Urban Design

August 29, 2017 | Author: Khai Untalan Urlanda | Category: Rome, Renaissance, Urban Design, Landscape, Economics
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Instructor: Architect Jose Juson

THE BEGINNINGS  Settlement Design - Agricultural Societies - Rectilinear Plotting  Layout - Grid (or Rectilinear) : product of the farmers - Circular (Fencing) : product of the herdsmen : defensive role - Radiocentric : when circular settlement enlarge : fortress cities ANCIENT GREECE  Landscape - powerfully assertive  High Places - fortified hilltop - sacred point  Town Design - sense of the finite - Aristotle’s ideal size of city = 10,000 – 20,000 people - never attempted to overwhelm nature - buildings give a sense of human measure to landscape  The street - not a principal but as a leftover space for circulation  Place of assembly -market (agora) THE ACROPOLIS  Layout - once thought to lack visible design relationships : no geometrical axial relationship - BUT, a very definite visual relationship  Design

- built and rebuilt over a long period of observation and reflection : to be seen by human eye : to be experienced by people moving on - design discipline was NOT the abstract plan : it was the real experience of people - visual sophistication : panoramic view of the surrounding : resulted into sacred character THE AGORA  Acropolis - masses articulating space  Agora - building served as façade to form an enclosure urban space  Buildings - are grouped around a central open space - are low-comfortable sense of spatial enclosure - are regular and architecturally horizontal : sense of stable repose AGORA as an urban space: - buildings are constantly being changed to alter the character of the space - BUT the space prevailed Lessons in Urban Space  Flexibility - allows many changes in component buildings  Unity - maintained as long as buildings are sympathetic in scale  Simplicity - the more modest the buildings the more successfully they function

GREEK TOWNS  Hippodamus - a lawyer, from Miletus - lived in 5th century BC - inspiration was probably derived from Ancient Babylonian  Gridiron Layout - Plan of Athens harbor, Piraeus was attributed to Hippodamus - Areas of finite size, comprehensible to the eye, and politically workable - Neopolis : when a town reaches its maximum size, a “new town” is built - Paleopolis : old town - other examples: Miletus, Priene and Alexandria 

ANCIENT ROME  The Republican Forum  The Imperial Forum Urban Design - Greek: sense of the finite - Roman: political power and organization Use of Scale - Greek use of scale is based on human measurements - Romans used proportions that would relate parts of buildings instead of human measure Module - Greek use of house as module for town planning - Roman use of street pattern as module : to achieve a sense of overpowering grandeurs : made for military government Street - Greek : as a leftover space for circulation - Roman: built first; buildings came later Places of assembly - Greek: market - Roman: market, theater and arena

THE REPUBLICAN FORUM  Forum - a Latin word meaning open space or market place - the administrative and corporate heart of Rome - In Rome, there was several forums. Generally this word referred to the open space in many Roman town where business, judicial, civic or religious activities were conducted  The Republican Forum - or “The Roman Forum”, the most famous forum - was designed by architect Vitruvius who felt the proportions needed to be 3:2 (length to width) - level area is small, about 6 acres  Buildings - a development of steadily increasing political power (509 BC – 27 BC) - buildings have no formal relationship between each other - Curia : senates assembly house; forum’s most important building - successive buildings are larger than their predecessors THE IMPERIAL FORUM - Architectural or urban masses were made subordinate to spaces - composed of plazas formed by collonades - colonnades act as transition and link to plazas

Character Layout

Republican Forum Architectural Masses Full of odd corners; informal

Imperial Forum Urban space Spacious, open spaces, orderly

MEDIEVAL ERA - best example: Piazza Del Campo, Sienna

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Decline of Rome - “Dark Ages”, but not for urban design Urban Settings - Military strongholds, castles, monasteries, towns Military Strongholds - Acropolis and Capitoline Hill Castles - built atop hills, enclosed by circular walls; radiocentric growth Monasteries - citadels of learning, laid out in rectilinear pattern Medieval Town - like Greek towns, small and finite in size

