United Nations Organization (Detailed Notes)

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United Nations Organization (UNO)

United Nations Organization Origin of U.N.O.: When the World War-II was going on the Allied powers had felt the necessity for forming a United Nations Organization. The talks were held at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C. from August 21 to October 7, 1944, which was finally put to concrete shape by the delegates of 50 Allied Nations assembled at San Francisco from April 26 to June 26, 1945. At this place the representatives of 50 nations signed the United Nations Charter and the United Nations officially came into existence on October 26, 1945, after the Charter has been ratified by a number of countries. This meant the end of the League of Nations. Non-members: The nations that are non-members of the UNO are: (a) Switzerland (b) Taiwan. Switzerland and Vatican are permanent observers. Official languages: They are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. Flag of the UN: On the flag is the UN emblem in white superimposed on a light blue ground. The emblem consists of the global map projected from the North Pole and embraced in twin olive branches (Symbol of Peace).



Objectives: The U.N as an organization of nations who have voluntarily joined together to work for world peace, the objectives and purposes of the U.N.  To maintain peace and security in the world.  To develop friendly relations among nations.  To work together to remove poverty, disease and illiteracy in the world and to encourage respect for each others rights and freedom.  To be a centre for helping the nations to achieve these goals. Charter of the U.N: The Charter of the U.N contains aims and purposes of organisation. It gives direction to achieve these aims within the rules and regulations, set by U.N. U.N. General Assembly proclaimed the historic declaration of Universal Human Rights on December 10, 1948.

Admission into U.N.O.:  A country must get the support of the twothird members of the General Assembly.  Country must be peace-loving.  Country must accept the rules and regulations, aims and objectives of the U.N.O.  It is necessary for a new member to get the recommendation of Security Council. Power of veto: If any one of the five permanent members casts a negative vote on the resolution, it falls. This is known as ‘Veto’. Every member has got one vote. To pass a resolution, all the five Big Powers Plus two others must cast their votes in favour of the resolution. Principal Organs of the U.N: Headquarters: U.N Plaza, New York City, U.S.A. General Assembly, Secretariat, Security Council, Trusteeship council, Economic and Social Council and International Court of Justice. The General Assembly: The General Assembly is the largest of all the organs of the United Nations. The Assembly consists of the representatives of all the member States. Each State has one vote. The General Assembly meets at least once in a year. Special sessions may be convened by the secretaryGeneral, on a request by the Security Council. The General Assembly determines the contribution payable by each member. It receives and considers the reports of the special committees including the Security Council. It passes the annual budget of the U.N. The General Assembly elects the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and Social Council and elected members of the Trusteeship Council. The Secretariat: It is composed of the Secretary-General who is the Chief Administrative Officer of the organization and an International Staff appointed by him under regulations established by the General Assembly. The Secretary- General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar

United Nations Organization (UNO)



Secretary-General of the United Nations:  The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the United Nations Secretariat.  The Secretary-General also acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the United Nations.  Their role is laid out by Chapter XV (Articles 97 to 101) of the United Nations Charter.  The Secretary-General was envisioned by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a world moderator.  Article 97 under Chapter XV of the United Nations Charter states that the Secretary-General shall be the chief administrative officer of the Organization, but does not dictate their specific obligations. Secretary - General of the U.N.O: 1. Mr. Trgve Lie (of Norway) the First Secretary General of the UNO (1946-52) 2. Mr. Dag Hammarkjoeld (of Sweden) (1953-61) 3. Mr. U.Thant (Myanmar) (1962-71) 4. Mr. Kurt Waldeim (of Austria) (1972-81) 5. Mr. Javier Perez de Cuellar, (Peru) (1982-91) 6. Dr. Boutros Boutros Ghali, (Egypt) (1992-96) 7. Mr. Kofi Annan (of Ghana) (1997-2006) 8. Ban Ki- Moon (South Korea) (2007-16) 9. Antonio Guterres (Portugal) appointed on Jan 1, 2017 till date. About Ban Ki- Moon:  Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who took office on 1st January 2007.  His first term expired on 31 December 2011.  He was re-elected, unopposed, to a second term on 21 June 2011.  Guterres succeeded Ban Ki-moon on 1st January 2017. About Antonio Guterres:  Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres is a Portuguese politician.  He served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002.  He also served for a time as President of the Socialist International.  He served as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from June 2005 to December 2015.

