Understanding Sexuality

December 14, 2017 | Author: hariharadhikari6720 | Category: Kundalini, Tantra, Neotantra, Chakra, Qigong
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Descripción: The Biology of Sacred Sexuality : Core energy revolution for divine health and longevity, positivity and cr...




Traditional Chinese Medicine / Traditional Oriental Medicine

April 27, 2006 129 Page Acupuncture / Acupressure Internet Resources on page 122-129

Table of Contents Article title 1 Sex and Health 1.1 Taoist sexual healing arts 1.2 Sexual Qi-gong 1.3 Tantra and sacred sex 1.4 Tantra and the chakras 1.5 Recomended products 2 The quest for spiritual orgasm: Taoist and tantric sexual cultivation in the west 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Sexual evolution as cultural context 2.3 Personal account: Kundalini raising in the west 2.4 California tantra 2.5 Kriya yoga: tantra and celibacy 2.6 Daoist sexual cultivation in the west 2.7 Changing the western sexual paradigm 2.8 Daoist female sexual practices in the west 2.9 Westernising of Daoist sexual practices 2.10 Sex, enlightenment and immmortality 2.11 West as cauldron for Dao and tantra 2.11 Bibliography 3 Accupuncture 3.1 What is accupuncture 3.2 How does acucpuncture work 3.3 How can accupuncture help 3.4 What does it feel like 3.5 Accupuncture channels and meridians 3.6 What to expect during your treatment 3.7 How many treatments will I need 3.8 Do's and do nots on the day of a treatment 3.9 Potential complications 3.10 Accupuncture FAQs 4 TOM gynecology 4.1 What is traditional oriental medicine gynecology 4.2 TOM's view of women's anatomy and physiology 4.3 Predisposing factors for gynecological disorders 4.4 Treatment principles and modalities 5 Medical quigong 5.1 What is qi-gong 5.2 What is medical qi-gong 5.3 Therapeutic benefits 5.4 Regulation of breathing 5.5 Regulation of the mind 5.6 Relaxation qi-gong 5.7 Basics to the practices 5.8 What is qi 5.9 What is gong 6 Tantra and tantric sex 7 The Physiology of Meditation 8 The story of Chinese Daoism 8.1 Definition of Daoism 8.2 Philosophical Daoism 8.3 Origin of daoist theory 8.4 Dao and names 8.5 Impact of the school of names 8.6 Mature daoism 8.7 Neo-daoism 8.8 Daoism and buddhism 8.9 Important daoist concepts 8.10 Texts and textual theories 8.11 The story of chinese taoism 8.12 Bibliography 9 Touch and Movement Therapies Young Adults and their Relationships

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Women's Integrative Health - integrating the best of Eastern & Western healing traditions for optimal health and vitality - Body, Mind, and Spirit 1

Sex and Health Taoist Sexual Healing Arts Sexual Qigong Tantra and Sacred Sex Tantra and the Chakras Recommended Products

Unlike in the West, many Eastern philosophies and healing traditions do not separate sexuality, spirituality and health. In the East, they recognize that the three are interconnected. In Tantra yoga, from which Ayurvedic medicine developed, and Taoism, from which Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine evolved, sex is considered sacred and is used as a means to achieve optimal health, longevity and spiritual enlightenment. In fact, it is not uncommon for a Taoist physician to prescribe certain sexual positions and techniques to his patients in the treatment of common maladies such as fatigue, hypertension, diabetes, digestive problems, migraines, menstrual problems, infertility, and menopause. The Taoist Sexual Healing Arts The Taoists have written and taught on the subject of sexual energy and health for the last 5,000 years, observing that nature is full of creative, life-giving sexual energy. They developed specific exercises and practices, commonly referred to as Sexual Qigong, that not only strengthen the sexual organs, but also enhance sexual pleasure by creating a more vigorous and healthy body that is more responsive to intense emotions and spiritual energy. Most of us in the West are familiar with Reflexology, which is based on the premise that all our organs have reflex points on other parts of the body. It is most often associated with massage of the hands and feet. A similar system exists in acupuncture with respect to needling specific points on the ear to affect certain organs of the body.

The Taoists discovered that the most powerful reflex points are on the sexual organs! They developed techniques that stimulate these sexual reflex points in lovemaking, allowing sexual intercourse to become a form of ecstatic acupressure. In this way the entire body provides the sexual organs with energy and in return the entire body is stimulated with healing energy. Using key acupressure points, Sexual Qigong teaches the use of specific hand positions that enable you to draw sexual energy into the brain while performing the sexual healing positions. It also teaches the use of specific sexual postures that strengthen the senses and organs, and exercises that enable men and women to maintain their vital essences and enhance their Qi, the life force in their bodies. Men and women alike, learn to become multi-orgasmic and to experience total-body orgasms. Sexual Qigong The ancient Taoists developed many different methods to tap the enormous power of sexual energy in order to direct it towards creating better physical health, a greater sense of vitality and zest for life, and to refine the sexual impulse into a steady state of spiritual bliss. Sexual Qigong can heal sexual dysfunction and impotence, improve sexual relationships, and relieve PMS and menstrual difficulty. It teaches us how to use sexual energy to provide nourishment for the totality of ourselves - our body, our mind, and our spirit. There are two major paths: Single Cultivation, in which you harmonize your male and female energies, which is possible because every person has both Yin (female) and Yang (male) Qi within their own body, regardless of their sex. The other is Dual Cultivation, in which you exchange Yin and Yang Qi with your partner/lover.

At the core of all Sexual Qigong practices is the intent to conserve Sexual Qi. Sexual Qi originates in the kidneys and bone marrow, which according to Taoist philosophy includes the penis and vagina/uterus, prostate and ovary glands, the bladder and kidney organs and their meridians, and in women their breasts. All are part of the "water element" that regulates the body's "jing", or sexual body-essence. The major ways that Sexual Qi is lost or exhausted:

Women: Excessive bleeding during the menstrual cycle causes loss of "jing". Women learn through Sexual Qigong to lighten their menstrual flow. They can also learn how to re-direct their orgasmic Qi flow up to the higher energy centers in the heart and brain. Men: Excessive sex and ejaculation causes loss of "jing". "Excessive" varies by body type, age, overall physical health, and climate, especially during the winter, when Qi normally goes in deep, not out. There are methods of slowing down ejaculation during sex so that men can "draw out" the essence from their sperm and recycle it around the body and nourish other centers. The goal is to shift from a limited "genital orgasm" to a "whole-body orgasm". Slowing or stopping ejaculation doesn't prevent a man from having an orgasm or being "multi-orgasmic". Ejaculation is physical, orgasm is your Qi pulsating. When a man learns ejaculation control, and how to open up his Qi channels and to recycle sexual/orgasmic Qi, his physical ejaculation does not cause a major loss of Qi. It also slows the man down and enables him to stay in closer harmony with the woman's slower cycle of arousal. Both sexes: poor diet, shallow breathing, and negative emotions or mental attitudes will exhaust your sexual vitality. Improving these, plus a regular moving Qigong practice of at least 20 minutes daily, are the mainstay of preventing low sexual energy and many associated dysfunctions. Sexual Qi is much more powerful than most people realize. Thus it is essential that you prepare your energy field properly with Qigong exercises as a preliminary to the more advanced Sexual Qigong practices. These preparatory Qigong exercises include: Six Healing Sounds: to release trapped negative emotional Qi. These are simple, and can be readily learned. They release the Qi trapped in each of the five vital organs. You don't want to unconsciously amplify these old trapped feelings with supercharged sexual Qi, so this practice helps to "purify" the vital organs and transform these "negative" emotions into healing energy. Inner Smile: this insures a calm and balanced mind when you do the sexual practice. This is also a simple, yet powerful, practice that is easily learned. Microcosmic Orbit: this gives the sexual Qi a safe pathway up the spine along the Governing Vessel (DU Mai) and down the front of the body along the Conception Vessel (Ren Mai), with automatic "safety overflow" valves into other major meridians. If you don't learn this, there is a danger of some people experiencing a "kundalini psychosis", which results from too much Qi in the brain leading to delusional states in the more extreme cases. Any Qi practice that opens the lower dantien (the energy center below the navel) will also prepare you and ground you. Once the Microcosmic Orbit is open, it is much easier to balance the Qi flow to the endocrine glands along its path: adrenals, pineal and pituitary, thymus, heart, spleen, and gonads. These glands regulate the body's metabolism during sexual arousal, and their healthy functioning is essential to get the full benefits of the sexual practice. Sexual Qigong is not an end in itself, it is merely a vital step in the larger process of cultivating and refining your Qi. The higher level of Sexual Qigong practice is known as "inner sexual alchemy", in which you become aware of the role of "Shen", and the other vital organ spirits (i.e. Hun, Po, Yi and Zhi), in regulating your inner Yin-Yang balance. Tantra and Sacred Sex Tantra is an ancient Eastern science of enlightenment, with roots as far back as 20,000 years ago to the Dravidian people in the Indus Valley of India. Unlike most spiritual paths, Tantra includes sexuality as a doorway to ecstasy and enlightenment. Tantra is very holistic in its approach to life, health, and spirituality. It draws upon all the sciences including Ayurveda, yoga, psychology, and astrology -to provide a practical means of realizing the highest ideals of philosophy in daily life. Tantra studies the tree of life itself instead of limiting itself to any single branch of the tree. Tantra is that knowledge which expands body, mind and consciousness.