TOWN DESIGN  Visible Exteriors - suits the viewing conditions of small spaces  Vista - considerations and human scale : fine accent in landscape  Street Layout - is functional, although with no logical form  Medieval Era - set the stage for RENAISSANCE - skill of builders - wealth of bourgeoise and nobility - organization of the military and new force in government - development of political powers and expertise - new organizations - scholarly knowledge of the church 3 Major Events marking transition from Medieval Times  Dawn of science  Fall of Constantinople  Discovery of the New World

From Medieval Era to Renaissance Era  Medieval Urban Design - were to be discarded - sense of scale - intimate relation between house to street  Medieval System of Town Design - truly livable; humanist 

RENAISSANCE ERA  Ideal Cities - 1440 (beginning of Renaissance) - Leon Battista Alberti : foremost theoretician - Alberti’s De Architectua  Accomplishments of early Renaissance - Public works - Civic improvement projects  Rebuilding FERRARA: is the first modern city in Europe - Palazzo Diamenti : most famous structure - Biaggio Rossetti : architect and town planner regarded as aone of the world’s earliest modern urban designers - Rosetti’s plan: 1. street widening, new buildings, wall improvement 2. Enlarge the town 3. Carryon with the plan  Lessons from Rosetti’s Effort - Repair an existing city - Plan for enlargement - Decide which to concentrate effort - Lay down a plan that is theological and realizable - Provide framework for others to build upon  Sketched a City Straddling a River  River Streams - supply water and carry away waste  Multilevers - for multiple functions 

Proposed Movable Houses

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- anticipated the “greenbelt” concept Satellite Towns - for workers Lessons - neither growth nor functional improvement is necessarily an advantage Popes in Rome - the “real say” in urban design at that time

RENAISSANCE – REBUILDING ROME  Problems : circulation, defense, water supply and sanitation  Solutions : Popes have to undertake civic improvements projects  Pilgrimage - St. Peter’s Cathedral improved - Campidoglio (Rome’s city hall) improved  Domenico Fontana - architect commissioned by Pope Sixtus V  Fontana’s Plan - street were visually accented using obelisks  Obelisks - as “stakes”. as guidepoints for the whole city - as Scale Refernce  St. Peter’s Cathedral - Bramante  Tempietto - miniature version of St. Peter’s Cathedral  Carlo Fontana - Basilica inside the Colosseum  Borrowed Design - Renaissance from Medieval, Roman from Greeks  Andrea Palladio - developed precise theories of proportion and module  Palladio’s Prototype - Roman country villa (rural) - Roman forum (urban)

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Influences - George Washington and Thomas Jefferson Colossal or Gigantic Order - found at Palladio’s San Giorgio Maggiore

RENAISSANCE – THE CAMPIDOGLIO - One of Micheangelo’s finest works - Seen at a distance as a whole composition - Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius : serve as centerpiece or guidepost - Entrance Ramps : widen toward the top : perspective effect and stairs appear shorter : similarly, Side Buildings are not parallel - Significance of a Remodeling job RENAISSNACE – URBAN PLAZAS IN FRANCE AND ENGLAND  Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau - French architect who visited Rome - Brought plaza idea to Paris, France  Inigo Jones - English architect - Brought the Renaissance plaza to London - Bedford Square : started in 1631 - Covent Garden : modeled after Livorno  Other Plazas in London - Leicester Square : started 1635 - Bloomsbury Square : 1685 RENAISANCE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE  Parks and Garden - tie the city together

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- connecting the palace and the town Villa and Garden - rural counterpart of Palace and Plaza Italy - gardens are never too large - built as terraces because of hilly land France - elaborate system of landscape design - root from large hunting forest - rond points : high ground intersections

Several designers proposed plan - Christopher Wren - John Evelyn - Robert Hooke - Valentine Knight