Security Council: The member states of the United Nations have delegated the Primary responsibilities for maintaining world peace, Security to the Security Council. The Security Council originally consisted of eleven members, but increased to fifteen in 1965. It consists of 15 members, each of which has one vote. There are 5

permanent and 10 non-permanent members elected for a 2 year term by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. The permanent members have the power to veto any move. Retiring members are not eligible for immediate re-election. Permanent Members: China, France, Russia, U.K., and USA. Non-permanent Members: Bangladesh, Mali, Tunisia, Jamaica and Ukraine (until Dec. 31, 2001), Malaysia, Namibia, Canada, Netherlands and Argentina (until Dec. 31, 2000), Cape Verde, Hungary, Japan, Morocco, Venezuela (until Dec.31, 1993) Brazil, Djiboute, New Zealand, Pakistan and Spain (until Dec.31, 1994) The Presidency of the Security Council is held for one month in rotation by the member states in the English alphabetical order of their names. The expansion of the Security Council is to include ‘new powers’ such as India, Brazil, Germany and Japan as permanent members has been suggested. Pakistan has formally stakes its claim to a permanent seat on the council as and when it is expanded. Trusteeship Council: The Charter provides for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may be placed there under by individual trusteeship agreements. These are called trust territories. All of the original 11 trust territories except one, the republic of Belau (Palau) administrated by the USA, have become independent or joined independent countries. Members: China, France, Russia, UK, USA. Economic and Social Council: Economic and Social Council is responsible under the General Assembly for carrying out the functions to achieve cooperation of the United Nations with regard to international economic, social cultural, educational and health to promote and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedom without distinction of race or sex, language or religions. It consists of 54 member states elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. The Council has the following regional Economic Commissions: 1. ECE (Economic Commission of Europe) with

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar

United Nations Organization (UNO)

its H.Q. at Geneva. 2. ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia) with its H.Q. at Bangkok. 3. ECIA (Economic Commission for Latin America) with its H.Q. at Santiago (Chile). 4. ECA (Economic Commission for Africa) with its H.Q. at Addis Ababa. 5. ECWA (Economic Commission for Western Asia) with its H.Q. at Baghdad.

International Court of Justice It was created by an International Treaty, the Statue of the Court, which forms an integral part of the United Nations Charter. There are 15 Judges. President is Gulbert Guillaume (France). The Court has its seat at The Hague. The expenses of the Court are borne by the U.N. The Purpose of the Inter-national Court of Justice is to adjust and settle international disputes in conformity with justice and international law. There is no appeal against the decision of the Court. The Judges of the Court are elected for nine years and may be reelected. Languages: French, English


United Nations, Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Headquarters: Paris. A Conference for the establishment of an Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization of the United Nations was convened by the Government of France, and met in London, 1 to 16 Nov. 1945. UNESCO came into being on 4th November 1946. The main purpose of UNESCO is to promote peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order that people may have respect for justice, for the rule of law, for human rights and fundamental freedoms irrespective of race, sex, language and religion.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

It was adopted by the U.N. Assembly on December 10, 1948. It is a statement of normal standards to be followed by all nations. It guarantees international peace and prosperity. It stresses the fact that everyone has the rights to life, liberty and security, equality before law, freedom of movement etc. irrespective of race, religion, sex or language.

Headquarters: USA. It was founded in 1946 by the General Assembly. It was established to deliver post-war relief to children and it aims at improving the quality of life for children and mother in developing countries. UNICEF is not financed by the U.N. budget but by voluntary contributions from governments and individuals.

International Maritime Organization -IMO

International Civil Aviation Organisation

Headquarters: London. It was established as a specialised agency of the UN by the UN Maritime Conference at Geneva in 1948.

Headquarters: Lebanon. ICAO was formed in the International Civil Aviation Conference held in Chicago from 1 Nov. to 7 Dec. 1994. Its aims and objectives are to develop international air navigation and foster the planning and development of international transport.

International Labour Organisation (ILO)


The UN Conference on Food and Agriculture held in May 1943, at Hot springs, Virginia, set up an Interim Commission in Washington in July 1943 to plan the Food and Agricultural Organisation, which came into being on 16th October 1945. FAO sponsers the World Food Programme.

Headquarters: Geneva. It was established in 1919 as an autonomous part of the League of Nations. It is an intergovernmental agency with a tripartite structure, in which representatives of governments, employers and workers participate. In 1969, it won the Nobel Peace Prize.

Food & Agricultural Organization (FAO) Headquarters: Rome.

