Unit 2 Biology

January 13, 2018 | Author: Beverly Crawford | Category: Trans Fat, Chemical Elements, Cooking Oil, Chemistry, Properties Of Water
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Unit 2 Resources The Cell

A GLENCOE PROGRAM

BIOLOGY

biologygmh.com Check out the following features on your Online Learning Center:

Study Tools • Interactive Tables • Interactive Time Line • Animated illustrations • National Geographic Visualizing animations Self-Check Quizzes Chapter Tests Standardized Test Practice Vocabulary PuzzleMaker Interactive Tutor Multilingual Science Glossary Study to Go Online Student Edition

Extensions Virtual Labs Microscopy Links Periodic Table Links Career Links Web Links WebQuest Projects Science Fair Ideas Internet BioLabs

For Teachers Teacher Forum Teaching Today, and much more!

Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN 13: 978-0-07-874606-2 ISBN 10: 0-07-874606-X Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 11 10 09 08 07 06

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Glencoe Biology program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

Unit 2 The Cell Reproducible Student Pages Student Lab Safety Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Chapter 8 Cellular Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Chapter 9

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Cellular Reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Teacher Guide and Answers Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

iii

To the Teacher This unit-based booklet contains resource materials to help you teach this unit more effectively. You will find the following in the chapters:

Reproducible Pages Hands-on Activities Launch Lab, MiniLab, and BioLab Worksheets: Each activity in this book is an expanded version of each lab that appears in the Student Edition of Glencoe Biology. All materials lists, procedures, and questions are repeated so that students can read and complete a lab in most cases without having a textbook on the lab table. All lab questions are reprinted with lines on which students can write their answers. In addition, for student safety, all appropriate safety symbols and caution statements have been reproduced on these expanded pages. Answer pages for each Launch Lab, MiniLab, and BioLab are included in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Extension and Intervention Diagnostic Test: Each Diagnostic Test provides an opportunity for students to predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what they already know. The students decide on one of the possible answers given, and then explain their reasoning. Answers to the questions and explanations for student preconceptions are given in the Teacher Guide and Answers section. These student predictions to the questions will allow you to design your lessons to meet the students’ needs.

Enrichment: Enrichment pages offer research activities to students who need additional challenges. There are three types of Enrichment activities: Diagramming, Analyze a Problem, and Group Project. Diagramming activities have students use resources to draw and label their own diagrams. Analyze a Problem activities have students research, discuss, and write about specific topics. Group Project activities have students work in groups to research topics, organize information, and make class presentations.

iv

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Real-World Biology: These two-page activities provide students with the opportunity to explore a technological or everyday application of biology. There are two types of Real-World Biology pages: Lab activities and Analysis activities. Each activity is directly related to a major concept in the Student Edition, and several examine principles from the physical sciences that underlie the biology content. While some activities are more hands-on, all require critical thinking and creativity. The teaching notes in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book suggest chapters and topics with which to correlate the activities, explain the purpose of each activity, present career applications for the relevant field of science, offer materials tips and safety tips for the Lab activities, provide teaching strategies that include ideas for below-level and abovelevel students, and give answers to all questions on the student pages.

To the Teacher

continued

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Concept Mapping: The Concept Mapping worksheets reinforce and extend the graphic organizational skills introduced in the Skill Handbook in the Student Edition. Concept maps are visual representations of relationships among particular concepts. By using these worksheets, students will gain experience with six different types of concept maps: the network tree, which shows causal information, group hierarchies, and branching procedures; the flowchart, which is similar to an events chain but has more possibilities for events; the cycle map, which shows a series of events without a final outcome; the Venn diagram, which illustrates similarities and differences between items; the events chain, which describes the stages of a process, the steps in a linear procedure, or a sequence of events; and the cycle map, which shows how a series of events interacts to produce a set of results again and again. There is one Concept Mapping worksheet for each chapter in the Student Edition. Each worksheet is geared toward a specific section or sections in the chapter so that you can assign it at the most relevant time. An entire section or just a few key concepts from the section might be mapped. Answers to all Concept Mapping worksheets are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Study Guide in English and Spanish: These pages help students understand, organize, and compare the main biology concepts in the textbook. The questions and activities also help build strong study and reading skills. There are four study guide pages for each chapter. Students will find these pages easy to follow because the section titles match those in the textbook. Italicized sentences in the study guide direct students to the related topics in the text. The Study Guide exercises employ a variety of formats including multiple-choice, matching, true/false, ordering, labeling, completion, and short answer questions. The clear, easy-to-follow exercises and the self-pacing format are geared to build your students’ confidence in understanding biology. The English pages are followed immediately by the study guide pages in Spanish.

Section Quick Check: The Section Quick Check pages provide students an overview of the text using a short-answer format. Each page of questions is correlated to a section of the Student Edition, and the items are different from those in the Student Edition for broader coverage of section content. The questions utilize Bloom’s verbs and are scaffolded according to difficulty from easiest to hardest.

Chapter Tests: The Chapter Tests are arranged in five parts with five different types of questions. These worksheets provide materials to assess your students understanding of concepts from each chapter in the unit.

• Test A (below level): Multiple Choice, Matching, Interpreting, Short Answer, and Concept Application • Test B (on level): Multiple Choice, Matching and Completion, Interpreting, Short Answer, and Concept Application • Test C (above level): Multiple Choice, Matching and Completion, Interpreting, Short Answer, and Concept Application

v

To the Teacher

continued

The Multiple Choice, Matching, and Completion questions test comprehension of the vocabulary of the chapter. The Interpreting questions ask the student to combine factual and explanatory information. Students will need to interpret data and discover relationships presented in graphs, tables, and diagrams. The Short Answer questions allow the student to express understanding of the information. Students will apply their understanding of concepts to solve problems, compare and contrast situations, make inferences or predictions, and explain their reasoning. The Concept Application questions present the student with a situation. These situations give the student the opportunity to demonstrate both reasoning and creative skills.

Student Recording Sheet: Student Recording Sheets allow students to use the Chapter Assessment and the Standardized Test Practice questions in the Student Edition as a practice for standardized tests. Student Recording Sheets give them the opportunity to use bubble answer grids and numbers grids for recording answers. Answers for the Student Recording Sheets can be found in the Teacher Wraparound Edition on Chapter Assessment and Standardized Test Practice pages.

Teacher Guide and Answers: Answers or possible answers for questions in this booklet can be found in the Teacher Guide and Answers section. Materials, teaching strategies, and content background, along with chapter references, are also provided where appropriate.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

vi

Teacher Approval Initials Date of Approval

Student Lab Safety Form Student Name: Date: Lab Title: In order to show your teacher that you understand the safety concerns of this lab, the following questions must be answered after the teacher explains the information to you. You must have your teacher initial this form before you can proceed with the lab.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. How would you describe what you will be doing during this lab?

2. What are the safety concerns associated with this lab (as explained by your teacher)? • • • • • 3. What additional safety concerns or questions do you have?

Adapted from Gerlovich, et al. (2004). The Total Science Safety System CD, JaKel, Inc. Used with Permission. 1

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Section Quick Check 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Name

Diagnostic Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Before reading Chapter 6, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning. 1. Derek is watching a documentary about the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project and who succeeded in splitting atoms. The documentary explains what makes up atoms. Which explanation is given? A. Atoms are composed of electrical charges that are made of only energy. B. Atoms are hard, solid balls of matter that are the smallest known particles. C. Atoms are made of a hard particle called a nucleus surrounded by electrons. D. Atoms are made of three particles called electrons, neutrons, and protons.

Explain.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Jackie’s uncle is undergoing radioactive iodine treatments for thyroid cancer. The radioactive iodine used by the doctor is an isotope of the element iodine. Jackie researches the term isotope. Which definition for the term does she learn? A. atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons B. atoms of the same element with a different number of protons C. atoms of the same element with a negative charge D. atoms of the same element with a positive charge

Explain.

3. Abla is taking a nutrition class as an elective. She learns about the four most common organic macromolecules in human beings. About what macromolecules does she learn?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

3

Name

Date

Launch Lab

Class

CHAPTER 6

How does the nutrient content of foods compare?

Your body’s structure and function depends on chemical elements. The chemical ingredients that your body needs to function properly are found in nutrients like fats, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water. In this lab, you will investigate those nutrients.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Construct a data chart to record grams or percent of each nutrient listed in the lab introduction. Include columns labeled Serving Size, Calories, and Calories from Fat.

3. Study the Nutrition Facts label on a cereal box. Record data for the cereal provided. 4. Choose three additional labeled food items. Predict how the nutrients in these items compare with the nutrients in the cereal. Use the Nutrition Facts label to record data for each item.

Data and Observations

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Analysis 1. Evaluate What factors influenced your predictions of the nutrient content of the food items? Were your predictions correct? Explain.

2. Infer Which food item has the greatest nutritional value per serving? Justify your answer.

4

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

MiniLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Test for Simple Sugars

What common foods contain glucose? Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy for cells. In this lab, you will use a reagent called Benedict’s solution, which indicates the presence of –CHO (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) groups. A color change determines the presence of glucose and other simple sugars in common foods.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Create a data table with columns labeled Food Substance, Sugar Prediction, Observations, and Results. 3. Choose four food substances from those provided. Read the food labels and predict the presence of simple sugar in each food. Record your prediction.

4. Prepare a hot water bath using a hot plate and 1000-mL beaker. 5. Label four test tubes. Obtain a graduated cylinder. Add 10 mL of a different food substance to each test tube. Then add 10 mL distilled water. Swirl gently to mix. 6. Add 5 mL of Benedict’s solution to each tube. Use a clean stirring rod to mix the contents. 7. Using test tube holders, warm the test tubes in the hot water bath for 2–3 min. Record your observations and results.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis 1. Interpret Data Did any of the foods contain simple sugars? Explain.

2. Think Critically Could a food labeled “sugar free” test positive using Benedict’s solution as an indicator? Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

5

Name

Date

MiniLab

Class

CHAPTER 6

Investigate Enzymatic Browning

What factors affect enzymatic browning? When sliced, an apple’s soft tissue is exposed to oxygen, causing a chemical reaction called oxidation. Enzymes in the apple speed this reaction, producing darkened, discolored fruit. In this lab, you will investigate methods used to slow enzymatic browning.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Predict the relative amount of discoloration each of these apple wedges will show when exposed to air. Justify your prediction. Sample 1: Untreated apple wedge Sample 2: Apple wedge submerged in boiling water Sample 3: Apple wedge submerged in lemon juice Sample 4: Apple wedge submerged in sugar solution

3. Prepare 75 mL of each of the following: boiling water, lemon juice, and sugar solution in three 250-mL beakers. 4. Slice an apple into four wedges. Immediately use tongs to submerge each wedge in a different liquid. Put one wedge aside. 5. Submerge the wedges for three minutes, then place on a paper towel, skin side down. Observe for 10 min, then record the relative amount of discoloration of each apple wedge.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Analyze How did each treatment affect the chemical reaction that occurred on the fruit’s soft tissue? Why were some of the treatments successful?

2. Think Critically A restaurant owner wants to serve fresh-cut fruit. What factors might be considered in choosing a recipe and preparation method?

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Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Design Your Own

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

What factors affect an enzyme reaction?

Background: The compound hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is produced when organisms metabolize food, but hydrogen peroxide damages cell parts. Organisms combat the buildup of H2O2 by producing the enzyme peroxidase. Peroxidase speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Question: What factors affect peroxidase activity?

Materials Choose materials that would be appropriate for this lab. Possible materials include: 400-mL beaker kitchen knife hot plate test-tube rack ice beef liver dropper distilled water

18-mm × 150-mm test tubes buffer solutions (pH 5, pH 6, pH 7, pH 8) 50-mL graduated cylinder 10-mL graduated cylinder tongs or large forceps square or rectangular pan stopwatch or timer nonmercury thermometer 3% hydrogen peroxide potato slices

Safety Precautions

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

WARNING: Use only GFCI-protected circuits for electrical devices.

Plan and Perform the Experiment 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Choose a factor to test. Possible factors include temperature, pH, and substrate (H2O2) concentration. 3. Form a hypothesis about how the factor will affect the reaction rate of peroxidase. 4. Design an experiment to test your hypothesis. Create a procedure and identify the controls and variables.

Unit 2

5. On a separate sheet of paper, create a data table for recording your observations and measurements. 6. Make sure your teacher approves your plan before you proceed. 7. Conduct your approved experiment. 8. Cleanup and Disposal Clean up all equipment as instructed by your teacher and return everything to its proper place. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

7

Design Your Own BioLab, What factors affect an enzyme reaction?

continued

Analyze and Conclude 1. Describe how the factor you tested affected the enzyme activity of peroxidase.

2. Graph your data, then analyze and interpret your graph.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Discuss whether or not your data supported your hypothesis.

4. Infer why hydrogen peroxide is not the best choice for cleaning an open wound.

5. Error Analysis Identify any experimental errors or other errors in your data that might have affected the accuracy of your results.

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Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Lab

Class

CHAPTER 6

How lean is lean ground beef?

You need fats in your diet for your body to function properly, but the amount of fat and the kind of fat you eat can affect your health. The best fats in your diet are unsaturated fats. These fats help keep you healthy when they are eaten in moderation. Unsaturated fats can be monounsaturated (one double bond between carbon atoms) or polyunsaturated (more than one double bond between carbon atoms). Sources of monounsaturated fats include olive oil and canola oil. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include soybean oil, sunflower oil, salmon, and walnuts. Eating too many fats of any kind can lead to becoming overweight. Saturated fats (no double bond between carbon atoms) also increase the risk of heart disease. Most saturated fats are found in animal products, such as beef, butter, and whole milk. Another kind of fat also linked to heart disease is trans-fatty acid, or trans fat. Trans fats do not exist naturally in foods. Manufacturers make trans fats by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil. This process of hydrogenation turns liquid oils into solid fats and increases how long foods can keep without spoiling. Trans fats are found in some margarines, shortenings, and many processed foods, such as crackers and cookies. When people choose foods at a supermarket, they can read labels on processed foods to determine the amounts of saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and trans fats in the foods. If they want to buy ground beef, they can choose among different amounts of fat in the beef. Labels on packages of ground beef might have numbers such as 80/20. This means the ground beef is 80 percent lean and 20 percent fat. In this activity, you will determine the fat content of three samples of ground beef.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Obtain three different samples of ground beef and label them 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Observe the appearance of each sample, and record your observations in Table 1. Based on your observations, predict the percentage lean and percentage fat that would appear on each sample’s store label. 3. Using a balance, a large plastic cup, and a plastic spoon, measure out 100 g of sample 1 ground beef and place it in a large beaker. Fill the beaker three-fourths full with water, set it on a hot plate, and heat to boiling. WARNING: Use care when working with a heat source. Avoid touching the ground beef with your hands. 4. Use tongs or gloves to remove the beaker from the heat source, and allow it to cool 10 min.

5. The fat will form a separate layer above the water. Pour as much of the fat as you can into a graduated cylinder. Use care so as not to pour off water into the graduated cylinder. It might be necessary to gently scrape remaining fat particles from the beaker and add them to the graduated cylinder. Determine the volume of fat in sample 1 ground beef, and record the volume in Table 1. Calculate the mass of the fat by multiplying the volume of fat by 0.9 gm/mL, the density of fat. 6. Calculate the percentage of fat by dividing the mass of fat by the mass of sample 1 and multiplying by 100 percent. Record the percentage of fat. 7. Repeat steps 3–6 for the other two beef samples.

&AT 7ATER 'ROUNDBEEF

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

9

Real-World Biology: Lab, How lean is lean ground beef? continued Table 1

Ground Beef Sample

Appearance

Prediction of Percent Lean/ Percent Fat

Volume of Fat (mL)

Mass of Fat (g)

Percentage of Fat in Sample

1 2 3

Analyze and Conclude Respond to each question. 1. Explain How accurate were your predictions of the percentage of lean and percentage of fat of the ground-beef samples?

2. Compare How do the percentage of lean and percentage of fat of the three groundbeef samples compare?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Connect How does the percentage of fat affect the appearance of ground beef?

Careers In Biology Dietetics Visit the biologygmh.com for information on dieticians. What are the responsibilities of a dietician?

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Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Enrichment

Group Project: Just One of the Family

Scientists have identified more than ten million organic compounds. To understand and work with such a large number of compounds, chemists divide organic compounds into a number of families, with the members of each family having similar physical, chemical, and biological properties. Each family is characterized by a group of atoms known as a functional group. For example, the alcohols are a family of organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl (–OH) group. The characteristic properties of the functional group determine to a large extent the chemical, physical, and biological properties of the members of that family. Categorize In addition to the families of organic macromolecules discussed in the text, many simple organic families are important in biological processes. Some members of those families occur naturally in plants and animals and have important biological functions. Others do not occur naturally in living organisms, but they have important effects on the functioning of those organisms.

Organic Family

Functional Group

Research Working in a small group, choose one of the organic families listed in the table below. Consult reference books at the library to fill in the table for the organic family your group chose. Portray Prepare a one-page report on the biological significance of one member of the organic family you researched. Work with other groups in the class on a presentation that will combine the results from all groups in an interesting and informative way.

Examples

Biological Significance

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Alkanes Alkenes Aromatic hydrocarbons Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Esters Ethers Carboxylic acids Amines Amides Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

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Name

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Concept Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 6

Organic Macromolecules

Complete the network tree about organic macromolecules. These terms may be used more than once: amino acids, carbohydrates, (CH2O) n, DNA, fatty acid tails, lipids, nucleic acids, nucleotides. Organic Macromolecules

1.

2.

3.

include

which are

proteins

include

are made of 4.

monosaccharides

and have a general formula of

steroids

which have a central

and have

5.

RNA

carbon atom and are made up of

8.

12

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7.

6.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

In your textbook, read about the structure of atoms. Label the diagram of an atom. Use these choices: electron

energy level

neutron

nucleus

e– 1.

p+ n0

proton

3. 4.

2. 5.

In your textbook, read about elements, compounds, and chemical bonds. If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, replace the italicized term or phrase to make it true.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. On the periodic table, each element has a unique name and formula.

7. The periodic table is organized into horizontal rows, called periods, and vertical columns, called elements.

8. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.

9. Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

10. The period of an element is the amount of time it takes for half of a radioactive isotope to decay.

11. A combination is a substance formed when two or more different elements combine.

12. The two main types of chemical bonds are covalent bonds and van der Waals forces.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

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Name

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CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 2: Chemical Reactions

In your textbook, read about reactants and products. Fill in the blanks with the correct number of molecules to balance the chemical equation. C6H12O6 + (1)

O2

CO2 + (2)

H 2O (3)

Respond to each statement. 4. State the principle that explains why there must be the same number of atoms of each element on each side of an equation.

5. Identify which number indicates the number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a substance.

7ITHOUT%NZYME

In your textbook, read about activation energy and enzymes.

6. Draw a line on the graph that approximates the reaction pathway if an enzyme is added to the reactants.

!CTIVATION ENERGY

89 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

%NERGY

Refer to the graph of the reaction pathway.

89 2EACTIONPROGRESS

Match the description in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A 7. minimum amount of energy required for reactants to form products

Column B A. enzyme B. substrate

8. substance that lowers energy needed to start a chemical reaction

C. activation energy

9. protein that is a biological catalyst

D. catalyst

10. molecule that binds to an enzyme

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Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 3: Water and Solutions

In your textbook, read about water’s polarity. Label the diagram. Use these choices: covalent bond

hydrogen bond

slightly negative end

slightly positive end 

1.

(

2. 

(

/

3.

/ (



( /

4.

(

(

(

( /

/

(

(

In your textbook, read about mixtures with water.



For each statement below, write true or false.

5. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its individual characteristics. 6. A suspension is a mixture that has a uniform composition throughout.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. In a mixture, the solvent is the substance that is dissolved. 8. A mixture of sand and water is a heterogeneous mixture. 9. A suspension is a homogeneous mixture in which water is mixed with a substance that does not dissolve in it.

In your textbook, read about acids and bases. Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage. acids

bases

biology

buffers

hydrogen ions

neutral

pH

Substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water are called (10)

. The more (11)

a substance

releases, the more acidic the solution becomes. Substances that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called (12)

. Acids and bases are key substances in

(13)

. The concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is called

(14)

. Pure water is (15)

value of 7.0. (16)

and has a pH

are weak acids or weak bases that can react with strong

acids or strong bases to keep the pH within a particular range. Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

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Name

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CHAPTER 6

Study Guide

Section 4: The Building Blocks of Life

In your textbook, read about the building blocks of life. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Carbon atoms can bond together in straight chains, branched chains, or rings. 2. Large molecules containing carbon atoms are called micromolecules. 3. Polymers are molecules made from repeating units of identical organic compounds that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. 4. Carbon is a component of almost all biological substances. 5. Macromolecules can be organized into vitamins, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

In your textbook, read about carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Label the diagrams. Use these choices: saturated fat, unsaturated fat. 6.

7.

O

O

H H H | | | C—C—C—C | | HO H H

H H | | C—C—H | H

Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description. Description

Carbohydrate

Lipid

Protein

Nucleic Acid

8. Stores coded genetic information 9. Makes up fats, oils, and waxes in biology 10. Makes up muscles, skin, and hair 11. Forms double-helix structures 12. Is made of amino acids 13. Includes glucose, lactose, sucrose, and glycogen 14. Stores energy and is part of membranes 15. Contains peptide bonds

16

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

H H H H H H | | | | | | C—C—C—C—C—C—C—H | | | | | | HO H H H H H H

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 6

Sección 1: Los átomos, los elementos y los compuestos

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la estructura de los átomos. Identifica el diagrama de un átomo. Usa estas opciones: electrón

neutrón

nivel de energía

núcleo

e– 1.

protón

3.

p+ n0

4.

2. 5.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los elementos, compuestos y enlaces químicos. Si la afirmación es verdadera, escribe «verdadero». Si la afirmación es falsa, substituye el término o la frase en cursiva para volverla verdadera.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. En la tabla periódica, cada elemento tiene un nombre y fórmula únicos.

7. La tabla periódica está organizada en filas horizontales, llamadas períodos, y columnas verticales, llamadas elementos.

8. El agua está compuesta de hidrógeno y oxígeno.

9. Los átomos del mismo elemento que tienen diferentes números de neutrones se llaman isótopos.

10. El período de un elemento es la cantidad de tiempo que toma para que la mitad de un isótopo radiactivo decaiga.

11. Una combinación resulta cuando dos o más elementos diferentes se combinan.

12. Los dos tipos principales de enlaces químicos son los enlaces covalentes y las fuerzas de van der Waals.

Unidad 2

CAPÍTULO 6 La química en la biología

17

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 6

Sección 2: Las reacciones químicas

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los reactantes y los productos. Llena los espacios en blanco con el número correcto de moléculas para mantener el balance de la ecuación química. C6H12O6 + (1)

O2

CO2 + (2)

H 2O (3)

Responde a cada afirmación. 4. Indica el principio que explica porqué debe haber el mismo número de átomos de cada elemento en cada lado de una ecuación.

5. Identifica cómo se indica el número de átomos de cada elemento en una molécula de una sustancia.

3INENZIMA

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la energía de activación y de las enzimas.

%NERGÓADE ACTIVACIØN

89

89 0ROGRESODELAREACCIØN

Relaciona la descripción de la columna A con el término de la columna B. Columna A 7. cantidad mínima de energía necesaria para que los reactantes formen productos

Columna B A. enzima B. sustrato

8. sustancia que reduce la energía necesaria para iniciar una reacción química

C. energía de activación

9. proteína que es un catalizador biológico

D. catalizador

10. molécula que se enlaza a una enzima

18

La química en la biología CAPÍTULO 6

Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Traza una línea en la gráfica que aproxima la ruta de reacción si se agrega una enzima a los reactantes.

%NERGÓA

Consulta la gráfica de la ruta de reacción.

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPÍTULO 6

Guía de estudio

Sección 3: El agua y las soluciones

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la polaridad del agua. Identifica el diagrama. Usa estas opciones: enlace covalente

enlace de hidrógeno

extremo ligeramente negativo

extremo ligeramente positivo 

1.

(

2.



3.

(

/

/ (



( /

4.

(

(

(

( /

/

(

(

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las mezclas con agua.



Para cada afirmación a continuación, escribe «verdadero» o «falso».

