URBAN ENTERTAINMENT CENTRE, MYSORE PRE- FEASIBITY STUDY WHY MYSORE Mysore city had a total population of 799,228 (2001 census), becoming the second largest city in Karnataka. The literacy rate of the city is 82.8%, which is much higher than the state's average of 67%. The city is spread across an area of 128.42 km2 (50 sq. miles) and is situated at the base of the Chamundi Hills. Mysore is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Karnataka. It is famous for the festivities that take place during the Dasara festival when the city receives a large number of tourists . Apart from tourism, Mysore is becoming a choice destination for software and hardware companies to set up their offices. Mysore is growing at a fast pace and the populace is soon reflecting the same profile as that in Bangalore. With this as the background, it was suggested that the pilot project for developing a UEC be taken up in Mysore. KEY DIFFERENCES – MALLS, THEME PARKS AND URBAN ENTERTAINMENT ENTERTAIN MENT CENTRES MALLS: A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings which contain retail units, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit. When the shopping mall format was first developed, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. Anchors generally have their rents heavily discounted, and may even receive cash inducements from the mall to remain open. In physical configuration, configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another. However, the concept of heavily discounted rents for anchor stores may not hold good today, as the th e economic profile of the consumer has changed and therefore, the stores may in turn have pay large sums s ums of money as rent to avail retail floor space. Classical forming out of Mall consists of one anchor tenant each at each side. Malls are usually closed buildings with numerous passenger car parking bays.
AMUSEMENT / THEME PARKS: Amusement park is the generic term for a collection of rides and other entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a large group of people. An amusement park is more elaborate than a simple city park or playground, usually providing attractions attractions meant to cater cater to adults, teenagers, and and small children. A theme park is a type of amusement park which has been built around one or more themes. Today, the terms amusement parks and theme parks are often used interchangeably. Most amusement parks have a fixed location, as compared to traveling funfairs and carnivals. Often a theme park will have various 'lands' (sections) of the park devoted to telling a particular story. Non-theme amusement park rides will usually have little in terms of theming or additional additional design elements while in a theme park all the rides go with the theme of the park. URBAN ENERNTAINMENT CENTRES (UECs): UECs are a partnership between retail and entertainment and created by variations of retail of retail and entertainment combinations. They are generally compared to shopping malls in almost every respect but scale. UECs are not the stereotypical indoor climate controlled centres like malls but incorporate a variety of outdoor plazas, corridors, paths, trails, courtyards, courtyards, and interior space. SECTION PROFILE REGIONAL ECONOMY GENERAL INFORMATION: Located in the southern part of India, Karnataka has a population of 52.85 million (as per 2001 Census), making it India’s ninth most populated state. Karnataka, which had a Gross State Domestic Product GSDP of $47.32 billion in 2006-2007, is India’s most economically progressive states. It registered a GSDP growth rate of 9.2 per cent in 2006-2007. INDUSTRIAL SCENARIO: Karnataka has always been at the forefront of Industrial Growth in India. Electronics, Computer, Engineering, Aeronautics, Machine Tools, Watch-making, Electrical Engineering, Aluminium and Steel are some of the prime industries located in the state with the industrial growth rate of 7.7%.
ENTERTAINMENT IN KARNATAKA: Despite being a state with a conservative bent of mind, Karnataka teem with a multitude of entertainment sources. While the urban centres boast of new-age recreation zones, charming hill stations and wildlife sanctuaries provide the perfect getaway for weary souls. A state endowed with all the bounties of nature, Karnataka is an attractive destination for nature lovers. The state houses some of the most enriching wildlife sanctuaries of India. The adventure buffs can look forward to spending an exciting time in the mountainous trekking trails of the Western Ghats. The malls and theme parks in the state are mostly concentrated in and around the cities of Mysore, Bangalore and Mangalore owing to the high tourist traffic. Another reason is the IT hubs developed in the vicinity of these cities that increases entertainment seekers population and their lifestyle.