It is said that when the god Shiva, the embodiment of pure consciousness, merged in sexual union with the goddess Shakti, the embodiment of pure energy, their Tantric embrace resulted in the creation of the universe. Tantra, therefore, views the creation of the world as an erotic act of love. The joyful dance between Shiva and Shakti is reflected in all living beings and manifests itself as pleasure, beauty and happiness. According to Tantra, the sexual act is a microcosm of the laws of the universe. It is an enactment of the cosmic principle in which dualities can dissolve into blissful oneness. Tantra recognizes the body as the Sacred Temple of our Spirit, and that every individual already possesses the Divine within them every man is a Shiva, every woman a Shakti. Thus, the act of sexual union is considered sacred. Lovemaking is perceived as a journey of the body, mind and soul that enables you to discover the transcendental realm of joy, the divine and loving nature of Existence. When we connect sexually with the intention of expanding our consciousness, we use our senses to propel ourselves beyond the restriction of physical reality, and unite with the true essence of who we really are. The pleasure that we learn to give to ourselves and to our beloved creates harmony in our relationships and ultimately in the whole world. Recognizing that sexual energy is one of the most powerful and natural energies available to us, Tantra has developed techniques and practices, which incorporate yoga and meditation, that allow us to harness this energy in order to transmute negative energy and experiences into positive healing energy that can be used creatively and spiritually in our daily lives. Like the Taoists, Tantra has its sexual techniques and practices, many of which are included in the ancient sex manuals of the infamous Kama Sutra and the Ananga Ranga. But as one comes to appreciate Tantra, and all that it is, one soon realizes that Tantra is more than just the "yoga of sex", as so many in the West have mislabeled it. Tantra and the Chakras A chakra is a spinning vortex of energy created within ourselves by the inter-penetration of consciousness and the physical body. The word "chakra" comes from the Sanskrit word for "wheel" and originated within the philosophy of the ancient yoga system of Tantra. There are seven major chakras arranged vertically along the spine, starting at the base of the spine and ending at the crown of the head. Each chakra is associated with a corresponding endocrine gland or organ. In the psychological realm, the chakras correspond to major areas of our lives, such as survival, sex, power, love, communication, perception and understanding. Each chakra has a corresponding layer of aura, the electromagnetic field that surrounds our bodies, and like the earth, the body has two magnetic poles - one at the crown, the other situated near the base of the spine. These layers of aura interpenetrate and form a seven-layered higher energy field around the physical body, an energy field that supports all the various facets of our worldly life and which is a direct indicator of our physical, emotional, mental and spiritual state of being. When chakras are jammed-up, or too open, they cause a break or an open wound in our aura. It will manifest itself finally as a dis-ease in the physical body. However, when each chakra vibrates to its full force, it supports the path of spiritual enlightenment and the path of manifestation. It gives us power to heal, create and serve.

Tantra teaches that the same potent energies that govern the cosmos exist within the human body. The energy body, though not anatomically discernible, runs parallel, on an etheric level, to the physical body. The energy circuits, or meridians (like in acupuncture), are called nadis. Three nadis are particularly imporant: the Sushumna, the central energy channel located within the spinal column, the Ida, the nadi of the lunar (feminine) force located on the left of the spine, and the Pingala, the nadi of the solar (masculine) force located on the right of the spine. Both the Ida and the Pingala intertwine around the Sushumna. The ancient Tantrics believed that the way to enlightenment is through the rising of the Kundalini, often depicted as a coiled serpent, located in the root chakra at the base of the spine. This coiled and dormant "feminine energy", refers to the vast potential of psychic energy contained within us all. Kundalini is the strongest of all human bio-energetic circuits. Kundalini power is the vital life force present in each human being, a force that fills, vivifies and brings to function at least a portion of the unused 90% of brain capacity. The caduceus, a staff with two snakes coiled around it, commonly used in Western medicine, is thought to be an ancient symbolic representation of Kundalini physiology. When the Kundalini is awakened (through Kundalini yoga, breathing, meditation, visualization, or Tantric sexual union), as it ascends the spine to the crown chakra located at the top of the head, it passes through all seven chakras opening and purifying them. Tantra teaches lovers how to balance and harmonize their energies and to be on the same wavelength, creating a measurable resonance between their energy fields and chakras. Because emotions are stored in the body, and concentrated in our chakras, emotional healing can happen very quickly through Tantra. The energy we generate to activate our Kundalini and chakras will make our bodies become superbly intelligent because they align the body with the spirit, or Higher-Self. As with Sexual Qigong, Tantra teaches us how to use sexual energy to provide healing and nourishment for the totality of ourselves - our body, our mind, and our spirit. Recommended Products Venix

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Please click here The Spiritual Core of Master Mantak Chia's Teaching







The Quest for Spiritual Orgasm: Daoist and Tantric Sexual Cultivation in the West (Michael Winn, 2002)

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11

Introduction Sexual Revolution as Cultural Context Personal Account: Kundalini Rising in the West California Tantra Kriya Yoga: Tantra and Celibacy Daoist Sexual Cultivation in the West Changing the Western Sexual Paradigm Daoist Female Sexual Practices in the West Westernizing of Daoist Sexual Practices Sex, Enlightenment, and Immortality West as Cauldron for Dao and Tantra Bibliography

Dear Tao Instructors, Read the following to find out. I wrote it for a recent international conference at Boston University of Daoist (preferred pinyin spelling by scholars) and Tantric scholars. Since it contains some juicy personal revelations, it created a small buzz at an otherwise intellectual meeting of some powerful minds. I am interested in your feedback and subtle body sexual experiences if relevant. I may not be able to reply to you as I will be travelling in Europe at some kan and li retreats. There is still space for a few more people at my Advanced Chi Kung Fundamentals training in Wengen, Switzerland June 9-15, which also doubles as an Associate Instructor Training. This training will integrate the core Taoist Energy Body training (Orbit, Fusion, Rooting, Smile, Healing Sounds) with Taoist sexology, cosmology, psychology, and internal alchemy. Audio tapes of these courses will be Available afterwards. I hope this paper (about 22 pages, single spaced, wide margin) is useful in your own practice and teachings. I have added a video (Sexual Vitality Chi Kung) with many new chi kung methods and insights that go beyond this paper into my Healing Love training. I have found these improve the safety and efficacy of the sexual energy training. These support materials are available to instructors at 40% discount if you are interested. Contact: mailto:[email protected] love and chi, Michael. Introduction By abstaining from intercourse, the spirit has no opportunity for expansiveness, yin and yang are blocked and cut off from one another. - Classic of Su Nu (Wile,1992, 7) In Sexual love can be one of the most powerful human experiences. Over the past two thousand years, certain Daoist and Tantric cultures sought to tap the power of sexuality to cultivate elevated spiritual states of awareness and achieve immortality. These practices appear to have originated in China and India and later spread to Tibet and elsewhere in Asia. Daoism and Tantrism are both experiential approaches to life, and share similar microcosmic-macrocosmic theories of the human body as an inner mirror of outer Nature. The body-centered cosmology of each has led to a spectrum of sexual practices that range from ritualized physical sexual intercourse to celibacy accompanied by conscious subtle-body love making. (Bokemkamp, 1997, 43; Wile 1992, 25, White, 2000, 15). Both posit a multi-dimensional universe governed by divine, all pervading polar energies identified in Tantra as Shakti-Shiva deities or in Daoism as the yin-yang forces of Heaven and Earth. These polar forces arise from a mysterious non-dual unity, whose dance within the physical plane follows a five-fold pattern of