5. Una mezcla es una combinación de dos o más sustancias en la cuale cada sustancia retiene sus características individuales. 6. Una suspensión es una mezcla que tiene una composición totalmente uniforme.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. En una mezcla, el solvente es la sustancia que se disuelve. 8. Una mezcla de arena y agua es una mezcla heterogénea. 9. Una suspensión es una mezcla homogénea en la cual el agua se mezcla con una sustancia que no se disuelve en ella.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los ácidos y las bases. Usa cada uno de los siguientes términos sólo una vez para completar el párrafo. ácidos

amortiguadores

bases

biología

iones de hidrógeno

neutra

pH

Las sustancias que liberan iones de hidrógeno cuando se disuelven en agua se llaman (10)

. Mientras más (11)

libere una

sustancia, más ácida se vuelve la solución. Las sustancias que liberan iones de hidróxido cuando se disuelven en agua se llaman (12)

. Los ácidos y las bases son sustancias clave en la

(13)

. La concentración de iones de hidrógeno en una solución se llama

(14)

. El agua pura es (15)

valor de pH de 7.0. Los (16)

y tiene un son ácidos débiles o bases débiles que pueden

reaccionar con ácidos fuertes o bases fuertes para mantener el pH dentro de un límite particular. Unidad 2

CAPÍTULO 6 La química en la biología

19

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPÍTULO 6

Guía de estudio

Sección 4: Los bloques edificantes de vida

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los bloques edificantes de vida. Para cada afirmación a continuación, escribe «verdadero» o «falso». 1. Los átomos de carbono se pueden enlazar en cadenas rectas, cadenas ramificadas o anillos. 2. Las moléculas grandes que contienen átomos de carbono se llaman micromoléculas. 3. Los polímeros son moléculas de unidades repetitivas de compuestos orgánicos idénticos que están unidos mediante enlaces de hidrógeno. 4. El carbono es un componente de casi todas las sustancias biológicas. 5. Las macromoléculas pueden organizarse en vitaminas, lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los carbohidratos, lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Identifica los diagramas. Usa estas opciones: grasa insaturada, grasa saturada. 6.

7.

O

O

H H H | | | C—C—C—C | | HO H H

H H | | C—C—H | H

Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripción. Descripción

Carbohidratos

Lípidos

Proteínas

Ácidos nucleicos

8. Almacenan información genética codificada. 9. Constituyen las grasas, los aceites y las ceras en biología. 10. Constituyen los músculos, la piel y el pelo. 11. Forman estructuras de hélice doble. 12. Están compuestos de aminoácidos. 13. Incluyen la glucosa, la lactosa, la sucrosa y el glicógeno. 14. Almacenan energía y es parte de las membranas. 15. Contienen enlaces péptidos. 20

La química en la biología CAPÍTULO 6

Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

H H H H H H | | | | | | C—C—C—C—C—C—C—H | | | | | | HO H H H H H H

Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 1: Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Define ionic bond.

2. Identify the particles that make up atoms, and state their charges.

3. Clarify the difference between carbon-12 and carbon-14 in terms of their abundance, stability, and atomic structure.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Oxygen has eight protons in its nucleus. Calculate the number of neutrons and electrons in a neutral oxygen-16 atom. Show your work and explain.

5. When 200 mL water and 2.5 g sodium chloride are combined, they make a saltwater solution. When 100 mL water and 5 g sodium chloride are combined, they also make a saltwater solution. Conclude whether or not salt water is a compound. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

21

Name

Date

Section Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 2: Chemical Reactions

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. State the term for the amount of energy that is needed for a chemical reaction to occur.

2. Summarize the relationship between an enzyme and a substrate.

3. Classify which of the compounds in the reaction below are reactants and which are products. PbO2 + 4HCl → PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

4. Compare endothermic reactions and exothermic reactions.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Predict Suppose four atoms of oxygen gas (O2) and two atoms of hydrogen gas (H2) are combined. Determine how many atoms of water (H2O) and oxygen gas (O2) will be produced.

22

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 3: Water and Solutions

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Tell how a solution is made. Use the terms solute and solvent in your answer.

2. Discuss the importance of buffers in biology.

3. Explain why water molecules are polar.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Indicate whether a solution will have more OH– or H+ if the pH value of the solution is 10.

5. Determine whether each of the following is a solution or a heterogeneous mixture: oil mixed with vinegar by shaking to make a salad dressing that settles into an oil layer and a vinegar layer; carbon dioxide dissolved in water to make carbonated water for making soft drinks. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

23

Name

Date

Section Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 6

Section 4: The Building Blocks of Life

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Recall what polymers are.

2. Review why carbon can form a variety of organic compounds in a variety of shapes.

3. Express the importance of nucleic acids to living organisms.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Compare and contrast saturated fats and unsaturated fats in terms of their structures.

5. Assess why the structure of proteins is so complex.

24

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

A

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which defines an atom? A. building block of energy B. building block of matter C. charged particle D. smallest particle 2. A charged atom that has lost or gained electrons is called a(n) A. acid. B. catalyst. C. ion. D. isotope. 3. An organic compound is a compound that contains A. carbon. B. hydrogen. C. oxygen. D. sodium.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part B: Matching Matching Set 1 Check the box of the atomic particle that matches each statement. More than one box may be checked for each statement. Statement

Electron

Neutron

Proton

1. Positively charged particle 2. Located outside the nucleus 3. Can be shared by two atoms 4. Has no charge

Matching Set 2 Write the letter of the correct term on the line next to its description. Answers may be used only once.

Unit 2

5. bond that forms when electrons are shared

A. carbon-14

6. bond that forms between charged ions

B. covalent

7. radioactive isotope of carbon

C. ionic

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

25

Name

Date

Chapter Test

A

Class

CONTINUED

Part C: Interpreting Graphs 2ELATIVE#OMPOSITIONOF ,IVINGV.ONLIVING-ATTER

0ERCENTOFRELATIVE ABUNDANCE



/RGANISMS



%ARTHS#RUST    

(

#

/

.

#A .A AND AND -' +

0

3I /THERS

Use the graph above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the three most abundant elements found in living things.

(ALF ,IFEOF#ARBON 

Use the graph at the right to respond to the following question.













 

 

 

 

4IMEELAPSEDY

Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Define element.

26

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part D: Short Answer

!MOUNTOFCARBONG



2. Interpret How long does it take for one half of a sample of carbon-14 to decay?

Name

Chapter Test

Date

A

Class

CONTINUED

2. State the role of enzymes in chemical reactions.

3. List three macromolecules used in the human body.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Infer why living things depend on the ability of water to dissolve many substances such as vitamins and minerals.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Infer why a small amount of fats are a necessary part of a healthy diet.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

27

Name

Date

Chapter Test

B

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Ions form when A. an atom gains neutrons. B. an atom loses neutrons. C. one atom gives up a proton to another atom. D. one atom gives up an electron to another atom. 2. A chemical reaction is a process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are A. dissolved in other substances. B. ionized by the loss of protons. C. mixed together with atoms in other substances. D. reorganized into different substances. 3. Which equation is balanced properly? A. 3O2 + 2Al → 2AlO3 B. 3O2 + Al → 3AlO3 C. 4O2 + 3Al → 4AlO3 D. 4O2 + Al → AlO3

5. Which substance would be extensively studied during a college organic chemistry course? A. glucose B. oxygen C. sodium D. water

Part B: Matching and Completion Matching Write the letter of the correct macromolecule on the line next to its description. Answers may be used only once or not at all. 1. provides energy for organisms

A. carbohydrate

2. does not dissolve in water

B. lipid

3. communicates genetic information

C. nucleic acid D. protein

28

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which is an example of a solute? A. soil suspended in water B. sugar that is dissolved in water C. water that dissolves salt D. water with undissolved soil

Name

Date

Chapter Test

B

Class

CONTINUED

Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below. 4. The building blocks of all matter are called

.

5. Magnesium and oxygen combine to form a new substance, magnesium oxide, which is

a(n)

.

6. A positively charged potassium atom is called a(n)

.

7. The oxygen formed during the chemical reaction of photosynthesis is called

a(n)

.

8. An acid is a substance that releases

.

Part C: Interpreting Graphs 2ELATIVE#OMPOSITIONOF ,IVINGV.ONLIVING-ATTER  /RGANISMS



%ARTHS#RUST   

!MOUNTOFCARBONG

0ERCENTOFRELATIVE ABUNDANCE



(ALF ,IFEOF#ARBON 







 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

!

"

#

.

#A .A AND AND -' +

0

3I /THERS







 

 

 

 

4IMEELAPSEDY

Use the first graph above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the three most abundant elements found in living things labeled A–C. A.

B.

C.

Use the second graph above to respond to the following question. 2. Interpret Approximately what percentage of the original carbon-14 will remain

in a 11,500-year-old mastodon?

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Compare and contrast an electron, proton, and neutron.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

29

Name

Date

Chapter Test

B

Class

CONTINUED

2. Compare and contrast covalent and ionic bonds.

3. Explain the relationship between enzymes and the activation energy of a chemical reaction.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Propose how chemists would use the periodic table of the elements to make new compounds.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Infer Sodium is a metal that reacts violently with water, and chlorine is a toxic gas. Table salt is a compound made of sodium and chlorine. Infer how humans can ingest these two dangerous elements in the form of table salt.

3. Explain Human skin contains lipids. Explain why this is a useful survival mechanism.

30

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

C

Class

CHAPTER 6

Chemistry in Biology

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which is true in a covalent bond? A. The bond forms between ions. B. The bond forms when electrons are shared. C. The bond holds atoms weakly. D. The bond is caused by van der Waals forces. 2. Elements are placed into the same period on the periodic table of the elements because they A. form the same type of chemical bonds. B. form the same type of isotopes. C. have the same chemical properties. D. have the same number of electron energy levels.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Which equation satisfies the law of conservation of matter? A. 3O2 + 2Al → 2AlO3 B. 3O2 + Al → 3AlO3 C. 4O2 + 3Al → 4AlO3 D. 4O2 + Al → AlO3 4. Biological buffers function to achieve a pH range of A. 4.5–5.5 C. 6.5–7.5 B. 5.5–6.5 D. 7.5–8.5 5. Which macromolecule is involved in nearly every function in the human body? A. carbohydrate C. nucleotide B. lipid D. protein 6. Which macromolecule stores energy for an organism? A. carbohydrate C. nucleotide B. lipid D. protein

Part B: Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below. 1. Positively charged particles in an atom are called

.

2. Two atoms of uranium that differ in their number of neutrons are

called

.

3. The chemical formula of a compound formed with boron and fluorine

is

Unit 2

.

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

31

Name

Date

Chapter Test

C

Class

CONTINUED

4. The hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms in a glucose molecule are held together

by

.

5. Because ammonia releases hydroxide ions, it is called a(n)

.

6. The branch of science that studies carbon compounds is called

.

Part C: Interpreting Graphs 2ELATIVE#OMPOSITIONOF ,IVINGV.ONLIVING-ATTER  /RGANISMS



%ARTHS#RUST   

!MOUNTOFCARBONG

0ERCENTOFRELATIVE ABUNDANCE



(ALF ,IFEOF#ARBON 









!

"

#

$

#A .A AND AND -' +

0

3I /THERS







 

 

 

 

4IMEELAPSEDY

Use the first graph above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the four most abundant elements found in living things labeled A–D. B.

C.

D.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A.

Use the second graph above to respond to the following statement. 2. Contrast the accuracy of dating a 5000-year-old seed and a 100,000-year-old bone using carbon-14 dating.

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Summarize the information about the element gold that is available to a chemist studying a periodic table of the elements.

32

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Chapter Test

Date

C

Class

CONTINUED

2. Predict the effect on water molecules if each molecule had no areas of positive or negative charges.

3. Contrast blood, hot sugar water, and a soil-water mixture.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Infer why hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is toxic to drink even though it is composed of the same elements as water.

2. Predict The substance papain is a common enzyme found in meat tenderizers. Predict the effect of papain on meat.

3. Consider how the properties of water protect the aquatic organisms living in a temperate-climate pond during both the summer and winter months.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

33

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment Section 6.1 Vocabulary Review

Explain the difference between the vocabulary terms in each pair. 1.

2.

3.

4.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 5.

6.

7.

8.

Constructed Response

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9.

10. 11.

Think Critically 12.

13.

Section 6.2 Vocabulary Review

Write the letter of the definition that best matches each vocabulary term. 14.

16.

15.

17.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

35

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 18.

19.

20.

Constructed Response 21. 22.

Think Critically 23. 24.

Section 6.3 Vocabulary Review

Explain the relationship between the vocabulary terms in each pair. 25. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

26. 27. 28. 29. Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 30.

31.

32.

Constructed Response 33.

34.

35.

36

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Think Critically 36. 37. Record your answer for question 37 on a separate sheet of paper.

Section 6.4 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best completes each sentence. 38.

40.

39.

41.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 42.

43.

44.

Constructed Response 45.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

46.

Think Critically 47. Record your answer for question 47 on a separate sheet of paper. Additional Assessment 48. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 48 on a separate sheet of paper. Document-Based Questions 49.

50.

Cumulative Review 51.

52. Record your answer for question 52 on a separate sheet of paper. Unit 2

CHAPTER 6 Chemistry in Biology

37

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 6

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment

Standardized Test Practice Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 1.

3.

5.

7.

2.

4.

6.

8.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences. 9.

10.

11.

12.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

13. 14.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences. 15.

16.

17. Record your answer for question 17 on a separate sheet of paper. Essay Question 18. Record your answer for question 18 on a separate sheet of paper. 38

Chemistry in Biology CHAPTER 6

Unit 2

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Section Quick Check 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

39

Name

Diagnostic Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Before reading Chapter 7, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning. 1. During the nineteenth century, many scientists and naturalists studied microscopic organisms using magnifying lenses and simple microscopes. After studying plant tissues, animal tissues, and protozoans under the microscope, scientists summarized their observations of cells and formulated the cell theory. Which would not be included as part of the cell theory? A. All living things are made of one or more cells. B. Cells are the building blocks of living structures. C. Parent cells pass genetic material on to daughter cells. D. Unicellular organisms can grow from organic molecules.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Explain.

2. Science students in Alma’s class are observing prepared slides of the cells of maple tree leaves and mammal skin cells. As they study the cells under the microscope’s highest magnification, their teacher records their observations on the board. Which would be included in the teacher’s list? A. Both the animal and plant cells have an oval shape and are about the same size. B. Both types of cells have a membrane that is also surrounded by a cell wall. C. The leaf cells have green organelles called chloroplasts; the animal cells do not. D. The skin cells have a nucleus, but the cells of the leaves have no nucleus.

Explain.

3. Soto puts a drop of green food dye into a glass of water and observes the dye forming colorful swirls before eventually turning the water green. Explain Soto’s observations.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

41

Name

Date

Launch Lab

Class

CHAPTER 7

What is a cell?

All things are made of atoms and molecules, but only in living things are the atoms and molecules organized into cells. In this lab, you will use a compound microscope to view slides of living things and nonliving things.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. In the space below, construct a data table for recording your observations. 3. Obtain slides of the various specimens.

4. View the slides through a microscope at the power designated by your teacher. 5. As you view the slides, fill out the data table you constructed.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Describe some of the ways to distinguish between the living things and the nonliving things.

2. Write a definition of a cell based on your observations.

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Name

MiniLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Discover Cells

How can you describe a new discovery? Imagine you are a scientist looking through the eyepiece of some newfangled instrument called a microscope and you see a field of similarly shaped objects. You might recognize that the shapes you see are not merely coincidence and random objects. Your whole idea of the nature of matter is changing as you view these objects.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. In the space below, prepare a data table in which you will record observations and drawings for three slides.

3. View the slide images your teacher projects for the class. 4. Describe and draw what you see. Be sure to include enough detail in your drawings to convey the information to other scientists who have not observed cells.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis 1. Describe What analogies or terms could explain the images in your drawings?

2. Explain How could you show Hooke, with twenty-first century technology, that his findings were valid?

Unit 2

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43

Name

Date

MiniLab

Class

CHAPTER 7

Investigate Osmosis

What will happen to cells placed in a strong salt solution? Regulating flow and amount of water into and out of the cell is critical to the survival of that cell. Osmosis is one method used to regulate a cell’s water content.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Prepare a control slide using onion epidermis, water, and iodine stain as directed by your teacher. 3. Prepare a test slide using onion epidermis, salt water, and iodine stain as directed by your teacher.

4. Predict the effect, if any, that the salt solution will have on the onion cells in the test slide. 5. View the control slide using a compound microscope under low power and sketch several onion cells in the space below. 6. View the test slide under the same magnification, and sketch your observations.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Analyze and Conclude Was your prediction correct or incorrect? Explain.

2. Explain Use the process of osmosis to explain what you observe.

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Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

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Name

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Selective Permeability of Membranes

Background: All membranes in cells, including the plasma membrane and the membranes that surround organelles in eukaryotic cells, are selectively permeable. In this lab, you will examine the movement of some biologically important molecules through a dialysis membrane that is analogous to the plasma membrane. Because a dialysis membrane has tiny pores, it is only permeable for tiny molecules. Question: Which substances pass through a dialysis membrane?

Materials cellulose dialysis tubing (2) 400-mL beakers (2) string scissors distilled water small plastic dishpan starch solution albumin solution glucose solution NaCl solution

iodine solution (tests starch) anhydrous Benedict’s reagent (tests glucose) silver nitrate solution (tests NaCl) biuret reagent (tests albumin) 10-mL graduated cylinder test tubes (2) test-tube rack funnel wax pencil dropper

Safety Precautions

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

WARNING: Always wear goggles in the lab.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Construct a data table in the space on page 46 as instructed by your teacher. 3. Collect two lengths of dialysis tubing, two 400-mL beakers, and the two solutions that you have been assigned to test. 4. Label the beakers with the type of solution that you place in the dialysis tubing. 5. With a partner, prepare and fill one length of dialysis tubing with one solution. Rinse the outside of the bag thoroughly. Place the filled tubing bag into a beaker that contains distilled water. 6. Repeat step 5 using the second solution.

Unit 2

7. After 45 minutes, transfer some of the water from each beaker into separate test tubes. 8. Add a few drops of the appropriate test reagent to the water. 9. Record your results and determine whether your prediction was correct. Compare your results with other groups in your class and record the results for the two solutions that you did not test. 10. Cleanup and Disposal Wash and return all reusable materials. Dispose of test solutions and used dialysis tubing as directed by your teacher. Wash your hands thoroughly after using any chemical reagent.

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

45

BioLab, Selective Permeability of Membranes

continued

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analyze and Conclude 1. Evaluate Did your test molecules pass through the dialysis tubing? Explain.

2. Think Critically What characteristics of a plasma membrane give it more control over the movement of molecules than the dialysis membrane?

3. Error Analysis How could failing to rinse the dialysis tube bags with distilled water prior to placing them in the beaker cause a false positive test for the presence of a dissolved molecule? What other sources of error might lead to inaccurate results?

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Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Analysis

Class

CHAPTER 7

Extending Our Senses

In the 1600s, modern science was just beginning. Many people believed that Earth was at the center of the universe and that diseases were caused by evil spirits. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was born in the Netherlands in 1632. He had no higher education and made a living as a fabric merchant, a janitor, and a lens grinder. After reading a book about Robert Hooke’s discoveries, van Leeuwenhoek made his own microscope and used it to examine pond water and other substances. With his microscopes, he succeeded in making some of the most important discoveries in the history of biology. Early compound microscopes did not magnify objects more than 20 or 30 times their natural size. However, van Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes magnified more than 200 times, with clearer and brighter images than any of his colleagues could achieve. Among the things he discovered with his microscopes were bacteria, sperm cells, and blood cells. %YEPIECES #ONTAINMAGNIFYINGLENSES TOLOOKTHROUGH

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part A: Microscope Parts and Functions Van Leeuwenhoek’s simple microscope consisted of one lens mounted in a tiny hole in a metal plate. The specimen was mounted on a sharp point in front of the lens. Its position and focus could be adjusted by turning two screws that moved up and down. The entire instrument was only 5 to 7.6 cm long and had to be held close to sunlight or candlelight. Figure 1 is a picture of a compound microscope like the ones used in school laboratories today. This type of microscope incorporates more than one lens so that the image magnified by one lens can be further magnified by another.

8 !RM ,OW POWEROBJECTIVE #ONTAINSTHELENSWITH LOW POWERMAGNIFICATION 8 3TAGECLIPS (OLDSTHEMICROSCOPE SLIDEINPLACE

8 8

#OARSEADJUSTMENT &OCUSESTHEIMAGE UNDERLOWPOWER

(IGH POWEROBJECTIVES #ONTAINLENSESWITHGREATER POWERSOFMAGNIFICATION 3TAGE 3UPPORTSTHEMICROSCOPE SLIDE

&INEADJUSTMENT 3HARPENSTHEIMAGE UNDERHIGHANDLOW MAGNIFICATION

$IAPHRAGM 2EGULATESTHEAMOUNTOF LIGHTTHATPASSESTHROUGH THESPECIMEN

Analyze and Conclude

,IGHTSOURCE !LLOWSLIGHTTOREFLECT UPWARDTHROUGHTHE DIAPHRAGM THESPECIMEN ANDTHELENSES

Use Figure 1 to respond to the following statement. 1. Calculate the microscope’s magnifying power if using the eyepiece and the 40× objective.

2EVOLVINGNOSEPIECE (OLDSANDTURNSTHE OBJECTIVESINTOVIEWING POSITION

Figure 1

2. Compare The table below lists functions of parts of the microscope. In the second and third columns, list descriptions of the microscope parts that perform each function. Function

Van Leeuwenhoek’s Microscope

Modern Compound Microscope

Magnification Specimen mounting Position/focus of specimen Light source Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

47

Real-World Biology: Analysis, Extending Our Senses continued Part B: Using Microscopes to Examine Evidence The Student Council room at Central High has been set up for a crime scene investigation. Three weeks ago, Mrs. Sarah Roberts, the biology teacher, was writing a test in the lab. Her lunch was on the table where she was working. Suddenly, the fire alarm rang. Mrs. Roberts promptly left the building and, in her haste, left the lab door open. She was surprised to see a large group of people outside the building, most of them with animals. She thought this was a little unusual but soon forgot about it. When Mrs. Roberts returned to the lab, she found that her lunch was missing. Background Information

Red blood cells of mammals do not have nuclei. Red blood cells of nonmammals have nuclei. Cancer cells lack contact inhibition. They continue to grow, forming layers of cells. The cells grow randomly in culture. Normal skin cells grow in culture until they physically come in contact with each other. Growth then stops. This is called contact inhibition. The cells do not grow randomly, but are oriented in a particular direction.

Debris from the floor: sand and hay Blood sample: Red blood cells have nuclei. Skin sample: Was cultured; cells were found to have contact inhibition and be oriented in a particular direction.

Suspects

Suspect 1 • Spends weekends on the beach • Works as a dishwasher • Is being treated for skin cancer • Has a poodle named Fifi with a bandaged leg Suspect 2 • Works in a stone quarry • Doesn’t go anywhere without his pet frog, Croak, last seen with a bandaged webbed foot Suspect 3 • Lives on a farm • Recently spent a week at the shore • Never goes anywhere without her bird, Polly, last seen nursing a hurt wing Suspect 4 • Lives on Main Street above the bagel shop • Said he shaves hourly • Has a pet iguana that he recently took to the vet (Adapted from Surmacz, C., Association for Biology Laboratory Education)

Analyze and Conclude Respond to the following statement. 1. Deduce After reviewing the evidence information, deduce the identity of the thief. Explain how you arrived at your answer.

Careers In Biology Cell Biology Visit biologygmh.com for information on cell biologists. What are the responsibilities of a cell biologist? 48

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Laboratory Test Results

She looked around the room and saw some things that had not been there when she left. There was some kind of debris on the floor. A small piece of human skin was stuck to a broken beaker. Nearby was a trail of blood. The security chief arrived, collected the three pieces of evidence, and ordered laboratory reports on each. The laboratory used microscopes to examine the skin and blood samples. The security chief then apprehended four suspects. All were in the vicinity of the building on the day of the theft. The following information is listed on the evidence bulletin board. You must use this information to determine who stole the lunch bag.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Enrichment

Analyze a Problem: Practical Applications of Osmosis

Osmosis is a process that occurs naturally any time two solutions of different concentrations are separated from each other by a semipermeable membrane. For example, the watery solution inside the root cells of a growing plant normally has a higher concentration than the groundwater that surrounds the roots. The solution inside the cell is hypertonic in comparison to the groundwater. Water passes more rapidly across the cell membrane into the cell than it does out of the cell. This process makes possible the movement of water from the base of a plant upward through its trunk and branches into upper parts of the plant. Differentiate Humans use the principle of osmosis in a number of practical applications. The table below lists some of those applications. In each case, tell how osmosis explains the process that takes place. If needed, use text resources to research explanations.

Application

Then tell whether the solution in bold is isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic. Use the abbreviations iso for an isotonic solution, hypo for a hypotonic solution, and hyper for a hypertonic solution.