Richelieu - applications of “rond points” idea - 1630, landscape design of palace started - Jacques Lemercier : architect Andre Lenorte - landscape architect of richelieu - Western’s world master of landscape architecture

LENORTE AND VERSAILLES  Lenorte’s Major client - Louis XIV, the “sun king” of France  Versailles - Lenorte’s greatest work - started in 1670, completed by 1710 - “goose foot” or “pat te d’oie” : three roads directed to a single view  Plaza Del Popolo - pat te d’oie  Entrance to Rome - appeared accidentally as result of Fontana’s plan - not formally finished until early 19th century, by a French architect RENAISSANCE - REBUILDING LONDON  Great Plague 1666 - great fire of London 1667

Christopher Wren’s plan

John Evelyn’s plan

Valentine Knight’s plan

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1707-1709 - laws banning use of combustible materials - led for extensive use of bricks John Gwynn - produced a plan for London in 1766

- “London and Westminster improved” - heralded the “Golden Age” Golden Age - encompassed a 30 years period - Adelphi Terrace : work of the Adam’s Brother : built along the River Thames

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1789 - French revolution 1793 - new plan for Paris called Plan des Artistes - 1748, emphasis on plaza; 1793, emphasis on street Napoleon I - Champ’s Elysees improvement - arch of triump Napoleon III - assigned Baron George Eugene Hanstnann

- Jean Charles Adolphe Alphand : Landscape architect    

- Bath : created by architects John Wood Jr. and Sr. 1702 – discovered by the Aristocracy 1727 – rectangular plaza called queen’s place 1754 – great circle called kings circus 1767 – Royal cresent - edinburg 1767 - Scottish architect James Craig - End of London Plaza era and coming of Industrial Era

RENAISSANCE – DEVELOPMENT IN PARIS  Rebuilding of The Louve 1667 - Lorenzo Bernini’s designs rejected - Claude Perralt : a court physician - viewing conditions same as Palladio’s San Giorgio Maggiore and Micheangelo’s Campidoglio  Beaulevard - when city is enlarged, new walls are built - old walls form, creating broad, long streets - term derived from Dutch word “bulwark”  1748 - proposals for new plazas - Pierre Patte’s compilation of the proposals - Place de la Concorde : 1757, finished by 1770

THE ROOTS OF MODERN URBAN DESIGN CONCEPTS  Greek created, Romans discarded  Medieval Era expression, RENAISSANCE discarded  New breed of design theorist  Utoplan ideas Practical thinking Mechanical concoctions  Main emphasis – needs of working class

IDEAL TOWNS and WORKER TOWNS  Claude Nicolas Ledoux - French architect - late 18th century and early 19th century - a new era in urban design - CHAUX, France (1776) : principal work

Ideal Towns by Ledoux

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Ledoux’s deisgn - an ideal plan were “everything is motivated by necessity” “Architecture” - Ledoux’s book published in 1804

IDEAL TOWNS and WORKER TOWNS  Robert Owen - English social reformer - New Lawark, Scotland (1799)  Owenite Communities - England and United States - “New Harmony” in Indiana by Owen’s son -“Brook Farm” in Massachusetts by New England transcendentalist - “Icarus” in Red river, Texas by French man named Cabet “Icarus” failed, Cabet joined the Mormons in search for the promised land and helped lay-out Salt Lake City  Francois Fourier - French social reformer - “Phalanstery”

- “The New World of Industry and Society” published in 1829 James Silk Buckingham - “Victoria” - “National Evils and Practical Remedies” published in 1849 Robert Pemberton - “Happy Colony” in New Zealand Dr. Benjamine Richarson - “Hygeia” in United States Thomas Jefferson

