were sought from a number of coatings suppliers. Following the selection of a short list, coatings companies were invited by the operators to complete a series of comparative tests on pipes with substrate temps down to 2°C, streaming with condensation in the warm and humid conditions. Alocit 28.15 handled the conditions with ease, emerging the clear leader and was subsequently specified for use on sweating areas.

Page 4 Left: A diver applies a second coat to a two-colour index system on sheet piling. PRIMER TOPCOAT

Below: With an index system, missed sections or wear and damage to topcoat are immediately visible CASE STUDY - MEDITERRANEAN After construction, this gas platform required extra coating at and beneath the splash zone. The areas were blasted clean (below left) and a two-coat Alocit 28.15 system was applied, black as the first coat,

followed by a colour matched top coat (below and right). Why do I need two coats? During the application of any coating ‘holidays’, small holes in the coating film, will inevitably occur. A multi-coat system ensures that nowhere will this effect coating integrity. Alocit recommends a minimum two-coat index system of 600 microns (24 mil) DFT. What is an ‘index system’? An index system involves the use of a different colour for the base and top coats. This ensures that the second coat is properly applied and provides a visual warning if wear or abrasion penetrates the top coat, allowing remedial action to take place before system failure. COATING DAMAGE SUBSTRATE

Page 5 Above: old coatings and marine growths were removed by water jetting. As Alocit could be applied immediately after preparation, there was no need to dry the substrate and coating work was able to continue without interruption - even during the night! Above: DFT and adhesion tests were carried out at all stages. These showed that, despite the constant humidity and water from the preparation process, adherence of the Alocit coating was unaffected with readings between 750 and 1200 p.s.i. Right: The SBM nears completion with a time saving of more than 25% because of Alocit’s ability to be applied on wet surfaces. CASE STUDY - SBM Significant cost savings were achieved on this Single Buoy Mooring through the use of Alocit coatings

Page 6 CASE STUDY - DURABILITY The sample shown below is from a test by an agency of the German government.

Samples were coated underwater and left submerged under the North Sea for several years. Despite having to hammer off the barnacles and marine growth, the Alocit coating emerged completely undamaged - still firmly adhering to the concrete substrate. AREAS OF USE Alocit coatings can be used in almost any environment, tropical or temperate, above and below salt or fresh water, in the splash zone, on damp or ‘sweating’ surfaces - even through running water! Alocit products have been applied at nuclear plants, on ship’s hulls and rudders, to sheet piling, concrete piling, piping, tanks and offshore platforms. It can even be applied to oily surfaces underwater as the photograph above left shows! For more information on product or application issues, please contact us or visit our website, www.ae-sys.com, which has a range of technical information. Above: This photograph shows Alocit 28.15 being applied underwater onto oil-contaminated concrete Left: On this project Alocit coatings were applied through running condensation CASE STUDY - NEW YORK Alocit has a long history of applications in and around New York harbour with applications at La Guardia and Brooklyn Bridge, for example. The photo above shows the underwater hand application of  Alocit to sheet steel piles in the harbour.

Page 7 Above: The Specially Adapted Power Brush Above: A K1 Applicator Right: An Air-powered Pumping Unit Above: A Standard Alocit Round Hand Brush

APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Page 8 Adhesion Tests US DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY The underwater-coated steel specimens were removed from the water after curing overnight and allowed to dry for 8 hours. Dumbbellshaped steel probes with ends 1 sq cm in surface area were then bonded onto the coated surfaces with Hysol EA 9309 adhesive and allowed to remain overnight. The following day they were pulled to failure in an Instron Model 1122 testing machine. RESULTS Pull strengths and mechanisms of  failure of coated steel panels. Pull strength in kg/sq cm; Failure mechanism [A]=adhesive [C]=cohesive [S] exposed steel STEEL SURFACE ALOCIT COATING Dry 38 [A] 66 [A] Wetted 36 [A] 41 [A] FWS Blast 51 [S] 33 [A] Note: 50 kg/sq cm = 711 p.si Adhesion Tests DUTCH NAVY TEST #1 SUBSTRATE: Grid blasted steel, but dusty and dirty APPLICATION: Underwater by brush MATERIAL: Alocit 28.14 TEST EQUIPMENT: P.A.T. (Precision Adhesion Testing Equipment) direct vertical pull by hydraulic system. After seven days, dollies with Araldite glue

were applied. RESULTS: 16-18 N/mm (2320-2610 p.s.i.) Breakage in the glue No damage to 28.14 TEST #2 SUBSTRATE: Sand-stone soaked in water until totally wet APPLICATION: Brush onto wet stone MATERIAL: Alocit 28.95 TEST EQUIPMENT: P.A.T. as above. After one week dollies with Araldite glue applied RESULT 9 - 10 N/mm² (1305-1450 p.s.i.) Substrate failure - no damage to 28.95 In further tests 28.14 and 28.15 were applied successfully on bilge areas and divers successfully applied 28.14 and 28.15 underwater in the port.