harmony governed by five families of deities or five phase principles. Both offer alchemical maps, often hidden within mandalas interiorized within the body - yantras in Tantra and I Ching (Yijing) patterns in Daoism - that can be fully understood only by the initiated adept. These subtle body maps allow the adept to navigate the apparent chaos of conflicting physical and sexual desires to find the way to the true self at the still center of the drama of creation. Despite these underlying similarities in their cosmology, the Tantric and Daoist methods of sexual cultivation, both physical and subtle body, are radically different. Since the late 1970's Daoist-Tantric sexual practices have been widely publicized and taught in the West. As a student, teacher, and private scholar of these practices during this period, I took it upon myself to "test" the methods of different Tantric and Daoist schools that washed up on Western shores. I was driven by an intense curiosity about the nature my own sexuality, which I intuitively felt to be central to my spiritual evolution. This journey led me to travel widely in China and India to investigate the cultural context of these practices and discern their differences as paths emphasizing Fire (Tantric) or Water and Fire (Daoist). My goal is to show how Western sexual needs have shaped the teachers and teachings of Daoist and Tantric sexual practices in the West. I will examine the sexual behavior, attitudes, lineage, and methods of different teachers, and if their practices were largely re-invented or presented in radically different ways from traditional Asian lineages. I hope to clarify the relation between physical sex, subtle body sex, the issue of celibacy, and traditional distinction between medical-therapeutic sexual practices and mystical approaches to sexuality. I'll explore why sexuality is so crucial to spiritual transformation, and to describe the different kinds of subtle body orgasm one might evoke using Daoist and Tantric methods. The broad framework of my study is that (1) there is a deep tension in every human being between a nonsexual, non-dual core Being and a sexually polarized male-female Body. This tension is alleviated by development of an intermediate Energy Body that is androgynous (both male and female) in nature, and which is the deepest drive behind all forces of spiritual evolution. (2) This tension between Being and Body is so powerful that most "Enlightenment" states cannot bridge it, despite claims to the contrary. It is only bridged by what are called Immortality practices in both Tantra and Daoism. In general, I found more detailed medical and internal sexual practices available in the Daoist tradition, described in a concluding overview. This paper is titled The Quest for Spiritual Orgasm because in the course of teaching sexual practices to Westerners, I have polled thousands of students to find out why they are learning a sexual practice. Asked to select between understanding their sexuality, improved sexual performance, better love relationships, and having a spiritual orgasm, about eighty percent choose spiritual orgasm. Because the river of Daoist and Tantric history is so vast, with so many tributaries, generalizations are inevitable in my thumbnail sketches of a wide array of teachers and teachings I encountered. The obstacle to all research on sexuality is widespread lying and concealment. Subtle body sex complicates this problem, since by definition the Daoist-Tantric experience of the body-as-divine-cosmos-copulating-within-itself is personal in nature. In the spirit of creating a new openness about delicate sexual-spiritual issues, and to vivify the reader's senses, I often shift to a first person narrative. I accept (on behalf of my unnamed informants) full responsibility for any inaccuracies in my brief footnote to this chapter of Western religious history. Sexual Revolution as Cultural Context Tantrics and Daoists have often assumed the role of rebelling against the prevailing social and sexual values, which were dominated by a strict caste system in India and overtly anti-female values of Confucianism in China. Tantrics and Daoists were also early experimenters with "external alchemy", the use of mind-altering natural substances to quicken one's spiritual evolution. It is not surprising that their ideas came into widespread popularity in the West during a period of widespread cultural rebellion in the 1960's with mind expanding drugs, pelvic-undulating rock music, and a pill-provoked Free Love movement, all designed to topple Establishment values. The Western sexual revolution occurred without any Eastern stimulus; but once it was happening, it needed somewhere to go, and Tantric and Daoist teachings offered a new and more spiritual direction into which the sexual revolution could mature. If we imagine that planet earth has a single global libido, I suspect these ancient teachings would have surfaced any place where sexual freedom was exploding.

It is important to first remove a naivete common to Westerners about oriental sexual practices. Teachers of traditional sexology, whether medical or spiritual, are difficult to find today in either China or India. On seven trips to China, despite an extensive network of Daoist contacts, no one knew of a single teacher of Daoist sexual cultivation, even though all were well aware of its historical and textual presence. There are two reasons. One, Daoist sexology has a bad historical reputation for being abused and used to promote sexual vampirism, making it risky to teach in Communist culture. Two, as Fang Ru Ruan's Sex in China study notes, ancient China produced the world's oldest and most detailed sexology texts, but modern China is one of the most sexually repressed countries in the world - sale of pornography is punishable by death. As the neo-Reichian Yugoslav filmmaker Dusan Makaveich showed in his 1972 film Mysteries of the Organism, there is an inversely proportional relationship between political repression and sexual freedom. This seems to be born out by recent medical reports in mainland China of increasingly widespread sexual dysfunction. Most current Daoist books on sexology are coming from Taiwan and Hong Kong, often centered around trained courtesans (Lai 2001, McNeil 1999), or from Chinese living in Thailand (Chia/Winn 1984, Chia 1986, 1996, 2000). Three trips to India, numerous contacts and books on Tantra convinced me the situation there is not much different. Mainstream educated Hindus are puritanical in their sexual mores, and Tantrism is seen as low caste and morally suspect excuse for black magic, especially seduction spells (vashikarana), suitable for entertaining stories but not serious pursuit. It is an underground subculture, with a invisible subset of adepts skilled in the esoteric sexual rites described in classical Tantric scriptures, erotic paintings and sculpture. Tantric practices are kept alive by secrecy: "publicly Vedic, secretly Tantric" is the Indian aphorism that summarizes the situation. My thesis is that amongst the Tantric male teachers who brought their sexual wares to the West, few had any actual training in physical sexual practices. I believe most recreated them from ancient texts or invented them out of their own needs or the expectations of their Western students. Asian sexual practices would likely not have taken root in the West except for the ground being prepared by Sigmund Freud (d. 1939), his students Carl Jung (d.1961)and Wilhelm Reich (d.1957), and the early sex researcher Havelock Ellis (d.1939). The widespread acceptance of the theory of sexual impulse being a fundamental shaping force of the personality opened Westerners to the Daoist-Tantric metaphysic that went one step further, giving sexuality a key role in spiritual evolution. Jung expanded this greatly with his explorations into eastern mysticism, writing introductions to both Tantric and Daoist esoteric texts. In his essay on the Secret of the Golden Flower, Jung tried (without success, in my opinion) to impose his animaanimus psychological archetypes on yin-yang theory. Jung lacked the practical energetic methodologies (beyond "talk" therapy) for directly experiencing and guiding these subconscious male-female forces in the body into superconscious states. Reich tried to fill this gap, and died in prison in the U.S. for spreading his teachings and devices promoting a universe - and human body - centered around orgasm, through the medium of "orgone", similar to prana in India and qi in China. The ideas of these psychologists later became increasingly mainstream, and set the stage in 1972 for bestselling self-improvement books like The Joy of Sex, by Alex Comfort, a scholar of Tantric erotic art and philosophy. The appearance of crazy wisdom teachings from Tibetan Buddhist Tantrics like Chogyam Trungpa (d.19 89) inspired beatniks and poets like Allen Ginsberg, who as a homosexual in a homophobic society was attracted to a teaching claiming enlightenment could be achieved by following and completing your ordinary desires. Two early major stimuli to the growth of Asian sexual practices in the West were 1) publication of From Sex to Super Consciousness (1974) by Bhagwan Sri Rajneesh and his growing popularity as a "sex guru" of Tantric and new age mysticism, and (2) publication of the bestselling Sexual Secrets (1979) by Nik Douglas and Penny Slinger , with classical texts and six hundred illustrations of Tantric and Daoist sexual iconography. Unlike previous erotic art books, it offered a living spiritual path. These events put images and a vision of sexual-spiritual liberation into popular media with a psychology accessible to Westerners. Nik Douglas was an English rock music producer who went to India for eight years in the 60's, several of them wandering about as a Tantric sadhu, stirring the ashes of his guru's sacred dhouni fire. Douglas made the first film on Tantra in English, financed by Mick Jagger -- a clear statement of alignment between Tantra and rock music subcultures. Douglas published Chakra magazine in India and had an indirect but pivotal role in introducing the Beatles to their guru, Maharishi Mahesh. This subsequently gave other Indian gurus instant rock star status, promoting their teachings to the rebel youth culture in the West. Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation movement passes itself off as Vedic, and completely avoids sexual issues and practices. But as Douglas points out in his history of Tantra, Spiritual Sex (1997), the TM power mantras given to initiates, chosen by birthdate, are Tantric. The Vedas themselves are hymns to be sung, but do not offer mantras, which Douglas traces to the older Dravidian vegetative fertility cults in India.