Explanation

Solution

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pickles are made by immersing cucumbers in a concentrated saltwater solution. Spraying plants with a solution that contains too high a concentration of fertilizer might cause them to dry out and die. Patients undergoing surgery are given a 0.9% saline (saltwater) solution. One of the oldest methods of preserving foods is to pack them in saline solutions, which kill the bacteria that cause foods to spoil. Organisms that live in seawater have specialized mechanisms that prevent them from becoming dehydrated. Florists store fresh flowers in cold water to help the flowers keep their original appearance . . . . . . although the flowers begin to wilt as soon as they are taken out of the water for a period of time. Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

49

Name

Date

Concept Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure

Complete the network tree about cellular structure. These terms may be used more than once: animals, bacteria, chloroplasts, eukaryotes, a large central vacuole, plants, plasma membrane, prokaryotes.

1. All cells have a

and are grouped into two bread categories:

2.

3.

which are mainly

which include

4.

6.

some yeast and algae

which contain unique structures such as

7.

8.

cell walls

50

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 1: Cell Discovery and Theory

In your textbook, read about the history of the cell theory and microscope technology. Respond to each statement. 1. Name the invention that helped scientists discover the cell.

2. Tell why Hooke called the structures he saw in the cork cellulae (“small rooms”).

3. Name the type of microscope that uses a series of magnifying lenses.

Write the term or phrase that best completes each statement. Use these choices: cell theory The (4)

cells

daughter cells

genetic material

organisms

includes the following three principles:

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more (5)

.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living (6)

.

3. Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their (7)

on to their (8)

.

In your textbook, read about basic cell types. Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description. Description

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

9. Organisms that break down molecules to generate energy 10. Organisms that have cells lacking internal membrane-bound organelles 11. Organisms whose cells do not have nuclei 12. Organisms that are either unicellular or multicellular 13. Organisms that are generally unicellular 14. Organisms that have cells containing organelles 15. Organisms that have plasma membranes Unit 2

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51

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 2: The Plasma Membrane

In your textbook, read about the function of the plasma membrane. Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description. Selective Permeability

Description

Homeostasis

Plasma Membrane

1. The process of maintaining balance inside a cell 2. A boundary between a cell and its environment 3. The feature of the plasma membrane that keeps some substances out 4. Separates prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from the watery environment in which they exist 5. The quality of a plasma membrane that allows oxygen and glucose to move in 6. Maintained by the plasma membrane

In your textbook, read about the structure of the plasma membrane. Label the diagram of the plasma membrane. Use these choices: nonpolar tails

polar head

transport protein

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

carbohydrate chain



7.



8.



9. 10.



Match the definition or description in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A

Column B

11. make up most of the molecules in the plasma membrane

A. transport proteins

12. a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate-containing compound

B. lipids C. phospholipid

13. move substances through the plasma membrane D. fluid mosaic model 14. two layers of phospholipids arranged tail-to-tail E. phospholipid bilayer 15. the phospholipid “sea” in which embedded substances float 52

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 3: Structures and Organelles

In your textbook, read about structures and organelles. Label the diagram of a typical animal cell. Use these choices: cytoplasm mitochondrion

endoplasmic reticulum nucleolus

Golgi apparatus nucleus

microtubules

1. 2.   

3. 4. 5.



6.



7.



Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

If the statement is true, write true. If the statement is false, replace the italicized word or phrase to make it true.



8. Microtubules are long, hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton for the cell.

9. The Golgi apparatus contains most of the cell’s DNA.

10. The nucleolus is the structure that produces sugars.

11. The endoplasmic reticulum is a stack of membranes that packages proteins into sacs called vesicles.

12. The cytoplasm is the semifluid internal environment of the cell.

Unit 2

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Name

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CHAPTER 7

Study Guide

Section 4: Cellular Transport

In your textbook, read about cellular transport. Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A

Column B A. osmosis

1. moves small molecules across the plasma membrane using transport proteins

B. exocytosis 2. involves water moving across the plasma membrane to the side with the greater solute concentration

C. facilitated diffusion

3. occurs when substances move against the concentration gradient; requires energy and the aid of carrier proteins 4. occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance inside the cell and moves it outside the cell

D. dynamic equilibrium E. active transport F. endocytosis

5. the condition that results when diffusion continues until the concentrations are the same in all areas 6. occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance outside the cell and moves it inside the cell

In your textbook, read about osmosis.

Description

Isotonic Solution

Hypotonic Solution

Hypertonic Solution

7. A solution that has the same osmotic concentration as a cell’s cytoplasm 8. A solution that causes a cell to shrivel 9. A solution that causes a cell to swell 10. A solution that neither shrinks nor swells a cell 11. A solution in which there is more water outside the cell than inside the cell 12. A solution that causes water to move out of a cell

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Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description.

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPÍTULO 7

Guía de estudio

Sección 1: Descubrimiento y teoría de la célula

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la historia de la teoría de la célula y la tecnología del microscopio. Responde a cada afirmación. 1. Nombra el invento que ayudó a los científicos a descubrir la célula.

2. Indica porqué Hooke denominó las estructuras que observó en el corcho con el nombre de cellulae (“celdillas”).

3. Nombra el tipo de microscopio que utiliza una serie de lentes de aumento.

Escribe el término o la frase que mejor completa cada afirmación. Usa estas opciones: células La (4)

células hijas

material genético

organismos

teoría de la célula

se define por los siguientes tres principios:

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Todos los organismos vivos están compuestos por una o más (5)

.

2. Las células son la unidad básica de estructura y organización de todos los (6)

vivos.

3. Las células surgen únicamente de células anteriormente existentes, que pasan copias del (7)

a sus (8)

.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los tipos básicos de células. Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripción. Descripción

Procariotas

Eucariotas

9. Organismos que descomponen moléculas para generar energía 10. Organismos que tienen células que carecen de organelos internos unidos a membranas 11. Organismos cuyas células no tienen núcleo 12. Organismos que son unicelulares o multicelulares 13. Organismos que son generalmente unicelulares 14. Organismos que tienen células con organelos 15. Organismos que tienen membranas de plasma Unidad 2

CAPÍTULO 7 Estructura y función celular

55

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 7

Sección 2: La membrana de plasma

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la función de la membrana de plasma. Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripción. Permeabilidad selectiva

Descripción

Homeostasis

Membrana de plasma

1. El proceso de mantener el balance al interior de una célula 2. Una división entre una célula y su ambiente 3. La característica de la membrana de plasma que mantiene ciertas substancias por fuera 4. Separa las células procariotas y las eucariotas del ambiente acuoso en el que existen 5. La calidad de una membrana de plasma que permite que el oxígeno y la glucosa entren 6. Se mantiene gracias a la membrana de plasma

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la estructura de la membrana de plasma. Identifica en el diagrama las partes de la membrana de plasma. Usa estas opciones: cabeza polar

cadena de carbohidratos

colas apolares

proteínas de transporte 

8. 

9. 10.



Relaciona la definición o descripción de la columna A con el término de la columna B. Columna A 11. constituyen la mayoría de las moléculas en la membrana de plasma

______

56

Columna B A. proteínas de transporte

12. una molécula que tiene una estructura de glicerol, dos cadenas de ácidos grasos y un compuesto que contiene fosfato

B. lípidos

13. mueve substancias a través de la membrana de plasma

C. fosfolípidos

14. dos capas de fosfolípidos organizadas de cola a cola

D. modelo del mosaico fluido

15. el “mar” de fosfolípidos en el cual flotan las sustancias incrustadas

Estructura y función celular CAPÍTULO 7

E. capa doble de fosfolípidos Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.



7.

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 7

Sección 3: Estructuras y organelos

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las estructuras y los organelos. Identifica en el diagrama las partes de una célula animal común. Usa estas opciones: aparato de Golgi núcleo

citoplasma nucleolo

microtúbulos retículo endoplásmico

mitocondria

1. 2.

4.

  

5.



6.



3.

7.



Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Si la afirmación es verdadera, escribe «verdadero». Si la afirmación es falsa, substituye la palabra o frase en cursiva para volverla verdadera.



8. Los microtúbulos son cilindros de proteína largos y huecos que forman un esqueleto rígido para la célula.

9. El aparato de Golgi contiene la mayor parte del ADN de la célula.

10. El nucleolo es la estructura que produce azúcares.

11. El retículo endoplásmico es un grupo de membranas que empaca proteínas en bolsas llamadas vesículas.

12. El citoplasma es el ambiente interno semifluido de la célula.

Unidad 2

CAPÍTULO 7 Estructura y función celular

57

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 7

Sección 4: Transporte celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del transporte celular. Relaciona la definición de la columna A con el término de la columna B. Columna A

Columna B

1. mueve pequeñas moléculas por la membrana de plasma mediante las proteínas de transporte 2. implica mover agua por la membrana de plasma hacia el lado con la mayor concentración soluble

A. ósmosis B. exocitosis C. difusión facilitada

3. ocurre cuando las substancias se mueven contra el gradiente de concentración; necesita energía y la ayuda de proteínas transportadoras

D. equilibrio dinámico

4. ocurre cuando la membrana de plasma rodea una sustancia grande al interior de la célula y la mueve hacia el exterior de la célula

F. endocitosis

E. transporte activo

5. la condición que resulta cuando la difusión continúa hasta que las concentraciones sean las mismas en todas las áreas 6. ocurre cuando la membrana de plasma rodea una sustancia grande al exterior de la célula y la mueve hacia el interior de la célula

Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripción. Descripción

Solución isotónica

Solución hipotónica

Solución hipertónica

7. Una solución que tiene la misma concentración osmótica que el citoplasma de una célula 8. Una solución que causa que una célula se contraiga 9. Una solución que causa que una célula se hinche 10. Una solución que ni contrae ni hincha una célula 11. Una solución en la cual hay más agua por fuera de la célula que al interior de la misma 12. Una solución que causa que el agua salga de una célula

58

Estructura y función celular CAPÍTULO 7

Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la ósmosis.

Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 1: Cell Discovery and Theory

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Describe the discovery of the cell. Mention Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek in your answer.

2. Summarize the three parts of the cell theory.

3. List three characteristics or structures that all cells share.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Evaluate the impact of microscope technology on the modern study of cells.

5. Differentiate between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

Unit 2

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59

Name

Date

Section Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 2: The Plasma Membrane

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Identify three components of the plasma membrane other than phospholipids.

2. Describe the structure of the phospholipid bilayer.

3. State the function of the plasma membrane as it relates to homeostasis.

4. Predict what would happen to a cell if its plasma membrane lost its selective permeability. Explain. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Clarify why the surface of the plasma membrane can be described as a mosaic.

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Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

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Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 3: Structures and Organelles

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. List the two major components of the cytoskeleton of a cell.

2. Identify a structure other than a cell wall or a vacuole that might be found in a plant cell but not in an animal cell. Explain why an animal cell would not have the structure you identify.

3. Cite the essential cell processes that organelles perform.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Infer why muscle cells contain more mitochondria than do skin cells.

5. Depict the role of lysosomes within a cell, using the metaphor of a factory. Explain.

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61

Name

Date

Section Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 7

Section 4: Cellular Transport

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Name the two transport processes that allow large substances to cross the plasma membrane.

2. Identify three transport processes in cells that do not require energy.

3. Evaluate the relative environments inside and outside the cell when a cell is said to be in dynamic equilibrium with its environment.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Predict the appearance of an egg after the following procedure is performed: An egg is soaked in a vinegar solution to remove the hard shell, leaving the inner membrane intact. The egg is then placed in a solution of salt water overnight. As part of your answer, explain what kind of solution the salt water is, relative to the egg’s interior.

5. Distinguish between diffusion and active transport.

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Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

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Name

Date

Chapter Test

A

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which defines a cell? A. microscopic organisms in water B. protein molecules in animals C. the basic unit of living things D. the smallest type of animal 2. Which is a structure common to all cells? A. mitochondria B. nucleus C. endoplasmic reticulum D. plasma membrane 3. Which is a protein fiber that forms the cell’s supporting network? A. cytoskeleton B. cell wall C. endoplasmic reticulum D. plasma membrane

Part B: Matching

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Matching Set 1 Place a check in the correct box to identify the type of cell described by each statement. Statement

Eukaryote

Prokaryote

1. A unicellular organism such as bacteria 2. A cell with a nucleus 3. A cell with organelles that do specific tasks 4. The first type of cell to evolve

Matching Set 2 Write the letter of the correct cell structure on the line next to the structure’s description. Answers may be used only once. 5. creates energy for the cell

A. lysosome

6. produces proteins

B. mitochondria

7. unwanted substances would build up in the cell without this organelle

C. nucleus D. ribosome

8. contains the cell’s DNA

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A

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CONTINUED

Part C: Interpreting Drawings

/UTSIDE THECELL

Write your response to each statement in the space provided.

"

1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane. Identify the substances that belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Use the substances carbon dioxide, glucose, oxygen, wastes, and water for your labels.

#

0LASMA MEMBRANE

$ % !

A.

D.

B.

E.

)NSIDE THECELL

C. 2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

B.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3OLUTE

3OLUTE

A.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

C.

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. State the three principles of the cell theory.

64

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CONTINUED

2. Explain how a selectively permeable plasma membrane works.

3. Describe the function of a cell nucleus.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to the statement in the space provided.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Contrast the organelles you might observe in the cell of a celery stalk and the skin cell of a human.

Read the paragraph below to respond to each statement. Tamara puts a drop of red food dye into a glass of water. The dye makes swirls of color in the water for several minutes. After 10 min, the water has a uniform, red color. 2. Infer how the concept of diffusion explains Tamara’s observations.

3. Identify the time when the solution reached a dynamic equilibrium.

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Chapter Test

B

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which scientist first used the term cell? A. Hooke B. Janssen C. Pasteur D. Virchow 2. Which would be the result if the electron microscope had not been invented? A. Images of cells and microorganisms would remain blurry. B. Microscope magnification would be limited to 1000⫻. C. Scientists would be unable to view different cell organelles. D. The atoms of elements would not have been discovered. 3. Which manufactures ribosomes? A. nucleolus B. nucleus C. endoplasmic reticulum D. Golgi apparatus

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which is the result of smooth endoplasmic reticulum being damaged in liver cells by excess alcohol consumption? A. absorption of excess water B. difficulty with protein synthesis C. excessive breakdown of carbohydrates D. inability to detoxify harmful substances 5. The process of the plasma membrane pumping excess sodium out of a cell into an environment where there is a lower concentration of sodium is called A. diffusion. B. osmosis. C. active transport. D. coupled transport.

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CONTINUED

Part B: Matching and Completion Matching Write the letter of the correct organelle on the line next to its description. Answers may be used only once or not at all. 1. stores cell materials

A. Golgi apparatus

2. produces protein for the cell

B. lysosome

3. controls cell division

C. mitochondria

4. acts as a distribution center for cell proteins

D. nucleus

5. breaks down excess microtubules

E. ribosome F. vacuole

Completion Write the correct term or name to complete each sentence below. 6. The scientist who first named cells was

.

7. An instrument used to magnify thin slices of cells is called a(n)

.

8. Large, complex cells that contain a nucleus are called

.

9. Substances that move wastes and other materials through the plasma membrane

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

are called

.

10. The organelles that allow a unicellular paramecium to sweep food toward its

mouthlike opening are called

.

11. The diffusion of water across the selectively permeable membrane of an alga cell is

called

.

/UTSIDE THECELL

Part C: Interpreting Drawings

"

Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane above. Identify the substances that belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Identify the substance embedded in the plasma membrane labeled F.

0LASMA MEMBRANE

$ % !

A.

D.

B.

E.

C.

F.

Unit 2

#

&

)NSIDE THECELL

CHAPTER 7 Cellular Structure and Function

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CONTINUED

2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the three solutions.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER 7ATER

3OLUTE

A.

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

3OLUTE

B.

C.

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. State the principles of the cell theory.

2. Infer why the nonpolar, fatty-acid tails in a cell’s plasma membrane are essential for creating a barrier between the cell’s internal environment and the external environment. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Describe the support structure of the cell’s interior. Include the terms cytoskeleton, microtubules, and microfilaments in your discussion.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to the statement in the space provided. 1. Hypothesize how the evolutionary history of cells might have differed had endosymbiosis not occurred.

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Chapter Test

C

Class

CHAPTER 7

Cellular Structure and Function

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which scientist revolutionized the way biologists think about the evolutionary history of eukaryotes? A. Everett B. Margulis C. Pasteur D. Virchow 2. The advantage of a compound-light microscope over an electron microscope is that it A. can view living microorganisms. B. does not blur magnified images. C. has a greater degree of magnification. D. relies on readily available visible light. 3. Which organelle produces protein for a cell? A. nucleus B. ribosome C. endoplasmic reticulum D. Golgi apparatus

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which organelle is large in plant cells but small or absent in animal cells? A. centriole B. chloroplast C. nucleolus D. vacuole 5. Which organelle is called the “powerhouse of the cell”? A. mitochondria B. nucleus C. ribosome D. vesicle 6. Which organelle is present in a paramecium protozoan but absent in the cells of a strawberry plant? A. cilia B. cytoskeleton C. microtubules D. nucleus

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CONTINUED

Part B: Completion Write the correct term to complete each sentence below. 1. The bacterium E. coli is a type of cell called

.

2. Substances would have more difficulty moving across the plasma membrane without

a substance called

.

3. The central structure that defines the cell is called the

.

4. A flu virus could easily infect a cell without the presence of

.

5. The spread of a drop of food dye throughout a glass of milk is called

.

6. A pump located in a cell’s plasma membrane transports sodium and

. /UTSIDE THECELL

Part C: Interpreting Drawings Write your response to each statement in the space provided.

"

1. Study the drawing of a plasma membrane to the right. Identify the substances that belong with the arrows labeled A to E. Identify the substance embedded in the plasma membrane labeled F, and explain how this substance regulates materials entering and exiting a cell.

#

0LASMA MEMBRANE

$ % !

&

)NSIDE THECELL

Figure 1

D.

B.

E.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A.

C. F. 2. Study the drawings of the three solutions below. Identify the three types of solutions.

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

70

7ATER

7ATER

7ATER

3OLUTE

3OLUTE

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

A.

B.

C.

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

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C

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CONTINUED

3. Infer which drawing on the previous page would resemble a blood cell after a patient has been injected with an intravenous solution of pure water instead of an intravenous solution made of 1 percent salt. Explain the reason(s) for your choice.

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Discuss the advancement of scientific knowledge about the microscopic world during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Explain why phosphate groups in the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane face toward the outside and the fatty acids face inward.

3. Contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to the statement in the space provided. 1. Analyze the principles of the cell theory that serve as the fundamental ideas for modern biology. Critique the modern theory of unicellular evolution based on one or more principles of the cell theory.

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CHAPTER 7

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Section 7.1 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that makes each sentence true. 1.

2.

3.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 4.

5.

6.

Constructed Response 7.

8.

Think Critically

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9.

10.

Section 7.2 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best completes each sentence. 11.

12.

13.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 14.

15.

Constructed Response 16.

17.

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Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

18.

Think Critically 19. 20.

Section 7.3 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best matches each definition. 21.

23.

22.

24.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 25.

26.

27.

Constructed Response 28. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

29.

30.

Think Critically 31.

32.

Section 7.4 Vocabulary Review

Write sentences to compare and contrast each pair of terms. 33.–35. Record your answers for questions 33, 34, and 35 on a separate sheet of paper. 74

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 7

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 36.

37.

Constructed Response 38.

39.

40.

Think Critically 41.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

42.

Additional Assessment 43. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 43 on a separate sheet of paper. Document-Based Questions 44.

45. Record your answer for question 45 on a separate sheet of paper. Cumulative Review 46.

47.

Unit 2

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CHAPTER 7

Student Recording Sheet

Assessment

Standardized Test Practice Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 1.

3.

5.

7.

2.

4.

6.

8.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences. 9. Record your answer for question 9 on a separate sheet of paper. 10.

11.

12.

13.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

14. Record your answer for question 14 on a separate sheet of paper. 15.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences. 16.

17. Record your answer for question 17 on a separate sheet of paper. 18.

19.

Essay Question 20. Record your answer for question 20 on a separate sheet of paper. 76

Cellular Structure and Function CHAPTER 7

Unit 2

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 8 Cellular Energy Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

77

Name

Diagnostic Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Before reading Chapter 8, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning. 1. Sam is building a campfire while camping with his family. Sam’s younger brother asks how energy is generated from the burning log to make fire and heat. Sam studied thermodynamics in science class the month before and is able to answer his brother’s question. Which answer does he give? A. Chemical energy in the log is converted to heat and light energy. B. Energy is continually generated by the fire’s high temperature. C. The increasing entropy in the system creates usable energy. D. The matter in the log is destroyed to generate excess energy.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Explain.

2. Elena is taking a guided hike through a New Hampshire forest in October to enjoy the changing colors of autumn leaves. Her guide explains that the leaves change color as the green pigment chlorophyll used in photosynthesis decomposes. Another hiker asks the guide to explain photosynthesis. Which is the guide’s answer? A. Photosynthesis is the process autotrophs use to make energy. B. Photosynthesis is the process autotrophs use to make sugar. C. Photosynthesis is the process heterotrophs use to make energy. D. Photosynthesis is the process heterotrophs use to make sugar.

Explain.

3. Zina is applying to be a volunteer in a nutrition program at the local hospital. For her application essay, she must research the topic of cellular respiration. What does she learn about cellular respiration?

Unit 2

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Launch Lab

Class

CHAPTER 8

How is energy transformed?

The flow of energy in living systems is driven by a variety of chemical reactions and chemical processes. Energy is transformed from the Sun’s radiant energy to chemical energy to other forms of energy along the way. In this lab, you will observe two processes in which energy is transformed.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Measure 100 mL of water using a graduated cylinder; pour into a 250-mL beaker. Use a thermometer to record the water temperature. 3. Measure 40 g of anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2). Use a stirring rod to dissolve CaCl2 in the water. Record the solution temperature every fifteen seconds for three minutes.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 using 40 g of Epsom salts instead of CaCl2 . 5. Graph your data using a different color for each process.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Describe the graph of your data.

2. Predict what energy transformations occurred in the two processes.

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CHAPTER 8

MiniLab

Relate Photosynthesis to Cellular Respiration

How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration work together in an ecosystem? Use a chemical indicator to examine how carbon dioxide is transferred in photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Prepare a data table to record the contents, treatment, initial color, and final color for two experimental test tubes. 3. Pour 100 mL bromothymol blue (BTB) solution into a beaker. Using a straw, exhale gently into the solution until it just turns yellow. WARNING: Do not blow so hard that the solution bubbles over or that you get a headache. Do not suck on the straw.

4. Fill two large test tubes three-quarters full with the yellow BTB solution. 5. Cover one test tube with aluminum foil. Place a 6-cm sprig of an aquatic plant into both of the tubes, tightly stopper the tubes, and place them in a rack in bright light. 6. Record your observations in your data table.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis 1. Infer the purpose of the tube covered in aluminum foil.

2. Explain how your results demonstrate that photosynthesis and cellular respiration depend on one another.

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MiniLab

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CHAPTER 8

Observe Chloroplasts

What do chloroplasts look like? Most ecosystems and organisms in the world depend on tiny organelles called chloroplasts. Discover what chloroplasts look like in this investigation.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Observe the slides of plant and algae cells with a microscope.

3. Identify the chloroplasts in the cells you observe. 4. Make a data table to record your observations and sketch the chloroplasts in the cell.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Compare and contrast the physical features of the chloroplasts you observed in the different cells.

2. Hypothesize why green plant leaves vary in color.

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Name

Design Your Own

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Do different wavelengths of light affect the rate of photosynthesis?

Background: Photosynthesizing organisms need light to complete photosynthesis. White light is composed of the different colors of light found in the visible light spectrum, and each color of light has a specific wavelength. During this lab, you will design an experiment to test the effect of different light wavelengths on the rate of photosynthesis. Question: How do different wavelengths of light affect photosynthesis rates?

Materials Choose materials that would be appropriate to this lab. Possible materials include: aquatic plant material Erlenmeyer flasks test tubes (15 mL) graduated cylinder (10 mL)

metric ruler colored cellophane (assorted colors) aluminum foil lamp with reflector and 150-W bulb baking soda solution (0.25%) watch with a second hand

Safety Precautions

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Plan and Perform the Experiment 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Predict how different wavelengths of light will affect the rate of photosynthesis in your plant. 3. Design an experiment to test your prediction. Write a list of steps you will follow and identify the controls and variable you will use. 4. Explain how you will generate light with different wavelengths, supply the plant with carbon dioxide, and measure the oxygen production of the plants.

5. Create a data table for recording your observations and measurements. 6. Make sure your teacher approves your plan before you begin. 7. Conduct your experiment as approved. 8. Cleanup and Disposal Clean up all equipment as instructed by your teacher, and return everything to its proper place. Dispose of plant material as instructed by your teacher. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

Data and Observations

Unit 2

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83

Design Your Own BioLab, Do different wavelengths of light affect the rate of photosynthesis? continued Analyze and Conclude 1. Identify the controls and variables in your experiment.

