Wartsila Vasa 32 Project Guide

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Introduction

Introduction The Project Guide provides main engine data and system proposals for the early design phase of engine installations. For contracted projects specific instructions for planning the installation are always delivered. The 2/1997 issue replaces all previous ones of the Vasa 32 Project Guide. Major revisions of issue 2/1997: • The heat balance of the low NOX engines is revised according to the latest laboratory measurements. Major revisions of issue 1/1997: Information concerning the low NOX emission model, Vasa 32 LN, is now presented in parallel with information on the basic Vasa 32. Where no distinction is made, the data applies to both engine types. • Technical data is revised in accordance with the current engine specifications. • Exhaust gas pipe dimensions are for some cylinder numbers increased. • Lists of suitable fuel and lubricating oil separators are included. • Instructions on engine room ventilation are added. • Emission control methods are described. • The code numbers of electrical components are new. • Engine seating instructions are extended. • Piping interface points are better defined with reference to standard and pressure class. The information provided in this Project Guide is subject to revision without notice. Comments and suggestions to the contents of the Project Guide are welcome.

Application Technology Wärtsilä Diesel Oy, Marine Vaasa, 24 March 1997

This publication is designed to provide as accurate and authoritative information regarding the subjects covered as was available at the time of writing. However, the publication deals with complicated technical matters and the design of the subject and products is subject to regular improvements, modifications and changes. Consequently, the publisher and copyright owner of this publication cannot take any responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions in this publication or for discrepancies arising from the features of any actual item in the respective product being different from those shown in this publication. The publisher and copyright owner shall not be liable under any circumstances, for any consequential, special, contingent, or incidental damages or injury, financial or otherwise, suffered by any part arising out of, connected with, or resulting from the use of this publication or the information contained therein.

Copyright 1997 by Wärtsilä Diesel Oy All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

1

Introduction

Table of contents Chapter 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6.

Page

General data and outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Main technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Fuel specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lubricating oil quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Max. continuous output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Reference conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Principal dimensions and weights . . . . . . . . 5

Chapter

Page

9.

Turbocharger turbine washing system . 88

10.

Engine room ventilation and combustion air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

11.

Crankcase ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

12.

Exhaust gas system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

13. 13.1. 13.2.

Emission control options . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Options for further reduction of NOX . . . . . 93

14. 14.1. 14.2. 14.3. 14.4. 14.5. 14.6. 14.7. 14.8. 14.9.

Control and monitoring system . . . . . . . 95 Normal start and stop of the diesel engine 95 Automatic and emergency stop; overspeed trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Speed control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Speed measuring system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Blocking of alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Electric prelubricating pump . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Electric built-on fuel feed pump . . . . . . . . . 98 Preheating of cooling water. . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Monitoring system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

15. 15.1. 15.2. 15.3. 15.4.

Seating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Rigid mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Flexible mounting of generating sets. . . . 107 Flexible pipe connections . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

16. 16.1. 16.2. 16.3.

Dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 External forces and couples . . . . . . . . . . 109 Torque variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

17. 17.1. 17.2. 17.3.

Power transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Connection to driven equipment. . . . . . . 112 Torsional vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Alternator feet design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

18. 18.1. 18.2. 18.3.

Engine room arrangement . . . . . . . . . . 117 Arrangement of generating sets . . . . . . . 117 Arrangement of main engines . . . . . . . . . 118 Transportation dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7.4.

Cooling water system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Internal cooling water system . . . . . . . . . . 65 Design of the external cooling water system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Conventional cooling water system. . . . . . 79

19.

Dimensions and weights of engine parts. . . 122

8. 8.1. 8.2

Starting air system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Internal starting air system . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Design of the external starting air system . 85

20.

List of symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

2. 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4.

Operational data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Dimensioning of propellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Loading capacity for generating sets. . . . . 11 Restrictions for low load operation and idling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Overhaul intervals and expected life times of engine components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7.

Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Wärtsilä Vasa 4R32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Wärtsilä Vasa 6R32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Wärtsilä Vasa 8R32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Wärtsilä Vasa 9R32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Wärtsilä Vasa 12V32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Wärtsilä Vasa 16V32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Wärtsilä Vasa 18V32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4. 4.1. 4.2.

Engine description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Wärtsilä Vasa 32 D & E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Wärtsilä Vasa 32 D & E Low NOX . . . . . . . 43

5. 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4.

Fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Internal fuel system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Design of the external fuel system . . . . . . 44 Flushing instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

6. 6.1. 6.2.

Lubricating oil system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Internal lubricating oil system . . . . . . . . . . 56 Design of the external lubricating oil system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Flushing instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

6.3. 7. 7.1. 7.2. 7.3.