International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Headquarters: Washington. It was established at Bretton Woods Conference in July 1994. Its object is to assist the member nations in the economic reconstruction and development of the territories. The bank advances

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar

United Nations Organization (UNO)

loans to the member nations for development purposes and encourages private foreign investment and also arranges loans to its own security. It guarantees loans by Private Investors.

and experienced management. The membership of the Corporation will be open to those countries which are members of the World Bank.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Headquarter: Vienna. It was set up under the U.N. to make recommendations for the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. All the nations are to pay a part of fissionable material and also Uranium at the disposal of the Agency. The Agency was established at meeting of 82 nations held in New York in September, 1956.

Headquarters: Washington. It was established on 27th December 1945 and it operates from 1st March 1947. It works for the promotion of International Trade. It helps those countries with foreign exchange whose balance of trade is in unfavourable position.

World Health Organization (WHO) Headquarter: Geneva. WHO came into existence on April 7, 1948. It aims to assist the Governments to raise the standard of public health and impart information of health research. It also promotes in improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation and recreation.

Universal Postal Union (UPU) Headquarter: Switzerland. It was formally established on 1st July 1875. It has been established to alleviate uncertainty. Confusion and excessive cost of international postal communications by writing its member countries in a single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of mail. The postal convention has been extended and improved by the various Postal Congress.

International Telecommunications Union Headquarter: Geneva, Switzerland. The International Telegraph Union (ITU) founded in Paris in 1865 and the International Radio Telegraph Union, founded in Berlin in 1906 by the Madrid Convention of 1932 to form the ITU. Its main purpose is to bring the improvement and rational use of telecommunications and increase the efficiency of the telecommunication services by maintaining and extending international co-operation.



International Finance Corporation (IFC) Headquarter: Washington. It was established in July 1956. It is affiliated to World Bank. The basic object of the Corporation is to supplement the activities of the World Bank. It will seek to bring together investment opportunities, domestic and foreign private capital

International Atomic Energy Agency-IAEA

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Headquarter: Geneva. It was negotiated in 1947 and came into force on January 1, 1948. It is the only treaty setting rules for world trade. Its functions are to ease trade barriers and establish rules of fair trade. In recent years, GATT made special efforts to develop international trade and has also given particular emphasis on increasing the export trade of developing countries. GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) on January 1, 1995.

World Meteorological Organization- WMO Headquarter: Geneva, Switzerland. Conference of Directors of the International Meteorological Organization meeting in Washington in 1947, adopted a convention creating the W.M.O. It aims at improving weather observations and to adopt common measures for weather reporting in order to prevent-disaster caused by natural calamities like cyclones, typhoons etc.

World Intellectual Property Organization Headquarter: Geneva, Switzerland. The convention establishing WIPO was signed at Stockholm in 1967 by 51 countries and came into force in April 1970. In Dec. 1974 WIPO became a specialized agency of the U.N.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Headquarter: Rome, Italy. The establishment of IFAD was one of the major actions proposed by 1974 World Food Conference.

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar

United Nations Organization (UNO)

The agreement for IFAD came into force on 30 Nov. 1977 following attainment of initial pledges of $ 1,000 and the agency began its operations.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Headquarter: Vienna. It provides developing and underdeveloped countries with advice on all aspects of industrial policy converted into a specialized agency by U.N. in 1985.

Effectiveness of UN  The UN’s influence on international politics is significant and cannot be ignored.  The main goal of the UN’s founders was to avoid a third world war, and in that respect, the organization has succeeded.  The UN has peacefully resolved numerous international disputes since its founding and has established a set of rules for the use of force in the contemporary world.  The UN has been involved in every major war and international crisis since World War II in one fashion or another. It authorized the international coalitions that fought the Korean War (1950-1953) and the Persian Gulf War of 1991.  A UN has been both a forum for debate and an active mediator in the Arab-Israeli conflict.  In the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the United States used the UN as a forum to challenge the Soviet Union in front of the whole world.