2. Explain how you measured the rate of photosynthesis.

3. Graph your data.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Describe how the rate of photosynthesis is affected by different wavelengths of light based on your data.

5. Discuss whether or not your data supported your prediction.

6. Error Analysis Identify possible sources of error in your experimental design, procedure, and data collection.

7. Suggest how you would reduce these sources of error if repeating the experiment.

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Name

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Real-World Biology:

Analysis

Class

CHAPTER 8

Bioluminescence and Behavior

You have probably enjoyed the blinking lights of fireflies on a summer evening. Fireflies are not the only species that can glow in the dark. Glowing in the dark is common in species that live in the oceans. Some species contain body cells that produce light. Other species contain bacteria that produce light. The process by which organisms produce light is called bioluminescence. Scientists study bioluminescent organisms for a variety of reasons. Marine biologists study bioluminescent species to understand marine populations, ecosystems, and evolutionary relationships. Other scientists study bioluminescence to develop technological uses, such as screening for medical conditions, detecting organic pollutants in lakes and rivers, and testing for contamination in the food and drug industry. In this activity, you will explore the chemistry of bioluminescence and write a hypothesis about bioluminescence and animal behavior.

Researchers interested in bioluminescence conducted a series of experiments to study several species that are able to produce their own light. Figure 1 shows the conclusions the researchers formed in four of the experiments. As the researchers worked, it became clear that an additional substance is essential for the chemical reaction that produces bioluminescent light. Figure 2 shows data collected in a fifth experiment in which the scientists explored the role of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is present in every cell of every living organism and supplies the energy needed for many metabolic processes.

Experiment 1: All bioluminescent organisms contain two substances: luciferin and an enzyme called luciferase. Bioluminescence occurs only if both are present.

Experiment 3: The color of light produced varies among species and from one individual to another within a species.

Experiment 2: The chemical compositions of luciferin and luciferase can vary from one species to another.

Experiment 4: Bioluminescence does not occur in the absence of oxygen.

Figure 1

Analyze and Conclude Respond to each question and statement. 1. Identify Based on the information in Figure 1, what three substances are needed for bioluminescence to occur?

2. Hypothesize about the cause of the variance in color of the bioluminescent light produced.

4OTALLIGHTOUTPUTCD

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part A: Producing Light

     







!40MICROLITERS Figure 2

3. Conclude From the data in Figure 2, what conclusion can you draw about the relationship between ATP and bioluminescence?

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85

Real-World Biology: Analysis, Bioluminescence and Behavior continued Part B: Using Light All organisms produce bioluminescent light by a similar chemical reaction, but the role of bioluminescence in the adaptive behavior of different species varies. Study the data collected in Figure 3 about three different bioluminescent marine organisms and some of their behaviors involving bioluminescence.

Lanternfish

Firefly squid

Colobonema

• Pattern of distribution of light organs is different for each species. • Males have patterns that differ from those of females within the same species.

• Organism can shoot out a luminescent cloud. • Clouds appear to be related to the presence of potential predators.

• Tentacles light up when it is disturbed. • Brightly colored tentacles can break off.

Figure 3

Analyze and Conclude Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Respond to each question and statement. 1. Hypothesize Choose one organism from Figure 3. Suggest a testable hypothesis that explains the use of bioluminescence by that organism.

2. Plan How could you test your hypothesis? What information would you want to gather?

Careers In Biology Biochemistry Visit biologygmh.com for information on biochemical technicians. What are the responsibilities of a biochemical technician?

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CHAPTER 8

Enrichment

Drawing: Many Kinds of Chlorophyll

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chlorophyll was first discovered in 1817 by two French chemists, Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (1788–1842) and Joseph-Bienaimé Caventou (1795–1877). Pelletier and Caventou did not pursue their discovery, however, as they were more interested at the time in learning more about a variety of drugs, including quinine, strychnine, and brucine. In fact, it was not until a half century later, in 1865, that German botanist Julius von Sachs (1832–1897) discovered the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis. The next step in unraveling the mysteries of chlorophyll occurred in 1912 when German chemist Richard Willstätter (1872–1942) discovered that chlorophyll exists in two forms: chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. In 1943, a team of three researchers, Harold H. Strain, Winston M. Manning, and Garrett Hardin, announced that they had found a third type of chlorophyll, which they called chlorophyll c. Later the same year, the same researchers found a fourth kind of chlorophyll, which they called chlorophyll d. In addition to the four naturally occurring forms of chlorophyll, scientists have produced a semisynthetic form of chlorophyll, which is known as chlorophyllin. Distinguish How are these forms of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin different from one another chemically and biologically? Choose one of these compounds to study in detail. Consult references in your local library to find the chemical structure of the form of chlorophyll or chlorophyllin you have chosen to research. Find the organisms in which your type of chlorophyll occurs or the commercial use of the chlorophyllin. In the space below, draw the chemical structure of the chlorophyll or chlorophyllin and add a caption that briefly describes its occurrence in the natural world or its use by humans.

Unit 2

Compare After completing your study of one type of chlorophyll or chlorophyllin, compare your results with those of other members of the class. How are the chemical structures of the chlorophyll and chlorophyllin molecules alike and different? How are their functions in living organisms alike and different? What are the practical applications of chlorophyllin? Prepare a chart that summarizes the similarities and differences in chemical structure and biological function of the types of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin.

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

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Name

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Concept Mapping

Class

CHAPTER 8

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Complete the Venn diagram about photosynthesis and respiration. These terms may be used more than once: absorbs, Calvin cycle, chlorophyll, CO2, H2O, Krebs cycle, mitochondria, releases.

Photosynthesis

Respiration Both electrontransports

(1)

NADPH

energy using ATP

(2) occurs in chloroplasts (3) produces glucose

occurs in (4)

(7)

(5) O2

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

(8) breaks pyruvate down into carbon dioxide Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

glucose

88

(6) energy

FADH2

Unit 2

Name

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CHAPTER 8

Study Guide

Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy

In your textbook, read about how organisms obtain energy. Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A

Column B

1. the idea that energy cannot be created or destroyed

A. energy

2. all the chemical reactions in a cell

B. thermodynamics

3. anabolic pathway that converts energy from the Sun to chemical energy for use by cells

C. first law of thermodynamics D. second law of thermodynamics

4. ability to do work

E. metabolism

5. series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next reaction

F. photosynthesis

6. biological molecule that provides chemical energy

G. cellular respiration

7. study of the flow and transformation of energy

H. metabolic pathway

8. source of nearly all energy for life

I. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

9. catabolic pathway that breaks down organic molecules

J. sunlight

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. spontaneous increase in disorder, or entropy

In your textbook, read about autotrophs and heterotrophs. Refer to the illustrations. Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage. autotrophs

chemoautotrophs

Group A

'ROUP!

-ICE

3EED EATINGBIRDS

group are called (12)

(14)

'RASS

$EER

3HRUBS

4REES

. The organisms in this . The group that must eat other organisms . The organisms in this group are called

. Some organisms get their energy from inorganic substances,

such as hydrogen sulfide. These organisms are called (15) Unit 2

heterotrophs

'ROUP"

The group that makes their own food is (11)

for food is (13)

Group B

. CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

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CHAPTER 8

Study Guide

Section 2: Photosynthesis

In your textbook, read about light reactions. Number the following steps of light reactions in the order in which they occur. 1. The energy lost by electrons as they pass through the electron transport chain is used to make ATP. 2. The electrons pass from the chlorophyll to an electron transport chain. 3. Sunlight strikes the chlorophyll molecules in the thylakoid membranes. 4. NADP+ molecules change to NADPH as they carry the electrons to the stroma of the chloroplast. 5. Light energy is transferred to the chlorophyll’s electrons. 6. The electrons are passed down a second electron transport chain.

Refer to the graph. Respond to each statement. 

8. State the name of the pigment that absorbs the most light

#HLOROPHYLLA #HLOROPHYLLB #AROTENOIDS

 







7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

at about 450 nm. In your textbook, read about the Calvin cycle and alternative photosynthesis pathways. Complete the table by checking the correct column(s) for each description. Description

Calvin

C4

CAM

9. The second phase of photosynthesis, in which energy is stored in glucose 10. Pathway(s) that help(s) plants photosynthesize while minimizing water loss 11. Pathway that allows carbon dioxide to enter leaves only at night 12. Light-independent reactions 13. Uses the enzyme rubisco to convert carbon dioxide into molecules that can be used by the cell 14. Type of plant found in hot, dry environments 90

Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

7. Explain why there are usually several types of pigments present in chloroplasts.

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF 0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS

Name

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CHAPTER 8

Study Guide

Section 3: Cellular Respiration

In your textbook, read about cellular respiration and glycolysis. Use each of the terms below only once to complete the passage. aerobic glucose

anaerobic glycolysis

ATP mitochondria

cellular respiration NADH

energy

Organisms obtain energy in a process called (1)

. This process harvests

electrons from carbon compounds, such as (2)

, and uses that energy to

make (3)

. ATP is used to provide (4)

for cells to do work. In (5)

, glucose is broken down into pyruvate.

Glycolysis is a(n) (6)

process because it does not require oxygen. Glycolysis

takes place in the (7)

. Two molecules of ATP and two molecules of

(8)

are formed for every glucose molecule that is broken down.

(9)

respiration takes place in the (10)

.

It is aerobic because the process requires (11)

.

Refer to the diagram of glycolysis. Label the steps in the description to match the diagram. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cytoplasm oxygen

12. Step . Each three-carbon compound is converted into a three-carbon pyruvate. 13. Step . A six-carbon compound is broken down into two three-carbon compounds. 14. Step . Phosphate groups from two ATP molecules are transferred to a glucose molecule. 15. Step . Two NADH molecules and four ATP molecules are produced.

Glycolysis !40

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17. Explain Why is there a net gain of only two ATP molecules in the glycolysis of one six-carbon glucose? 3TEP

Unit 2

!40

3TEP

Respond to each question. 16. Interpret How many total ATP molecules are produced from the glycolysis of one six-carbon glucose?

'LUCOSE # # # # # #

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CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

91

Study Guide, Section 3: Cellular Respiration In your textbook, read about the Krebs cycle, electron transport, and anaerobic respiration.

continued

Cellular Respiration

Refer to the diagram of cellular respiration. Respond to each question and statement. 18. Recall What is the net yield of ATP produced by each of the circled processes in the diagram?

Glycolysis = Krebs cycle =

Glucose without oxygen Glycolysis

2 ATP

ATP ATP

Electron transport chain =

ATP

19. Find the total net yield of ATP from one molecule of glucose.

20. Specify Based on the diagram and your calculations, which process produces more energy—the anaerobic pathway or the aerobic pathway?

Pyruvate with oxygen Acetyl-CoA

Krebs cycle

2 ATP

Electron transport chain

32 ATP

For each statement below, write true or false. 21. The anaerobic pathway that follows glycolysis in the absence of oxygen is fermentation.

23. Cellular respiration in eukaryotes is slightly more efficient than in prokaryotes. 24. The Krebs cycle is sometimes called the TCA cycle or the citric acid cycle. 25. Fermentation occurs in the mitochondria. 26. Skeletal muscle produces lactic acid when the body cannot supply enough oxygen. 27. Alcohol fermentation is found in some bacteria and in humans. 28. The two pyruvate molecules formed during glycolysis result in two Krebs cycles. 29. Electron transport is the first step in the breakdown of glucose.

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22. The hydrogen necessary in the electron transport chain comes from the splitting of carbon dioxide molecules.

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPÍTULO 8

Guía de estudio

Sección 1: Cómo los organismos obtienen energía

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de cómo los organismos obtienen energía. Relaciona la definición de la columna A con el término de la columna B. Columna A

Columna B

1. la idea de que la energía no se puede crear ni destruir

A. energía

2. todas las reacciones químicas en una célula

B. termodinámica

3. la ruta anabólica que convierte energía del sol en energía química para el uso de las células

C. primera ley de termodinámica

4. la capacidad de trabajar

D. segunda ley de termodinámica

5. una serie de reacciones químicas en las cuales el producto de una reacción es el sustrato de la siguiente reacción

E. metabolismo

6. la molécula biológica que ofrece energía química

F. fotosíntesis

7. el estudio del flujo y la transformación de energía

G. respiración celular

8. la fuente de prácticamente toda la energía para la vida

H. ruta metabólica I. adenosina trifosfato (ATP)

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. la ruta catabólica que descompone las moléculas orgánicas

J. luz solar

10. el aumento espontáneo en desorden, o entropía

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de los autótrofos y heterótrofos. Consulta las ilustraciones. Usa los siguientes términos sólo una vez para completar el párrafo. autótrofos 'RUPO!

grupo A

grupo B

quimioautótrofos

'RUPO"

0ÉJAROSQUE COMENSEMILLAS

2ATONES

heterótrofos

#IERVOS

0ASTO

­RBOLES !RBUSTOS

El grupo que produce su propia comida es el (11)

. Los organismos en

este grupo se llaman (12)

. El grupo que debe comer otros organismos

para alimentarse es el (13)

. Los organismos en este grupo se llaman

(14)

. Algunos organismos obtienen energía a partir de sustancias

inorgánicas, tales como sulfito de hidrógeno. Estos organismos se llaman (15) Unidad 2

. CAPÍTULO 8 La energía celular

93

Nombre

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CAPÍTULO 8

Sección 2: La fotosíntesis

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las reacciones a la luz. Enumera los siguientes pasos de las reacciones a la luz en el orden en el cual ocurren. 1. La energía perdida por los electrones a medida que pasan a través de la cadena de transporte de electrones se usa para producir ATP. 2. Los electrones pasan de la clorofila a una cadena de transporte de electrones. 3. La luz solar golpea las moléculas de clorofila en las membranas tilacoides. 4. Las moléculas NADP+ cambian a NADPH a medida que transportan los electrones hacia el estroma del cloroplasto. 5. La energía de luz se traslada a los electrones de la clorofila. 6. Los electrones se pasan a una segunda cadena de transporte de electrones. %SPECTRODEABSORCIØNDE PIGMENTOSFOTOSINTÏTICOS

7. Explica porqué generalmente hay varios tipos de pigmentos presentes en los cloroplastos.



#LOROFILAA #LOROFILAB #AROTENOIDES

 







,ONGITUDDEONDADELALUZNM

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo de Calvin y las rutas alternas de la fotosíntesis. Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripción. Descripción

Calvin

C4

CAM

9. La segunda fase de la fotosíntesis, en la cual la energía se almacena en glucosa 10. La(s) ruta(s) que ayuda(n) a las plantas a completar la fotosíntesis mientras se reduce la pérdida de agua 11. La ruta que permite que el dióxido de carbono entre a las hojas únicamente durante la noche 12. Las reacciones independientes a la luz 13. Utiliza la enzima rubisco para convertir el dióxido de carbono en moléculas que la célula puede usar 14. Tipo de planta que se encuentra en ambientes calientes y secos 94

La energía celular CAPÍTULO 8

Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. Indica el nombre del pigmento que absorbe la mayor cantidad de luz aproximadamente a 450 nm.

0ORCENTAEDELUZABSORBIDA

Consulta la gráfica. Responde a cada afirmación.

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 8

Sección 3: La respiración celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la respiración celular y la glicólisis. Usa los siguientes términos sólo una vez para completar el párrafo. ATP glucosa

aeróbico mitocondria

anaeróbico NADH

citoplasma oxígeno

energía respiración celular

glicólisis

Los organismos obtienen energía mediante un proceso llamado (1)

.

Este proceso produce electrones a partir de compuestos de carbono, tales como la (2)

, y usa esa energía para producir (3)

La ATP sirve para brindar (4) la (5) proceso (6)

a las células para trabajar. Durante , la glucosa se descompone en piruvato. La glicólisis es un debido a que no requiere oxígeno. La glicólisis se

realiza en el (7) (8)

.

. Dos moléculas de ATP y dos moléculas de se forman para cada molécula de glucosa que se descompone.

La respiración (9)

se lleva a cabo en la (10)

.

Es aeróbica debido a que el proceso requiere (11)

.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Consulta el diagrama de la glicólisis. Identifica los pasos en la descripción según el diagrama. 12. Paso . Cada compuesto de tres carbonos se convierte en un piruvato de tres carbonos. 13. Paso . Un compuesto de seis carbonos se descompone en dos compuestos de tres carbonos. 14. Paso . Los grupos de fosfato de dos moléculas de ATP se transfieren a una molécula de glucosa. 15. Paso . Se producen dos moléculas de NADH y cuatro moléculas de ATP.

Responde a cada pregunta.

'LICØLISIS 'LUCOSA !40

Unidad 2

!40

0ASO !$0

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0ASO #OMPUESTODECARBONOS

#OMPUESTODECARBONOS

# # #

# # #

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0ASO

16. Interpreta ¿Cuántas moléculas de ATP en total se producen en la glicólisis de una glucosa de seis carbonos?

17. Explica ¿Por qué hay una ganancia neta de sólo dos moléculas de ATP en la glicólisis de una glucosa de seis carbonos?

# # # # # #

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.!$(

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0IRUVATO

# # #

# # #

CAPÍTULO 8 La energía celular

95

Guía de estudio, Sección 3: La respiración celular En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo de Krebs, el transporte de electrones y la respiración anaeróbica.

continuación Respiración celular

Consulta el diagrama de la respiración celular. Responde a cada pregunta y afirmación. 18. Recuerda ¿Cuál es el rendimiento neto de ATP producido por cada uno de los procesos encerrados en un círculo en el diagrama?

Glicólisis =

ATP

Cadena de transporte de electrones =

Glicólisis

2 ATP

Piruvato con oxígeno

ATP

Ciclo de Krebs =

Glucosa sin oxígeno

ATP

Acetil-CoA

19. Encuentra el rendimiento total neto de ATP de una molécula de glucosa.

20. Especifica Con base en el diagrama y tus cálculos, ¿qué proceso produce más energía: la ruta anaeróbica o la ruta aeróbica?

Ciclo de Krebs

2 ATP

Cadena de transporte de electrones

32 ATP

Para cada afirmación a continuación, escribe «verdadero» o «falso».

22. El hidrógeno necesario en la cadena de transporte de electrones viene de la división de las moléculas de dióxido de carbono. 23. La respiración celular en las eucariotas es ligeramente más eficiente que en las procariotas. 24. El ciclo de Krebs algunas veces se llama el ciclo TCA o el ciclo del ácido cítrico. 25. La fermentación ocurre en la mitocondria. 26. El músculo esquelético produce ácido láctico cuando el cuerpo no puede suministrar suficiente oxígeno. 27. La fermentación del alcohol se encuentra en algunas bacterias y en humanos. 28. Las dos moléculas de piruvato formadas durante la glicólisis resultan en dos ciclos de Krebs. 29. El transporte de electrones es el primer paso en la descomposición de glucosa. 96

La energía celular CAPÍTULO 8

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21. La ruta anaeróbica que sigue a la glicólisis en la ausencia de oxígeno es la fermentación.

Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Section 1: How Organisms Obtain Energy

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Recall the basic components of ATP.

2. Paraphrase the first law of thermodynamics.

3. Contrast catabolic pathways and anabolic pathways.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Examine how nearly all energy for life comes directly or indirectly from the Sun, given that heterotrophs get their energy from the food they eat.

5. Classify the synthesis of a protein from amino acids as anabolic or catabolic. Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

97

Name

Date

Section Quick Check

Class

CHAPTER 8

Section 2: Photosynthesis

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. State the process of photosynthesis as a chemical reaction.

2. Summarize briefly the process of photosynthesis from absorption of light to production of glucose.

3. Discuss what pigments are. Give two examples.

4. Clarify why the reactions of the Calvin cycle are also referred to as light-independent reactions.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Deduce how you can tell if an organism carries out photosynthesis just by looking at its cells under a microscope.

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Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Section 3: Cellular Respiration

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each question and statement. 1. List the stages of cellular respiration.

2. Express the process of cellular respiration as a chemical equation.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Clarify the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

4. Arrange Write the following steps in the order in which they occur during glycolysis. A six-carbon molecule is broken down into two three-carbon molecules. Two NADP+ molecules are converted into two NADH molecules. Two phosphate groups from two ATP molecules are joined to glucose. Two three-carbon molecules are converted into two molecules of pyruvate as four molecules of ATP are produced.

5. Infer After you have been exercising for a while, why do you start breathing hard?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy

99

Name

Date

Chapter Test

A

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which defines energy? A. ability to do work B. creation of heat C. increase of disorder D. power to change 2. Which is the biological importance of the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? A. creates glucose from light B. makes biological proteins C. provides chemical energy D. repairs cell membranes 3. Which occurs during the Krebs cycle? A. breaking down pyruvate B. capturing light energy C. creating glucose molecules D. producing ethyl alcohol

Part B: Matching Write the letter of the correct process on the line next to its description. Answers may be used only once. A. cellular respiration

2. A cell uses oxygen to break down molecules, generating energy.

B. glycolysis

3. One molecule of glucose is broken down into two pyruvate molecules.

C. photosynthesis

Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas

6CO2 + 6H2O

light

C6H12O6 + 6O2

Use the formula above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the process represented by the chemical equation.

100 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. A bacterium converts light energy into chemical energy.

Name

Chapter Test

Date

A

Class

CONTINUED

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF 0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS 

#HLOROPHYLLA #HLOROPHYLLB #AROTENOIDS

 







7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

Use the graph above to respond to the following question. 2. Interpret What wavelengths of light are absorbed by chlorophyll a?

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. State the first law of thermodynamics.

2. Relate the second law of thermodynamics.

3. Identify the importance of the Calvin cycle for green plants.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 101

Name

Chapter Test

Date

A

Class

CONTINUED

4. Contrast aerobic and anaerobic processes.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Contrast how an oak tree and a squirrel obtain energy. Include the terms autotroph and heterotroph in your answer.

2. Infer the effect of damaged chloroplasts on a cell.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

102 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

Unit 2

Name

Date

Chapter Test

B

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or sentence that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which is an autotroph? A. daisy B. earthworm C. mushroom D. wolf 2. Which identifies the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? A. Both processes generate energy for cell use. B. Both processes release energy for cell use. C. The products of one process are used as reactants by the other process. D. The reactants of one process are also the reactants of the other process.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Light-absorbing molecules such as chlorophyll are called A. grana. B. pigments. C. stomata. D. thylakoids. 4. Which molecule results from the final step of the Calvin cycle? A. COA B. COB C. RuBP D. RuTP 5. Where in the cell does the Krebs cycle occur? A. chloroplast B. cytoplasm C. mitochondrion D. nucleus

Part B: Matching and Completion Matching Check the box to indicate whether each statement occurs during the process of photosynthesis or cellular respiration. Boxes may be checked more than once. Statement

Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis

1. Includes NADP+ as an electron carrier 2. Includes the Krebs cycle 3. Includes the reduction of glucose molecules into pyruvate molecules 4. Includes the Calvin cycle

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 103

Name

Date

Chapter Test

B

Class

CONTINUED

Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below. 5. The ability to do work is called

.

6. The most important molecule for providing cells with energy is

.

called

7. An oak tree performs photosynthesis in organelles called

.

8. 3-PGA is an abbreviation that stands for

.

Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas

6CO2 + 6H2O

light

A+B

Use the formula above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the reactants labeled A and B in the equation for photosynthesis. A.

B.



#HLOROPHYLLA #HLOROPHYLLB #AROTENOIDS Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF 0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS

 







7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

Use the graph above to respond to the following statement. 2. Contrast the optimal range of wavelengths of light needed by chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b to perform photosynthesis.

104 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Name

Chapter Test

Date

B

Class

CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

2. Distinguish between catabolic pathways and anabolic pathways.

3. Analyze the chemical formula for cellular respiration. Use the term aerobic process in your answer.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Explain why the leaves of a tulip tree in New York will turn bright yellow during the month of October.

2. Infer the economic importance of the process of fermentation.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 105

Name

Date

Chapter Test

C

Class

CHAPTER 8

Cellular Energy

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. Which would be a habitat for chemoautotrophs but not photoautotrophs? A. cold tundra plain B. deep Ocean trench C. high-altitude mountain D. shallow ocean water 2. Which describes the process of cellular respiration? A. anabolic pathway that breaks molecules into energy B. anabolic pathway that builds molecules of stored energy C. catabolic pathway that breaks molecules into energy D. catabolic pathway that builds molecules of stored energy 3. Which is formed during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis? A. ATP C. glucose molecules B. NADPH D. pigment molecules

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Which describes the process of glycolysis? A. aerobic process that breaks down glucose B. aerobic process that manufactures glucose C. anaerobic process that breaks down glucose D. anaerobic process that manufactures glucose 5. Which describes the process of fermentation? A. aerobic process that manufactures pyruvate B. aerobic process that restores NAD + supply C. anaerobic process that manufactures pyruvate D. anaerobic process that restores NAD + supply 6. Which is recycled through the Krebs cycle? A. citric acid B. FAD C. NADH D. nucleic acid

Part B: Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below. 1. A black widow spider snaring an insect to eat is an example of an organism called

a(n)

.