PLANNED INDUSTRIAL TOWNS  Francis Cabot Lowell - Georgiaville, RA (1812) - Waltham, Massachusetts - Harrisville, NH (1816) - Lowell, Massachusetts (1822)  Olive (French architect) - Vesinet, France (1859) - anticipated the 20th century Garden City  Other Industrial Town - Essen, Germany (1863), krupp factories called siedlungen (worker colonies) - Pullman, Illinois (1879) - Port Sunlight near Liverfool (1887) W.H. Lever Soap Company - Bournville near Birmingham - Gary Indiana (1906) laid out by a steel corporation, a made to order city  Tony Garnier - French architect - “Une Cite Industrielle” (1901-04) - Anticipated modern day zoning - plan is incredibly detailed a. imaginary site (high plateau and level valley along a river) b. residential on plateau, factories on valley c. dam for hydroelectric power

d. hospital on high hills e. smelting factories and mines at respectful distances f. locations 

URBAN DESIGN and MACHINES  Don Arturo Soria y Mata - Spanish businessman and engineer - created Madrid’s 1st street car and telephone system - “La Ciudad Lineal” : Linear City - Stalingrad : planned linear city

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Inventions influencing Urban Form - electrical : Peter Kropotkin (1899) - railroad Other visionaries - Edgar Chambless, American vehicles running on rooftops - “Motopia” : proposed in England - Eugene Henard, French published “Les Villes de l’Avenis” (1910) may have influenced Le Corbusier Antonio Sant’elia -Italian futurist -“La Citra Nuova” : enormous metropolis -inspired by the complex plans for the New York Grand Central Area Metabolism Group - Japanese architects - Underwater cities, biological cities, cities changing their own forms, cities built as pyramids Other visionaries - Edward Beiland (1887) : looking backward - HG Wells

RENEWED ATTITUDE TOWARD NATURE  Technological Advances - not necessarily a sign of progress

Chief Spokesmen - Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (French) - John Ruskin (English) - Henry David Thoreau (American) Arts and Crafts Movement - led by William Morris, return to simpler Christian virtues of the Gothic period - Norman Shaw, created Bedford Park (1875-81) Gothic Revival in 19th Century - “Gothic Period was the last original Architectural Era”

THE CONSERVATIONIST and the PARK MOVEMENT  George Perkins Marsh - American conservationist - the founder of modern conservation - “Man and Nature” : published in 1862 introduction to ecology  Frederick Law Olmsted - pioneer of the American park system - was a social reformer, concerned with the moral disintegration in large formless cities - also a farmer, landscaper design as solution to social ills (ex. Urban Park) - Central Park of New York won in 1859 - San Francisco, Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, Montreal, and Boston - “Public Parks and the Enlargement of Towns” published in 1870 - cities planned for two generations ahead - maintain sufficient breathing space - design, embrace whole city  Charles Eliot - completed Olmsted’s Boston Park system  George Kessler - layout of Kansas City Park system  Jens Jensen - designed Chicago’s original park system  Alphand

- Hausmann;s landscape architect - “The French Olmsted” Daniel Schreber - a physician and educator - “Schrenbergarten” : small gardens for children used by elderly - popularized the idea of Urban playground in Europe

EXPLORATIONS into the PAST  Archaeology -became a science in 19th century  Camillo Sitte -Japanese architect -“An architect’s Notes and reflections upon artistic City planning” published in 1889 THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT  Ebenezer Howard - An English stenographer - “Tomorrow: A peaceful path to social reform” published in 1898 - Proponent of the “Garden City” concept  Letchworth - the first garden city (1902) - located 35 miles from London - architects Barry Parker and Raymund Unwin - became a satellite of London because factories did not materialized  Welwyn - 2nd garden city (19200 - architect Louis de Soissows, more successful than Letchworth

THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH  Howard’s Analytical Approach - the city is so large and its operations so complex - proper understanding can only be gained by full application of precise analysis