The per capita income profile of the state seems to be promising that the disposable income of the households also increases, as per the trend shown in the figure above. This shows the future potential for malls and theme parks, where the people visit to spend on their leisure activities out of their disposable income. FACTORS IMAPCTING PRIORITIZATION OF CITY
Population & Tourism – In addition to the city population, the tourist population is also taken into account as the demand for UEC is majorly influenced by the tourist population. The tourists are those who visit the city especially for entertainment and other leisure activities.
Economic growth – The economic well-being of the city is to be noted to predict the future potential through mere extrapolation of the growth rate.
Industrial set up – The industries located in the vicinity of the city are responsible for the growth in disposable income of the city residents. Land availability – The availability of land is also a major concern as the higher rate of growth of urban population has negative effect on this factor. Connectivity - The connectivity of the city with the other cities in the state and major cities in the country is essential so as to attract more crowds towards UEC. Similarly, the city should also have an air connectivity to attract more foreign tourists. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS NEED OF THE STUDY Sometimes unplanned decisions for urban development lead to an adverse impact on the local environment at costs which are much higher than the benefits actually accrued. In view of the deteriorating environmental conditions in and around residential and industrial townships, it is necessary to account for the environment while planning for a UEC. The Environmental Impact Assessment shall have the following objectives: Predict environmental impact of the project Find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts Shape project to suit local environment Present the predictions and options to the decision-makers
METHODOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) The evaluation of environmental impacts would be carried out, as per the guidelines issued by Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), through detailed Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) covering following aspects:
PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT General environmental impacts like air pollution due number of vehicles moving in and out of project site, dust and noise generated by construction activities will always be associated with any site development project. Adopting proper mitigative measures during construction and operation of the project could mitigate these impacts. Table below presents the general impacts during construction and operation phases of the UEC and suggested mitigation measures: Activity
Cutting of trees, clearing of shrubs
Construction activities for development of UEC
Possible environmental impact No vegetation and trees existing on the site currently as it is already paved with concrete. 1. Deterioration of air quality due to earth work excavation
Suggested mitigative measure Nil
1. Frequent watering of construction sites to suppress dust emission and
2. Disturbance to the natural drainage 3. Soil contamination 4. Water contamination 5. Disposal of excess earth. 6. Disturbance to other services 7. Safety of road users in the implementation area. 8. Noise pollution due to the use of machinery and movement of traffic.
transport of earth in covered vehicles 2. Any construction activity should restore the natural course of the drainage 3. No spillage of oil/ diesel from the Construction equipment 4. Any construction activity should ensure that the water bodies are not contaminated 5. The excess earth should be transported to designated place and shall be used for filling and covers 6. Any shifting of cable / utility lines should be attended with minimum period of disturbance. 7. Provision of temporary crossings/bridges wherever necessary to facilitate normal movement.
Operation and Maintenance
O&M activities of No potential the multilevel environmental parking impact facility during the operations phase
8. Use of less noise generating equipment and avoiding activities during night. Nil
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
A number of environmental impacts are identified that may arise during construction of the UEC. These impacts were analysed and mitigative measures for the same are proposed. These mitigative measures should be implemented during construction phase. Potential impact
Dust generation due to vehicle movement carrying construction material Impact due to noise
• Provision of green cover • Use covered vehicles • Water the construction site regularly • Provision of green cover
SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (SIA) Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is a methodology used for examining social change due to external sources, especially specific development projects, but also government policies, technological change, and social processes - anything that has a social impact.
STEPS INVOLVED IN SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
FACTORS INVOLVED IN SIA
The evaluation of social impacts for development of UECs would be carried out, as per the guidelines of National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Policy, through detailed Social Impact Assessment (SIA) covering following aspects briefed in the table given below: 1.
Relocation and Rehabilitation
Establishing the number of project affected households/ persons along with their socio-economic profile and occupational distribution, details of land use (agriculture, grazing, plantation, waste land, commercial, residential/ habitation etc) and ownership of such land parcels to be acquired (public/private), details of structures (permanent / temporary structures) to be acquired/demolished, details of assets and infrastructure through requisite primary surveys and secondary sources for the project influence area. Carrying out detailed analyses for estimating the quantum of associated impacts for project affected households/ persons, loss/ opportunity employment, income/revenue generating sources, affected land under irrigation and resulting impact on agricultural produce, cost of land acquisition/ demolition of structures etc); Identifying strategies for minimizing the impacts with respect to displacement of people and the total area to be acquired for the project by devising alternative project plans, identifying other potential sites, utilizing available technological choices and a combination of the same; ensure adequate rehabilitation package, provide a better standard of living; Devising an action plan for resettlement and rehabilitation for the project influence region along with an effective institutional framework for carrying out the requisite tasks in a transparent manner and conducting public hearing.