2

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

1. General data and outputs

1. General data and outputs 1.1. Main technical data The Wärtsilä Vasa 32 is a 4-stroke, non-reversible, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine with direct fuel injection. Cylinder bore Stroke Piston displacement Number of valves

320 mm 350 mm 28.2 l/cylinder 2 inlet valves and 2 exhaust valves 4, 6, 8 and 9 in-line 12, 16 and 18 in V-form 50° 12.0:1 13.8:1 (Low NOX) clockwise, counter-clockwise on request

Cylinder configuration

V-angle Compression ratio Direction of rotation, seen from flywheel end

Speed

Cylinder output D-rating

E-rating

720 RPM

370 kW

503 hp

405 kW

550 hp

750 RPM

375 kW

510 hp

410 kW

557 hp

Asphaltenes, max. Aluminium + silicon, max. Flash point, closed Pensky Martens, min.

14% by weight 80 ppm 60°C

The fuel specification corresponds to fuel according to ISO 8217 : 1996 (E) categories up to ISO-F-RMK 55. Maximum limits for sodium, water content before engine and asphaltenes have been added. 

Provided the fuel treatment system can remove water and solids.

‚

Sodium contributes to hot corrosion on exhaust valves when combined with high vanadium content. Sodium also contributes strongly to fouling of the exhaust gas turbine blading at high load. The aggressiveness of the fuel depends not only on its proportions of sodium and vanadium but also on the total amount of ash. Hot corrosion and deposit formation are, however, also influenced by other ash constituents. It is therefore difficult to set strict limits based only on the sodium and vanadium content of the fuel. Also a fuel with lower sodium and vanadium contents than specified above can cause hot corrosion on engine components.

1.3. Lubricating oil quality Fuel consumption Lube oil consumption

see Technical Data see Technical Data

1.2. Fuel specification Viscosity at 50°C, max. Viscosity at 100°F, max. Density at 15°C, max. Conradson Carbon Residue, max. Sulphur content, max. Vanadium content, max. Sodium content, max. Ash, max. Water content, max. Water content before engine, max. Pour point, max.

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

730 cSt 7200 sRI 0.991 kg/dm³ / 1.010 kg/dm³  22% by weight 5.0% by weight 600 ppm 50 ppm ‚ 0.20% by weight 1.0% by volume

Engine The system oil should be of viscosity class SAE 40 (ISO VG 150). Oils of viscosity class SAE 30 (ISO VG 100) may also be used. The content of additives should meet the requirement of MIL-L-2104C or API Service CD. The alkalinity, TBN, of the system oil should be 25 - 40 mg/KOH/g]; higher at higher sulphur content of the fuel. During the warranty period, lubricating oil of an approved type has to be used.

Turbocharger For ABB turbochargers with roller bearings a turbine oil must be used. The oil may be a mineral oil or a synthetic oil having a viscosity of 30 - 55 cSt/50°C. Other makes of turbochargers and turbochargers with sleeve bearings are lubricated from the main lubricating oil circuit of the engine.

0.3% by volume 30°C

3

1. General data and outputs

Oil quantity in turbocharger (ABB turbochargers, only) Engine

Litres

4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 12V32 16V32 18V32

2.3 3.5 4.0 4.0 2 x 3.5 2 x 4.0 2 x 4.0

Auxiliary engines Engine

720 RPM, 60 Hz Engine

Speed governor The speed governor can use both turbine and engine oil.

4R32D 6R32D 8R32D 9R32D 12V32D 16V32D 18V32D

Alternator

750 RPM, 50 Hz Engine

Alternator

kW

kVA

kWe

kW

kVA

kWe

1480 2220 2960 3330 4440 5920 6660

1790 2680 3570 4020 5360 7140 8030

1430 2140 2860 3210 4280 5710 6430

1500 2250 3000 3375 4500 6000 6750

1810 2710 3620 4070 5430 7240 8149

1450 2170 2890 3260 4340 5790 6510

Oil quantity in governor Governor type

Litres

Woodward UG 10 Woodward PG 58 Woodward EGB 58

Engine

Engine

1.7 1.7 2.3

1.4. Max. continuous output Main engines Engine 4R32D 6R32D 8R32D 9R32D 12V32D 16V32D 18V32D

720 RPM

720 RPM, 60 Hz

750 RPM

kW

HP

kW

HP

1480 2220 2960 3330 4440 5920 6660

2010 3020 4030 4530 6040 8050 9060

1500 2250 3000 3375 4500 6000 6750

2040 3060 4080 4590 6120 8160 9180

4R32E 6R32E 8R32E 9R32E 12V32E 16V32E 18V32E

Alternator

750 RPM, 50 Hz Engine

Alternator

kW

kVA

kWe

kW

kVA

kWe

1620 2430 3240 3645 4860 6480 7290

1950 2930 3910 4400 5860 7820 8790

1560 2340 3130 3520 4690 6250 7030

1640 2460 3280 3690 4920 6560 7380

1980 2970 3960 4450 5930 7910 8900

1580 2370 3170 3560 4750 6330 7120

For auxiliary engines the permissible overload is 10% for one hour every twelve hours. The maximum fuel rack position is mechanically limited to 110% continuous output. The alternator outputs are calculated for an efficiency of 0.965 and a power factor of 0.8. The above output is also available from the free end of the engine, if necessary. The cylinder output P¹ can be calculated as follows:

