UPOU Style Guide

July 12, 2017 | Author: MAKISIG_QC | Category: Thesis, Note (Typography), Citation, Writing, Publishing
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Style guide on research writing...



Faculty of Information and Communication Studies U.P. OPEN UNIVERSITY Los Baños, Laguna Philippines 2016



Disclaimer This guide claims neither ownership nor originality of the materials included herein. In fact, much of this volume comes from the various style guides that have been published, particularly the APA Style Guide, the CBE Style Guide, the MLA Style Guide, the Turabian Style Guide (sometimes also known as the University of Chicago Style Guide). The Team that prepared this Guide simply put together what was thought to be of practical use to the faculty and students of the FICS, U.P. Open University, for the internal purposes of the UPOU.

The Style Guide Team This Style Guide was the output of a team, appointed by Former Dean Melinda dP. Bandalaria (now UPOU Chancellor) of FICS, and comprised of the following: Team Leader:

Felix R. Librero, PhD Professor Emeritus


Roberto A. Figueroa, Jr., MS Assistant. Professor Joyce Mae A. Manalo, MS Assistant. Professor

Ms. Emely Amoloza, MS, provided the necessary administrative coordination for all the activities of as well as logistical support for the Team.



INTRODUCTION Why This Style Guide? There are numerous style guides available for your use. So, why the need for a separate FICS style guide? A style guide is generally defined as a set of standards for writing documents such as academic papers to ensure that such documents are written in a manner easy to understand and that reflects the expectations of the institution to which you’ll submit your paper. In other words, the style guide provides rules and regulations to treat textual documents to ensure better understanding by stakeholders, in this case, the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies, U.P. Open University. This FICS Style Guide provides the standards for writing thesis, dissertation, book, and research manuscripts that are for submission to the UPOU, through the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies, for approval and/or acceptance for publication. It also provides general guidelines for the preparation of other documents to be submitted to the FICS, such as course term papers and project reports. In general, this Style Guide requires that: 1. All texts are double-spaced, in 12-point arial font; and 2. There shall only be two spaces (double space) between paragraphs, but the first line of each new paragraph must be indented one standard MS Word indention or approximately five spaces. Unless otherwise specified, all manuscripts submitted to UPOU, through the FICS, shall follow these general guidelines: 1. 2. 3. 4.

All texts must be in 12-point arial font. All Chapter titles must be in UPPER CASE, BOLDFACE. All margins must be 1.0” from the edge of the paper from all sides. The first line of each paragraph must be indented one standard MS Word indention (about five spaces), double space between paragraphs. 5. All pages must have running footers (possibly an abridged form of the title) and continuous pagination on the right bottom. 6. All pages where a Chapter starts shall be provided invisible page number. 7. Use paper size A4.



Color for Manuscript Cover The color scheme for theses cover shall be as follows: Doctoral dissertation Masters’ thesis Bachelor’s thesis

= = =

Black Maroon Green

Texts on the cover of the manuscript shall be: 1. 2. 3. 4.

All titles must be brief but not longer than two lines of 10cm. First line of full title about six-eight centimeters from the top edge. Author’s name about five-six centimeters below the last line of the title. Institutional affiliation of author about six-seven centimeters below the author’s name. 5. All texts on the cover of the manuscript must be gold in color, and not higher than 0.5cm. 6. On the butt (or keel), five centimeters from the top edge, shall be printed the full title (which should be top-orientated when manuscript is in upright position on a book shelf). About 1.0-1.5 cm from the title shall be the “category” of the report. The categories are: PhD Dissertation, MS/MA/MM/MENRM Thesis, BS Thesis.” The family name of the author, followed by year of submission to the Faculty (separated by a comma), must be printed from the bottom end, no more than five centimeters from the bottom edge.

The cover of the manuscript would appear like the example on the next page, while the keel would look like this:

FULL TITLE OF THE REPORT (No more than two lines.)