2. Light-dependent reactions take place in saclike membranes called

.

3. In eukaryotic cells, aerobic respiration occurs in organelles called

.

106 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Name

Chapter Test

Date

C

Class

CONTINUED

4. Inorganic carbon dioxide cannot be converted into organic molecules during

.

photosynthesis without the enzyme 5. The final step of aerobic respiration when ATP is created is called

.

Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas

6CO2 + A

light

B+C

Use the formula above to respond to the following statement.

!BSORPTION3PECTRAOF 0HOTOSYNTHETIC0IGMENTS

A. B. C.

Use the graph to respond to the following question. 2. Interpret What is the optimal range of light for all three pigments to photosynthesize at one time?

0ERCENTAGEOF,IGHT!BSORBED

1. Identify the compounds labeled A–C in the equation. 

#HLOROPHYLLA #HLOROPHYLLB #AROTENOIDS

 







7AVELENGTHOF,IGHTNM

Part D: Short Answer Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Analyze the system and energy changes of a burning log of wood.

2. Identify the most important biological molecule that provides organisms with chemical energy. Describe its structure and function.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 107

Name

Chapter Test

Date

C

Class

CONTINUED

3. Infer the primary effect on the process of photosynthesis if NADP+ production were disrupted.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each question and statement in the space provided. 1. Infer In 1977, scientists discovered extremely hot, toxic substances pouring from fissures in deep ocean trenches. The scientists named these fissures black smokers, and, to their surprise, discovered diverse ecosystems thriving near these locations. These ecosystems contained organisms such as large clams, mussels, snails, and a variety of worms. Infer the energy source for these ecosystems.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Formulate an economic strategy northeastern states could develop to profit from the seasonal decomposition of chlorophyll in the leaves of deciduous trees.

3. Deduce why a soccer player might feel soreness in his or her muscles during a game. How could the player relieve leg soreness?

108 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Section 8.1 Vocabulary Review

Replace the italicized words with the correct vocabulary terms. 1.

3.

2.

4.

5.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 6. 7. 8.

9.

Constructed Response 10.

11.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Think Critically 12.

13.

Section 8.2 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best matches each definition. 14.

16.

15.

17.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 18. 19. 20. Unit 2

21. CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 109

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Constructed Response 22.

23.

24.

Think Critically 25.

26.

27.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 8.3 Vocabulary Review

Write a sentence defining each vocabulary term. 28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

110 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 33. 35. 37. 34.

36.

Constructed Response 38.

39.

40.

Think Critically 41.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

42.

43.

Additional Assessment 44. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 44 on a separate sheet of paper. Document-Based Questions 45.

46. 47. Cumulative Review 48.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy 111

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 8

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 1. 4. 7. 2.

5.

8.

3.

6.

9.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences. 10.

11.

12.

13.

14. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

15.

16.

Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences. 17.

18.

Essay Question 19. Record your answer for question 19 on a separate sheet of paper.

112 Cellular Energy CHAPTER 8

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Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Diagnostic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Launch Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MiniLab (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 MiniLab (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 BioLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Real-World Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Concept Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Study Guide (English) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Study Guide (Spanish) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section Quick Check 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Section Quick Check 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Section Quick Check 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Chapter Test A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Chapter Test B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Chapter Test C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Student Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

113

Name

Diagnostic Test

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Before reading Chapter 9, predict answers to questions about the chapter content based on what you already know. Circle the letter of the correct answer, and then explain your reasoning. 1. Carlos is studying human skin cells under a microscope during science class. He asks his teacher why cells are small. Which response does his teacher give him? A. A large cell rapidly becomes a dangerous cancer cell. B. Cells divide too rapidly to grow much larger in size. C. Larger cells could not efficiently transport nutrients. D. Small cells place fewer energy demands on an organism.

Explain.

2. Scott learns that his aunt has a form of cancer. Scott’s science teacher explains to Scott what cancer is. Which is part of the teacher’s explanation? A. A cancer patient can pass the disease to other people. B. A pathogen, such as a virus, infects a cell with cancer. C. Cancer is caused when body cells divide out of control. D. Some cancer cells perform normal functions in the body.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Explain.

3. Keshia is watching a news broadcast story that features the controversy over stem cell research. She does not know what stem cells are, and she looks up the term in a dictionary. What definition does she find?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 115

Name

Launch Lab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

From where do healthy cells come?

All living things are composed of cells. The only way an organism can grow or heal itself is by cellular reproduction. Healthy cells perform vital life functions, and they reproduce to form more cells. In this lab you will investigate the appearance of different cell types.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Observe slides of human cells under high magnification using a light microscope. 3. Observe onion root tip cells under the microscope.

4. Observe other cells on the prepared slides your teacher will give you. 5. Draw diagrams of the sample cells you observed. Identify and label any of the structures you recognize.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Compare and contrast the different cells you observed.

2. Hypothesize why the cells you observed had different appearances and structures. How could you identify diseased cells?

116 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

MiniLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Investigate Cell Size

Could a cell grow large enough to engulf your school? What would happen if the size of an elephant were doubled? At the organism level, an elephant cannot grow significantly larger, because its legs would not support the increase in mass. Do the same principles and limitations apply at the cellular level? Do the math!

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Prepare a data table for surface area and volume data calculated for five hypothetical cells. Assume the cell is a cube. (Dimensions given are for one face of a cube.)

3. Calculate the surface area for each cell using this formula: length × width × number of sides (6). 4. Calculate the volume for each cell using this formula: length × width × height.

Cell 1: 0.00002 m (the average diameter of most eukaryotic cells) Cell 2: 0.001 m (the diameter of a squid’s giant nerve cell) Cell 3: 2.5 cm Cell 4: 30 cm Cell 5: 15 m

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Data and Observations

Analysis 1. Cause and Effect Based on your calculations, confirm why cells do not become very large.

2. Infer Are large organisms, such as redwood trees and elephants, large because they contain extra-large cells or just more standard-sized cells? Explain.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 117

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CHAPTER 9

Compare Sunscreens

Do sunscreens really block sunlight? Sunscreens contain a variety of different compounds that absorb UVB from sunlight. UVB is linked to mutations in DNA that can lead to skin cancer. Find out how effective at blocking sunlight various sunscreens are.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Choose one of the sunscreen products provided by your teacher. Record the active ingredients and the sun protection factor (SPF) in the space below. 3. Obtain two sheets of plastic wrap. On one sheet use a permanent marker to draw two widely spaced circles. Place a drop of sunscreen in the middle of one circle and a drop of zinc oxide in the middle of the other.

4. Lay the second sheet on top of both circles. Spread the drops by pressing with a book. 5. Take a covered piece of sun-sensitive paper and two pieces of plastic wrap to a sunny area. Quickly uncover the paper, lay the two pieces of plastic wrap on top, and place in the sunlight. 6. After the paper is fully exposed, remove it from the sunlight and develop according to instructions.

Data and Observations

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Analysis 1. Think Critically Why did you compare the sunscreens to zinc oxide?

2. Draw Conclusions After examining the developed sun-sensitive papers from your class, which sunscreens do you think would be most likely to prevent DNA mutations?

118 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

BioLab

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Does sunlight affect mitosis in yeast?

Background: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a component of sunlight that can damage DNA and interrupt the cell cycle. Question: Can sunscreens prevent damage to UV-sensitive yeast?

Materials sterile pipettes (10) aluminum foil test-tube rack

sterile spreaders (10) dilution of UV-sensitive yeast yeast extract dextrose (YED) agar plates (10) sunscreens with various amounts of SPF

Safety Precautions

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Obtain a test tube containing a diluted broth culture of the UV-sensitive yeast. 3. Formulate a hypothesis, then choose a sunscreen and predict how it will affect the yeast when exposed to sunlight. 4. Label ten YED agar plates with your group name. Label two plates as control. The control plates will not be placed in the sunlight. Label four of the experimental plates as “no sunscreen” and four as “sunscreen.” 5. Spread a 0.1 mL sample of the yeast dilution on all ten YED agar plates. Wrap the control plates in foil and give them to your teacher for incubation.

6. With direction from your teacher, decide how long to expose each of the experimental plates and label each plate accordingly. Prepare a table in which to collect your data. 7. Wrap the “no sunscreen” plates in foil. Apply sunscreen to the lids of the four sunscreen plates and wrap them in foil. 8. Remove the covers from all experimental plates, and expose the plates for the planned times. Re-cover the plates after exposure and give them to your teacher for incubation. 9. After incubation, count and record the number of yeast colonies on each plate. 10. Cleanup and Disposal Wash and return all reusable materials. Dispose of the YED plates as described by your teacher. Disinfect your work area. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

Data and Observations

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 119

BioLab, Does sunlight affect mitosis in yeast?

continued

Analyze and Conclude 1. Estimate Assume that each yeast colony on a YED plate grew from one yeast cell in the dilution. Use the number of yeast colonies on your control plate to determine the percent of yeast that survived on each exposed plate.

2. Graph Data Draw a graph with the percent survival on the y-axis and the exposure time on the x-axis. Use a different color to graph the data from the plates with and without sunscreen.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Evaluate Was your hypothesis supported by your data? Explain.

4. Error Analysis Describe several possible sources of error.

120 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

Date

Real-World Biology:

Analysis

Class

CHAPTER 9

Examining and Reducing the Risks of Cancer

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Most of your body cells undergo mitosis and make more cells to replace cells that are damaged, diseased, or worn out. Some cells divide rapidly to replace dead cells. Millions of cells in your body die every day. For example, blood cells and skin cells constantly need to be replaced. A red blood cell might live for only a few months. New blood cells are made by stem cells in your bone marrow. Dead cells in the outer layer of your skin are replaced every few days by new cells made in a lower layer of the skin. Sometimes, cells continue to make more cells even when they are not needed, or cells might not die when they should. This uncontrolled, unregulated growth and division of cells is cancer. Cancer cells can crowd out and kill healthy cells. Cancer can affect different parts of the body, such as the stomach, lungs, and brain. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. In this activity, you will examine Risks of Cancer Carcinogen some cancer risks and lifestyle choices • Tobacco use accounts for at least 30 percent of that can help reduce those risks. all cancer deaths. • Smoking causes nearly 87 percent of all lung Part A: Examining the Risks cancers. Smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, cigars, Cancer is caused by changes in parts of Tobacco and secondhand smoke also cause cancer. a cell that control the growth and death • Tobacco use causes lung, stomach, mouth, nasal of the cell. Certain substances, called cavity, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and bladder carcinogens, can cause these changes. cancer, as well as other cancers. Scientists do research and collect evidence to determine what substances are carcinogens. Some research takes place in laboratories. Other research involves studying the lifestyles of people with different types of cancer. Scientists have identified some substances as known carcinogens; other substances have been identified as possible carcinogens. The table lists the cancer risks of three known carcinogens.

Analyze and Conclude

Alcohol

• Alcohol is the primary cause of liver cancer, but it can also cause mouth cancer, esophagus cancer, and other cancers. • The cancer risk increases as the amount of alcohol consumed increases.

Ultraviolet radiation

• UV radiation is the primary cause of skin cancer. • People are at greater risk if they live in an area with year-round bright sunlight. For example, the risk of skin cancer is twice as high in Arizona as it is in Minnesota. • People are at greater risk if they use tanning booths or sunlamps.

Respond to each question. 1. Explain Why are tobacco, alcohol, and ultraviolet radiation listed as carcinogens in the table?

2. Identify What carcinogens in the table are known to cause cancer of the esophagus, the tube leading from the mouth to the stomach?

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CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 121

Real-World Biology: Analysis, Examining and Reducing the Risks of Cancer continued 3. Apply Why are people who work outdoors at greater risk of getting skin cancer?

Part B: Reducing the Risks Carcinogens can cause changes in cells that result in cancer, but that does not mean everyone exposed to carcinogens will get cancer. Some people inherit a tendency to develop cancer. For people who have a family history of cancer, regular checkups are important. Many kinds of cancer can be treated successfully if they are detected early enough. Avoiding or reducing exposure to known carcinogens reduces a person’s risk of getting cancer. In addition, numerous studies indicate that a healthy diet and exercise might protect people from cancer. Steps that people can take to reduce their risks of developing cancer are listed below.

• • •





Lifestyle Choices for Reducing Cancer Risks Avoid smoking and secondhand smoke. Avoid alcohol. Avoid exposure to UV radiation, use sunscreen, and wear protective clothing. Choose foods with less fat and eat more vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight.

Analyze and Conclude Respond to each question. 1. Explain How do the lifestyle choices listed above help reduce a person’s risk of cancer?

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Identify In addition to following the lifestyle choices above, what should a person who has a family history of cancer do to reduce his or her risk of dying from cancer? How does this help?

3. Compare Which diet would give a person a higher risk of cancer—one with lots of fat and few vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, or one with little fat and lots of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains?

Careers In Biology Cancer Research Visit biologygmh.com for information on cancer research. What are the responsibilities of a scientist who works in cancer research? 122 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER 9

Enrichment

Group Project: Protecting Against Carcinogens

Carcinogens are substances known to cause cancer in humans or other animals. Scientists have identified hundreds of carcinogens, ranging from X rays and sunlight to industrial chemicals and once-popular food additives. Some carcinogens cannot always be avoided in one’s daily life. For example, the only way to avoid ultraviolet radiation, a carcinogen, is to stay out of sunlight. But other carcinogens can be avoided if one knows where they are to be found. Scrutinize Lists of known carcinogens are available from a number of library reference books. Locate some of those sources and find out the kind of information available in each one. Notice that some substances are known to be carcinogenic, while others are suspected of being carcinogenic. Decide whether suspected carcinogens or known carcinogens pose greater health risks to the public.

Depict Summarize the information you have found in a poster, a newsletter, a short newspaper article or television news story, or some other method for informing the community. Your presentation should be interesting enough to attract someone’s attention, while providing information on the ten carcinogens you have studied and the dangers they pose to people living in the community.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Organize Form a committee of five classmates to serve as a carcinogen study group for your community. Search the lists of carcinogens that you are able to find and select ten items from those lists on which to focus your research. Find out where in your community each carcinogen is most likely to be found. For each carcinogen, prepare a carcinogen profile listing its source and its possible health effects on humans.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 123

Name

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Concept Mapping

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CHAPTER 9

The Cell Cycle

Complete the cycle map about the cell cycle. These terms may be used more than once: cell, cytoplasm, metaphase, nuclear membrane, nucleoli, poles.

Interphase (1) The grows. DNA is duplicated.

Prophase Cytokinesis Chromosomes condense. (6)

divides.

Two cells are formed.

(2) The and nucleolus disappear. Spindle apparatus forms.

Telophase

Nuclear membranes and (5)

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chromosomes arrive at poles. (3) reappear. Sister chromatids line up at equator. Chromosomes decondense.

Anaphase Chromatids are pulled apart toward (4)

124 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

.

Unit 2

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CHAPTER 9

Study Guide

Section 1: Cellular Growth

In your textbook, read about cell size limitations. List two alternative futures for cells when they reach their size limitations. 1. 2.

In your textbook, read about the cell cycle. Draw the cell cycle in the space below. Include the following labels: cytokinesis, G1, G2, interphase, mitosis, S.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.

Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A

Column B

4. stage in which the cell divides into two daughter cells with identical nuclei

A. S phase B. cytokinesis

5. substage of interphase immediately after a cell divides C. G1 6. substage of interphase in which the cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division

D. G2

7. stage in which the cell’s nuclear material divides and separates

E. interphase

8. main stage in which the cell grows, carries out normal functions, and duplicates its DNA

F. mitosis

9. substage in which the cell prepares for nuclear division and a protein that makes microtubles for cell division is synthesized Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 125

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CHAPTER 9

Study Guide

Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

In your textbook, read about the stages of mitosis. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. The nuclear membrane disintegrates during prophase. 2. Microtubules move chromatids to the poles of the cell during anaphase. 3. Chromosomes reach the poles of the cell during metaphase. 4. The cell’s chromatin condenses into chromosomes during prophase. 5. The nuclear envelope re-forms during anaphase. 6. Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers and line up along the equator of the cell during metaphase. 7. The nucleus reappears during prophase. 8. Centrioles migrate to the poles of the cell during telophase. 9. Chromatids are pulled apart during anaphase. 10. The first stage of mitosis is telophase. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. The chromosomes decondense or unwind during telophase. 12. The shortest stage of mitosis is metaphase.

Label the diagram of the stages of mitosis using lines 13–16. Use these choices: anaphase

metaphase

prophase

telophase

















Label the diagrams above using lines 17–20. Use these choices: centrioles

centromere

126 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

sister chromatids

spindle fibers Unit 2

Study Guide, Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

continued

In your textbook, read about cytokinesis.

Animal cell

Plant cells

Refer to the diagrams above. Respond to each statement. 21. Discuss the role of microfilaments in cytokinesis.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

22. Summarize cell division in prokaryotes.

Draw the formation of two genetically identical cells in plants in the space below. Include the following labels: cell plate, identical daughter cells, new cell wall. 23.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 127

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CHAPTER 9

Study Guide

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

In your textbook, read about the abnormal cell cycle and cancer. Complete the graphic organizer about the causes and prevention of cancer. These terms may be used more than once: carcinogens, cell cycle, cells, DNA damage, genetic changes, spindle fiber failure, the Sun’s ultraviolet rays, tobacco. Cancer

is the uncontrolled growth and division of 1.

that is often prevented by

that is caused by unrepaired

cell-cycle checkpoints

exposure to

2.

that monitor for 3.

or

5.

4.

6.

7.

8.

before excessive X rays cytokinesis

Complete the table by checking the correct column for each description. Description

Apoptosis

Stem Cells

9. After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the resulting mass of cells divides until there are about 100 to 150 cells. 10. Some cells go through a programmed death. 11. Embryonic cells shrivel and die, resulting in the formation of fingers and toes. 12. Unspecialized cells are either embryonic or adult. 13. This event occurs in cells that are damaged beyond repair. 128 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

such as

and stop the

Nombre

Fecha

Guía de estudio

Curso

CAPÍTULO 9

Sección 1: El crecimiento celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las limitaciones en el tamaño de las células. Enumera dos futuros alternativos para las células cuando alcanzan sus limitaciones de tamaño. 1. 2.

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo celular. Dibuja el ciclo celular en el siguiente espacio. Identifica lo siguiente: citoquinesis, G1, G2, interfase, mitosis, S.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.

Relaciona la definición de la columna A con el término de la columna B. Columna A

Columna B A. fase S

4. etapa en la cual la célula se divide en dos células hijas con núcleos idénticos

B. citoquinesis 5. sub-etapa de la interfase inmediatamente después de que una célula se divide

C. G1 D. G2

6. sub-etapa de la interfase en la cual la célula copia su ADN preparándose para la división celular

E. interfase 7. etapa en la cual el material nuclear de la célula se divide y se separa F. mitosis 8. etapa principal en la cual la célula crece, realiza funciones normales y duplica su ADN 9. sub-etapa en la cual la célula se prepara para la división nuclear y se sintetiza una proteína que produce microtúbulos para la división celular

Unidad 2

CAPÍTULO 9 La reproducción celular 129

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPÍTULO 9

Guía de estudio

Sección 2: Mitosis y citoquinesis

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de las etapas de la mitosis. Para cada afirmación a continuación, escribe «verdadero» o «falso». 1. La membrana nuclear se desintegra durante la profase. 2. Los microtúbulos mueven cromátidas hacia los polos de la célula durante la anafase. 3. Los cromosomas alcanzan los polos de la célula durante la metafase. 4. La cromatina de la célula se condensa en cromosomas durante la profase. 5. La envoltura nuclear se vuelve a formar durante la anafase. 6. Los cromosomas se unen a las fibras del huso y se alinean a lo largo del ecuador de la célula durante la metafase. 7. El núcleo vuelve a aparecer durante la profase. 8. Los centriolos migran hacia los polos de la célula durante la telofase. 9. Los cromátidas se separan durante la anafase. 10. La primera etapa de la mitosis es la telofase.

12. La etapa más corta de la mitosis es la metafase.

Identifica el diagrama de las etapas de la mitosis en las líneas 13–16. Usa estas opciones: anafase

metafase

profase

telofase

















Identifica los diagramas anteriores en las líneas 17–20. Usa estas opciones: centriolos

centrómero

130 La reproducción celular CAPÍTULO 9

cromátidas hermanas

fibras del huso Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. Los cromosomas se descondensan o se desenrollan durante la telofase.

Guía de estudio, Sección 2: Mitosis y citoquinesis

continuación

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca de la citoquinesis.

Célula animal

Células de las plantas

Consulta el diagrama anterior. Responde a cada afirmación. 21. Comenta la función de los microfilamentos en la citoquinesis.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

22. Resume la división celular en las procariotas.

En el siguiente espacio, dibuja la formación de dos células de plantas genéticamente idénticas. Identifica lo siguiente: células hijas idénticas, nueva pared celular, placa celular. 23.

Unidad 2

CAPÍTULO 9 La reproducción celular 131

Nombre

Fecha

Curso

CAPÍTULO 9

Guía de estudio

Sección 3: La regulación del ciclo celular

En tu libro de texto, lee acerca del ciclo celular anormal y del cáncer. Completa el organizador gráfico acerca de las causas y de la prevención del cáncer. Estos términos se pueden usar más de una vez: cambios genéticos, carcinógenos, células, ciclo celular, daño al ADN, el tabaco, falla de las fibras del huso, los rayos ultravioletas del sol. Cáncer

es el crecimiento y la división incontrolada de 1.

que a menudo se evita mediante

que es causado por

puntos de control del ciclo celular

exposición a

2.

que buscan 3.

o

4.

no reparados

5.

6. 7.

8.

antes de la citoquinesis

rayos X en exceso

Completa la tabla marcando la(s) columna(s) correcta(s) para cada descripción. Descripción

Apóptosis Células madre

9. Después de que un esperma fertiliza un huevo, la masa resultante de células se divide hasta que haya alrededor de 100 a 150 células. 10. Algunas células pasan por una muerte programada. 11. Las células embriónicas se arrugan y mueren, lo que resulta en la formación de los dedos de las manos y de los pies. 12. Las células no especializadas son embriónicas o adultas. 13. Este evento ocurre en las células que se han dañado sin posibilidad de reparación. 132 La reproducción celular CAPÍTULO 9

Unidad 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

tales como

y frenan el

Name

Section Quick Check

Date

Class

CHAPTER 9

Section 1: Cellular Growth

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Define mitosis.

2. Summarize the stages of interphase.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Clarify the difference between chromatin and chromosomes.

4. Distinguish between mitosis and cytokinesis.

5. The unicellular spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii are about 100 μm in diameter. Calculate the surface-area-to-volume ratio of a cube whose sides are 100 μm in length to approximate the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the fern spore cell. Show your work.

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CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 133

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CHAPTER 9

Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Recount the major events that happen during prophase.

2. Describe the structure of chromosomes during prophase.

3. Summarize how cytokinesis occurs in plant cells.

4. Contrast the spindle apparatus of an animal cell with that of a plant cell.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Devise a way to remember each stage of mitosis. Propose one word or a short phrase that describes each stage and also starts with the same letter as the name of that stage, for example, telophase–two nuclei.

134 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER 9

Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

After reading the section in your textbook, respond to each statement. 1. Relate apoptosis to cancer.

2. Explain how cancerous cell growth differs from normal cell growth.

3. Identify the protein and enzyme complex that is important in controlling the cell cycle and three of the processes it controls.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Determine the significance of stem cells.

5. Deduce what would happen if there were no spindle checkpoints.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 135

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Chapter Test

A

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CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best answers each question. 1. What can limit the size of a cell? A. frequency of the cell cycle B. maximum rate of cell mitosis C. nutrient and energy levels D. ratio of surface to volume 2. Which occurs during cytokinesis? A. binary fission takes place B. cytoplasm divides C. DNA duplicates D. spindle apparatus forms 3. What type of concern is raised by embryonic stem cell research? A. ethical B. medical cost C. public health D. scientific

Part B: Matching Check the box to indicate whether the event described by each statement occurs during the normal cell cycle or abnormal cell cycle. Check one box for each statement. Normal Cycle

Abnormal Cycle

1. Results in a condition called cancer 2. Involves special proteins called cyclins 3. Can be caused by an overexposure to X rays 4. Has an environmental limit to prevent cells from dividing endlessly

136 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

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Statement

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A

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CONTINUED

Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs

!