Engine 4R32E 6R32E 8R32E 9R32E 12V32E 16V32E 18V32E

720 RPM

750 RPM

kW

HP

kW

HP

1620 2430 3240 3645 4860 6480 7290

2200 3300 4410 4960 6610 8810 9910

1640 2460 3280 3690 4920 6560 7380

2230 3350 4460 5020 6690 8920 10040

P¹ (kW) = pe (bar) x n (RPM) x 0.0235 P¹ (hp) = pe (bar) x n (RPM) x 0.0319 where P¹ = output per cylinder pe = mean effective pressure n = engine speed

The maximum fuel rack position is mechanically limited to 100%.

4

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

1. General data and outputs

• total barometric pressure 1.0 bar

1.5. Reference conditions The maximum continuous output is available at a max. charge air coolant temperature of 38°C, a max. air temperature of 45°C and a max. exhaust gas back pressure of 300 mmWC. If the actual figures exceed these, the engine should be derated. The fuel consumption indicated in Technical Data is valid in reference conditions according to ISO 3046/1-1986, i.e.:

• air temperature

25°C

• relative humidity

30%

• charge air coolant temperature 25°C For other than ISO 3046/I conditions the same standard gives correction factors. The influence of an engine driven lube oil pump on the specific fuel consumption is about 2 g/kWh and of each engine driven cooling water pump about 1 g/kWh, at full load and nominal speed.

1.6. Principal dimensions and weights In-line engines (3V58E0425c)

Engine 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32 Engine 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32

A*

A

B*

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

K

4788 5919 6612 6941

3945 5083 6113 6603

2259 2413 2712 2719

2259 2345 2712 2649

1981 1993 2034 2034

2550 2550 2550 2550

600 600 600 600

1135 1135 1135 1135

2570 3550 4530 5020

225 225 225 225

950 950 950 950

1350 1350 1350 1350

M

N

P

R

S*

S

T

U

V

X

Weight [ton]**

1089 1050 1142 1142

1312 1340 1053 1031

1645 1673 1898 1835

614 673 814 814

327 257 218 212

285 257 218 212

285 325 459 490

1150 1308 1358 1358

355 432 479 530

1645 1740 1898 1905

20.3 29.2 40.5 44.4

* Turbocharger at flywheel end ** Weight with liquids (wet sump) but without flywheel

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

5

1. General data and outputs

V-engines (3V58E0437b)

Engine

A*

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

K

12V32 16V32 18V32

6323 7518 8070

5686 6883 7443

2503 2765 2794

2310 2360 2403

2330 2330 2330

600 600 600

1150 1150 1150

3970 5090 5650

225 225 225

1200 1200 1200

1600 1600 1600

Engine

M

N

O

P

R

S

T

U

V

X

Weight [ton]**

12V32 16V32 18V32

1206 1257 1257

1493 1568 1568

900 900 900

1830 1950 1980

673 815 815

625 700 700

621 555 555

1491 1568 1568

621 555 555

1830 1950 1980

42.5 58.0 61.4

* Turbocharger at flywheel end ** Weight with liquids (wet sump) but without flywheel

6

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

1. General data and outputs

Generating sets, in-line engine (3V58E0439)

Engine 4R32 6R32 8R32 9R32

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

K

L

Weight [ton]*

6814 8138 9660 10380

1150 1308 1358 1358

5000 6250 7700 8350

2780 2965 3458 3648

2160 2160 2310 2920

1760 1760 1910 2510

1450 1450 1600 2200

1080 1080 1080 1300

1420 1420 1620 1620

2550 2550 2550 2550

3679 3765 4332 4269

34 45 63 70

* Weight with liquids

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

7

1. General data and outputs

Generating sets V-engine (3V58E0438)

Engine

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

K

L

Weight [ton]*

12V32 16V32 18V32

9735 10468 11683

1491 1568 1568

7570 8955 9615

3864 3500 3600

2890 2890 2890

2480 2480 2480

2200 2200 2200

1300 1300 1300

1700 1700 1700

2330 2330 2330

4203 4465 4495

82 92 100

* Weight with liquids

8

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

2. Operational data

2. Operational data 2.1. Dimensioning of propellers Controllable pitch (CP) propellers Controllable pitch propellers are designed so that 100% of the maximum continuous engine output at nominal speed can be utilized. The propeller is usually optimized for service speed and draft at about 85% engine MCR and a sea margin of 10 - 15%. Shaft generators must be considered when dimensioning propellers, if the generator will be used at sea.