Traditionally, in Hindu Tantra a lineage tranmission is essential, a personal initiation by a guru. Rajneesh (1931-90) was an Indian professor of philosophy who basically had no guru - he got his initiation from books. From his wide readings and direct experimentation, Rajneesh "self-invented" a Tantric path for Westerners to explore themselves. He forbade his Indian followers from using the techniques devised for Westerners, as he felt that Western minds worked differently. He had a genius for translating obscure mystical concepts into a workable Western psychology. He offered Westerners exactly what they wanted: freedom from guilt about sex, the promise of enlightenment, and a smorgasboard of workshops led by followers that allowed them to explore and integrate their eclectic mix of Eastern and Western methods. Having no lineage, he invented a feeling of lineage for Westerners by requiring them to wear swami-like robes. Rajneesh set the stage for his Western followers to appropriate the five element Tantric chakra system and psychologize it to fit their own spiritual needs and Western archetypes. This trend towards a "self-invented" spirituality became a hallmark of the New Age movement in the West. Tantra and Daoism both have a long history of experimenting with and absorbing new spiritual technologies, so I do not use the term "selfinvented" pejoratively, but only to distinguish it from teachings adopted from traditional lineages in India or China. Nik Douglas, who met Rajneesh in India before he was famous, told me his main recollection him was of a "nice professor type who wanted me to set him up with intellectual Western girls who would fuck". This suggests an early stage of trying to reconcile his sexual and intellectual identities. Rajneesh was later touted as the "sex guru" by the media because he told his followers to have as much sex as they could possibly tolerate until they no longer desired it. This was his novel application of a traditional Tantric principle of using ordinary desire to obtain enlightenment. At seminars he would begin by requiring everyone to strip off their clothes and sniff the armpits and genitals of a member of the opposite sex. Rajneesh reportedly entered a phase of natural celibacy between the ages of forty-two and fifty-five, so he was not having sex at the height of his fame as a sex guru. This highlights the paradox, found in many traditional Tantric and Daoist lineages, of an approach that advocates celibacy yet employs sexual energy as the main force in their meditation. Personal Account: Kundalini Rising in the West My own first spiritual initiation experience offers a snapshot of how Tantric methods leapt across cultural lines without a lineage to define it, and how the Tantric-induced experience of kundalini, the female Shakti force rising within the body, itself blurred the boundary between the sexual and the spiritual. I was working as a free lance war correspondent in Africa in 1978. Enroute to the airport leaving the U.S., I grabbed Rajneesh's Book of Secrets, his compilation of a hundred different Tantric methods. I had never heard of Rajneesh. Later, stuck waiting for a visa in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, I had time to browse the book. I had never had a guru or any meditation training. Rajneesh's Book of Secrets overwhelmed me with the number of techniques in it. So I picked the simplest one I could find, a breathing method. It instructed me to follow my inhalation and exhalation, while gradually increasing the length of the pause between breaths. I got deep into the process, lying on a straw mattress in a sweltering $3. per night flea bag hotel, shared with a black South African refugee whose epileptic seizures were my only distraction. I practiced for three to five hours at a time, and found I could slow my breath down until the pauses seem to last interminably. One day, after two weeks practice, I felt my breath stop completely. During a long pause between breaths, I entered a deep, peaceful state, and felt I no longer needed to breathe air. Suddenly my whole body shook, then exploded in an intense orgasm and I watched myself catapulted into the space around me, with a clear vision of my body expanding rapidly through the walls of the room. After this initial explosion, I felt like a mushroom cloud above a nuclear blast, with the debris of my former consciousness blown to bits and slowly raining back down on my transparent body in blissful droplets. I was shocked, scared, and excited. I realized I had entered some other dimension of myself, and decided I had to make it a priority in life to find a way to stay connected to it. I decided to give up meat, drugs, and sex, the latter decision particularly shocking to me as at that time I was prone to having three girlfriends at once. Since my beyond-the-body experience was a thousand times more orgasmic than the best sexual orgasm I had previously experienced, being celibate didn't seem to matter. I didn't know it then, but I had entered the realm of my subtle bodies and their spontaneously orgasmic properties. I had no guru or formal initiation, my only teacher was a book, yet I found myself celibate, on the Tantric path, and questing for a repeat spiritual orgasm.

When I returned to New York, I hunted down the nearest Rajneesh ashram, a dingy cellar in Tribeca. I did Rajneesh's Dynamic Meditation to arouse the kundalini, but it didn't work for me, and I didn't like the "group grope" feeling of the people there. I didn't want strangers grappling with my newly delicate energy field, and the methods seemed to lack sufficient internal focus. The only book in print that seemed to confirm the reality of my experience was Gopi Krishna's Kundalini:The Serpent Power, an account of his twelve year ordeal with his kundalini current run wild, finally cured by simply eating meat. Krishna published many later books claiming the kundalini - the dance of the ida (solar), pingala (lunar), and sushumna (central) currents of prana up the spine -- was the evolutionary force behind all genius and all genetic evolution. When I interviewed Gopi Krishna shortly before his death in 1984, I was not impressed by his spiritual presence. He seemed very intellectual, an Indian pundit with thick black glasses whose energy was mostly in his head. I began practicing White Tantric Yoga, taught by Yogi Bhajan and his 3HO organization, and found that it systematically stimulated and sustained the blissful experience I had in Africa. I practiced this system of kundalini yoga daily for four years, which employed a rigorous combination of yogic asanas (postures), "breath of fire" (rapid belly breathing), yogic locks (squeezing different body parts tightly), mudras (hand positions) and mantras. I took ice cold showers at 4 am, and found my sleep needs reduced to four hours. I also began experiencing different siddhis or spiritual powers, ranging from bursts of telepathy and foreknowledge of the future (useful in planning my free lance writing career) and, more dramatically, having repeated experiences of the entire universe collapsing into a single point. I would be immobilized for up to an hour, as if my being were condensed into a heavy steel ball at the center of the universe, with a contracting pressure so intense not even my mind could escape its gravitational power. Being a self-employed writer, I was able to practice four to eight hours a day. The link between kundalini and sexuality was self-evident. My testicles pulsed day and night, I could feel and internally hear my sexual energy rushing up my spine and throbbing in my third eye. At other times I experienced fiery sexual-like currents of electricity flowing throughout my body. I felt like I had discovered organic LSD, and walked about in an ecstatic state, feeling ten foot tall and looking down from above my head into the mundane reality below. I was still celibate, but had so much sexual energy I masturbated daily to release the pressure. My conversion of sexual energy into blissful subtle energy must have been unbalanced, as it eventually led to a weakening of my physical body. This subsequently led to my shift to Daoist inner sexual alchemy practices. I was told that I was practicing the traditional ancient science of Tantra, but later investigations by myself and others into Yogi Bhajan raised serious questions as to whether his methods were "self-invented" from a hodgepodge he had collected while formerly a customs official in Delhi. Bhajan had no identifiable guru, no specific Tantric lineage or school, and had mixed his yogic methods with a curious blend of religious worship of Sikhism. I went to the Punjab state in India, and widespread inquiries produced no one who had ever heard of any Sikh Tantrics there. This is not to judge Bhajan's methods as ineffective, but simply to note the pattern of self-invented Tantrics coming to the West to seek a following. One of his innovations was to line up male yogis and female yoginis facing each other in long rows, up to a hundred people in length. They would stare into their opposite sexed partner's eyes while doing rapid breath of fire in different asanas, building up a tremendous sexual energy field that would shift into a higher octave of shared collective bliss. Bhajan offered little real training on sexual energy management, other than the advice to limit sex to once a month with a married partner. The only specific technique for men was to sit with their perineum over the heel (mulabanda), to block the upward flow of sexual feeling from going out the penis. Yet his ashrams, with serene white-turbaned and long-bearded Western yogis, were filled behind the scenes with frequent sexual affairs between adepts who could not follow their guru's admonitions. One of Bhajan's inner circle at the time revealed to me the existence of lawsuits against Bhajan (who was married) by female followers for sexual abuse, and told of a coterie of sexual favorites and "deviant" sexual practices in his inner Tantric circle. A different yogi, also a leader in 3HO, later left to become a Daoist student of Mantak Chia, from whom he learned the Microcosmic Orbit meditation, a method of circulating energy up the spine and down the front channels of the body. This radically differed from kundalini yoga in suggesting the subtle energy circulated in endless loops instead of a linear flow from lower chakra to upper chakra to union with an absolute self somewhere above the head. The Orbit is also the key Daoist channel for circulating sexual energy. Before he left Bhajan's organization, Bhajan's lieutenant introduced the Microcosmic Orbit meditation into the White Tantric practice. It later became standard practice to help ground the many spacy yogis, who, like myself, were literally floating out of their bodies. America had become an accelerated microcosm of the Orient, where different Tantric and Daoist schools traded methods over the centuries along the Silk Road trade routes.