MS Thesis

Manalo, 2000





Faculty of Information and Communication Studies U.P. OPEN UNIVERSITY 2015 FICS STYLE GUIDE



1. The title page contains the following information: complete title of the manuscript, author of the manuscript, institutional affiliation, and the year that the manuscript was produced or submitted. 2. The title of a manuscript must be brief and concise, normally three to five words, but in cases where the title may need to be a bit more lengthy, the full title must be typed in inverted pyramid format, except on the keel where said title may be typed in block format to save space. 3. The title must be about 10cm from the top margin, upper case, bold, except scientific names which must be printed according to standard requirements for scientific names. 4. The author’s name, in upper and lower case, must be about ten cm below the last line of the title. 5. At the bottom of the page, about 15 cm from the author’s name shall be printed the institutional affiliation of the author, spelled out. For example:

Faculty of Information and Communication Studies University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY College, Laguna Philippines Year 6. This is how a title page might look like most of the time (please see following page for example). This example is hypothetical.



(FICS faculty member as author)


JOYCE MAE A. MANALO Assistant Professor

Faculty of Information and Communication Studies University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY College, Laguna Philippines 2016



(Student as Author))



Faculty of Information and Communication Studies University of the Philippines OPEN UNIVERSITY College, Laguna Philippines 2016



Copyright Page If the manuscript has a copyright, that copyright announcement must be printed on the page following the title page. The symbol of copyright which is ©, followed by year, copyright owner, and address or institutional affiliation of author, must be printed at the center of the page.

© 2016 By Roberto B. Figueroa, Jr.



Acceptance Page This acceptance page refers to the acceptance page required by the UPOU. It should be made clear here that acceptance pages are required for course projects, masters’ theses, and doctoral dissertations. You may obtain the details of style for your specific course project from your course professor. It should be clear that acceptance pages differ according to the preferences of the institution (university). The FICS (UP Open University) adopts a simple acceptance page that expresses acceptance emanating from the faculty as personified by the Academic Advisory Committee and the Dean of the Faculty. Acceptance pages for theses and dissertations are shown in the following pages.



(Acceptance page for Special Project in MIS)

This Special Project titled _________________________________________________ is hereby accepted by the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Information Systems.

__________________________ Adviser ____________ Date

__________________________ Program Chair ____________ Date

__________________________ Dean Faculty of Information and Communication Studies ____________ Date



(Acceptance page for Master’s Thesis.)

This thesis titled _____________________________________________ is hereby accepted by the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies, U.P. Open University, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Science/Master of Arts/Master of Information Systems/Master of Development Communication.

Members of the Academic Advisory Committee: ________________________, Chair, Advisory Committee (Signature over printed name)

_________ (Date)

________________________, Member, Advisory Committee (Signature over printed name)

_________ (Date)

________________________, Member, Advisory Committee (Signature over printed name)

_________ (Date)

_________________________, Dean, (Signature over printed name) Faculty of Information and Communication Studies

_________ (Date)



(Acceptance page for Doctoral Dissertation.) This dissertation titled _________________________________________ is hereby accepted by the Faculty of Information and Communication Studies, U.P. Open University, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Communication (DComm).

__________________________ Chair, Dissertation Committee

__________ (Date)

__________________________ Member, Dissertation Committee

__________ (Date)

__________________________ Member, Dissertation Committee

__________ (Date)

__________________________ Reader/Critic

__________ (Date)

________________________________________ Dean Faculty of Information and Communication Studies ______________ (Date)



Biographical Sketch Instead of including information about the author/researcher in the introductory text (Chapter), it is suggested that all biographical information about the author/s must be printed on the “Biographical Sketch” page. Each author is entitled to a page of biographical sketch.



Acknowledgment Page This page may be considered optional, but most theses and dissertations carry it for very good reasons. The acknowledgment page may be as brief as half a page, or as long as two pages. Who to acknowledge would depend on the decision of the author.



Dedication Page Authors of theses and research manuscripts routinely would want to dedicate their work to personages to whom they may be indebted. This page is devoted for that purpose. Often, you can write this as follows:

Dedicated to: Etc.