The graph 4V93L0383 shows the operating range for a CP-propeller installation. The recommended combinator curve and the 100% load curve are valid for a singleengine installation. For twin-engine installations a lighter combinator program is used if only one engine is in operation. The idling (clutch-in) speed should be as high as possible and will be decided separately in each case.

Overload protection or load control is recommended in all installations. In installations where several engines are connected to the same propeller, overload protection or load control is necessary.

Operating range, Wärtsilä Vasa 32D + LN D, CPpropeller (4V93L0383c)

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

Operating range, Wärtsilä Vasa 32E + LN E, CPpropeller (4V93L0422b)

9

2. Operational data

Fixed pitch (FP) propellers The dimensioning of fixed pitch propellers should be made very thoroughly for every vessel as there are only limited possibilities to control the absorbed power. Factors which influence the design are: • The resistance of the ship increases with time due to fouling of the hull. • The wake factor of the ship increases with time. • The propeller blade frictional resistance in water increases with time. • Wind and sea state will increase the resistance of the ship • Increased draught and trim due to different load conditions will increase the resistance of the ship. • Bollard pull requires higher torque than free running. • Propellers rotating in ice require higher torque. The FP-propeller shall be designed to absorb 85% or the maximum continuous output of the engine at nominal speed when the ship is on trial, at specified speed and load.

Operating range, Wärtsilä Vasa 32D + LN D, FPpropeller (4V93L0384c)

10

In ships intended for towing, the propeller can be designed for 95% of the maximum continuous output of the engine at nominal speed in bollard pull or at towing speed. The absorbed power at free running and nominal speed in usually then relatively low, 55 - 75% of the output at bollard pull. In ships intended for operation in heavy ice, the additional torque of the ice shall be considered. The graph 4V93L0423 shows the permissible operating range for an FP-propeller installation as well as the recommended design point at 85% MCR and nominal speed. The min. speed will be decided separately for each installation. It is recommended that the speed control system is designed to give a speed boost signal to the speed governor in order to prevent the engine speed from decreasing when clutching-in. The clutch should be dimensioned for a slipping time of 5 - 8 seconds. A propeller shaft brake should be used to enable fast manoeuvering (crash-stop).

Operating range, Wärtsilä Vasa 32E, FP-propeller (4V93L0423b)

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

2. Operational data

2.2. Loading capacity for generating sets Provided that the engine is preheated so that the min. cooling water temperature is 70°C, the engine can be loaded immediately after start with no restrictions except the maximum transient frequency deviation specified by the classification societies. For supercharged engines, 100% load cannot be instantly applied due to the air deficit until the turbocharger has accelerated. At instant loading the speed and the frequency drop. The engine can be loaded most quickly by a successive, gradual increase in load from 0 to 100% over a certain time (t1) as shown in the following diagrams. Loading in two steps, with a load application in the first step by highest possible load (= max. permissible instant frequency drop) will take the longest time to achieve table frequency. Therefore, it is recommended that the switchboards and the power management are designed to increase the load in three or four steps, from 0 to 100%, as also suggested by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS). This shall be done with the agreement of the relevant classification society.

The stated values of loading performance as presented in 1V93F0093 are guidance values; the values will also be affected by the mass-moment of inertia of the set, the governor adjustment and nominal output. Unless otherwise agreed the present requirements of the classification societies for load application on generating sets at an instant speed drop of 10% are: • American Bureau of Shipping

0 - 50 - 100%

• Bureau Veritas

50% on base load of 0 - 50%

• Det Norske Veritas

0 - 50 - 100%

• Germanischer Lloyd

0 - 50 - 100%

• Registro Italiano Navale

0 - 50 - 100%

• Maritime Register

0 - 50 - 100%

• Lloyd’s Register of Shipping

0 - 800/pe [800/pe + ½ (100 - 800/pe)] - 100%

Loading performance (1V93F0093)

Marine Project Guide WV32 - 2/1997

11

2. Operational data

Successive load application t1 =

t2 =

t4 =

shortest possible time of successive, gradually increased load for a speed (and frequency) drop of max. 10% = 5 seconds time elapsing before the speed has stabilized at the initial value (speed droop = 0%) = 7 seconds time elapsing before the speed has stabilized at the new value determined by the speed droop (speed droop = 4%) = 6.5 seconds

Instant unloading t3 =

time elapsing before the speed has stabilized at the initial value (speed droop = 0%) = 2 seconds t5 = time elapsing before the speed has stabilized at the new value determined by the speed droop (speed droop = 4%) = 1.8 seconds n1 = increase in speed at instant unloading (speed droop = 0%) = 8% n2 = increase in speed at instant unloading (speed droop = 4%)
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