Bhajan's pattern of appearing sexually conservative in public while engaging in sexual practices in private was common in other Tantric gurus in the 1980's, most famously Swami Rama of the Himalayan Institute in Honesdale, Pennsylvania and Swami Muktananda at his Siddhi Yogi ashram in New York's Catskill Mountains. Both were discovered to be giving "Tantric initiations" to dozens of young female devotees in the guru's private boudoir. There is a tradition in Indian Tantra of gurus initiating with a drop of semen or saliva, or performing ceremonial sexual rites where sexual union with a low caste or untouchable virgin female is used by male adepts to enter a divine state of union (White, 1996). But the Tantric sex scene in America more closely resembled the groupie music and movie star scene. The young girls who were "gifted" with the guru's initiating lingam (penis) reported that it was quick sex, and felt like a man masturbating inside them, with no deep ceremonial, emotional, or spiritual connection made. There was no body-specific training in the Siddha Yoga program at that time in transmuting sexual energy into spiritual energy, other than what occurred naturally through devotional chanting. All the acharyas (novitiates) and Western swamis had to take strict vows of celibacy. Swami Rama's followers were particularly galled by his insistence that male and female yoga students were not allowed to hold hands, under penalty of being expelled from the ashram. Was this seemingly compulsive sexual behavior by enlightened masters a kind of crazy wisdom, an intentionally paradoxical Tantric behavior that we morality-bound Westerners could not understand, or was there something else going on here? Thousands of followers would testify to the spiritual powers of these men. For me, it raised a new question: is it possible to be spiritually enlightened, and at the same time be an emotional and sexual midget? Over time, my later study of Daoist subtle body development suggested this was likely the case. Muktananda and Rama were trained by Tantrics that emphasized austerities, including abstention from sex, while driving all energy into the head to nourish the spiritual body. They likely had no previous sexual experience in India. These head centered (third eye and crown) practices are typical of "fire" school methods for achieving rapid enlightenment, which often suppress physical body urges to achieve this expanded head-enlightened state. These repressed sexual urges can later suddenly emerge powerfully, amplified by the active fire energy of the adept's spiritual body seeking to ground itself in the sexual waters of the earth plane/physical body. The trigger activating this release could have been the shift from the sexually repressive culture of India to the free-sex culture of New York. The unconscious desire of the young female devotees to have sex with their guru may also have been a factor; to Rama and Muktananda's opened subtle vision these sexual desires may have been perceived consciously, and they may have been simply unable to resist an opportunity to seek balance for their excess spiritual fire. A Tantric might argue these events were simply life offering a new opportunity for exploration by all concerned, to be viewed without any moral judgement. But was there a patriarchal blindness and excess male-fire insensitivity to the very goddess Shakti force which Tantrics universally claim to worship? Swami Rama escaped to India for two years at the height of his scandal to let things cool off. When he returned, I had the opportunity to personally ask him, what is the purpose of sexuality in spiritual evolution? His answer was evasive, mentioning that some cultures allowed multiple wives, implying sexual-spiritual development was completely culture-determined rather than obeying some cosmic law. Muktananda was brought to the West in 1971 by his student Albert Rudolph, a Brooklyn Jew and art dealer who, after falling out with Muktananda, proclaimed himself as Swami Rudrananda ("Rudi" to his followers) and donned traditional swami saffron robes. Rudi was open about his Tantric self-inventedness, and was open about his sleeping with both male and female followers to intensify their spiritual awakening. His honesty about this was refreshing and shocking, exemplified by his book titlle, Spiritual Cannibalism. I saw from a video of Rudi that he had excess kundalini, causing his head to whip back and forth ferociously. Rudi's creative re-invention of an American Tantra was cut short by a 1973 plane crash. He trained a new generation of American Tantrics who spread his experimental approach to Tantrism, often blending it with Tibetan Tantric and later Daoist alchemical teachings. Two of Rudi's top students, John Mann and Lar Short, exchanged teachings with me and my first Daoist teacher Mantak Chia in the mid 80's when Chia rented Rudi's Big Indian ashram in the New York Catskills. Some of that ended up in The Body of Light (1988), Mann and Short's comparison of the subtle bodies in the Hindu, Buddhist, and Daoist traditions. Chia learned from them the Tibetan Powa technique of shooting one's essence (bindu) out of the physical body before death, which he borrowed and integrated into his Daoist teachings. This ejected essence is, in my view, the sexual-spiritual substance that allows one to create a new incarnation, a specialty in the Tibetan tradition. While editing the Daoist chapter in The Body of Light I took of number of their Tantric initiations, and tried Rudi's experimental method of making sexual love