STATUTORY AND LEGAL FRAME WORK This Framework deals with the legislations broadly dealing with the planning and development as well the levy and collection of entertainment tax in the integrated areas of the State. 1. 2. 3. 4.
The Karnataka Entertainments Tax Act, 1958 The Karnataka Municipal Corporation Act, 1976 Karnataka Urban Development Authorities Act, 1981 Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act, 1961
RELATED STUDIES ILUMA, BUGIS, SINGAPORE
Iluma is a 10-storey shopping mall which is managed and owned by Jack Investment. The mall is located within the Bugis district and opened its doors on 28 March 2009. With a budget of S$100 million, the country's first urban entertainment centre is targeted at the young professionals in their 20s and 30s. The mall is able to cater for up to 60 - 80 thousand consumers on a daily basis once the mall is open. With a net-lettable area of 191580 sq. ft., more than 150 outlets are there in Iluma, with a mix of retail and entertainment outlets, with an emphasis on performing and exhibition space. About 60% of the total area is allotted to the entertainment outlets.
DESIGN Iluma was designed by WOHA Architects. It is an entertainment and retail development, now a designated arts, education and entertainment district. The design contrasts a rectilinear block against a curvaceous sculpted form. The rectilinear element accommodates large, regular components of the car park, retail anchor tenants, cinema and performance spaces, while the curved form accommodates smaller retail and entertainment activities along meandering paths. The dialogue between the two elements is heightened by the architectural treatment, with vibrant hot colors animating the rectilinear block and monochrome shades of grey and white cladding the curvilinear block. Overlooking, overlapping and directing views up, down and across, are strategies throughout the building, inside and outside, to enhance vibrancy, people-watching and excitement.
The building, although contemporary in form, relates in scale and texture to the surrounding neighbourhood. The colourful rectilinear element recalls the brightly painted public housing blocks, while the decorative curvilinear façade translates the varied massing, fine texture, and exuberant, intricately detailed decoration of the historic shophouses into a different expression.
The internal activities are zoned in three strata with interlinked central spaces. The ground floor forms a continuous network with the surrounding streets, drawing in pedestrians from all directions. A pedestrian bridge at the second level flies out across the road to create a link with the neighbouring development. All paths lead to the main atrium, a 40m high space, which is divided horizontally into a lower and upper volume, each with their own character, but visually connected. The atrium is provided with lighting and sound for entertainment events and performances. The lower atrium is focused on smaller, specialized retail, while the upper atrium is surrounded by the entertainment activities. Dividing the two spaces is an urban piazza, floated 20m above the street, populated by bars, games, cinemas and restaurants. The third major space is the rooftop theatre and event space, which opens up to open air lush landscape, roof terraces and café pods – Ibiza meets Bali on the Singapore rooftops. The roof terraces are located around a central glazed skylight, affording views back down into the atrium spaces, and from the atrium up to the planted roof.
In order to achieve the planning authority’s vision of a vibrant nightlife district, and
to amplify visibility within the bustling neighbourhood, the project features a custom-designed, artistic Crystal Mesh media façade composed of faceted jewellike fixtures that glitter in the day and glow in the night. The crystal media façade was conceived and developed in close cooperation with Berlin based artists and architect’s realities: united, and features simple energy -saving bulbs in a custom
designed reflector, controlled by a custom designed software. The façade is treated as stacked, undulating strips that overlap and recede, the interstitial spaces forming gardens and terraces overhanging the street. The neighbourhood art institutions have been engaged to assist in ongoing curating and award programs to produce content to animate the façade, and an on-going series of exhibitions and events will showcase the work of local art, architecture and design students.