Table of Contents In many instances, the Table of Contents includes the Preliminary Pages. In this instance, the pages would be marked with Roman Numbers. Usually, what would be considered lower case for Roman numbers are used, hence, i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix x, etc. Include titles of textual content, tables, figures, and photographs in the Table of Contents. The Table of Contents is comprised of four major component aspects, as follows: textual contents, list of tables, list of figures, and list of photographs.




MAIN MANUSCRIPT BODY Chapter Title 1. A new Chapter starts on a clean, new page. 2. The Chapter number must be printed in bold face (upper case for first letter and lower case for the other letters of the word chapter; the chapter number itself must also be in upper case), and centered between left and right margins. 3. One space underneath the Chapter Number shall be the Chapter Title in UPPER CASE, BOLD. As in the case of manuscript titles, Chapter Titles must be brief, but in the event that such titles need to exceed one line, type them in inverted pyramid format.

Chapter Heading (Center Heading) The Chapter Heading, sometimes called the Center Heading, refers to a major part of the Chapter. Here are specific requirements: 1. Only the first letter of the major words used are in UPPER CASE. 2. Chapter Headings must be typed in bold letters. 3. Chapter Headings must be three spaces below the last line of the preceding paragraph.

Side Heading 1. The side headings are also called side titles. 2. There would be as many side headings as there are major or important topics in support of the Center Head. 3. All the first letters of the major words in the side heading are in UPPER case. 4. All Side Headings are in bold letters. 5. The Side Head must be printed three spaces below the last line of the previous paragraph. 6. All side headings must be flushed left. Paragraph Heading The main paragraphs of the side heading may have a title called the paragraph heading, which is usually in bold and italics, but all in lower case, except for the first letter of the first word which should by in upper case. Succeeding paragraphs are FICS STYLE GUIDE


considered supporting paragraphs and may not have paragraph headings. paragraph heading is structurally part of the paragraph itself.


Over-all, here’s how the organization of the chapter would look like.

Chapter Number CHAPTER TITLE

Chapter (Center) Heading ________________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Side Heading _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Paragraph heading. _______________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

Side Heading _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Paragraph heading. _______________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

There’s a chance that you would have additional side headings or paragraph headings. Just follow the pattern above.



In-Text Citation The in-text citation is used to provide information that can immediately tell the reader the source of the material just presented, and this is done by providing the name of the author and year of publication in parenthesis. With the use of in-text citation, the need for foot-notes have become less necessary, except when the author wishes to provide additional explanation or context to the statement just provided in the text. The following examples of the use of the author-publication date combination (in-text citation) come from the book titled Writing Your Thesis: Example 1:

Nominal scale is defined as the “assignment of numbers or symbols for the purpose of designating sub-class which represents unique characteristics” (Williams, 1968).

Example 2:

Williams (1968) defined nominal scale as the “assignment of numbers or symbols for the purpose of designating sub-class which represents unique characteristics.”

How to cite sources within the text. The three common techniques of citing other works are quotations, summaries, and paraphrases. Let us cite liberally from Writing Your Thesis (Librero, 2012)

1. On the use of quotations: A quote, according to the Jackson State Community College, is “an exact reproduction of an author’s exact words in your own text.” There is a caveat in using quotes. We’re reminded by experts to use quotes sparingly. If you use too many quotes, it would appear that you’re unable to contribute something original in our paper. If you have more than three lengthy quotations in one page, you might be using quotes too much. Our sources tell us to consider the following rules when we use quotes: 1.1.

“Enclose the word-for-word quote in quotation marks (“ “) to show that the source author’s exact words appear in your paper.




1.3. 1.4.

“If you change anything about the original material to make it fit more neatly or clearly into your essay, use brackets ([ ]) to indicate that material has been added or changed. “Use ellipses (…) to show that material is left out. “If the material you are quoting is longer than four lines, use block quote format, which means that you should not use quotation marks but instead indent the whole quoted bit one inch from the left margin so that it is clear what your original work is and what is quoted.”

