Urban Design

May 2, 2018 | Author: Rafael Yap G | Category: Renaissance, Rome, Economics, Urban Design, Landscape
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urban design...


URBAN DESIGN Instructor: Architect Jose Juson  •

THE BEGINNINGS Settlement Design - Agricultural Societies - Rectilinear Plotting Layout - Grid (or Rectilinear) : product of the farmers - Circular  (Fencing) : product of the herdsmen : defensive role - Radiocentric  : when circular settlement enlarge : fortress fortress cities

ANCIENT GREECE Landscape - powerfull assertive Hig !laces - forti!ed hilltop - sacred point To"n Des ign - sense o# te $nite - Aristotle"s ideal si#e of cit $ %&'&&&  &'&&& people - never attempted to overwhelm nature - *uildings give a sense of human measure to landscape Te street - not a principal *ut as a leftover space for circulation !lace o# assem%ly -mar+et (agora) •

THE ACR&!&LIS Layout •

- once thought to lac+ 'isi%le design relationships : no geometrical a,ial relationship - ./ ./'' a ver de!nite 'isual relationsip Design - *uilt and re*uilt over a long period of o*servation and re0ection : to *e seen * human ee : to *e e,perienced * people moving on - design discipline was 12/ 12/ the  the a*stract plan : it was the real e,perience of people - visual sophistication : panoramic view of the surrounding : resulted into sacred character

THE AG&RA Acropolis - masses articulating space Agora - *uilding served as fa3ade to form an enclosure ur*an space Buildings - are grouped around a central open space - are low-comforta*le sense of spatial enclosure - are regular and architecturall hori#ontal : sense of sta*le repose •

AG&RA as an ur%an space( - *uildings are constantl *eing changed to alter the character of the space - ./ ./ the  the space prevailed Lessons in Ur%an Space )le*i%ility - allows man changes in component *uildings Unity - maintained as long as *uildings are smpathetic in scale Simplicity - the more modest the *uildings the more successfull the function •

!laces o# assem%ly - ree+: mar+et - Roman: mar+et' theater and arena

GREE+ T&,NS Hippodamus - a lawer' from 4iletus - lived in 5th centur 6 - inspiration was pro*a*l derived from Ancient a*lonian Gridiron Layout - Plan of Athens har*or' !iraeus  was attri*uted to 7ippodamus - Areas of !nite si#e' comprehensi*le to the ee' and politicall wor+a*le - Neopolis  : when a town reaches its ma,imum si#e' a 8new town9 is *uilt - !aleopolis  : old town - other e,amples: 4iletus' Priene and Ale,andria •

THE RE!UBLICAN )&RU)orum - a udicial' civic or religious activities were conducted Te Repu%lican )orum - or 8Te Roman )orum 9' the most famous forum - was designed * architect .itru'ius  who felt the proportions needed to *e ?: (length to width) - level area is small' a*out @ acres Buildings - a development of steadil increasing political power (5& 6  B 6) - *uildings have no formal relationship *etween each other - Curia  : senates assem*l house; forum"s most important *uilding - successive *uildings are larger than their predecessors •

ANCIENT R&-E  /he Repu*lican Forum  /he Imperial Forum Ur%an Design - ree+: sense of the !nite - Roman: political power and organi#ation Use o# Scale - ree+ use of scale is *ased on human measurements - Romans used proportions that would relate parts of *uildings instead of human measure -odule - ree+ use of house as module for town planning - Roman use of street pattern as module : to achieve a sense of overpowering grandeurs : made for militar government Street - ree+ : as a leftover space for circulation - Roman: *uilt !rst; *uildings came later • •

THE I-!ERIAL )&RU- Architectural or ur*an masses were made su*ordinate to spaces - composed of pla#as formed * collonades - colonnades act as transition and lin+ to pla#as

Caracter Layout

Repu%lican )orum Architectural 4asses Full of odd corners; informal

Imperial )orum .r*an space Spacious' open spaces' orderl

-EDIE.AL ERA - *est e,ample: !ia//a Del Campo ' Sienna

• •

Decline o# Rome - 8Car+ Ages9' *ut not for ur*an design Ur%an Settings - 4ilitar strongholds' castles' monasteries' towns -ilitary Strongolds - Acropolis and 6apitoline 7ill Castles - *uilt atop hills' enclosed * circular walls; radiocentric growth -onasteries - citadels of learning' laid out in rectilinear pattern -edie'al To"n - li+e ree+ towns' small and !nite in si#e

T&,N DESIGN .isi%le E*teriors - suits the viewing conditions of small spaces .ista - considerations and uman scale  : !ne accent in landscape Street Layout - is functional' although with no logical form -edie'al Era - set the stage for RENAISSANCE - s+ill of *uilders - wealth of *ourgeoise and no*ilit - organi#ation of the militar and new force in government - development of political powers and e,pertise - new organi#ations - scholarl +nowledge of the church •

)rom -edie'al Era to Renaissance Era -edie'al Ur%an Design - were to *e discarded - sense of scale - intimate relation *etween house to street -edie'al System o# To"n Design - trul liva*le; humanist •

RENAISSANCE ERA Ideal Cities - %EE& (*eginning of Renaissance) - Leon Battista Al%erti  : foremost theoretician - Al*erti"s Ce Architectua Accomplisments o# early Renaissance - Pu*lic wor+s - 6ivic improvement pro>ects Re%uilding )ERRARA( is the !rst modern cit in urope - !ala//o Diamenti  : most famous structure - Biaggio Rossetti : architect and town planner regarded as aone of the world"s earliest modern ur*an designers - Rosetti3s plan : %= street widening' new *uildings' wall improvement = nlarge the town ?= 6arron with the plan Lessons #rom Rosetti3s E4ort - Repair an e,isting cit - Plan for enlargement - Cecide which to concentrate eGort -
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