"

#

$

Use the illustration above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the anaphase, metaphase, prophase, and telophase stages of mitosis in the drawings labeled A, B, C, and D. A.

C.

B.

D.

 

-ALE &EMALE

     

"IRTH                 

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2ATEPER PEOPLE

0ANCREATIC#ANCER

 YAGEGROUPS

Use the graph above to answer each question. 2. Interpret What is the rate of pancreatic cancer for 62-year-old males?

3. Interpret What gender and age experiences the highest rate of pancreatic cancer?

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 137

Name

Chapter Test

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A

Class

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Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. List the three stages of the cell cycle.

2. Compare the medical benefits of adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Use the term specialized cells in your answer.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Infer why a law was passed in some states and cities in the United States that prevents people from smoking inside public buildings and restaurants. Include the term carcinogen in your discussion.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Explain why the cancer rate of a group of elderly people living in a nursing home is higher than the cancer rate of a class of first-grade children.

138 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. During the cell cycle, a cell grows A. and dies. B. and divides. C. without completing cytokinesis. D. without completing mitosis. 2. What is the purpose of mitosis? A. create genetic diversity B. increase cell volume C. produce new offspring D. replace damaged cells

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. Which is the reproductive method of prokaryotes? A. binary fission B. cell apoptosis C. cytokinesis D. mitosis 4. How can cancer cells be described? A. completing abnormal mitosis B. dividing out of control C. lacking essential nutrients D. shrinking to a small size 5. The combination of mitotic cyclin with CDK signals the A. beginning of cell mitosis. B. completion of cytokinesis. C. growth of a cancer cell. D. start of the cell cycle.

Part B: Matching and Completion Matching Write the letter of the correct stage of mitosis on the line next to its description. Answers may be used only once or not at all. 1. Chromatin condense into chromosomes.

A. anaphase

2. The nucleolus reappears.

B. interphase

3. This stage ensures that the new cells have accurate copies of the chromosomes.

C. metaphase D. prophase

4. The cell grows during this stage. E. telophase Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 139

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Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below. 5. The stage during which the cell’s cytoplasm divides is called

.

6. The stage during which the cell carries out cell functions is called

.

7. Tobacco smoke is an example of a(n)

.

8. Unspecialized human cells are called

.

Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs

!

"

#

$

Use the illustration above to respond to the following statement. 1. Identify the prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase stages of mitosis in the drawings labeled A–D in the order that they occur during mitosis. A.

C.

B.

D.

 

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2. Contrast the rate of pancreatic cancer for males and females at the age of 69.

0ANCREATIC#ANCER

 YAGEGROUPS

3. Interpret What age group is not usually afflicted by pancreatic cancer?

140 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use the graph on the right to respond to each question and statement.

Name

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CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Identify two limiting factors that control eukaryotic cell division. Describe each limiting factor.

2. Infer why embryonic stem cell research raises ethical concerns in the United States.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each question and statement in the space provided.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Evaluate Why is it impractical for human liver cells to triple their average size?

2. Formulate a strategy for a restaurant waiter who is searching for a job to minimize his risk of contracting cancer from work-related environmental conditions. Use the term carcinogen in your answer.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 141

Name

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CHAPTER 9

Cellular Reproduction

Part A: Multiple Choice In the space at the left, write the letter of the term, phrase, or sentence that best completes each statement or answers each question. 1. Which distinguishes the process of cytokinesis in plant and animal cells? A. A cell plate forms in animal cells, while a furrow forms in plant cells. B. A cell plate forms in plant cells, while a furrow forms in animal cells. C. Cytokinesis results in genetic diversity in animal cells but not plant cells. D. Cytokinesis results in genetic diversity in plant cells but not animal cells. 2. Which is part of the spindle apparatus? A. aster fibers B. centromere C. chromatin D. nuclear envelope 3. The G 1 stage of the cell cycle marks the beginning of the A. cell cycle. B. process of cytokinesis. C. process of mitosis. D. protein cycle.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. How can apoptosis be defined? A. cell death B. cell growth C. complete mitosis D. incomplete mitosis 5. Unspecialized human cells are called A. cancer cells. B. mitotic cells. C. signal cells. D. stem cells. 6. Why is adult stem cell research less controversial than embryonic stem cell research? A. Adult stem cell research has wider medical applications. B. Consent can be obtained from adult stem cell donors. C. Donated cadavers can be used to harvest adult stem cells. D. Stem cells from adults require no animal experimentation.

Part B: Completion Write the correct term in the blank to complete each sentence below. 1. The structure that attaches sister chromatids is called the 2. The shortest stage of mitosis is 142 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

. . Unit 2

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3. A bacterium cell reproduces using the process of

.

4. Special proteins that bind to enzymes during the cell cycle are called

.

5. A failure in the regulation of the cell cycle will result in

.

6. Ultraviolet radiation is an example of a(n)

.

Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs

!

"

#

$

Use the illustration above to respond to the following statement. 1. Interpret Identify the four stages of mitosis in the drawings labeled A–D. Explain the reasons for your identifications.

2. Interpret At what age does the occurrence of pancreatic cancer increase significantly for males and females?

3. Interpret What age group of men does not fit the pattern for contracting pancreatic cancer? Explain.

 

0ANCREATIC#ANCER

-ALE &EMALE

     

"IRTH                 

2ATEPER PEOPLE

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use the graph on the right to respond to each question.

 YAGEGROUPS

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 143

Name

Chapter Test

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CONTINUED

Part D: Short Answer Write your response to each statement in the space provided. 1. Summarize the three stages of the cell cycle.

2. Explain why the risk of cancer increases with age.

3. Describe the formation of embryonic stem cells.

Part E: Concept Application Write your response to each statement in the space provided. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Contrast A typical animal cell has a diameter of 20 μm. Contrast the efficiency of a typical cell’s functions with the cell function efficiency of a hypothetical cell with a 40-μm diameter.

2. Contrast the arguments of those in favor of embryonic stem cell research with those who oppose the research.

144 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Name

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CHAPTER 9

Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Section 9.1 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that best matches each definition. 1.

2.

3.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 4. 6. 8. 5.

7.

Constructed Response 9.

10.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11.

Think Critically 12.

13.

Section 9.2 Vocabulary Review

Use vocabulary terms to complete the concept map. 14.

17.

15.

18.

16. Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 145

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Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 19.

21.

20.

22.

Constructed Response 23.

24.

25.

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Think Critically 26.

27. Math in Biology

Section 9.3 Vocabulary Review

Write the vocabulary term that makes each sentence true. 28.

29.

30.

Understand Key Concepts

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 31.

34.

32.

35.

33.

146 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

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Assessment

Student Recording Sheet

Constructed Response 36.

37.

Think Critically 38.

39.

40. Record your answer for question 40 on a separate sheet of paper. Additional Assessment

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

41. Writing in Biology Record your answer for question 41 on a separate sheet of paper. 42. Record your answer for question 42 on a separate sheet of paper. Document-Based Questions 43.

44.

45.

Cumulative Review 46.

47.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 Cellular Reproduction 147

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Student Recording Sheet

Assessment

Standardized Test Practice Multiple Choice

Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle. 1. 4. 7. 2.

5.

8.

3.

6.

9.

10.

Short Answer

Answer each question with complete sentences. 11.

12. 13.

14.

15. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16.

17. Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences. 18.

19.

Essay Question 20. Record your answer for question 20 on a separate sheet of paper.

148 Cellular Reproduction CHAPTER 9

Unit 2

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test Page 3

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1. The correct answer is D. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks atoms are composed of electrical charges instead of made of charged and noncharged particles. Direct student to the atoms discussion in Section 6.1. • Student thinks atoms are the smallest particles of matter. Direct student to the atoms discussion in Section 6.1. • Student thinks the nucleus of an atom is a particle. Direct student to the atoms discussion in Section 6.1. • Student thinks atoms are made of energy and not matter. Direct student to the atoms discussion in Section 6.1. 2. The correct answer is A. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks isotopes can be different elements. Direct student to the isotopes discussion in Section 6.1. • Student thinks isotopes vary in their number of protons. Direct student to the isotopes discussion in Section 6.1. • Student thinks isotopes are particles with a negative charge. Direct student to the isotopes discussion in Section 6.1. • Student thinks isotopes are particles with a positive charge. Direct student to the isotopes discussion in Section 6.1. 3. Responses should include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks vitamins and minerals are macromolecules. Explain to student that vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients, but they do not have the structure of macromolecules. • Student thinks amino acids are macromolecules. Explain that proteins are macromolecules, and proteins are made up of amino acids.

Unit 2

• Student thinks DNA and RNA are macromolecules. Explain that DNA and RNA are specific types of nucleic acids and direct student to the organic macromolecules discussion in Section 6.4. • Student thinks fats are macromolecules. Explain to student that fats contain lipids, which are considered macromolecules. • Student thinks sugars and carbohydrates are two different types of macromolecules. Explain to student that sugars are types of carbohydrates.

Launch Lab Page 4 • How does the nutrient content of foods compare? Analysis 1. Factors might include texture, composition, or taste, as well as prior knowledge of how the item is classified among food groups. 2. While answers will vary, justifications should include the fact that some foods contain multiple nutrients in significant amounts.

MiniLab Page 5 • Test for Simple Sugars Analysis 1. Answers will be based on the foods tested. 2. Students might find a positive result because some sugar-free foods contain natural fruit sugar.

MiniLab Page 6 • Investigate Enzymatic Browning Analysis 1. They slowed down, or prevented, the reaction of the soft tissue with oxygen. 2. The owner should choose a recipe that decreases the enzyme’s ability to catalyze oxidation (i.e., lower pH with lemon juice). The addition of lemon juice or some other acid will prevent browning, keep the apples more rigid, and enhance appearance.

CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 149

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

BioLab: Design Your Own Page 7 • What factors affect an enzyme reaction? Analyze and Conclude 1. An increase in temperature will speed up the reaction until the enzyme is deactivated around 70°C. The ideal pH range for the enzyme will be 6–8. An increased concentration of the substrate will increase the reaction until the enzyme is saturated with the substrate. 2. Graphs will depend on the factor being tested. A graph of temperature data will show a bellshaped curve that tops out at about 35°C. A graph showing effects of pH changes will also have a bell shape, and will top out around pH 7. A line graph of substrate concentration should show a steady increase before leveling off as the enzyme becomes saturated with the substrate. 3. Answers will depend on the factor tested and data collected. 4. Human cells have the enzyme peroxidase, which catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, limiting the chemical’s antiseptic value. 5. Answers will vary.

Page 9 • How lean is lean ground beef? Planning the Activity Use this activity after students have read about types of organic macromolecules in Chapter 6 of the text. Alternatively, this activity may be used as students investigate nutrition and digestion later in the course (Chapter 35). Purpose Students determine and compare the fat content of three different samples of ground beef. Career Applications An interest in organic macromolecules in foods and how they are used by and affect the body can lead to a career as a dietician. Dieticians assess people’s nutritional needs, plan nutrition programs and meals, recommend dietary changes, teach people about nutrition, supervise the preparation of meals, analyze foods, and do research. They might work for hospitals, schools, public health clinics, physicians, 150 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Materials Tips Materials three samples of ground beef with different fat contents, large plastic cup, plastic spoon, balance, 250-mL beaker, hot plate, tongs or gloves, graduated cylinder, water • Record information from the label on each kind of ground beef, such as percentage lean and percentage fat, type of meat that was ground, and price per pound. • You might want to review the procedure with students before they begin the activity. Instruct students to pour fat slowly into the graduated cylinder. If too much fat is spilled or left in the beaker, it will affect results. Safety Tips • Caution students to use care when measuring and transferring the ground beef. Raw ground beef can contain bacteria. Anything that comes in contact with the raw ground beef should be washed thoroughly or discarded. • Remind students to use care when working with hot plates and handling hot objects. Students should wear goggles and gloves throughout the activity. Instruct students to discard ground beef and fat into appropriate receptacles when the activity has been completed. Teaching Strategies • After students have read the opening paragraphs, discuss the common dietary sources of fats and the importance of fat in human physiology. Remind students about the health dangers associated with eating too much fat or too many saturated and trans fats, and then lead into a discussion about planning healthful diets. • Ask students to describe what happens to the size of the ground beef as it cooks. Elicit that the volume of ground beef shrinks because water and fat are removed during the heating process. Have students discuss how the fat content of a rare hamburger and a well-done hamburger might compare. Point out that eating rare ground beef is not safe because of bacteria in raw ground beef. Thorough cooking kills the bacteria.

Unit 2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Real-World Biology: Lab

health organizations, or food manufacturers. To become a dietician, a person needs a college degree.

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

• Provide students with the cost per pound of each sample of ground beef. Have students use a calculator to find the beef’s cost per 100 g by dividing the price per pound by 454 and multiplying by 100. Then have students determine how to find the cost of the ground beef left in each sample at the end of the activity. (Divide the price per pound by 454 and multiply by the number of grams of ground beef left.) • Below Level: Ask students to explain what 80/20 on the label of a package of ground beef means. (The ground beef is 80 percent lean and 20 percent fat, or it contains 80 percent meat and 20 percent fat.) • Above Level: Ask students, based on what they know about different fats in foods and fat in ground beef, what recommendations they would make to someone about to shop for groceries. (Answers will vary but could include buying foods with lower amounts of fat, choosing unsaturated fats instead of saturated and trans fats, and buying lean ground beef.)

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Answers to Student Worksheet Analyze and Conclude 1. Answers will vary. Student predictions could have been relatively accurate or could have greatly overestimated or underestimated the amount of fat in the ground-beef samples. Even if students were inaccurate in the predictions of the specific percentages, they might have predicted the samples with the most and the least fat correctly. 2. Answers will vary, but students should find that the three ground-beef samples differ in their fat content. The percentage of fat in the samples might range from 10 percent to 30 percent. 3. The lower the percentage of fat is, the redder the meat is. Careers in Biology A dietician might assess people’s nutritional needs, plan nutrition programs and meals, recommend dietary changes, teach people about nutrition, supervise the preparation of meals, analyze foods, and do research.

Unit 2

Enrichment Page 11 • Just One of the Family Organic Family

Alkanes

Functional Group

none

Alkenes

#

#

Aromatic hydrocarbons

/(

Alcohols

/ Aldehydes

# ( /

Ketones

# / #

Esters

# /

#

Ethers

/

#

/ Carboxylic acids

# /(

Amines

#

.( /

Amides

# .(

Student responses for the third and fourth columns of the table will differ. Responses for the fourth column should state that the compounds exist in living organisms (such as pleasant-smelling esters in a variety of fruits), are produced by living organisms (such as carboxylic acids produced during cellular metabolism), or have some effect on living organisms (such as alcohols). CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 151

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Concept Mapping

Page 15 • Section 6.3

Page 12 • Organic Macromolecules

1. slightly negative end 2. slightly positive end 3. hydrogen bond 4. covalent bond 5. true 6. false 7. false 8. true 9. false 10. acids 11. hydrogen ions 12. bases 13. biology 14. pH 15. neutral 16. Buffers

1. carbohydrates 2. lipids 3. nucleic acids 4. amino acids 5. DNA 6. (CH2O) n 7. fatty acid tails 8. nucleotides

Study Guide Page 13 • Section 6.1

Page 14 • Section 6.2 1. 6 2. 6 3. 6 4. conservation of mass; Matter cannot be created or destroyed. 5. the subscript number to the right of each element 6. Student should draw a line indicating that less activation energy is required. 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. B

152 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 16 • Section 6.4 1. true 2. false 3. false 4. true 5. false 6. saturated fat 7. unsaturated fat 8. Nucleic Acid 9. Lipid 10. Protein 11. Nucleic Acid 12. Protein 13. Carbohydrate 14. Lipid 15. Protein

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. proton 2. neutron 3. electron 4. nucleus 5. energy level 6. symbol 7. groups 8. true 9. true 10. half-life 11. compound 12. covalent bonds and ionic bonds

Guía de estudio Página 17 • Sección 6.1 1. protón 2. neutrón 3. electrón 4. núcleo Unit 2

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

5. nivel de energía 6. símbolo 7. grupos 8. verdadero 9. verdadero 10. la media vida 11. un compuesto 12. los enlaces covalentes y los enlaces iónicos

Página 18 • Sección 6.2

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. 6 2. 6 3. 6 4. conservación de masa; La materia no se puede crear ni destruir. 5. el número subíndice a la derecha de cada elemento 6. El estudiante debe trazar una línea que indique que se requiere menos energía de activación. 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. B

Página 19 • Sección 6.3 1. extremo ligeramente negativo 2. extremo ligeramente positivo 3. enlace de hidrógeno 4. enlace covalente 5. verdadero 6. falso 7. falso 8. verdadero 9. falso 10. ácidos 11. iones de hidrógeno 12. bases 13. biología 14. pH 15. neutra 16. amortiguadores

Unit 2

Página 20 • Sección 6.4 1. verdadero 2. falso 3. falso 4. verdadero 5. falso 6. grasa saturada 7. grasa insaturada 8. Ácidos nucleicos 9. Lípidos 10. Proteínas 11. Ácidos nucleicos 12. Proteínas 13. Carbohidratos 14. Lípidos 15. Proteínas

Section Quick Check Page 21 • Section 6.1 1. a bond that results from the electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms 2. Proton are positive, neutrons are neutral, and electrons are negative. 3. A carbon-12 atom is the most abundant form of carbon. It has six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus, making it stable. A carbon-14 atom is a radioactive isotope found in all living things. It has six protons and eight neutrons in its nucleus, making it unstable. 4. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons equals the number of protons, so there are 8 electrons. The isotope is named by combining the number of protons and neutrons, so 16 – 8 = 8 neutrons. 5. Salt water is not a compound because a saltwater solution can be produced by combining 200 mL water with 2.5 g sodium chloride and by combining 100 mL water with 5 g sodium chloride. There is no specific ratio of water to sodium chloride involved. Also, salt water can be separated by physical means; evaporating the water will separate out the sodium chloride.

CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 153

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Page 22 • Section 6.2 1. activation energy 2. A substrate binds to an enzyme at the active site, which has a complementary shape, and the substrate is converted to product. 3. reactants: PbO2 and HCl, products: PbCl2, Cl2, H 2O 4. In an endothermic reaction, the energy of the products is higher than the energy of the reactants. The reaction absorbs energy. In an exothermic reaction, the energy of the products is lower than the energy of the reactants, and the reaction releases energy. 5. 4H2O; 3O2

Page 23 • Section 6.3

Page 24 • Section 6.4 1. Polymers are molecules made from repeating units of identical or nearly identical organic compounds that are linked together by a series of covalent bonds. 2. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost energy level, so it can form four bonds with other atoms or with itself to make compounds. These compounds can be in the shape of chains, branches, and rings. 3. Students answers will vary. Nucleic acids store genetic information and are used to make copies of proteins, which are involved in almost every function of the body.

154 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Chapter Test A Page 25 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. B 2. C 3. A

Page 25 • Part B: Matching Matching Set 1 1. proton 2. electron 3. electron 4. neutron Matching Set 2 5. B 6. C 7. A

Page 26 • Part C: Interpreting Graphs 1. Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen are the three most abundant elements in living things. 2. 5730 years

Page 26 • Part D: Short Answer 1. An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means. 2. Enzymes are catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in cells.

Unit 2

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1. A solution is made by dissolving a solute in a solvent. 2. Buffers keep the pH within a particular range, and most biological processes require that the pH be between 6.5 and 7.5. 3. Oxygen has a stronger attraction for the shared electrons than hydrogen does, so the electrons spend more time near the oxygen nuclei. The bent shape of the molecule also contributes to its polarity. 4. OH– 5. salad dressing: heterogeneous mixture, carbonated water: solution. The oil and vinegar separate, but the carbon dioxide and water do not.

4. Both saturated fats and unsaturated fats have fatty acid tails. Saturated fats have only single bonds between all the carbons, and no more hydrogen atoms can bond to the tail. Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond between carbon atoms, and at least one more hydrogen can be added to the tail. 5. Student answers will vary. Proteins are involved in almost every function of the body, and they are all made from a combination of only 20 amino acids. The four different levels of structure allow the amino acids to be combined in a multitude of different orders and shapes to form all of the different types of proteins with different functions.

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

3. Macromolecules include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Page 27 • Part E: Concept Application 1. The cells of living things need many nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. Water dissolves these nutrients so they can be transported into cells. Cells use the nutrients to perform basic life functions. Without the nutrients, cells would die, eventually resulting in the death of the organism. 2. Fats contain lipids, and lipids store energy. Lipids are also a component of membranes and other vital molecules used in the body. Small amounts of fats provide the lipids necessary for repairing and growing new cell membranes.

Chapter Test B Page 28 • Part A: Multiple Choice

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. D 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. A

Page 28 • Part B: Matching and Completion Matching 1. A 2. B 3. C Completion 4. atoms 5. compound 6. ion 7. product 8. hydrogen ions

Page 29 • Part C: Interpreting Graphs 1. A: hydrogen; B: carbon; C: oxygen 2. 25 percent

Unit 2

Page 29 • Part D: Short Answer 1. All three particles make up an atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, while electrons are constantly moving outside the nucleus. Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge, and neutrons have no charge. 2. Both types of bonds involve the electrons of atoms. A covalent bond forms when atoms share electrons, while an ionic bond is formed by the attraction of two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms. 3. The activation energy of a chemical reaction is the minimum amount of energy needed for the reactants involved in the reaction to form the products. A catalyst, such as an enzyme, is a substance that lowers the activation energy needed to start the reaction.

Page 30 • Part E: Concept Application 1. The periodic table of the elements lists all the elements in periods and columns, called groups, based on their chemical and physical properties. Elements in the same column have similar chemical and physical properties, and chemists can use this information to determine how elements can be combined into new compounds. Scientists can analyze the elements in natural compounds and choose elements with similar properties to form synthetic compounds with predictable properties. 2. The chemical and physical properties of elements change when they combine to form a compound. When sodium and chlorine combine to form the compound table salt, their properties change. Sodium no longer reacts violently with water, and chlorine is no longer toxic to living things. 3. Lipids do not dissolve in water. Similarly, water cannot easily cross layers of lipid. The lipids in human skin serve to keep water in our bodies and prevent dehydration as well as preventing skin from absorbing harmful chemicals which might come in contact with our skin.

CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 155

Chapter 6

Teacher Guide and Answers

Chapter Test C Page 31 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. B

Page 31 • Part B: Completion 1. protons 2. isotopes 3. BF3 4. covalent bonds 5. base 6. organic chemistry

Page 32 • Part C: Interpreting Graphs

Page 32 • Part D: Short Answer

Page 33 • Part E: Concept Application 1. Hydrogen peroxide and water are different compounds with different chemical formulas. The different molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide completely changes its physical and chemical properties, and these different properties make hydrogen peroxide toxic to living things. 2. The fibers of meat will break down naturally causing the meat to become tender, but the enzyme papain acts as a catalyst to speed up the chemical reactions involved with breaking down the meat fibers to make the meat more tender. 3. During the summer when temperatures are high, water absorbs great quantities of heat without becoming too hot because it has a high specific heat index. This property of water protects aquatic creatures from extreme heat. During the winter, ice freezes on the surface of the pond because solid water is less dense than liquid water. The ice insulates aquatic creatures from extreme cold temperatures. If ice were denser than water, an ice layer would form on the bottom of the pond and freeze the aquatic creatures hibernating in the pond’s muddy bottom.

1. The box on the periodic table of the elements that contains gold provides the element’s name, chemical symbol, and average atomic mass. The chart also reveals the number of protons and electrons in gold atoms. The location of gold on the periodic table reveals other elements that have similar physical and chemical properties as gold. 2. Without slight positive and negative charges around each molecule, there would be no van der Waals forces to hold the molecules close together. The molecules would more easily separate from each other to form water vapor and most common ionic substances would no longer be soluble in water.

156 CHAPTER 6 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Unit 2

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1. A: hydrogen; B: carbon; C: oxygen; D: nitrogen 2. A 5000-year-old seed can be more accurately dated because there is a greater quantity of carbon-14 remaining. A 100,000-year-old bone has little carbon-14 remaining in it, which greatly reduces the possibility of calculating an accurate age for the artifact. Too many half-lives have passed for the 100,000-year-old bone to be accurately dated using carbon-14 with a half-life of only 5730 years.

3. Blood is a heterogeneous mixture called a suspension. A suspension has undissolved particles that do not settle out of the liquid. Sugar water is a homogenous mixture called a solution because the sugar completely dissolves in the water. The soil-water mixture is a heterogeneous mixture because it forms two distinct layers of substances.