Failures of the United Nations 1. Rwanda The Rwandan genocide of 1994 details the gross inability of the United Nations to carry out its sworn duty to maintain peace and security. In 1993, UN peacekeeping forces entered the nation, attempted to secure the capital and enable humanitarian aid. The peacekeeping forces were not authorized to use military manoeuvres to achieve these goals. In January of 1994, a cable was sent from the Canadian Force Commander to the

UN headquarters detailing the imminent threat of genocide by Hutu mobs on Tutsi minorities. The Security Council never received the cable, and the notice was largely ignored. 2. Darfur In 2003, the unstable nation of Sudan erupted in conflict. Early in the war, rebel forces defeated the Sudanese military. Seeing that defeat was imminent, the government funded the Janjaweed, a group of Arabs. By 2005, the Janjaweed were carrying out attacks on populated villages using artillery and helicopters, prompting condemnation by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan. Despite this condemnation, the UN did not enter Sudan, instead urging members of the African Union to intervene. 3. The Cold War The Cold War exemplifies the failure behind the United Nations Charter. In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was established, which was binding to all nations, along with the Convention against Genocide. But, almost immediately, the USSR disregarded these. Civic rights were virtually non-existent and Stalin continued to rule with an iron fist. With the United Nations unwilling to act upon such atrocities, the words in the Charter were rendered meaningless for those who needed them the most. 4. Khmer Rouge Ruling Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, the Khmer Rouge practiced an extreme form of Communism, as dictated by their borderline-psychotic leader Pol Pot. In 1979, the Vietnamese army invaded Cambodia to oust the Khmer Rouge and end the massacre and a new government was put in place in Cambodia. Shockingly, the United Nations refused to recognize this new government because it was backed by Vietnam, which had recently ended a decadelong conflict with the United States. 5. Srebrenica Massacre This 1995 Bosnian War massacre was the single worst act of mass murder on European

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar



United Nations Organization (UNO)

soil since World War II. After an ethnic cleansing campaign led by the Serbs targeted the Bosniaks, a largely Muslim community, the United Nations designated Srebrenica a safe-zone in 1993. But, as many as 7,800 Bosniaks were killed by Serbian soldiers mainly due largely to an ill-equipped and unprepared UN force. 6. Veto Power: Five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council enjoy the luxury of veto power; when a permanent member vetoes a vote, the Council resolution cannot be adopted. Most recent example of a veto came when the UNSC attempted to evoke chapter VII sanctions from the UN Charter to intervene and prevent genocide in Syria. But the vetoes by China and Russia halted any international intervention and rendered the UN hapless. 7. Child Sex Abuse Scandal To the oppressed people, the blue helmets of UN peacekeepers represent stability and safety. Unfortunately, the reports from Bosnia, Kosovo, Cambodia, Haiti, and Mozambique revealed a shocking trend; areas with peacekeeping forces saw a rapid rise in child prostitution. But, the senior officials in the UN refused to even condemn the peacekeepers. 8. Sri Lanka: In the final months of the war between LTTE and Sri Lankan army, the opposing sides fought in the heavily populated northeast coastline, a designated safe zone. Independent experts urged the Human Rights Council of the UN to investigate claims of war crimes, but the United Nations made no attempts to intervene on behalf of the civilian population. 9. Nuclear Proliferation: In 1970, the nuclear non-proliferation treaty was signed by 190 nations, including five nations that admitted to owning nuclear weapons: France, England, Russia, China, and the US. Despite this treaty, nuclear stockpiles remain high, and numerous nations continue to develop these devastating weapons. The failure of the non-proliferation treaty details the ineffectiveness of the United

Nations, and their inability to enforce crucial rules and regulations on offending nations. 10. Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) The state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), a landlocked territory, lies in northwestern part of Indian subcontinent. It became a disputed territory after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. The disputed status of J&K is acknowledged in the UN Security Council resolutions of August 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949, to which both Pakistan and India agreed. These resolutions remain fully in force today, and cannot be unilaterally disregarded by either party.  Talks between India and Pakistan over the future status of J & K should aim to secure the right of self-determination for the Kashmiri people. This right entails a free, fair, and internationally supervised plebiscite, as agreed in the 1948-1949 UN Security Council resolutions.  The plebiscite should offer the people of Kashmir the choice of permanent accession to either Pakistan or India.  Talks between India and Pakistan in regard to the future status of J&K should be held in conformity both with the Simla Agreement of July 1972 and the relevant UN Security Council resolutions. An international mediatory role in these talks may be appropriate. 11. Terrorism: Many experts agree that “modern” terrorism began with the 1968 hijacking of El Al Israel Flight 426 by a Palestinian organization. The United Nations condemned the action, but failed to take any further action. These terrorist acts continued throughout the remainder of the twentieth century, with no reaction from the UN; a simple condemnation was as far as they would go. Prepared by Aamir Mahar www.facebook.com/Central.Superior.Services123

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar

United Nations Organization (UNO)