The crystal media façade is a three-dimensional canvas on which media artists, art students and even the public can apply fast moving, legible images, text and graphics and architectural treatments, all at the scale of a city block. Over time, this will build a sense of ownership by the surrounding creative community, supporting the events and activities within the development, and making Iluma more than just a retail space – it is hoped it will become a true urban place. In the modern city, the urban fabric
is controlled by the authorities, developers and construction industry, a power
remote from the man on the street. Iluma has the new and exciting potential to give ordinary citizens the opportunity to impact their surroundings at an urban scale. ESPLANADE-THEATRES ON THE BAY, SINGAPORE The Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay is an arts centre built on reclaimed land in the Marina Bay area. It features a 1,600-seat concert hall, a 2,000-seat theatre and other smaller performing arts venues. The Esplanade also contains art installation spaces, a library, retail units, restaurants and cafes.
The Esplanade’s two main performing arts venues are the Concert Hall and the Theatre. The hall seats 1,600 people, and has an acoustic system designed by prominent American acoustician Russell Johnson. An acoustic canopy hangs above the stage and can be lowered to ensure top acoustics for smaller audiences. The
theatre follows the traditional horseshoe shape of European opera houses and seats 2,000. The four-level theatre also features Singapore’s largest stage. The Recital Studio and Theatre Studio are two smaller performing spaces, seating 250 and 220 people respectively. In addition, the Esplanade offers outdoor performing venues, an exhibition gallery and a rehearsal studio. Also housed here is Singapore’s first performing arts library – [email protected]
A mall within the Esplanade houses retail, lifestyle, and food and beverage outlets. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN The architectural design of the ensemble has a contemporary style, avoiding any reference to superficial ethnic symbolism. The Centre combines the standard size and form of concert halls and theatres with expressive architectural features, which are specific to the local climate and the cultural environment. The project consists of two performance spaces on Marina Bay in Singapore, designed to have transparent glass structures housing the theatre and the concert hall. The initial design idea called for a fully glazed design. In the hot climate of Singapore, a fully glazed building would have let to overheating and/or very high energy consumption for cooling. Analysis was performed with the intent of generating an alternative skin strategy that would help to mediate excessive solar heat gain while still preserving the desired architectural expression and views. The design process contained a deep understanding of the architectural precedents in the area and other technology constraints. Sketches and models generated an idea for a space frame that could serve as the structure and support external shading fins.
Archways, balconies and roof terraces form the links between the larger individual elements. They reduce the overall impression to a more perceivable scale, while at the same time smoothly bridging the gap between the internal and external spaces. The complex comprises a shopping and restaurant arcade, where you will also find a multimedia library for theatre, cinematography, music and ballet. The most prominent elements of the new arts center are the twin roof domes of the two large auditoriums. These oval shaped buildings are spanned by a supporting steel grid, whose triangular metal sheets produce different graphical reflections depending on the light. BUILDING MATERIALS Along with the superb architecture, the designer and the owner – the Ministry of Information and the Arts – paid special attention to the quality of the employed building materials. The high-quality EVALON® membrane was the natural choice for the roof waterproofing of the Esplanade-Theatres on the Bay because of the professional installers employed and the excellent reputation of the membrane worldwide, including Singapore. EVALON® membrane has a low vapor diffusion resistance that makes it ideal for the high humidity climate in Singapore and a British Board of Agreement durability rating of at least 30 years. This thermoplastic water proofing membrane ensures consistent quality, excellent durability, optimal balance between tensile strength and elongation, and guarantees both high heat and mechanical impact resistance. The bright and smooth surface is dirt-repellent, reflects radiant heat, is resistant to high levels of ultraviolet radiation and environmental chemicals and does not require additional protective surface coatings. MARINA BAY SANDS, SINGAPORE “While a skyscraper can be defined as a tower that primarily stands out for being tall, Marina Bay Sands is an example of a new and yet nameless type of tall building. The building has broken away from the conventional model of a mega-hotel and integrated resort and in doing so, defined both a new typology and a new icon for Singapore.”