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test

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Page 41 1. The correct answer is D. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student is uncertain of the definition of a cell. Direct student to the discussion on basic cell types in Section 7.1. • Student thinks no organism is made of just one cell. Explain to student that most organisms from Kingdom Protista are unicellular organisms, which will be covered in Chapter 19. Direct student to the discussion on basic cell types in Section 7.1. • Student thinks genetic information is not passed on to daughter cells after cell division. Direct student to the discussion on the cell theory in Section 7.1. • Student thinks cells or unicellular organisms can arise from a source other than preexisting cells. Direct student to the discussion on the cell theory in Section 7.1. • Student thinks atoms or molecules are the building blocks of living things. Explain that cells are made of atoms and molecules, but cells are considered the building blocks of living things because they are the smallest living unit that still perform life functions. 2. The correct answer is C. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks animal cells have a cell wall. Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3. • Student thinks all cells have a round or oval shape. Explain that cells have a variety of shapes because there is a wide diversity of types of cells designed for different functions. Explain that most plant cells have a rectangular shape and direct student to the diagrams of plant cells in Section 7.3. • Student thinks animal cells have chloroplasts. Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3.

Unit 2

• Student thinks either plant or animal cell has no nucleus. Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3. • Student is confused about the structures that separate plant and animal cells from their outside environments. Direct student to the diagrams of plant and animal cells in Section 7.3. 3. The food dye particles are constantly moving in the water, and this random motion causes diffusion, which means the particles will move and spread out into regions of the water where there are fewer particles. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student confuses the process of diffusion with isotonic, hypotonic, or hypertonic solutions. Direct student to the discussions of diffusion and cells in isotonic solutions in Section 7.4. • Student lacks an understanding of diffusion. Define diffusion for student and direct student to the discussion of diffusion in Section 7.4. • Student confuses the processes of diffusion and osmosis. Direct student to the discussions of diffusion and osmosis in Section 7.4. • Student thinks a chemical reaction has occurred. Explain that the process of diffusion is a physical change in which one substance is dissolved into and evenly distributed through water. • Student thinks the water molecules changed color. Explain that the color change is due to the dye being dissolved into the water and not from a color change of the water molecules.

Launch Lab Page 42 • What is a cell? Analysis 1. Accept all reasonable responses. Students should note that the living samples had cells. 2. Accept all reasonable responses. The formal definition of a cell is “the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms.”

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 157

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

MiniLab

Real-World Biology: Analysis

Page 43 • Discover Cells

Page 47 • Extending Our Senses

Analysis 1. Accept any reasonable answer that illustrates an understanding of cells and cell theory. 2. Answers might vary. Accept reasonable responses. Using light and electron microscopes, the student could show that Hooke’s observations are still valid.

Planning the Activity This activity can be used with Chapter 7 to supplement the section on the history of the microscope and its contributions to the development of cell theory.

MiniLab Page 44 • Investigate Osmosis

BioLab Page 45 • Selective Permeability of Membranes Analyze and Conclude 1. Phospholipid, enzyme, DNA, and fat molecules are all too large to pass through the membrane. Oxygen and fructose should pass through easily. 2. Carrier proteins and protein pumps help move molecules in a cell. The phospholipids bilayer can engulf large molecules or groups of molecules in vacuoles to move them into and out of the cell. 3. If bags are not rinsed thoroughly after filling them with a solution, some of the solution might remain on the outside of the bag and would be present in the beaker without passing through the dialysis membrane. Accept all reasonable analyses.

158 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Career Applications A cell biologist investigates the organization and function of molecules and organelles in cells to understand the mechanisms by which cells function. This job requires good powers of observation, use of instrumentation, and familiarity with microscopes. Teaching Strategies • This activity can be introduced with photos, illustrations, or a biology film illustrating living red blood cells and skin cells. If students do not have access to a lab, it would be helpful to have a compound microscope available for hands-on examination. • Discuss the attitude of seventeenth-century society toward scientific thinking and the effect that it had on scientific progress. • For Part B, some students might need guided practice before attempting to complete the table. Review the material on the evidence board with these students, and lead the group through the column in the table for Suspect 1. Example: What kind of debris might Suspect 1 have on her shoes? What type of red blood cells does she have? What type of red blood cells does her poodle have? Would her skin cells be cancerous? • This activity works well with students in groups of three or four. • Extension questions can include: What other instruments do scientists use to extend their senses? (telescopes, radar, sonar, CT Scan, MRI) The Atomic Force Microscope can produce a threedimensional image of the topography of the surface of a cell or molecule at the level of the atom. Sonar

Unit 2

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Analysis 1. Accept all reasonable answers. 2. On the control slide, no change is seen because the concentration of water molecules inside the cell and outside the cell is nearly the same. As a result, there is no strong flow of water molecules into or out of the cells. However, on the test slide, the number of water molecules outside the cells in the strong salt solution is lower than the number of water molecules inside the cells. Consequently, a great deal of water begins to diffuse out of the cell due to osmosis, and the cell contents begin to shrink away from the walls.

Purpose Students examine the historic roots and a modern application of the structure and function of the microscope as a tool for extending the senses.

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

produces an image of the topography of the ocean floor. Do they both use the same process? • Below Level: To simplify Part A, question 1, give students the formula for magnification: magnification = objective magnification × eyepiece magnification. • Above Level: Have students calculate the total magnifications if they were using the 4× objective and if they were using the 10× objective.

Answers to Student Worksheets Part A: Microscope Parts and Functions Analyze and Conclude 1. 400× 2. Van Leeuwenhoek’s Microscope

Modern Compound Microscope

Magnification

one lens; 200×

eyepiece lens 10× plus choice of objective lenses 4×, 10×, 40×

Specimen mounting

a sharp point in front of the lens

a slide placed on the stage

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Function

Part B: Using Microscopes to Examine Evidence Analyze and Conclude 1. Suspect 3 was the thief for the following reasons: Debris from the floor: She had both sand and hay on her shoes. Blood sample: Her pet is not a mammal; the blood cells found at the scene have nuclei and therefore are from a nonmammal. Skin sample: Her skin cells are not cancerous; the cells found at the scene have contact inhibition and are oriented in a particular direction and therefore are normal and not cancerous. This suspect is the only one connected with all three pieces of evidence. Careers in Biology A cell biologist investigates the organization and function of molecules and organelles in cells to understand the mechanisms by which cells function.

coarse and fine two screws adjustment knobs Position/focus moving up and to move the stage of specimen down up and down sunlight and Light source electric lightbulb candlelight

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 159

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

Enrichment Page 49 • Practical Applications of Osmosis Application

Explanation

Solution

Pickles are made by immersing cucumbers in a concentrated saltwater solution.

Water passes out of cucumber cells more rapidly than it passes into them, causing them to shrink and the vegetable to shrivel.

hyper

Spraying plants with a solution that contains too high a concentration of fertilizer might cause them to dry out and die.

Water passes out of the plant cells, causing them to shrink and become dehydrated (plasmolysis).

hyper

Patients undergoing surgery are given a 0.9% saline (saltwater) solution.

The concentration of water, salts, and other components of cells remains constant, and the rate at which water passes in and out of cells remains constant.

iso

Concept Mapping

Study Guide

Page 50 • Cellular Structure

Page 51 • Section 7.1

1. plasma membrane 2. prokaryotes 3. eukaryotes 4. bacteria 5. plants 6. animals 7. chloroplasts or a large central vacuole 8. a large central vacuole or chloroplasts

160 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

hyper

hyper

hypo

hyper

1. the microscope 2. The structures reminded him of the cells in which monks live at a monastery. 3. compound light microscope 4. cell theory 5. cells 6. organisms 7. genetic material 8. daughter cells 9. Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes 10. Prokaryotes Unit 2

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One of the oldest methods of preserving foods Water passes out of bacterial cells, causing them is to pack them in saline solutions, which kill to become dehydrated and die. the bacteria that cause foods to spoil. Organisms tend to lose water to the hypertonic Organisms that live in seawater have solution (seawater) in which they live and specialized mechanisms that prevent them develop mechanisms to replace or accommodate from becoming dehydrated. for the lost water. Tap water has few or no dissolved salts, making Florists store fresh flowers in cold water it hypotonic to cellular fluids and causing water to help the flowers keep their original to flow into cells more rapidly than it flows out. appearance . . . The concentration of solutes within plant cells is . . . although the flowers begin to wilt as soon greater than that outside the cell, causing water as they are taken out of the water for a period to flow out more rapidly than it flows in (from of time. water vapor in the surrounding air).

Chapter 7 11. Prokaryotes 12. Eukaryotes 13. Prokaryotes 14. Eukaryotes 15. Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes

Page 52 • Section 7.2

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1. Homeostasis 2. Plasma Membrane 3. Selective Permeability 4. Plasma Membrane 5. Selective Permeability 6. Homeostasis 7. carbohydrate chain 8. transport protein 9. polar head 10. nonpolar tails 11. B 12. C 13. A 14. E 15. D

Page 53 • Section 7.3 1. mitochondrion 2. cytoplasm 3. nucleolus 4. nucleus 5. microtubules 6. endoplasmic reticulum 7. Golgi apparatus 8. true 9. nucleus 10. ribosomes 11. Golgi apparatus 12. true

Page 54 • Section 7.4 1. C 2. A 3. E 4. B Unit 2

Teacher Guide and Answers 5. D 6. F 7. Isotonic Solution 8. Hypertonic Solution 9. Hypotonic Solution 10. Isotonic Solution 11. Hypotonic Solution 12. Hypertonic Solution

Guía de estudio Página 55 • Sección 7.1 1. el microscopio 2. Las estructuras le recordaron las celdas en las cuales viven los monjes en un monasterio. 3. microscopio de luz compuesta 4. teoría de la célula 5. células 6. organismos 7. material genético 8. células hijas 9. Procariotas, Eucariotas 10. Procariotas 11. Procariotas 12. Eucariotas 13. Procariotas 14. Eucariotas 15. Procariotas, Eucariotas

Página 56 • Sección 7.2 1. Homeostasis 2. Membrana de plasma 3. Permeabilidad selectiva 4. Membrana de plasma 5. Permeabilidad selectiva 6. Homeostasis 7. cadena de carbohidratos 8. proteína de transporte 9. cabeza polar 10. colas apolares 11. B 12. C CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 161

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

13. A 14. E 15. D

Página 57 • Sección 7.3 1. mitocondria 2. citoplasma 3. nucleolo 4. núcleo 5. microtúbulos 6. retículo endoplásmico 7. aparato de Golgi 8. verdadero 9. núcleo 10. ribosomas 11. aparato de Golgi 12. verdadero

Página 58 • Sección 7.4

Section Quick Check Page 59 • Section 7.1 1. Robert Hooke made a simple microscope and saw small, box-shaped structures, which he called cells, in cork. Anton van Leeuwenhoek saw living organisms in pond water, milk, and other substances.

162 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 60 • Section 7.2 1. cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydrates 2. A phospholipid is a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphatecontaining compound. The plasma membrane is made of two layers of phospholipids that are arranged tail-to-tail. 3. The primary function of the plasma membrane is to maintain homeostasis by providing a thin, flexible boundary between a cell and its watery environment. The plasma membrane allows nutrients to enter the cell and allows waste and other products to leave the cell. 4. If the plasma membrane of a cell lost its selective permeability, it would no longer be able to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Waste products might build up inside the cell, the cell might not be able to take in nutrients, and the cell might take in excess water or harmful substances from its environment. 5. The surface of the plasma membrane can be described as a mosaic because different substances float around within the plasma membrane, creating a pattern on the membrane’s surface.

Unit 2

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1. C 2. A 3. E 4. B 5. D 6. F 7. Solución isotónica 8. Solución hipertónica 9. Solución hipotónica 10. Solución isotónica 11. Solución hipotónica 12. Solución hipertónica

2. All living things are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and organization of all living organisms. Cells arise only from existing cells and pass copies of their genetic material to their daughter cells. 3. All cells have a structure called a plasma membrane, genetic material that is used for making substances and reproduction, and a way of breaking down molecules to generate energy for metabolism. 4. The discovery of cells would not have been possible without microscopes. Early scientists used simple magnifying instruments. These scientists were able to see cells, but not the individual structures within cells. Modern microscopes enable scientists to study the structure and function of cells. 5. Prokaryotic cells are simple cells that do not have specialized structures. Eukaryotic cells, generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells, contain a nucleus and organelles.

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

Page 61 • Section 7.3 1. microtubules and microfilaments 2. Chloroplasts might be found in a plant cell and are not found in an animal cell. Chloroplasts capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy through photosynthesis. Animal cells do not perform photosynthesis to produce energy, so they do not have chloroplasts. 3. Organelles perform protein synthesis, energy transformation, digestion of food, excretion of wastes, and cell division. 4. Mitochondria convert sugars into usable energy to fuel movement of the muscle and the body, in addition to providing the energy for the cell’s life processes. Muscles require more mitochondria than skin does, because muscles need energy to move. 5. Lysosomes in a cell are like a cleanup crew in a factory because lysosomes digest excess or wornout organelles and food particles as well as bacteria and viruses that enter the cell.

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Page 62 • Section 7.4 1. endocytosis and exocytosis 2. diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion 3. When a cell is in dynamic equilibrium with its environment, there is continuous movement across the plasma membrane with no overall change in concentration. When the concentration of solutes outside the cell is the same as the concentration of solutes inside the cell, the cell solution is isotonic relative to its environment. 4. After 24 h, the egg will appear shriveled. The salt water solution is hypertonic to the egg’s interior environment. The net movement of water by osmosis is out of the cell because the concentration of the solute (salt) is higher outside the cell than inside the cell. 5. Diffusion, the random movement of a substance down its concentration gradient, uses no energy. Active transport, the movement of particles against their concentration gradient, requires energy.

Unit 2

Chapter Test A Page 63 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. C 2. D 3. A

Page 63 • Part B: Matching Matching Set 1 1. prokaryote 2. eukaryote 3. eukaryote 4. eukaryote Matching Set 2 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. C

Page 64 • Part C: Interpreting Drawings 1. A: water; B: oxygen or glucose; C: oxygen or glucose; D: carbon dioxide or wastes; E: carbon dioxide or wastes. 2. A: hypertonic solution; B: isotonic solution; C: hypotonic solution.

Page 64 • Part D: Short Answer 1. First, all living things are composed of one or more cells. Second, cells are the basic unit of structure of all living things. Third, cells only arise from preexisting cells and pass on copies of their genetic material to their daughter cells. 2. The membrane regulates the substances that enter and exit the cell. The membrane allows some substances to pass through but not other substances. 3. The nucleus manages cell tasks. It contains DNA for protein synthesis, and it is the center for cell reproduction.

Page 65 • Part E: Concept Application 1. The organelles and structures that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells include cell walls, chloroplasts, and nuclear pores. The organelles found in animal cells but not plant

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 163

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

cells include centrioles, lysosomes, and vesicles. Vacuoles can be found in both cells, but they are larger in plant cells. 2. The food dye particles are constantly moving in the water, and this random motion causes diffusion, which means the particles will move and spread out into regions of the water where there are fewer particles. 3. A dynamic equilibrium has been reached after 10 min when the water has a uniform, red color.

Chapter Test B Page 66 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. C

Page 67 • Part B: Matching and Completion

Completion 6. Hooke 7. electron microscope 8. eukaryotic 9. transport proteins 10. cilia 11. osmosis

Page 67 • Part C: Interpreting Drawings 1. A: water; B: oxygen or glucose; C: oxygen or glucose; D: carbon dioxide or wastes; E: carbon dioxide or wastes; F: transport protein. 2. A: hypertonic solution; B: isotonic solution; C: hypotonic solution.

164 CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

1. First, all living things are composed of one or more cells. Second, cells are the basic unit of structure of all living things. Third, cells only arise from preexisting cells, and they pass on copies of their genetic material to their daughter cells. 2. The phospholipid tails in the two layers comprising the plasma membrane face each other end-to-end to make up the interior of the membrane. The nonpolar tails repel water and form a barrier to stop many water soluble substances. This separates the external environment from the cell environment. 3. Organelles are supported inside the cell by a network of long, thin protein fibers that form a framework called the cytoskeleton. Microtubules and microfilaments comprise the cytoskeleton. Microtubules are long, hollow protein cylinders that help transport substances in the cell, and microfilaments are protein threads that give the cell its shape.

Page 68 • Part E: Concept Application 1. Endosymbiosis is the theory that eukaryotic cells evolved from a symbiotic relationship in which one type of prokaryotic cell lived inside a larger prokaryotic cell. If the theory is true, eukaryotic cells (and, consequently, higher life forms) would never have evolved without these symbiotic relationships among ancient prokaryotes.

Chapter Test C Page 69 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. B 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. A

Page 70 • Part B: Completion 1. prokaryotic 2. transport proteins 3. nucleus 4. lysosomes Unit 2

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Matching 1. F 2. E 3. D 4. A 5. B

Page 68 • Part D: Short Answer

Chapter 7

Teacher Guide and Answers

5. diffusion 6. potassium

Page 70 • Part C: Interpreting Drawings 1. A: water; B: oxygen or glucose; C: oxygen or glucose; D: carbon dioxide or wastes; E: carbon dioxide or wastes; F: transport protein. Transport proteins span the length of the membrane creating tunnels for specific substances to travel in and out of the cell. 2. A: hypertonic solution; B: isotonic solution; C: hypotonic solution. 3. Drawing C, representing the hypotonic solution, would resemble the blood cell because without salt added to the intravenous solution, excess water would enter the blood cell causing it to swell.

Page 71 • Part E: Concept Application 1. The third principle states that cells can only arise from preexisting cells, but the first cell to have evolved must have arisen from organic molecules and not from a cell. The original cell could not have been a daughter cell that received genetic material from a parent cell.

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Page 71 • Part D: Short Answer 1. Before the sixteenth century, scientists had no knowledge of the microscopic world. In the late sixteenth century, Dutch lens grinders Hans and Zacharias Janssen invented the first compound microscope. In the seventeenth century, Robert Hooke observed cork and named the structures cells. Hooke published drawings of cells and other microscopic objects. With his own microscope, Dutch biologist Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovered unicellular protozoan in water and other substances during the late seventeenth century. 2. Cells normally exist in a watery environment. The phosphate groups are polar, which means they are attracted to water. They face outward because they are attracted to the water in the outside environment and the interior of the cell. The fatty-acid tails of the membrane are nonpolar, which means they repel water. The tails are turned inward because they repel the water in both the outside environment and interior of the cell. 3. During endocytosis, a cell surrounds an object outside of its environment with its plasma membrane and pinches off the substance leaving it inside the cell. During exocytosis, a cell surrounds a waste product inside the cell with its plasma membrane and expels the waste from the cell.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 7 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 165

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test Page 79 1. The correct answer is A. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks energy can be created. Direct student to the transformation of energy discussion in Section 8.1. • Student thinks energy or matter can be destroyed. Explain that neither energy nor matter can be created or destroyed under ordinary circumstances. • Student thinks entropy adds usable energy to a system. Direct student to the transformation of energy discussion in Section 8.1. • Student thinks objects, such as the log, do not contain stored energy. Explain to student that gasoline, wood, and other materials have chemical energy stored within them.

3. Cellular respiration is the process used by all organisms to break down organic molecules in the presence of oxygen to generate energy, water, and carbon dioxide. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks cellular respiration is the same as breathing. Direct student to metabolism discussion in Section 8.1.

166 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Launch Lab Page 80 • How is energy transformed? Analysis 1. Graphs should show that the temperature of the solution increased after CaCl2 was added. The temperature of the solution with Epsom salts decreased over time. 2. Energy transformation occurred when the anhydrous calcium solution was added because thermal energy was released. When Epsom salts were added, thermal energy was absorbed.

MiniLab Page 81 • Relate Photosynthesis to Cellular Respiration Analysis 1. The tube wrapped in aluminum foil as a control demonstrates that carbon dioxide is used by the plant only when in the light and therefore able to perform photosynthesis. 2. In photosynthesis, plants take in CO2 and convert it, using light energy, to sugars and oxygen. Plants and animals both perform cellular respiration, which uses oxygen to burn carbohydrates, producing carbon dioxide. The two processes are interdependent.

MiniLab Page 82 • Observe Chloroplasts Analysis 1. Chloroplasts vary in size and shape from spherical or oval to irregular. Chloroplasts vary from light to dark green and can contain different amounts of chlorophyll. Unit 2

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2. The correct answer is B. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks autotrophs ingest food. Direct student to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1. • Student thinks heterotrophs are organisms that use photosynthesis to make food. Direct student to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1. • Student thinks the function of photosynthesis is to create energy. Direct student to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1. • Student thinks photosynthesis creates organic molecules other than glucose. Direct student to autotrophs and heterotrophs discussion in Section 8.1.

• Student confuses the reactants needed for photosynthesis. Direct student to metabolism discussion in Section 8.1. • Student confuses the products produced during photosynthesis. Direct student to metabolism discussion in Section 8.1. • Student confuses the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Direct student to metabolism discussion in Section 8.1.

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

2. Answers will vary, but there are different types of chlorophyll, which have different colors, and there are other pigments that also contribute to photosynthesis.

BioLab: Design Your Own

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Page 83 • Do different wavelengths of light affect the rate of photosynthesis? Analyze and Conclude 1. Controls may include equal volumes of water and of sodium bicarbonate solution, and white light. Variables might include the wavelengths of light from colored cellophane. 2. Answers will depend on how students measure oxygen production. Photosynthesis rate is measured by measuring oxygen production. 3. Graphs should show greatest photosynthesis in red and violet light and little or none in other wavelengths. 4. Photosynthesis rate will be greatest in white and violet light. There should be little or none in blue, green, yellow, and orange light. 5. Answers will depend on data and students’ predictions. 6. Stirring plants in the beaker or leaving portions of plants out of the water affects oxygen production. Other errors might include not completely covering the lightbulb with cellophane or leaving air at the top of the test tube. 7. Take care in handling.

Real-World Biology: Analysis Page 85 • Bioluminescence and Behavior Planning the Activity Use this activity with Chapter 8 of the text after students have been introduced to the relationship between stored energy, ATP, and ADP. Purpose Students evaluate information from a series of experiments and draw conclusions about the nature and uses of bioluminescence. The activity gives students an opportunity to employ critical thinking skills as they draw conclusions based on research data.

Unit 2

Career Applications The critical thinking skills reinforced in this activity are directly related to the skills used in biochemistry. Biochemical technicians often assist biochemists in the study of the chemical structure and function of living things at the molecular level. The goal is to understand the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Successful biochemical technicians are likely to be graduates of science technician training programs or applied science technology programs and are well trained on equipment used in laboratories and production facilities. They help biochemists analyze substances and run tests. They use laboratory equipment and perform procedures such as cell cultures and bacterial fermentation. Teaching Strategies • After students have read the introduction, review the role of ATP in storing chemical energy in a cell. • Ask students what form of energy characterizes bioluminescence (light). Invite students to discuss how a cell or an organism might change chemical energy to light energy. • It might be useful to review how to formulate a hypothesis to answer a question or solve a problem. • Have students infer why bioluminescence is common in organisms that live in deep-ocean water. (Light from the surface does not travel to great depths.) • Have students communicate examples of bioluminescent organisms they have seen or know about and any technology that uses bioluminescent organisms or products from them. • Below Level: Have students experiment with light sticks and compare the luminescence of light sticks to the bioluminescence of organisms. Point out that in both cases, the light is a product of a chemical reaction. • Above Level: Ask students to research the colors of light produced by bioluminescence and the connection between an organism’s habitat and the color of light it produces.

CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 167

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Answers to Student Worksheet

Concept Mapping

Part A: Producing Light Analyze and Conclude 1. Luciferin, luciferase, and oxygen are needed for bioluminescence to occur. 2. Answers will vary. A possible hypothesis is that the different chemical compositions of luciferin and luciferase might be responsible for the different colors of the bioluminescent light produced. 3. The amount of bioluminescent light produced increases in direct proportion to the amount of ATP present.

Page 88 • Photosynthesis and Respiration

Part B: Using Light Analyze and Conclude 1. Student hypotheses will vary but should reflect an understanding of controls and dependent and independent variables. 2. Student responses will vary but should indicate an understanding of which variables should be changed to test their hypotheses.

Enrichment Page 87 • Many Kinds of Chlorophyll Students should identify the porphyrin ring with its central magnesium atom as common to all natural forms of chlorophyll, with the various forms of the compound differing primarily in side chains attached to that ring. They should also recognize that chlorophyll a is present in all green plants and all green algae, chlorophyll b occurs primarily in land plants, chlorophyll c occurs in various types of algae, and chlorophyll d occurs in cyanobacteria.