Patrick Geddes - Scottish city planner - estanblished the tool for analytical approach - “Cities in Evolution” published in 1913 - coined the term “conurbation” - laid-out some 50 cities in India and Palestine Marsh - interrelationship between MAN and NATURE Geddes - interrelationship between PEOPLE and CITIES Conurbation -“the waves of population in flow to large cities, followed by overlapping and slums formation, and then the wave of backflow” 1. Inflow 2. Build-up 3. Backflow Central slums 4. Sprawling Mass Central Blight

 THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT  Golden Age of Urban Design - from 1890 to the Great depression (1930’s) - termed the “City Beautiful Era”  World’s Fairs - as work of civic art 1. application of latest technologies 2. façade architecture 3. promise of America come to life - as urban renewal operations 1. Jackson Park – Chicago World’s Fair 2. San Francisco Marina 3. Treasure Island, san Francisco  McMillan Commission - AIA national conference in Washington D.C. (1901)

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- Daniel Burnham, Augustus St. Gaudens, and Frederick Law Olmsted among present - plan for improvement of central Washington having the original L’Enfant Plan Civic Centers - City hall, country court house, library, museums, opera house, and a plaza Public works - BRIDGES, designed as piece of sculpture - RIVER, made into classical garden terrace - COLLEGES and UNIVERSITIES, as visions of classical world - RAILROADS, built Roman basilicas and baths City as a whole - Daniel Burnham : father of American City Planning - Plans for Chicago, San Francisco, Manila, etc. - last use of French Renaissance principles applied at the largest scale possible. Planned Residential Communities - Roland Park (1892) - start of commuter suburb, Country Club, Kansa City - Forest Hills Gardens, L.I., New York commuter suburb for Manhattan (1911) Many Developments - American city planning profession - zoning introduced in 1916 - many lessons from abroad; 1. England and garden city movement 2. English architect-planners lecturedin Us 3. English books in city planning Summary of City Beautiful Era - the CIVIC CENTER and the COMMERCIAL SUBURB

THE NEW COMMUNITY MOVEMENT  Proponents -Henry Wright

“Rehousing Urban Ammerican” (1934) -Clarence Stein “Towards New Towns for America” (1951) “Superblock” Concept -answer to problem of through traffic -island of green, bordered by houses and skirted by peripheral automobile roads -examples: 1. Baldwin Hills, LA 2. Chattham Vill, Pittsburge -community level development Radburn, New Jersey -series of superblocks -not completed because of depression -one of the most important designs conceived for the modern residential community “Radburn” Idea -organization of town into cohesive neighborhoods -Clarence A. Perry : “The Neighborhood Unit” published in 1929 : Community Planning “Town Colonization” Concept -G.R. Taylor -Metropolitan growth through colonization -reinforces Ebenezer Howard’s belief -“Satellite Cities, A study of industrial suburbs” (1915) -“The Building of Satellite Towns” (1925)

Typical Block Development

The Sunnyside Idea

REGIONAL PLANNING  Roots of regional outlook - Howard and Taylor : satellite colonization idea - Radburn : demonstrated satellite colonization - Marsh and Geddes : laid the ground work - Henry Wright and Benton Mackaye : championed the regional outlook  Henry Wright and Plain of New York - worked under commission by Clarence Stein “Report of the commission on Housing and Regional Planning for the State of New York” - development of New York 1. Small trade centers for an agriculture society 2. Decline due to cheaper Mid Western farms 3. Industrialization took hold 4. Hudson and Mohawk valleys became spine - New York City became the financial heart and core of the constellation of communities  Wright’s Man - one of the finest models of regional planning - not officially adopted but recommendation realized - led to formation of RPAA  Regional planning association of New York

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- 22 countries, 500 municipal districts, 10 million people, New York State, New Jersey and Connecticut - Thomas Adams : Scottish planner : two volume plan produced in 1928 most complete plan study ever done Benton Mackaye - originally, a forester - “The New Exploration, A philosophy of Regional Planning” - Envisioned the “townless highway” and “highwayless towns” - showed New York City as the entry and exit portal for the entire US industrial empire New Exploration - the exploration of the wilderness and conservation to be expand to include cities Other developments - London Barbican Area - Garden cities in France : Dourges the first Garden City in France (1919) - Longlieau, Tergnier, Lille-Le-Deliverance - Baku in Russia - Berlin Germany : Martin Machler