2. On the use of paraphrases: Your paraphrase is how you state the author’s ideas in your own words, which must convey the same meaning as the original author’s. A paraphrase is usually similar in length compared to the original material. You use your own words even as you include in your paraphrase the original names, figures, events, and other factual information from the original author’s material. Nevertheless, you may have the best paraphrase but you’ll still have to cite your source within your text just the same. 3. On the use of summaries: A summary, which is much shorter than the original material, is your own restatement of the author’s ideas but focusing on the major points in the material. As much as possible, avoid using quotes within a summary. Whether or not you are employing quotation, paraphrase, or summary in presenting the ideas of your source, you must always cite your sources. Use of footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes are used to cite sources (instead of in-text citations), or provide further explanation to ideas that could not be appropriately included as part of the text. The footnote appears at the bottom of the same page for which the note is provided. Endnotes are like footnotes but are usually provided at the end of the article or chapter where they were introduced. FICS STYLE GUIDE


Here’s what Turabian (1973) says about footnotes (p. 78): Footnotes have four main uses: (a) to cite the authority for statements in text – specific facts or opinions as well as exact quotations; (b) to make cross references; (c) to make incidental comments upon, to amplify or to qualify textual discussion – in short, to provide a place for material which the writer thinks it worthwhile to include but which he feels would disrupt the flow of thought if introduced into the text; (d) to make acknowledgments. For our purposes in this style guide, we discourage the use of footnotes and endnotes. We consider them a bit cumbersome. The use of footnotes and endnotes is discouraged but should there be a need for source citation in the text, use in-text citation instead. However, use footnotes to cite sources of tables and figures/diagrams. If there is a need for footnote in the text, place the footnote at the bottom of the page where the note is mentioned. The first line should be indented five spaces and the next lines flushed left. The footnote may be in smaller font size. Example:


Ma. Celeste H. Cadiz, Educational Communication for Development, (College, Laguna, UPLBCA Publications, 1991), p. 38. 2

The member banks and their contributions are listed in Appendix 3. (This example is from Turabian, 1973.) Note that an endnote is formatted similarly. manuscript.

It just is placed at the end of the

Other presentation tools. There are different techniques and purposes for using nontextual material such as statistical information, drawings and diagrams, as well as pictorial materials. 1. On the use of statistical tables: 1.1.

The statistical table has the following parts:



Table 1. Amount of time devoted to functions in ecosystems (%) (horizontal line) (field) (box heading for the stub) ECOSYSTEM

(box heading) FUNCTION

(stub or side heading) A B Irrigated Rainfed Lowland Upland Deepwater Tidal Wetland Cross Ecosystem MEAN A = policy making B = program planning/administration C = research D = teaching/training E = others SOURCE: Librero, 1992, p. 14. 1.2.




) ) ) (footnotes) ) )

An important reminder in the use of statistical tables:

1.2.1. Do not construct single-variable tables. The information provided in such tables are better made part of the formal text, instead. Prefer multiple variable tables, such as cross-tabulations, to deal with variable interactions. 1.2.2.

The vertical lines are no longer required, although they may be retained for the stub headings.


All horizontal lines are single lines. There is no longer need for double horizontal lines for the top and bottom lines of statistical tables.



Here’s another example: Table 34. Mode of acquisition of rice publications. _____________________________________________________________ Mode of Acquisition Proportion of Purchase Subscription Donation/ Library Holdings Free No. % No. % No. % _____________________________________________________________ 20% & less 28 75.7 26 70.3 16 43.2 21 – 40% 5 13.5 4 10.8 2 5.4 41 – 60% 3 8.1 0 0.0 4 10.8 61 – 80% 0 0.0 2 5.4 4 10.8 81 – 100% 1 2.7 5 13.5 11 29.7 Total 37 100.0 37 100.0 37 99.9 _____________________________________________________________ SOURCE: Librero, 1992, p. 51.

2. On the use of drawings and schematic diagrams: Drawings and schematic diagrams have the distinct advantage of being able to show highly technical components and provide the necessary explanation for related parts. 2.1.