with any astral beings met while travelling in the subtle planes. I later rejected this (and the powa practice) as unnecessary and potentially distracting to the process of Daoist inner sexual alchemy. The low astral plane is filled with half-beings of low vibration and hidden agendas. In Daoist alchemy one is kept busy sexually coupling sun, moon, planet and star energies of higher frequencies. One discovery that emerged from our sharing of Daoist, Tantric, and Bon Dzogchen teachings absorbed into Tibetan Buddhism was the clear similarity of Daoist alchemy subtle body coupling using pearls and channels to the completion stage annutarayoga Tantric practices with its colored male and female drops and winds. Detailed in Geshe Gyatso's Clear Light of Bliss (1982), these vajrayoga practices emphasize the value of having a physical sexual consort to speed the opening of the heart needed for highest attainment and interpenetrating mind awareness. John Mann later developed an innovative two person Tantric meditation method called Divine Androgyny, which I consider a quintessential Tantric sexual coupling of higher subtle bodies. A male and female adept sit five feet or further apart from one another and do nothing except stare in each other's eyes and surrender to whatever flows through. This creates a build up in the sexually polarized subtle energy field between them which eventually begins to pulsate. If the adepts are highly skilled and attuned, the pulsating field becomes quite intense, tangible to anyone sitting in between, and can result in deep healing for all involved in the process. (Mann, 2000) In the late 70's and early 80's I also took a series of Tibetan Tantric initiations from two lineage heads, the Karmapa and Dalai Lama. I never pursued these practices in depth, as I did not feel drawn to their complex mandalas of visualized deities and their guru worship. But friends who studied Tibetan Buddhist Tantrism reported they kept their sexual practices very secret from Westerners. A Western female acquaintance went on a three-year Buddhist retreat, believing she would practice various austerities. She afterwards reported the retreat was a "veritable Peyton Place," with lusty Lamas besieging her to become a consort and thus speed their path to enlightenment. I heard reliable reports of another lama who insisted all the western women on retreat become his consort. Two of the four major Tibetan sects require celibacy, but all four teach methods for sublimating sexual energy into subtle bodies, projected as various deities. Skill in this kind of astral projection creates the possibility of "astral sex affairs" that occur mostly in dream time or meditative states. A different female friend, involved in helping Tibetan teachers, confided to me she was under "astral rape" attack for months by a Tibetan Tantric practitioner who became obsessed with her as his consort after she terminated a brief sexual affair. I shared with her some Daoist methods for defining the boundaries of one's subtle bodies, which seemed to help. Sexual intercourse opens subtle body connections that can be extremely difficult to dissolve. Men become obsessed with pornography for the same reason: they are having astral sex with their own projected fantasy in the low astral plane, the subtle body closest to the physical. Any divorced or separated couple also knows too well how difficult it is to cut the bonds of sexual attachment, especially in cases of first true love. This is often because their sexual energy bodies have been "glued" together in the low astral plane. My own experience is that this can go beyond a strong subtle body sexual relationship. It may involve the exchange of what the Daoists call the jingshen, the vital organ spirits that animate the personal body. It is difficult to separate from someone else because a part of them is actually living inside your body, and vice versa. Similar situation may be found in certain deep child-parent relationships, and is intensified by unspoken sexual polarity. This is a vast topic, beyond the scope of this paper, but it does imply a spontaneous and high level of subtle body sex that is usually unconsciously willed. California Tantra One of Rudi's New York students was Franklin Jones (b. 1939), who left Rudi to try Scientology for a year before starting his own movement. Jones moved to California and became the self-proclaimed God-man and World Teacher Da Free John (later changed to numerous other names). It appeared Da Free John had such an extreme case of rising kundalini heat that it permanently burned off his hair. Jones-Free John is clearly a case of second generation Western self-invented Tantrism, a showman who created a Wizard of Oz mystique by teaching from behind panels, too sacred to be viewed by his followers. He later added a modern twist. He currently lives on an island in Fiji, surrounded by multiple wives and "gopis" (female

devotees-lovers), and daily instructs his followers in a California ashram in the most minute aspects of their lives by computer email. Jones may be another Tantric case of excess fire seeking female sexual water to cool and ground itself. The California Tantra scene in the 1980's and 90's was blossoming with its own flavor, and students (mostly of Rajneesh) sprang up teaching Tantric workshops. These typically were taught in the nude, and often encouraged participants to sexually partner with a stranger, with instructions to first tune into them by breathing together and holding one's hand over their partner's heart. This extremely simplified and reinvented Tantric sex ritual for Westerners may have cemented the media definition of Tantra as being primarily a practice of spiritualized sexual intercourse, which of course it never was in India. Even the famed Tantric ritual of the "Five M's" (pancha makara) that culminated with coitus (maithuna) was proceeded by mantric initiation and ordinarily required lengthy prior subtle body training (Tigunait, 1999). But Californians wanted both quick sex and quick enlightenment, the latter being one promise of Tantra, and so market demand attracted the teacher supply to satisfy it. This public sexual intercourse in a group workshop setting seems to be an enduring part of the Western reinvention of Tantra. It fits a general Tantric pattern of defying public mores for the purpose of shocking someone into enlightenment, but I put it more into the category of psycho-therapeutic or medical sexual therapy than subtle body practice. Participants are usually guided to take the sexual energy up the chakras in the spine, but may have little or no prior training in meditation or in stabilizing internal states of consciousness with mantra, yantra, internally created alchemical symbols or visualizations, or mudras, the hallmarks of traditional Hindu Tantrism. This may be because Rajneesh, the self-invented Tantric guru of many of them, did not himself have lineage training in these methods. Rajneesh also did not believe mantra was suitable for Westerners, as he felt it produced a soporific state of self-hypnosis in which it was difficult to be fully present in the body. In 1997 I met Jwala, a women who had been one of the first teachers on the California Tantra scene in 1980. Her practice of Tantric initiation involved gently masturbating men while guiding them to move their sexual energy up the chakras to their heart and head, and counseling them on sexual issues. She confirmed my perception of California Tantrism being more focused on physical sexuality as therapy, exemplified by her own professed challenge to spiritual progress in terms of building a stable subtle body awareness. I knew by then that if there is excessive focus on physical sexuality, the subtle body energy is pulled down and eventually dispersed. This limitation of focusing excessively on physical sex may prove to be the force that moves California style Tantrism towards subtle body sexual cultivation practices. In 2000 I taught the Daoist inner sexual alchemy practices of Lesser Water and Fire in Switzerland. One of my students was the director of a Tantric Institute in Germany that was using Rajneesh inspired methods taught by Margo Anand, whose teachings and first book The Art of Ecstasy, was also influential amongst California Tantrics. (This book borrowed the Inner Smile technique from the books I had written with Chia, as well as material from Nik Douglas' Sexual Secrets, both without acknowledgement, which we both gracefully accepted at the time as her hidden fear of not having a tradition behind her). At the end of the retreat, this student, a male, broke down in tears. "I have been teaching and helping so many people with their sexuality", he said. "But I have been personally at a dead end, I could not get beyond the boundary of my physical maleness and the limitations of physical sex. I was feeling very frustrated. But now I have a very great gift from you and from the Dao, the subtle love-making between my inner male and female souls. Now I have a way to move forward!" Kriya Yoga: Tantra and Celibacy In 1983, two years after I had shifted my main practice from White Tantric Yoga to Daoist internal alchemy, I stumbled onto Kriya Yoga, a Tantric method taught by Swami Paramhamsa Hariharananda Giri ("Baba" to his followers). His Kriya Yoga was definitely not self-invented, but strictly followed the initiations he had received in India from Sri Yukteswar and from his student, Paramhamsa Yogananda, who founded the SelfRealization Fellowship (SRF) in the USA the 1920's. Baba was later made President of Sri Yukteswar's ashram in Puri, India, and took higher level kriya initiations from other yogis in a lineage extending back to its founder Lahiri Mahasay. Lahiri, a railroad engineer with five children, claims an immortal being named Babaji appear to him in 1862 and taught him six kriyas (Sanskrit root kri, to act, ya, divine soul). These kriyas offered a structured internal map of subtle body development, through six stages of samadhi. To objectively explore these practices, I eventually discontinued my Daoist internal alchemy practices for a few years.