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING  Eliel Saarinen - prize-winning plan for Helsinki in 1910 - teaching of architecture and urban planning - “The City” published in 1913  Walter Gropius - came to US and took same approach of teaching architecture and urban planning  Richard Neutra - “Rush City Reformed”

Le Corbusier - fused ideas of modern architecture and city form “Une Ville Contemporaine” 1922 - traceable to Henards and Garniers ideas - plan Voisin (neighborhood plan) 1925 - Chandigarh India, designed the entire city - “When Cathedrals were White” 1947 - “Concerning Town Planning” 1948 - Lewis Mumford : critical of Le Corbusier - helped organize the “Congress International d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) - conceived the “CIAM grid” : a graphic file system for recording pertinent information in an urban study and for explaining a plan - “CIAM grid” four components: 1. work 2. circulation 3. residence 4. leisure - MARS Group : the English CIAM organization : proposed a plan for rebuilding London :16 finger corridors all connected by a major circulation spine and encircling circulation group Louis Kahn - made important designs for central Philadelphia

Kenzo Tange - plan for Tokyo - circulation as determinant of urban form - new Tokyo over Tokyo Bay, hung on bridges Frank Llyod Wright - followed Howard, Geddes and social reformer - “The Disappearing City” published 1932 - Broadacres : every family ion an acre of land - Marin County

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- full mile high super skyscraper changed scheme Charles Abrams - housing as one prime field of endeavor for solving urban problems Buckminster Fuller - 1863 : inventory of worlds resources, human trends and needs Lewis Mumford - authored some 20 books and innumerable articles - “The City in History” published in 1961, summary of Mumfords thought Constantine Doxiadis - addressed the urban problem on a world wide scale - major designs are made for countries where economy and productive system can be coordinated by policy and decree - best work is in newly developing nations of Africa and Middle East - magazine “Ekistics” : shows Doxiadis’ many plans and programs - “Ekistics grid” system for recording planning data and ordering planning process - Ekistics : the science of human settlement

ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING - refers to activities concerned with the management and development of lands, as well as the preservation, conservation, and rehabilitation of the human environment - Scope of practice: 1. Development of a community, town, city or region 2. Development of a site for a particular needs - PD 1308: Environmental Planning Practice (March 2, 1977) PHYSICAL PLANNING - shall mean the rational use of land for development purposes - factors to study: 1. Land Use Planning 2. Planning Principles

3. 4. 5. 6.

Ecological Balance Preservation / Conservation Urban Land use Planning Physical Infrastructure Development

SOCIAL PLANNING - refers to those activities concerned with planning, developments, and management of social services, facilities required by specific population groups, community, town, city, province, region or nation - factors to study: 1. Demography 2. Education 3. Housing 4. Health Services 5. Protective Service 6. Sports and Recreation ECONOMIC PLANNING - refers to those activities concerned with uplifting the quality of life and income levels of the population through assessment of advantages from economic activities in either agriculture, industry, tourism services, etc. - factors to study: 1. Commerce 2. Tourism 


Planning Definitions - Planning in general is a thinking and social process. Intellectual thought process (thinking aspect) as well as policies and actions (social aspect)