Use technical drawings or diagrams when showing detailed parts, their functions, and operation, especially when textual explanation becomes cumbersome and confusing.


Use technical drawings and diagrams in showing and explaining scientific operation that require showing of highly purposive and important details.



Figure 1. Enlarged cut-out section of a fiber-optic cable.

SOURCE: Figure 2. Gadget connections through fiber optics.



3. On the use of photographs: 3.1.

It is said that a single photograph is worth a thousand words. This is much more true in modern times, particularly where color becomes a significant component of the event.


Use photographs to compare conditions before and after introduction of interventions. Using words could be the source of confusion in these cases.


Events in life happen in fleeting seconds and usually do not repeat themselves. Use photographs to freeze these events in time and make them available for further analyses for better understanding. Plate # 1. Basco, Batanes beach at dusk.



Plate 2. Vayang Rolling Hills, with Mt. Iraya at background, Batanes.

SOURCE: Librero, 2012




Difference Between “Bibliography” and “References” This appears as a minor issue, but use of each of the two terms has distinct and significant purpose. Bibliography refers to the listing of sources that were used in the preparation of the manuscript. Such sources may or may not have been cited in the text. References, on the other hand, is a list of those materials that were used in the preparation of the manuscript and were cited in the text. By the way, it is frequent that writers of theses and dissertations would claim that a source is through personal communication with an expert, etc. It is appropriate to provide in-text citation for personal communication sources (i.e., Personal communication, email message on June 15, 2015). You may italicize this. However, you need not include personal communication sources as part of the bibliography. A word about existing formats (APA, CBE, MLA, Turabian-Chicago) In general, each of these Style Guides has its own formats and purposes, but all of them were designed for publication purposes. Hence, they are also known as publication style guides. Over the years, the APA Style has been considered one that is applied to the social sciences; the MLA Style Guide for the arts and humanities; the CBE Style Guide for the sciences and Mathematics; and the Turabian-University of Chicago Style for general application (usually in universities). Over the years, and due to the influence of electronic publications, all the guides have changed. There are old rules that remain applicable, but many have been discarded and many new ones added. It must be emphasized here that this FICS Style Guide does not deal with the minute details. The presumption is that, in general, the FICS adopts the APA-oriented style. While the general guidelines are spelled out on this guide, it is highly recommended that you look at the details in the APA Publications Manual. The APA also has adopted rules for areas it has not traditionally had rules for. For example, APA for the Sciences, APA for Engineering, etc. The details are all available in the main APA Manual and online. Suggested UPOU Bibliographic Format The basic intention the FICS Style Guide is really to provide general rules and regulations for the production of documents to be submitted to UPOU through the FICS. These rules and regulations may or may not be similar to any Style Guide available FICS STYLE GUIDE


today. However, all other rules and regulations, not clearly referred to in the FICS Style will have to abide by the detailed rules as provided in the various style guides. For Manuscripts to be submitted to UPOU through FICS, the following order in bibliographic entries shall be followed: For stand-alone books: Author’s name (last name first), double space, year of publication enclosed in parenthesis, double space, title of book in italics (Clc), single space, place of publication, colon, single space, publisher. The first line is flushed left and all succeeding lines indented 10 spaces to the right. Examples: Harman, Willis. (1998). Global Mind Change. Revised Expanded Edition. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Librero, Felix R. (2012). Writing Your Thesis. Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines: U.P. Open University. Librero, Felix R. (2008). Distance Education in the Philippines: Issues and Concerns. College, Laguna, Philippines: UP Open University. Nisbett, Richard E. (2003). The Geography of Thought. New York: Free Press. For edited books, with editor treated as author: Name of editor, year of publication, title of edited book, place of publication, publisher. Examples: Melkote, Srinivas R. (ed.). (2012). Development Communication in Directed Social Change, A Reappraisal of Theory and Practice. Singapore: AMIC. Baggaley, Jon and Tian Belawati (eds.). (2010). Distance Education Technologies in Asia. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd and International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada. Cariño, Ledivina V. (ed.). (2001). The Philippine Social Sciences in the Life of the Nation. Quezon City: Philippine Social Science Center.