www.ae-sys.com Independent Testing Alocit products have undertaken many tests but these two examples are from US and Dutch Navy tests which show how well Alocit adheres even on submerged surfaces. With all but one of the tests separation was either due to glueline or substrate failure. AUSTRALIA A & E Systems Pty Ltd - 3/20 Clark Court, Bibra Lake, Perth WA 6163, Australia Tel: +61 (0)8 94183688 Fax: +61 (0)8 94183588 Email: [email protected] EUROPE A & E Systems Ltd - 3 Charles Wood Road, Dereham, NR19 1SX, England Tel: +44 (0)1362 694915 Fax: +44 (0)1362 695350 Email: [email protected] MALAYSIA A & E Systems Sdn Bhd - No 37B, Jalan USJ 21/11, UEP Subang Jaya, 47600 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: +60 (0)3 80246277 Fax: +60 (0)3 80236090 Email: [email protected] USA A&E Anti-Corrosion Systems LLC, 150 Hilden Road, Ste #301, Ponte Vedra, Florida 32081, USA Tel: +1 904 819-8985 Fax: +1 904 819-1430 Email: [email protected]

Most paints will tolerate high humidities, but humidity should not be permitted to lead to condensation on the surface being painted. In order to determine whether or not a surface is wet, the steel temperature should be measured using a surface temperature thermometer and the dew point calculated after measurement of humidity with a hygrometer. Paint application should not take place when steel temperature is less than 3°C (5°F) above the dew point. Paint should not be applied when surfaces are affected by rain or ice. Some two component paints (for example certain epoxy coatings) should not be applied at low temperatures as curing may be retarded. Extreme Conditions Generally, extreme conditions refers to ambient temperatures below 5°C (41°F) or above 40°C (104°F). Below 5°C (41°F) the curing of coatings, such as traditional two component epoxies, slows down dramatically and for some paints curing stops altogether. International Paint’s product range contains certain epoxy and polyurethane coatings specifically formulated for use at temperatures below 5°C. Consult International Paint. Other marine coatings are not so severely affected; chlorinated rubbers and vinyls are quite suitable for use at temperatures below 0°C (32°F) provided

 Aquacote is BoatCraft Pacific's range of water based high build epoxy undercoat and polyurethane topcoats. These highly durable coatings represent the newest technology available, offering leading edge protective coatings which set new standards in ease of use, environmental safety, and especially for protection of the health of applicators. EASE OF USE:  Aquacote coatings require thinning and clean up with water only, and they can be applied safely to damp surfaces. They combine with Bote-Cote or Bild-Cote epoxy systems to present a complete fairing and protective coating system in particular for surfaces of timber and plywood, and any other porous or semiporous surfaces requiring long term protection from marine and exterior environments. Repetitive filling and sanding of rougher surfaces to make them fair and smooth is eliminated with Aquacote High Build Epoxy, an easy sanding, high build epoxy coating. Aquacote High Build Epoxy can be applied to sufficient thickness to enable the surface to be faired and smoothed to a fine professional finish in a single preparation step.  Aquacote Polyurethane Topcoat is a strong, hard, but flexible polyurethane coating which adheres strongly to most surfaces, and provides tough, long lasting protection s imilar to solvent type polyurethanes. It is available in a range of colours and in a crystal clear coating containing state of the art UV absorbers for  maximum protection of the underlieing surface. Aquacote is water and solvent resistant.

Environmentally sound aqueous binders for paints and surface coatings are increasingly replacing solvent-based formulations. To prevent reduced performance and maintain the same level of properties as solvent-based systems, unsaturated silanes are directly incorporated into the polymer as comonomers during preparation of the resin. Binders – such as acrylates and polyvinyl acetates, which are silanized with GENIOSIL® during manufacture – permit coatings to be formulated that offer excellent wet adhesion and abrasion resistance along with good pigment and filler binding. The most widely used GENIOSIL® grades are vinyl and methacrylosilanes.

Silicone resin emulsion paints rank among the most modern facade coating systems. The  binder in silicone resin emulsion paints comprises 50 % mineral-based silicone resin and 50 % polymer emulsion. On mineral building surfaces and in coatings, silicone resin  binders from the SILRES BS® series build up stable three-dimensional silicone resin networks. In the presence of moisture, catalytic con densation takes place, releasing alcohol. This network is the source of their water repellency and water-vapor   permeability, and it is chemically bound to the mineral substrate.

Silicone resin emulsion paints thus bestow permanent water-repellency, which stems from the organic group on the silicone resin. The inorganic portion of the silicone resin “cements” the filler and the pigment together, creating permanently water-repellant capillaries and pores. Thus, although the paint is open-pored and does not form a surface film, water is unable to penetrate and simply rolls off.

3. Damp-Proof Coatings for Cooling Towers The chlorosulfonated polyethylene damp-proof coatings for cooling towers (primer/topcoat, 3K or 2K) is formulated with chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, synthetic resin, pigments and fillers, damp-proof agent, curing agent and promoter, etc. It is a three-component system except for the two-component system topcoat. Component A is the vehicle for primer and topcoat, component B is the curing agent for primer and topcoat, component C is the hardener for primer. It shows outstanding outdoor durability, good resistances to thaw/freezing, heat, humidity, cold, cracking,

fungi, and bacteria, and good adhesion, etc. Damp-Proof Coatings for Cooling Towers can be applied at low temperature and wet paces to meet the requirement of  simultaneous application with removing of mold plates.