Kriya Yoga is Tantric in its divinization of the body. In the first kriya, prana is circulated up and down the spine. In the second kriyas, internal seed (bij) mantras are silently chanted to infuse the spinal pathway and the multi-petalled lotuses visualized in the chakras and fifty body parts. Then the 50 letter-sounds of the sanskrit alphabet are spiralled around the cranium, activating the primordial sound which is gradually captured into the center of the cranial void space in higher kriyas. The higher kriyas drop all use of mantra as one enters the higher void spaces. Like Rajneesh, Hariharananda completely eschews all use of chanted mantra, which he considers an intermediate level of practice: "if you are busy shouting to your Mother, how can you hear God speak to you?" he would ask. In Kriya Yoga there is a typically Tantric progressive internalization of the cosmos within the body, which evolves into the experience of one's inner soul focusing on the subtle current of sound, light, and vibration/heat in the central channel (sushumna). Baba's private deity is Kali, the paramount Tantric goddess, who he claims has intervened to allow him an extremely long life (age 95 at this writing in 2002). He was 75 when I first met him, a few years after he arrived in the West. Kriya Yoga is a interesting case. It was originally designed for householders, who could have sex and children, eat meat, and meditate at home to achieve enlightenment. His original technique was very Tantric in allowing one to indulge these worldly pleasures, but one had to watch from the soul level as one indulged. Lahiri insisted his students get married, and his subtle body teachings were quite sexually explicit: "I beheld the Red Lingam ("penis") of Shiva inside of me; it contained the energy of the Sun. Then I came up to the third eye, and entered the Maha Yoni ("Great Vagina"). (Satyeswarananda, 1988) But the lineage was virtually captured and shifted into the monastic Giri ("mountain") order of swamis who were forbidden from having sex, watching theatre, eating meat or any food cooked by a non-initiate. An American student of Baba's visiting Benares, India ran into the grandson of Lahiri Mahasay, who complained bitterly that Kriya Yoga had been hijacked by Hindu monks. Yogananda did not think Westerners were prepared for Kriya's shakti power, and so only taught the first kriya to his followers, a method of circulating prana up and down the spine without mantras. Nonetheless, the SRF-simplified Kriya Yoga has spawned many splinter schools of American swamis claiming lineage and has achieved widespread acceptance in the West. Meanwhile, the SRF-promoted facade of Yogananda's yogic purity as a celibate is beginning to crumble. I had a student whose father claimed to have been in Yogananda's inner circle, which he reported included sexual affairs. A man closely resembling Yogananda in appearance is about to file a lawsuit to examine genetic tests by SRF to determine if Yogananda was his father. So Hariharananda may prove to be one of the few cases of complete sexual abstinence amongst Tantrics who have come to the West. He claims it was only when he gave up all sexual desire that he achieved enlightenment. I found Hariharananda to be a fountain of illumination and wisdom, a Brahman with a tiger's mind who could recite the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanisads, yet who also radiated a heart that was lovingly pure and had a child-like innocence. It was impossible not to love him. After meditating for decades, at the age fifty Baba attained nirvakalpa samadhi , the sixth kriya and highest level of enlightenment possible. He is famous for his yogic power to stop both his breath and heartbeat for extended periods while in samadhi. Since then, for the last forty-five years, he has been revered as a fully realized "God man" in India. It is not my place to judge anyone's level of spiritual attainment, but I did have the expectation was that such an evolved being would at least be sex-neutral, if not sex-positive in his attitude. I instead discovered he was both female-negative and sex-negative, raising the same question again: was sex and subtle body training incompatible? Or was cultural conditioning at work? Working for some years in close personal contact with Baba while editing his Bhagavad Gita in the Light of Kriya Yoga (I989), I noticed how his aversion to women also manifested itself as subtle attraction to and need for women. Privately he expressed anti-body sentiments ("from the senses down, the body is the domain of the devil"), and made anti-female comments ("if you marry a woman, they will constantly lure you to bed and weaken your power to meditate"). He often publicly recounted a favorite story of how once a foreign woman at his ashram in India had tried to seduce him. She crawled on top of him naked, but his steely control was such that neither his mind nor his penis was aroused. Hariharananda's top-heavy, male-fire crown chakra consciousness seemed to regularly attract yogic successors-to-be who would act out his suppressed lower desires, involving themselves in money scandals and love affairs that invariably resulted in their dismissal. When I last saw him in 1999, he was having severe back pain. I read his pulses using Chinese diagnostic methods, and observed a kidney deficiency, a weakness in his water element. This was likely due to his practicing Fire methods his entire life. The thing that seemed to help his back pain was having teams of young female devotees massage his body, reminding me of the celibate Mahatma Gandhi sleeping beside two young teen girls to rejuvenate himself. The sexual energy Baba denied himself directly his entire life he could only allow himself to receive indirectly through female touch.

There may be other systems of Kriya Yoga with different attitudes about sex. The editors of Tantra Magazine in the 1980's were Kriya Yoga practitioners of a different Babaji lineage (Herakan Baba, an immortal whose followers claim he materialized in a body in India in the 1970's) and the magazine was definitely sexpositive. But it appeared their mix of Kriya and Tantra was not by lineage training but rather an integration of their own choice, a part of the trend amongst Westerners to reshape Tantric methods to fit their own sexual and spiritual needs. I recount the details of my experience with Hariharananda to highlight a recurring split amongst some Tantrics (and historically, Daoists) between sexual and subtle body development: it is ok for their lay followers to have sex or get married, but the elite cadre of acharyas and swamis who attain subtle body enlightenment need to be celibate. The equation of celibacy and anti-sexual attitudes with enlightenment led me to question whether his Fire path paradigm of nirvikalpa samadhi as enlightenment was complete. Despite his worshipping Kali and using Tantric meditation methods to divinize the body, underneath he seemed to reflect a widespread patriarchal based Indian spirituality that feared the sexual power of women, and perhaps deep beneath that, an earth centered consciousness. My desire to integrate my sexual and earth nature fully was a key factor in my resuming my Daoist Water and Fire inner alchemy practices. Daoist Sexual Cultivation in the West In 1981 I became one of the first Westerners to study with Mantak Chia. He was a thirty-six year old Chinese married man working as a healer in New York's Chinatown. He left Thailand in 1976, chased out by Thai Western style medical doctors threatened by his Bangkok center offering low-cost healing: for a few pennies people sat on a large platform, charged with a negative ion current strong enough to detoxify chronic ailments. His unorthodox approach to life served him well in the West, where he wore multiple hats as healer, martial artist, and inner alchemist. He was eager to bridge the gap between modern science and ancient Daoist methods. He was equally comfortable with medical and bedroom sexual practices (fangzhong) and the subtle body coupling employed in internal alchemy (neidangong). Most important, he was willing to openly share his knowledge with Westerners. Other books have been published in the West on Daoist medical sexology (J. Chang 1977, S. Chang 1986, Heng 1997), but they lack deep understanding of Daoist alchemy or subtle body development. Chia had studied in the mountains behind Hong Kong with One Cloud, a Daoist hermit, who transmitted to him Seven Formulas for Immortality. These alchemical meditations offered a subtle body map of spiritual development: one stage of clearing physical blockages and opening the channels of the energy body, followed by three stages of enlightenment and three stages of immortality. It embraced a paradigm of Water and Fire (kan and li), a continuous yin-yang, female-male, earth-heaven exchange of energies through a well-defined network of physical and subtle energy body channels. But it required first harnassing one's sexual energy as the raw fuel to be refined by spiritual practice. Sexual attraction was a very powerful aspect of one's worldly destiny (ming). It had to be cultivated and refined before one could restore one's original nature (xing). Sexual practice with a partner rejuvenated the physical body, but the higher practice was dual cultivation of xing and ming, essentially the sexual coupling of the spiritual and earthly dimensions of oneself. Apart from his difficulty translating obscure alchemy terms, Chia's teachings on Daoist alchemy and sexual energy cultivation had no complex layers of Chinese religious deities to peel off, no mantras in a foreign language, and did not require long waits prostrated at the foot of a master. Chia broke with Chinese traditions of personal initiation and secrecy, and presented a spiritual science, accessible to Westerners, based on principles of resonance between cosmic forces of Nature and the human body, mapped and refined by generations of Daoists. The alchemy formulas appear to date back one thousand years to the tenth century teachings of the semi-legendary Daoist Immortal Lu Dong Bin. Rather than employing mantra to vibrate the subtle bodies as in Tantra, Chia used a combination of physical qigong movement, natural healing sounds, and transformation obtained by alchemical coupling of polarized energies inside three subtle bodies defined by jing-qi-shen (sexual essence-subtle breath-spirit). These couplings occur within five-fold colored spheres and eight deep channels mapped as an internal mandala of spinning bagua (eight -sided shapes) derived from the Yijing. Daoist alchemy presents classical yin-yang theory as the cosmic pulsation of polarized energy around a pole (chungmo) of neutral Original Energy (yuanqi) that extends between Early Heaven (xiantian) and Later Heaven(houtian), or earth. The "ten thousand things" were procreated by the copulation of Heaven and Earth, and yin-yang is their eternal multi-orgasmic movement. The human sexual orgasm is an exquisite