Marina Bay Sands is a 929,000-square meter (10 million-square foot), high-density and mixed-use integrated resort complex that brings together a 2,560-room hotel, a
120,000-square meter (1,292,000-square foot) convention center, a shopping mall, an Art & Science museum, two Sands Theatres, six restaurants, and a casino. It is located in Marina South, a peninsula of land reclaimed from the sea in the late 1970s across the bay from Singapore’s Central Business District. Conceived as not just a mere building project, but as a city microcosm rooted in Singapore’s culture, climate, and contemporary life, the project anchors Singapore’s waterfront, creating a gateway to Singapore, and providing a dynamic setting for vibrant public life.
THE EMERGENCE OF THE URBAN WINDOW
With a program of nearly 2,600 hotel rooms, the most efficient massing would have resulted in a monolithic and wall-like building. Due to its prominent location within Marina Bay in Singapore, it was decided that three towers would be created instead of one. Each concrete tower hotel is designed at a height of 55 stories. Spanning across the top of three towers is a 1.2-hectare (3-acre) SkyPark, a new type of public space, framing large “urban windows” between the towers. From the downtown area, framed views of the sea are created, and from the sea, a new city gateway is viewed. At 200 meters (656 feet) above the sea, the SkyPark spans from tower to tower and on one side cantilevers 66.5 meters (218 feet). beyond. Longer than the Eiffel Tower is tall, and long enough to park four and a-half A380 jumbo jets, the SkyPark accommodates a public observatory, garden spaces, a
150-meter (495-foot) long infinity swimming pool, restaurants, jogging paths and offers sweeping panoramic views
Bridge Connections Planted Roof Atrium Glass Roof
DESIGN CONCEPT Conceptually, each tower is composed of two slabs of east and west-facing rooms. The double-loaded towers spread at the base forming a giant atrium at the lower levels, and converge as they rise. The tower slabs also give further character to the massing and relate to the site context: the glazed west side faces the city center while the east side is planted with lush bougainvilleas facing the botanical gardens and ocean beyond. In plan, as the parcel varies in width, the cross section is decreased from one tower to the next. The three void spaces are connected by one continuous and
conditioned glazed atrium, filling the space between the towers with restaurants, retail spaces, and a public thoroughfare. Each tower slab form is also twisted slightly in relation to its pair, creating a dance-like relationship between the two parts and accentuating the slenderness of the buildings, resulting in the appearance of six towers, rather than three. FAÇADE As the largest amount of heat gain occurs on the west façade, it was of paramount importance that an innovative solution be developed to maintain energy efficiency, without limiting the view from the hotel rooms to Singapore’s downtown. The design solution proposed and implemented was a custom double-glazed unitized curtain wall. Floor slabs (350 millimeters/13.8 inches), with a continuous double-glazed unit spanning the full 3 meters (10 feet) floor to floor. The glass fins are suspended out of the horizontal stack joint in order to allow them to radiate out in elevation. The east façade handles heat gain differently, utilizing deep planted terraces which follow the sloping radial geometry of the building’s profile. The planters help to create microclimate cooling, and the deep overhangs of the balconies naturally shade the hotel rooms from direct sun.
SKY PARK In addition to the 0.9 million square meters (9.6 million square feet) of built space, the project program also called for the development of extensive exterior gardens with swimming pools, jogging paths, and public spaces. Creating gardens on top of the roof of the casino and the convention center was studied, however these vast spaces lacked views, overshadowed and overpowered by the adjacent hotel towers. The idea emerged to bridge between the three towers in order to reclaim exterior garden space and create a 2.5-acre park in the sky.
The continuous 150-meter (492-foot) long infinity edge pool was also a challenge, and underwater movement joints were designed with interconnecting three distinct 50-meter (164-foot) stainless steel pool enclosures into a flexible singular whole. In order to test the design, a full-scale mock-up of the design solution was built and tested under movement conditions. In addition to building sway, the pool design also accommodates building settlement, and is built upon adjustable steel jacks, which ensure the infinity edge will maintain its horizontal level over time.
. Marina Bay Sands Sky
Park is longer than the Eiffel Tower is tall
View looking up at the “Belly”