 Amchem recently completed a major coating project for India’s largest power utility at its 2 X 500 MW Thermal Power Plant in Southern India. Approx. 660,000 sq. feet of concrete and steel surfaces subject to seawater  immersion / splash in Cooling Tower No. 1 were coated with 2,000 Microns of 100% Solids Polyurethane Coating trademarked Purethane ®  386/9000. The coal fired coastal thermal power plant will draw seawater for use in CW system as make – up water. Two Natural Draught Cooling Towers ( one for each boiler of 500 M W ) standing 550 feet tall ( largest in Asia ) will cool approx. 16 Million Gallons Per Hour of seawater flowing through them. Corrosion Protection / Coating Selection To prevent concrete degradation and re-bar corrosion in the highly corrosive sea water immersion / splash environment, a number of  measures were taken in the design. Principally, all concrete and steel surfaces in contact with sea water / sea water spray i.e up to drift eliminator level (50 feet) were to be coated with 2,000 Microns of 100% Solids High Build Polyurethane Coating. The po lyurethane coating will provide a strongly bonded, tough, impermeable membrane, which prevents transmission of Chlorides, Sulphates and greatly retard transmission of Oxygen and Water Vapour into the concrete and underlying reinforcing steel. Additional corrosion protection measures include use of Sulphate Resistant Cement with 5-8% C3A content & Marine Grade Corrosion Resistant Steel Rebar. Above the drift eliminator (coating line), the shell structure uses an organic migratory corrosion inhibitor. The client selected 100% Solids Elastomeric Polyurethane from several candidate coatings based on its resistance to seawater  immersion; crack spanning capacity and ability to be sprayed into a pinhole free monolithic membrane. Exhaustive evaluation was made on basis of test data and track record supplied by several manufacturers and five were short-listed for bidding. Amchem was the successful bidder. The client prepared stringent performance specifications. Considering the importance of a quality application, a considerable portion was devoted to surface preparation and application standards. The buyer, construction contractor and the Amchem  jointly drew up a detailed quality plan.  Amchem was required to send samples drawn at the work site for laboratory testing to measure various properties in accordance with ASTM Methods. Tests included Tensile Strength, Recoverable Elongation, Water  Vapour Transmission, Flexibility, Impact & Abrasion Resistance etc. Test for resistance to seawater was done by immersion for 30 days followed by Weight Gain (1% Max.), Change In Hardness (5% Max.) and Change In Tensile Strength (5% Max.).

 Amchem was also required to conduct field tests for Film Thickness and Adhesion ( 1 test per 1000 sq. feet approx. ), Surface Hardness and Holidays ( Steel ). Third party inspection was conducted initially by a NACE certified coating inspector and subsequently by representatives from the Organic Coating & Polymers Division of  India's premier Chemical Technology Institute (IICT). Discontinuities in the coating on concrete were visually inspected and repaired. Coating Application The internal structure to be coated was very complex. It included the Fill Support Structure, Racker Columns, Baffle Walls, Duct, Walkways, Pond Floor, Pond Wall etc. at heights up to 15 metres ( 50 feet ) . The fill support structure is a maze of vertical lower columns (> 400 No's), upper columns ( > 800 No's ), diagonal columns and beams ( > 3,000 No's ).In order to access the various parts of the structure Amchem deployed specialized high reach equipment from JLG such as articulating boom, scissor lifts, manlift etc. The constrained spaces made access to the surface difficult and the high reach equipment served the purpose very well. The entire concrete structure was sweep blast cleaned using sand, primed @ 125 Microns WFT using Purethane ®  PIV, 100% Solids ,Damp Tolerant Polyurethane Penetrating Primer and coated with 2,000 Microns Purethane ®  386/9000 , 100% Solids Polyurethane Coating. Three Graco Hydra Cat plural component airless spray equipment were used for the coating. In addition several blast pots and air compressors were deployed for surface preparation. The Graco equipment performed reliably as always with minimal repairs and downtime. Highly skilled crew of around 45 people conducted the surface preparation and coating application. More than 9,000 litres of Purethane ®  PIV Primer and more than 135,000 Litres of Purethane ®  386/9000, 100% Solids Polyurethane Coating were used for the coating operations. Purethane ®  PIV is a specialized primer which penetrates into the concrete, sealing and consolidating the surface for improved adhesion. Water tolerance allows it to be sprayed onto damp concrete with excellent bond between the primer and concrete as well as primer and coating.

Water from the condenser is brought into the Cooling Tower through 10.5 feet (3.2 m dia) steel pipes up to Cooling Tower Bottom, which is bifurcated into 2 pipes of 7.8 feet (2.4 m dia) rising up to 50 feet level. The pipes were blast cleaned using granulated copper slag to SSPC SP-10 with an Anchor Profile of  100 Microns, primed and lined internally with 2,000 Microns Purethane ®  386/9000.

Pond wall and floor were coated after the fill support structure was completed.

View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.