For chapter of a book: Librero, Felix R. (2012). Development communication education in Los Baños: contributions from graduate research. In Srinivas R. Melkote (ed.), Development Communication in Directed Social Change, AMIC, Singapore, Chapter 12, pp. 231-243. Librero, Felix R. (2010). Training Asian instructional designers. In Jon Baggaley and Tian Belawati (eds.), Distance Education Technologies in Asia, Sage Publications India, New Delhi and International Development Research Center, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 214-226. Librero, Felix R. (2001). Insights into the interrelationship of communication, agriculture and environment. In Ledivina V. Cariño (ed.), The Philippine Social Sciences in the Life of the Nation, The Philippine Social Science Council, Quezon City, pp. 119-132. For journal articles: Librero, Felix R. (2012). Devcom mindset: are we ready for it? Development Communication, Vol 24, No. 2, pp. 50-58.

The Journal of

Librero, Felix. (2006). Status and trends in development communication research in the Philippines. MediaAsia, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp.35-38. For Unpublished Master’s Theses: Bagayas, Shirley P. (2008). Perception of Cash Flow Statements as Financial Information Source and Analytical Tool. Unpublished MDC Thesis. University of the Philippines Open University. Garcia, Ma. Jeanette E. (2003). Communication Analysis of the Habitat Model of Community and Social Development Processes. Unpublished MS Thesis. University of the Philippines Los Banos. Pasana, Sheena Mae C. (2004). Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on the Metacognitive and Reading Comprehension Performance of BEED Students. Unpublished MAEd Thesis. University of the Philippines Open University. Vallejo-Santiago, Arminda M. (1991). Video Technology in the Philippines: Its Status, Problems and Prospects. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of the Philippines Diliman.



For Unpublished Doctoral Dissertations: Cangara, Hafied. (1995). The Use of Satellite Communication for National Integration in Indonesia. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of the Philippines Los Baños. Flor, Alexander G. (1987). The Information Rich and the Information Poor: Two Faces of the Information Age in a Developing Country. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of the Philippines Los Baños. Guevara, Christia A. (2010). Multimodal-Representation Approach: Effects on Student Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills, and Attitude in Genetics. Unpublished PhD in Education dissertation. University of the Philippines Open University. Mulyani, Eko Sri. (2002). Interorganizational Communication Variables in Rice Technology Dissemination in West Java, Indonesia. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of the Philippines Los Baños. Use of Annexes If the manuscript includes Annexes (these are also called Appendices), the clear page following the last page for the bibliography should be used as title page for the Annexes. The word Annexes must be typed, centered in UPPER Case, and BOLD. Each Annex must start with a clear page. The Annexes should be assigned pages as well, like they are part of the main body text. Annexes may be identified by Roman Numbers or Alphabet, typed in upper case, bold.

For More Details

This Style Guide provides you with the general rules and guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts for submission to the UP Open University, through the FICS. Admittedly, this guide does not give enough details. The following references could provide such additional guidelines and details: Lastimosa, Pura J. and Morma V. Llemit. (1994). Style Guide for Research Writers and Editors. Los Banos, Laguna: PCARRD. Librero, Felix R. University.


Writing Your Thesis.

Los Baños, Laguna: U.P. Open



Lipson, Charles. (2006). Cite Right. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Manual of Publication of the American Psychological Association, Latest Edition. Manual of Publication of the Council of Biology Editors, Latest Edition. Manual of Publication of the Modern Language Association, Latest Edition. Radford, Marie L.; Susan B. Barnes; and Linda R. Barr. (2006). Web Research. 2nd Edition. Boston, New York, San Francisco, Mexico City, Montreal, Toronto, Madrid, Munich, Paris, Hongkong, Singapore, Tokyo, Cape Town, Sydney: Pearson. Turabian, Kate L. (1980). A Manual for Writers (of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations). 8th Edition. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Reprinted in the Philippines by National Book Store. -

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