MEMBERS OF THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION (UNO) 1. Argentina 2. Australia 3. Belarus 4. Belgium 5. Bolivia 6. Brazil 7. Canada 8. Chile 9. China 10. Colombia 11. Costa Rica 12. Cuba 13. Denmark 14. Dominican (Re) 15. Ecuador 16. Egypt 17. El Salvador 18. Ethiopia 19. France 20. Greece 21. Guatemala 22. Haiti 23. Honduras 24. India 25. Iran 26. Iraq 27. Lebanon 28. Liberia 29. Luxembourg 30. Mexico 31. Netherlands 32. New Zealand 33. Nicaragua 34. Norway 35. Panama 36. Paraguay 37. Peru 38. Philippines 39. Poland 40. Russia 41. Saudi Arabia 42. South Africa 43. Syria 44. Turkey 45. Ukraine 46. UK 47. USA 48. Uruguay 49. Venezuela 50. Yugoslavia 51. Afghanistan 52. Iceland 53. Sweden 54. Thailand

1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1945 1946 1946 1946 1946

55. Pakistan 1 56. Myanmar 57. Israel 58. Indonesia 59. Albania 60. Austria 61. Bulgaria 62. Cambodia 63. Finland 64. Hungary 65. Ireland 66. Italy 67. Jordan 68. Laos 69. Libya 70. Nepal 71. Portugal 72. Romania 73. Spain 74. Sri Lanka 75. Japan 76. Morocco 77. Sudan 78. Tunisia 79. Ghana 80. Malaysia 81. Guinea 82. Benin 83. Burkina Faso 84. Cameroon 85. Central African 86. Chad 87. Congo 88. Congo, Dem. 89. Cote d- Ivoire 1945 90. Cyprus 91. Gabon 92. Madagascar 93. Mali 94. Niger 95. Nigeria 96. Senegal 97. Somalia 98. Togo 99. Mauritania 100. Mongolia 101. Sierra Leone 102. Tanzania 103. Algeria 104. Burundi 105. Jamaica 106. Rwanda 107. Trinidad & Tobago 108. Uganda

1947 1948 1949 1950 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1955 1956 1956 1956 1956 1957 1957 1958 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1960 1961 1961 1961 1961 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962 1962

109. Kenya 110. Kuwait 111. Malawi 112. Malta 113. Zambia 114. Gambia 115. Maldives 116. Singapore 117. Barbados 118. Botswana 119. Guyana 120. Lesotho 121. Equatorial Guinea 122. Mauritius 123. Swaziland 124. Fiji 125. Bahrain 126. Bhutan 127. Oman 128. Qatar 129. UAE 130. Bahamas 131. Bangladesh 132. Grenada 133. Guinea-Bissau 134. Cape Verde 135. Comoros 136.Mozambique 137. Papua New Guinea 138. SaoTome Principe 139. Suriname 140. Angola 141. Samoa 142. Seychelles 143. Djibouti 144. Vietnam 145. Dominica 146. Solomon Islands 147. St. Lucia 148. St. Vincent &

1963 1963 1964 1964 1964 1965 1965 1965 1966 1966 1966 1966 1968 1968 1968 1970 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1973 1974 1974 1974 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1976 1976 1976 1977 1977 1977 1977 1979 1980


149. Zimbabwe 150. Antigua & Barbuda 151. Belize 152. Vanuatu 153. St.Kitts & Nevis 154. Brunei 155. Germany 2 156. Liechtenstein 157. Namibia 158. Yemen 159. Estonia 160. Korea North

Study Notes by Aamir Mahar

1980 1981 1981 1981 1983 1984 1990 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991

161. Korea South 162. Latvia 163. Lithuania 164. Marshall Islands 165. Micronesia 166. Armenia 167. Azerbaijan 168. Bosnia 169. Croatia 170. Georgia 171. Kazakhstan 172. Kyrgyzstan 173. Moldova 174. San Marino 175. Slovenia 176. Tajikistan 177. Turkmenistan 178. Uzbekistan 179. Andorra 180. Czech Republic 3 181. Eritrea 182. Macedonia 183. Monaco 184. Slovakia 185. Palau 186. Kiribati 187. Nauru 188. Tonga 189. Tuvalu 190. Serbia 191. Switzerland 192. East Timor 193. South Sudan 1. Pakistan has become non permanent member of Security Council for 7 times. 2. In 1973, East and West Germany became the members of UN Germany as such became the member in 1990. 3. Czech Republic (previously Czechoslovakia became the member of UN as early as 1945).

Prepared by Aamir Mahar

1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2002 2002 2011

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