168 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Study Guide Page 89 • Section 8.1 1. C 2. E 3. F 4. A 5. H 6. I 7. B 8. J 9. G 10. D 11. Group B 12. autotrophs 13. Group A 14. heterotrophs 15. chemoautotrophs

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Careers in Biology The responsibilities of a biochemical technician include assisting a biochemist in the study of the chemical structure and function of living things at the molecular level, helping a biochemist analyze substances and run tests, using laboratory equipment, and performing procedures such as cell cultures and bacterial fermentation.

1. absorbs 2. chlorophyll 3. Calvin cycle Note: Student answers for questions 4 and 5 are interchangeable. 4. H2O 5. CO2 6. releases 7. mitochondria 8. Krebs cycle

Page 90 • Section 8.2 1. 4 2. 3 3. 1 4. 6 5. 2 6. 5

Unit 2

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

7. Pigments differ in their ability to absorb specific wavelengths of light. Different types of pigments enable plants to trap energy from a wide range of visible light. 8. chlorophyll b 9. Calvin 10. C4, CAM 11. CAM 12. Calvin 13. Calvin, C4, CAM 14. CAM

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Page 91 • Section 8.3 1. cellular respiration 2. glucose 3. ATP 4. energy 5. glycolysis 6. anaerobic 7. cytoplasm 8. NADH 9. Aerobic 10. mitochondria 11. oxygen 12. 4 13. 2 14. 1 15. 3 16. four 17. Although there are four ATP molecules produced by the glycolysis of one molecule of glucose, it takes two ATP molecules to provide the energy for the glycolysis reactions to occur. 18. 2, 2, 32 19. 36 20. aerobic pathway 21. true 22. false 23. false 24. true 25. false 26. true Unit 2

27. false 28. true 29. false

Guía de estudio Página 93 • Sección 8.1 1. C 2. E 3. F 4. A 5. H 6. I 7. B 8. J 9. G 10. D 11. grupo B 12. autótrofos 13. grupo A 14. heterótrofos 15. quimioautótrofos

Página 94 • Sección 8.2 1. 4 2. 3 3. 1 4. 6 5. 2 6. 5 7. Los pigmentos difieren en su capacidad de absorber longitudes de onda de luz específicas. Diferentes tipos de pigmentos permiten a las plantas atrapar energía de una amplia gama de luz visible. 8. clorofila b 9. Calvin 10. C4, CAM 11. CAM 12. Calvin 13. Calvin, C4, CAM 14. CAM

CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 169

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Teacher Guide and Answers

Página 95 • Sección 8.3

Section Quick Check Page 97 • Section 8.1 1. an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups 2. Student answers will vary. The amount of energy stays the same. Energy can change forms but it cannot be created or disappear. 170 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 98 • Section 8.2 1. 6CO2 + 6H2O → C 6H12O6 + 6O2 2. Light energy is absorbed and stored as ATP and NADPH, which are used to make glucose. 3. Pigments are light-absorbing colored molecules; chlorophyll, carotenoids 4. Light is not directly a part of the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH, which store energy from light during the light reactions. 5. The cells of an organism that carries out photosynthesis would contain chloroplasts.

Page 99 • Section 8.3 1. glycolysis, Krebs cycle (TCA cycle/the citric acid cycle), electron transport 2. C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy 3. Photosynthesis produces simple carbohydrates, and the products are oxygen and glucose, the reactants for cellular respiration. Cellular respiration breaks down simple carbohydrates, and the products, carbon dioxide and water, are the reactants for photosynthesis. 4. Two phosphate groups from two ATP molecules are joined to glucose. A 6-carbon molecule is broken down into two 3-carbon molecules. Two NADP+ molecules are converted into two NADH molecules. Two 3-carbon molecules are converted into two molecules of pyruvate as four molecules of ATP are produced. 5. Student answers will vary. Exercise requires energy from stored molecules, and to break down these molecules oxygen is needed. Breathing deeply and quickly supplies more oxygen. Unit 2

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1. respiración celular 2. glucosa 3. ATP 4. energía 5. glicólisis 6. anaeróbico 7. citoplasma 8. NADH 9. aeróbica 10. mitocondria 11. oxígeno 12. 4 13. 2 14. 1 15. 3 16. cuatro 17. Aunque hay cuatro moléculas de ATP producidas por la glicólisis de una molécula de glucosa, se necesitan dos moléculas de ATP para suministrar la energía para que ocurran las reacciones de la glicólisis. 18. 2, 2, 32 19. 36 20. la ruta aeróbica 21. verdadero 22. falso 23. falso 24. verdadero 25. falso 26. verdadero 27. falso 28. verdadero 29. falso

3. Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down larger molecules into smaller molecules. Anabolic pathways use the energy released by catabolic pathways to build larger molecules from smaller molecules. 4. Plants convert light energy from the Sun into chemical energy, and heterotrophs eat either plants or animals that got their energy from eating plants. 5. It is anabolic because a larger molecule is being built from smaller ones.

Chapter 8

Teacher Guide and Answers

Chapter Test A Page 100 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. A 2. C 3. A

Page 100 • Part B: Matching 1. C 2. A 3. B

Page 100 • Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas 1. photosynthesis 2. 425 nm and 675 nm

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Page 101 • Part D: Short Answer 1. The first law of thermodynamics—the law of energy conservation—states that energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. 2. The second law of thermodynamics states that systems spontaneously change from orderly to disorderly states. 3. During the Calvin cycle, energy absorbed during the first phase of photosynthesis is stored in organic molecules such as glucose. 4. Aerobic processes require the presence of oxygen, while anaerobic processes do not require oxygen.

Page 102 • Part E: Concept Application 1. An oak tree is an autotroph that converts solar energy from the sun into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Heterotrophs, such as squirrels, must ingest food to obtain the energy they need. 2. Chloroplasts are organelles that contain lightcapturing pigments used for photosynthesis. If the chloroplasts are damaged, the cell’s ability to perform photosynthesis would be affected.

Chapter Test B Page 103 • Part A: Multiple Choice

3. B 4. C 5. C

Page 103 • Part B: Matching and Completion Matching 1. photosynthesis 2. cellular respiration 3. cellular respiration 4. photosynthesis Completion 5. energy 6. adenosine triphosphate 7. chloroplasts 8. 3-phosphoglycerate

Page 104 • Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas 1. A: C6H12O6, B: 6O2 (Note: Student answers for A and B are interchangeable.) 2. Chlorophyll a: 425 nm; chlorophyll b: 460 nm

Page 105 • Part D: Short Answer 1. The first law of thermodynamics—the law of energy conservation—states that energy can be converted from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics states that systems spontaneously change from orderly to disorderly states. 2. Catabolic pathways break down larger molecules into smaller molecules to release energy, while anabolic pathways use energy released by catabolic pathways to build large molecules from small molecules. 3. The formula for cellular respiration is C 6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy. This is the opposite of the formula for the process of photosynthesis. During the overall process of cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to release and store energy in the form of ATP. Because the process requires oxygen, it is called an aerobic process. Water and carbon dioxide are formed as waste products during the reaction.

1. A 2. C Unit 2

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Page 105 • Part E: Concept Application 1. During the summer, the tulip tree leaves have an abundance of chlorophyll, a strong green pigment, and the chlorophyll masks other pigments present in the leaves. Before winter, deciduous trees prepare to lose their leaves, and as a result, the chlorophyll in the leaves breaks down revealing the yellow pigments in the leaves. 2. Lactic-acid fermentation results in the production of several foods, such as cheese, yogurt, and sour cream. Alcohol fermentation results in the reproduction of alcoholic beverages, such as wine and beer.

Chapter Test C Page 106 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. A 5. D 6. A

Page 106 • Part B: Completion

Page 107 • Part C: Interpreting Graphs and Formulas 1. A: 6H2O; B: C6H12O6 ; C: 6O2 (Note: Student answers for B and C are interchangeable.) 2. 420–490 nm

Page 107 • Part D: Short Answer 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, the original energy stored as chemical energy inside the wood is conserved. As the log burns, the chemical energy is converted into heat and light energy. The second law of thermodynamics explains why energy is released from the wood as it transforms from an organized log to a disorganized pile of ash and escaping gases.

172 CHAPTER 8 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Page 108 • Part E: Concept Application 1. Black-smoker ecosystems depend on chemoautotrophic bacteria to convert hydrogen sulfide originating from the vents into nutrients. 2. Northeastern states could plan a tourist industry centered on the changing colors of leaves during the autumn. Large tracks of deciduous forests would need to be preserved, and a system of trails for biking, hiking, and other outdoor activities could be created. Hotels, restaurants, and other tourist necessities could be planned and built while maintaining the integrity of the forests, and new forests with trees that produce brilliant colors could be planted to restore logged or developed land. 3. During strenuous activity, skeletal muscles produce excess lactic acid when the body cannot accumulate enough oxygen to break down the acid. The player must play with less vigor or rest completely to allow his or her body’s oxygen supplies to replenish and break down the excess lactic acid.

Unit 2

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1. heterotroph 2. thylakoids 3. mitochondria 4. rubisco 5. electron transport

2. Adenosine triphosphate is the most important energy-carrying molecule in cells. It is composed of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, and three phosphate groups. ATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken. When this bond is broken, ADP and a free phosphate group are formed, and energy is released. 3. NADP+ is the primary electron carrier involved in the electron transport process of photosynthesis. This molecule picks up electrons that have been excited by energy collected from sunlight and moves the electrons along a series of molecules. Without NADP+ carrier molecules, the photosynthesis process would shut down because energy from sunlight would not be transported through the thylakoid membrane.

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

Diagnostic Test Page 115

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1. The correct answer is C. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks cancer is caused by a pathogen. Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle: cancer discussion in Section 9.2. • Student thinks cancer is a communicable disease. Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle: cancer discussion in Section 9.2. • Student thinks some cancer cells are normal and complete body functions. Explain to student that all cancer cells are abnormal and are incapable of performing body functions. Cancer cells are always harmful to an organism. • Student thinks cancer does not originate in cells. Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle: cancer discussion in Section 9.2. • Student thinks cancer cells cannot divide. Direct student to the abnormal cell cycle: cancer discussion in Section 9.2. 2. The correct answer is C. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks large cells become cancerous. Explain to student that cell size is limited by other factors, and there is no relationship between cell size and cancer. • Student thinks rapid cell division prevents cell growth. Direct student to the limits of cell size discussion in Section 9.1. • Student thinks a cell does not need to transport nutrients throughout its cytoplasm. Direct student to the limits of cell size discussion in Section 9.1. 3. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential of developing into a wide variety of cell types. Based on student responses, use the list below to address preconceptions. • Student thinks stem cells are only present in embryos. Direct student to the discussion on stem cells in Section 9.3.

Unit 2

• Student thinks stem cells are only involved in cloning. Direct student to the discussion on stem cells in Section 9.3. • Student thinks stem cell research requires the abortion of fetuses. Explain to students that stem cells can be grown in a lab after a human egg cell has been artificially fertilized, and adult stem cells can be harvested from adults. • Student thinks stem cells perform specific functions. Direct student to the discussion on stem cells in Section 9.3. • Student thinks stem cells are specialized. Direct student to the discussion on stem cells in Section 9.3.

Launch Lab Page 116 • From where do healthy cells come? Analysis 1. Answers will vary depending on the types of cells viewed. Plant cells will be rectangular in shape, animal and protist cells might have variable shapes, and algae cells may be round or rectangular. 2. Answers will vary. Cells had different appearances and structures because they came from different organisms and could perform different functions within the organism. Diseased cells may look misshapen, and they may appear different compared to healthy cells in the same organism.

MiniLab Page 117 • Investigate Cell Size Analysis 1. physically: cells become too heavy; metabolically: limited surface area does not allow substances in and waste out at a high enough rate 2. more standard-sized cells

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MiniLab Page 118 • Compare Sunscreens Analysis 1. Zinc oxide completely blocks sunlight, so it is a control to which results of other sunscreens can be compared. 2. Sunscreens with higher SPF numbers should block more light. There may be differences between sunscreens that have the same SPF number but different active ingredients.

BioLab Page 119 • Does sunlight affect mitosis in yeast?

Real-World Biology: Analysis Page 121 • Examining and Reducing the Risks of Cancer Planning the Activity Have students complete this activity after they have studied cancer in Chapter 9 of the text. Purpose Students will examine the effects of three carcinogens and learn lifestyle choices for reducing the risks of cancer. Career Applications An interest in preventing and curing cancer can lead to a career in cancer research. Scientists with diverse backgrounds work together in cancer research. They can be biologists, chemists, physicists, or engineers.

174 CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Teaching Strategies • Ask students: “How does using tobacco affect the risk of cancer? What organs are most affected?” • Have students discuss other known or possible carcinogens they have read about or heard about on news reports. • Below Level: Go over the tables to make sure students understand the information presented. • Above Level: Have interested students research other types of cancer and how the risk of getting them can be reduced. If time allows, students can present their findings to the class.

Answers to Student Worksheet Part A: Examining the Risks Analyze and Conclude 1. Tobacco, alcohol, and ultraviolet radiation are listed as carcinogens because they cause cancer. 2. Both tobacco and alcohol are known to cause cancer of the esophagus. 3. People who work outdoors are exposed to more UV radiation from sunlight. Part B: Reducing the Risks Analyze and Conclude 1. The lifestyle choices either limit a person’s exposure to a carcinogen or help maintain a healthy body, which protects the person from cancer. 2. A person with a family history of cancer should get regular checkups. This helps reduce the risk of dying from cancer because many kinds of cancers can be treated successfully if they are detected early. 3. A diet with lots of fat and few vegetables, fruits, and whole grains would give a person a higher risk of cancer.

Unit 2

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Analyze and Conclude 1. If there was an average of 100 colonies on the control plates and 50 colonies on the exposed plate, the survival rate would be 50 percent. 2. Student graphs should indicate that the survival rate was greater on the plates with the sunscreen than without the sunscreen. 3. Answers will vary but should take into account the protective effect of the sunscreen. 4. Possible sources include contamination by fungal spores and bacteria in the air and on the skin; errors in counting; prior exposure of colony to sunlight.

They can specialize in molecular biology, biomedical engineering, genetics, or many other areas. Their research ranges from studying the effects of different substances on cells to designing a better tool to focus treatment at the site of cancer cells. Regardless of what individual scientists in cancer research do, they all must work together and communicate.

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

Careers in Biology A scientist who works in cancer research could be a biologist, a chemist, a physicist, or an engineer. The research ranges from studying the effects of different substances on cells to designing a better tool to focus treatment at the site of cancer cells.

Enrichment Page 123 • Protecting Against Carcinogens Lists of carcinogens compiled in the United States, in other nations, and by the United Nations are available in various print references. For example, read the most recent edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Section 16, Health and Safety Information, or the most recent edition of the Report on Carcinogens of the National Toxicology Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Concept Mapping

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Page 124 • The Cell Cycle 1. cell 2. nuclear membrane 3. Metaphase 4. poles 5. nucleoli 6. Cytoplasm

Study Guide Page 125 • Section 9.1 1. Cells will stop growing. 2. Cells will divide. 3. The cycle should be indicated by a circle with arrows, and all three stages and three substages should be labeled correctly. 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. F 8. E 9. D

Unit 2

Page 126 • Section 9.2 1. true 2. true 3. false 4. true 5. false 6. true 7. false 8. false 9. true 10. false 11. true 12. true 13. metaphase 14. anaphase 15. telophase 16. prophase 17. sister chromatids 18. centromere 19. spindle fibers 20. centrioles 21. In animal cells, cytokinesis is accomplished by using microfilaments to pinch the cytoplasm in two, as shown in the diagram of an animal cell. 22. Instead of cytokinesis, prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission. Both copies of the prokaryotic DNA attach to the plasma membrane. As the plasma membrane grows, the attached DNA molecules are pulled apart, and the cell completes fission. 23. Instead of plant cells pinching in half, a new structure called a cell plate forms between the two daughter nuclei. Cell walls then form on either side of the cell plate. Student drawings should be similar to the illustration on the page and should include correctly labeled structures.

Page 128 • Section 9.3 1. cells 2. genetic changes 3. DNA damage 4. spindle fiber failure 5. carcinogens CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 175

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

6. cell cycle Note: Student answers for questions 7 and 8 are interchangeable. 7. tobacco 8. the Sun’s ultraviolet rays 9. Stem cells 10. Apoptosis 11. Apoptosis 12. Stem cells 13. Apoptosis

Guía de estudio Página 129 • Sección 9.1

Página 130 • Sección 9.2 1. verdadero 2. verdadero 3. falso 4. verdadero 5. falso 6. verdadero 7. falso 8. falso 9. verdadero 10. falso 11. verdadero 12. verdadero 13. metafase 14. anafase

176 CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Página 132 • Sección 9.3 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Las células dejarán de crecer. 2. Las células se dividirán. 3. El ciclo debe indicarse con un círculo con flechas, y las tres etapas y sub-etapas se deben identificar correctamente. 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. F 8. E 9. D

15. telofase 16. profase 17. cromátidas hermanas 18. centrómero 19. fibras del huso 20. centriolos 21. En las células animales, la citoquinesis se logra mediante el uso de microfilamentos para partir el citoplasma en dos, como se muestra en el diagrama de una célula animal. 22. En vez de citoquinesis, las células procarióticas se dividen mediante fisión binaria. Ambas copias del ADN procariótico se unen a la membrana del plasma. A medida que la membrana del plasma crece, las moléculas de ADN unidas se despegan, y la célula completa la fisión. 23. En vez de que las células de las plantas se partan en dos, se forma una nueva estructura llamada placa celular entre los dos núcleos hijos. Las paredes celulares se forman posteriormente en los dos lados de la placa celular. Los dibujos de los estudiantes deben ser similares a la ilustración de la página y deben incluir las estructuras correctamente identificadas.

1. células 2. cambios genéticos 3. daño al ADN 4. falla de las fibras del huso 5. carcinógenos 6. ciclo celular Nota: Las respuestas de los estudiantes a las preguntas 7 y 8 son intercambiables. 7. el tabaco 8. los rayos ultravioletas del sol 9. Células madre 10. Apóptosis 11. Apóptosis 12. Células madre 13. Apóptosis

Unit 2

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

Section Quick Check Page 133 • Section 9.1 1. Mitosis is the second stage of the cell cycle, during which the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide. 2. The first stage of interphase is G1, when a cell grows and carries out normal cell functions. During the S stage, the cell copies its DNA. During the G2 stage, the cell prepares for nuclear division and makes microtubule proteins. 3. Chromosomes are the structures that contain DNA. Chromatin is relaxed DNA in the cell’s nucleus. 4. Mitosis is division of the nucleus, and cytokinesis is division of the cell’s cytoplasm. 5. surface area = 100 μm × 100 μm × 6 = 60,000 μm volume = 100 μm × 100 μm × 100 μm = 1,000 000 μm surface-area-to-volume ratio = 60,000:1,000,000 = 3:50

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Page 134 • Section 9.2 1. The chromatin condenses into chromosomes, the nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear, and spindle fibers form. 2. The chromosomes are shaped like an X. Two sister chromatids are joined at the center at the centromere. 3. A cell plate forms between the two daughter nuclei, and cell walls form on either side of it. 4. The spindle apparatus of an animal cell has a pair of centrioles. The spindle apparatus of a plant cells does not have centrioles. 5. Student answers will vary. Sample answers: prophase–preparation, metaphase–middle, anaphase–away, telophase–two nuclei.

Page 135 • Section 9.3 1. Apoptosis of cells with DNA damage helps prevent cancer. When apoptosis does not occur, damaged cells can multiply and lead to cancer. 2. Cells that are growing normally respond to cell cycle control mechanisms. Cancer is uncontrolled growth and division of cells that

Unit 2

results when cells do not respond to cell cycle control mechanism. Cancer cells can crowd out normal cells, causing loss of tissue function. 3. A cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) combination is important in controlling the cell cycle. Student answers for the processes that are controlled will vary. Answers may include controlling the start of the cycle, DNA replication, protein synthesis, nuclear division, and the end of the cycle. 4. Stem cells can be stimulated to develop into specialized cells. 5. Student answers will vary. Sample answer: The chromosomes might not divide evenly between the daughter cells.

Chapter Test A Page 136 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. D 2. B 3. A

Page 136 • Part B: Matching 1. abnormal cycle 2. normal cycle 3. abnormal cycle 4. normal cycle

Page 137 • Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs 1. A: metaphase; B: prophase; C: anaphase; D: telophase 2. 40 per 100,000 3. males 75–79 years old

Page 138 • Part D: Short Answer 1. The three stages of the cell cycle are interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis. 2. Both types of stem cells are unspecialized cells and can grow into specialized cells such as tissues and organs. Researchers hope to use stem cells to repair damaged organs and tissues.

Page 138 • Part E: Concept Application 1. Secondhand smoke from people who are smoking tobacco products is a known carcinogen, which means it can cause cancer. By banning CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 177

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

smoking in pubs, the law protects workers and customers who do not smoke from the risks of secondhand smoke. 2. Researchers believe that changes occur in a person’s DNA over time, and these DNA changes can result in the growth of cancer cells.

Chapter Test B Page 139 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. D

Page 139 • Part B: Matching and Completion Matching 1. D 2. E 3. C 4. B

Page 140 • Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs 1. B: prophase; A: metaphase; C: anaphase; D: telophase 2. males: 50 per 100,000; females: 40 per 100,000 3. 0–35

Page 141 • Part D: Short Answer 1. One factor is called contact inhibition, which prevents cells from dividing once they touch each other. A second factor is the absence of cyclin/CDK units that start the cell cycle. 2. The controversy centers on the source of the cells. Embryonic stem cells could be taken from human embryos that have been aborted or left unused in fertilization clinics. Many Americans believe human embryos should be accorded full rights as United States citizens and should not be used to further medical research. 178 CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

1. The liver cell relies on the process of diffusion to move substances such as nutrients and wastes through its cytoplasm. The process of diffusion is slow and inefficient. As the size of a cell increases, its volume increases and creates a lower surface area-to-volume ratio. As the cell’s volume increases more rapidly than its surface area, it cannot supply nutrients and expel wastes quickly enough to sustain itself. 2. The restaurant waiter can choose smoke-free restaurants to avoid the risk of secondhand smoke, which is a known carcinogen. The restaurant waiter can also choose a restaurant that does not have exposed asbestos covering its floor or ceiling.

Chapter Test C Page 142 • Part A: Multiple Choice 1. B 2. C 3. A 4. A 5. D 6. B

Page 142 • Part B: Completion 1. centromere 2. metaphase 3. binary fission 4. cyclins 5. cancer 6. carcinogen

Page 143 • Part C: Interpreting Drawings and Graphs 1. A: metaphase; B: prophase; C: anaphase; D: telophase. Chromosomes line the equator during metaphase. Spindle fibers form, and centrioles move apart during prophase. Spindle fibers move chromatids toward centrioles during anaphase, and two new cells begin to form during telophase. 2. males: 79; females: 73

Unit 2

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Completion 5. cytokinesis 6. interphase 7. carcinogen 8. stem cells

Page 141 • Part E: Concept Application

Chapter 9

Teacher Guide and Answers

3. Men over age 80 do not fit the pattern because the incidences of pancreatic cancer suddenly drop for this age group instead of steadily increasing.

Page 144 • Part D: Short Answer 1. During interphase, the cell grows and develops into a mature cell. Also during interphase, the cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division, and the cell prepares for mitosis. During the four stages of mitosis, the cell’s nuclear material divides and separates to opposite ends of the nucleus. During cytokinesis, the cell divides into two daughter cells with identical nuclei. 2. Changes in abnormal cell DNA lead to a cancerous cell, and DNA changes become more frequent as a person ages. 3. After fertilization, a mass of cells forms by cell division until 100–150 unspecialized cells are created. These unspecialized cells are called stem cells, and they have the potential for developing into a wide variety of specialized cells such as nerve, blood, or muscle cells.

2. Those in favor of stem cell research argue the medical possibilities of using unspecialized stem cells. Stem cell research could lead to medical procedures that repair tissues and organs, such as a damaged heart or spinal cord. Opponents to the research cite ethical concerns. Embryonic stem cells could be taken from human embryos that have been aborted or discarded by fertilization clinics. Many Americans believe human embryos should be accorded full rights as United States citizens and should not be used to further medical research.

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Page 144 • Part E: Concept Application 1. A cell with a 40-μm diameter will have a much lower surface area-to-volume ratio than the typical cell with a diameter of 20 μm. The process of diffusion moves nutrients throughout the cell and expels wastes through the selectively permeable membrane, but diffusion is a slow, inefficient process. The diffusion process in the large cell will occur more slowly because there is a greater volume of space for the random movement of molecules and ions. Cell functions in the large cell would be impractical, and the cell’s ability to communicate cell functions would be impaired. The large cell would not be able to sustain itself.

Unit 2

CHAPTER 9 TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS 179

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