SYSTEMS PLANNING - derived from the science of cybernetics : cybernetics was identified by Norman Weiner in 1948, an American mathematician and thinker  Three leading British exponents of cybernetics based planning - George Chadwick - Alan Wilson - Brian McLaughlin COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING - evolved from a physical planning model from the 1920’s to 1930’s as exemplified by British planner Patrick Geddes S-A-P and Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City - ceased to be the universal planning standard by 1970 GROWTH POLE / CENTER THEORY - Francis Perroux : Growth Pole - Boundaville (1966) : Growth Center - Concept of Leading Industries - Concept of Propulsive Firms - Albert Hirshmann : polarization - Gunmar Myrdal : Backwash and Spread effects - Scale Economics - Agglomeration Economies CENTRAL POLE THEORY - by Walter Christaller, 1933. Explains the size and function of settlements and their relationship with their hinterlands - Hierachy of Services : hierarchical arrangement of centers and functions based on services from low order to high order services found only in major urban centers - market range - threshold population : minimum population necessary to support a service

CORE PERIPHERY - by John Friedmann, unbalanced growth to dualism : North and South, growing points and lagging regions - Dualistic economies - Toffler : technological apartheid

CITY vs URBAN  City - as defined by RA 7160, a minimum income of P20M, at least 10,000 has in land area or minimum population of 150,000, a political or legal status granted by the government  Highly urbanized City - at least 200,000 population and income of P50M or more  Component City - population and income below those of highly urbanized city  Independent Component City - a characterized city  Urban Area - as defined by NSO, in their entirety, all cities and municipalities with a density of at least 1000/sqkm -exhibiting a street pattern or street network

INTERNAL SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF CITIES  Concentric Zone Theory (Monocentric) - by E.W. Burgess, a University of Chicago Sociologist, in 1925. The city grows in a radial expansion from the center to form a series of concentric zones or circles such as in Chicago

DEPENDENCY THEORY - development of first world derived from undevelopment of third world neocolonialism - advocated by latin American economist and planner like Cesar Furtado INDUSTRIAL LOCATION THEORY - generally, an economic theory that attempts to incorporate the location factor into the “theory of the firm” and tries to explain the existing location and changes in that structure - least cost approach - market area analysis - profit maximizing approach 

ELEMENTS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS (DOXIADIS)  Nature : natural physical environment  Man : an individual  Society : group of individuals  Shells : buildings  Networks : transportations, communications, etc.

HIERARCHY OF SETTLEMENTS  A hamlet : a neighborhood, a small village  A community : a town  A city : an urban area  A metropolis  A conurbation : a composition of cities, metropolises and urban areas

A megalopolis : merging of two or more metropolis with a population of 10 million or more, a 20th century phenomenon

- CBD (cope, loop) - zone of transition - homes of factory workers - residential zone of high class apartment buildings or singlefamily dwellings - commuter zone - the process of invasion and succession explains the successive rings

Sector Theory - by Homer Hoyt, an economist in 1939. Hoyt examined the spatial variations in household rent in 1942 American cities Multiple Nuclei Theory (Polycentric) - developed by two geographers Chauncy Harris and Eduard Ullman in 1945. Cities tend to grow around not one but several districts nuclei Inverse Concentric Zone Theory - the preceding three theories apply primarily to cities of MDC’s, particularly American. Many cities in the LCD’s follow somewhat different patterns : this is a reversal of the concentric zone pattern

THE IMAGE OF THE CITY - a collective image map of a city, a collective picture of what people extract from the physical reality of a city. - five basic elements which people use to construct their mental image of a city: 1. pathways 2. districts 3. edges 4. landmarks 5. nodes

PLANNING ORGANIZATION  Regional Planning - NEDA (National Economic Development Authority) - NLUC (National Land Use Committee) - RDC (Regional Development Council) - PDC (Provincial development Council) - PLUC (Provincial Land Use Committee) - Sanggunihan Panlalawigan

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Urban Planning - HUDCC (housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council) - HLURB (Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board) - RLUC (Regional Land Use Committee) - M/CDC (Municipal / City Development Council) - BDC (Barangay Development Council) HLURB - the planning regulatory and quasi-judicial instrumentality of government for land use development PLANNING - the key to orderly and rational land development in any local government unit - example, a city or municipaltiy

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