echo of that pulsation, and internal alchemy is the process of interiorizing within the physical body the cosmic subtle body love-making. By getting one's human qi - especially sexual energy (jingqi) - to flow in rhythm and harmony with the hidden cycles of Nature, one's personal energy gates open to the cosmic flow of inner light and spiritual powers (de) of the Way (Dao). Nurturing healthy, non-depleting physical sexual orgasm is just the beginning level. One Cloud's internal alchemy formulas created increasingly powerful subtle body orgasm. The sexual nature of these subtle body processes was quite explicit. The key practice in the second alchemy formula (Lesser Enlightenment of Water and Fire) is entitled "Self-intercourse". It requires the adept to revert to the androgynous state of his Early Heaven self. The adept gathers the five jingshen (deep body intelligences/spirits, or vital organ "gods") into two primal yin (inner female) and yang (inner male) forces that copulate in the lower dantian. This fire-water copulation births an immortal embryo, made of androgynous Early Heaven yuan qi that coagulates within the adept's physical body. This embryo is slowly birthed up the core channel, nourished by the copulation of natural sexually polarized geomantic forces within the earth below, planetary and stellar forces in heaven above, and in the sixth formula by the full sexual Congress of Heaven and Earth. All of these copulations gradually restore the yuanjing, the pre-natal and pre-sexual substance of the adept's original nature (xing). Chia told me he originally sought out Daoist medical and bedroom sexual practices because a Chinese doctor read his pulses and told him at age 21 that his kidneys were weak and that he would die very young. This motivated Chia to hunt down various Chinese teachers of Daoist sexology, and pay them large sums of money to get their secrets. In Chinese medicine, "the kidneys" is a broad energetic sphere that includes the sexual organs, kidneys, bladder and their meridians, which regulate the endocrine glands, blood, bone marrow, and sexual essence (jing), all essential to long life. Jing, the subtle substance holding the form of one's body, is the key ingredient to apprehending the function of sexuality in this Daoist cosmology. Jing is perhaps best understood in Western terms as prime matter. Jing is the raw fuel that drives the pulsating rhythm of the body's moment-to-moment cellular division and reproduction of itself. It generates stem cells, genes, and the sexual energy of the glands, but is not sexual energy itself. The jing is governed in humans by the kidney water spirit, called the zhi, literally the "will" to be in bodily form, to survive, to seek pleasure, and to fulfil a specific destiny while in a body. It is the jing that in the human animal is radiating polarized waves of male or female sexed energy we label charisma or magnetic power. In short, jing is the source of sexual desire and the feeling substance of earthiness. Without jing, spirit (shen) would not be able to embody its virtues or have direct sensory experience of physicality. If one is feeling "spiritual bliss", the bliss part is vibrating jing. Jing is also the main source of vexation for spiritual seekers who ignore it or run from their sexual impulses in order to chase after the other end of the spectrum of consciousness, the shen or spirit body, which spreads out as an infinite sea of pure awareness. This also defines the key difference between centering a meditation in the Fire-head-shen or Water-belly-jing cauldrons within the body. One of the main ways Chia rebuilt his kidney jing was a method of semen retention and recirculation of sexual energy (jingqi) in the Microcosmic Orbit (xiao zhoutian). Recent scholarship suggests the Orbit began as a sexual practice to rejuvenate the brain (huanjing bunaeo) two thousand years ago and evolved to become a spiritual practice as the qi was observed to spiral inside the body. (Pregadio, 2000, 427). Skill in semen retention is essential to the successful male practice of One Cloud's internal alchemy. Other systems of neidangong may require celibacy in the hope that it will result in the indirect or spontaneous redirection of sexual energy to the subtle bodies. But this is a hit or miss proposition, and can result instead in sexual repression. Non-celibacy requires a deliberate method of guaranteeing the sexual energy is recycled in the Orbit, which is later refined and taken up the central subtle body channel. How does it work? At a moment prior to ejaculation (whether in coitus with a woman or self-pleasuring), the orgasmically vibrating seminal qi is introjected by the man up his spinal yang fire channel (dumai, Governor Vessel) to refresh the brain and its master glands, the pituitary and pineal. If in coitus, the male draws up his partner's female sexual essence (jingqi) as well, and offers his to her. When the brain is full of the rejuvenating sexual essence, it overflows down the yin front water channel (renmo, Conception Vessel) which clears and purifies qi flowing into yin meridians, heart, navel and sexual organs. The physical method can be done with a partner (dual cultivation) or without a partner (single cultivation), and is practiced using varying levels of non-aroused (cool) or aroused (hot) sexual energy.

One goal of the medical sexual practice is to shift from a limited "genital orgasm" to a pleasurable and healing "whole body orgasm". Slowing or stopping "ejaculation" doesn't prevent a man from having "orgasm" or being "multi-orgasmic". Ejaculation is physical, orgasm is chi pulsating. One should not get obsessed with "stopping" ejaculation, but focus rather on opening up the chi channels and recycling sexual energy to one's partner until you finally ejaculate. Then this physical ejaculation does not cause major loss of jing, as the essence is already extracted. Semen retention also slows down the man's fiery nature to stay in closer harmony with the woman's slower cycle of arousal. Another key in sexual kung-fu is understanding the relation between the fire element in the heart and the water element in the kidneys. These fire and water essences stimulate each other and keep the other in check. By keeping proper exchange between them, one enters a steady state that opens the door to subtle body love-making. By simply keeping an open heart you protect against blind lust, which ultimately injures the kidneys because it can never be satisfied by physical sex alone. All aloneness at core is the heart spirit (shen) seeking the love, sensual touch and sexual stimulation of the kidney shen, and the kidney spirit seeking the heart's virtue of unconditional acceptance and love. This kind of internal biological psychodynamics opened for Western students the field of Daoist depth psychology that is just beginning to be explored. Changing the Western Sexual Paradigm I had read of semen retention being practiced by Tantric yogis, but had assumed that I would have to sit in a Himalayan cave for twenty-five years and attain enlightenment before mastering it. Chia presented the reverse paradigm: one had to gain some mastery of semen retention (or the equivalent female practice, menstrual blood-ovary retention) before one could master the subtle body practices. Equally important, semen retention - an inner celibacy of remaining one with one's seed essence - freed the male adept from enforced outer celibacy. Practitioners could have their cake and eat it too. The accessibility of this Daoist sexual practice to the average Western male offered them a radical and totally new approach to sexuality. It also offered a revolutionary and healthy way to alleviate male horniness. The learning context presented by Mantak Chia made it easy for Westerners to accept. The practices were taught in an open and accepting atmosphere, with men and women studying each other's "esoteric biology" in a shared and fun space. After the sexual repression I had witnessed in so many Indian teachers, I was shocked and pleased by Mantak Chia's innocent directness about sexual matters. Would these sexual teachings promote a culture of promiscuity amongst the Westerners who learned them? Chia and I delayed publication of our co-authored book on Daoist sex for nearly a year while pondering this question and its ethical ramifications. Looking back over the twenty one years that I have known Mantak Chia, I never heard a single accusation of his sexual involvement with students. Certainly there was a degree of open experimentation between male and female students attracted to one another. But there was a strong caution placed against promiscuous and indiscriminate absorption of another's sexual energy (sexual vampirism), as sexual exchange was a double edged sword in which you also absorbed your partner's "psychic garbage". This meant sexual relations demanded deep transformational effort and great selectivity in choosing partners. It was the opposite approach of the Rajneesh inspired California Tantra of having sex with a stranger at a weekend workshop. Shortly after meeting Chia, I described my White Tantric Kundalini Yoga practice to him. He diagnosed it as "heating the room" - I was driving all my sexual fire up the spine and out the crown, where it dispersed into the room. As soon as I learned to recirculate my rising kundalini energy down the front Orbit channel and began practicing semen retention, I quickly grew physically stronger and more grounded spiritually. Most Tantrics work only with the spinal fire path and not the water path in the front. I gradually dropped my intense Kundalini Yoga sadhana as the Daoist methods grew on me. The lure of a more effortless practice (wu wei) attuned to nature, the grounding embrace of the feminine through qigong and in the Water and Fire subtle body practices, and a poetic yet scientific approach to spiritual development were the attractions. I was also learning new practices focused on circulating sexual energy in ways I never dreamed possible - through the bone marrow, or using it to give substance to an inner "pearl", which was circulated through the core channels and eventually into subtle body dimensions. Using the sexual essence as the catalyst to crystallize my subtle bodies in the lower dantian solved the problem I'd observed with most head-centered practices, that the "fire" - the clarity of meditative bliss - would gradually disperse in the chaos of modern life.

Later I would end up using the Orbit and other Daoist methods to heal many cases of "kundalini psychosis" - generally energy running up the wrong channel or stuck in the head. The condition is usually easy to correct if the person has not been heavily drugged by psychiatrists who do not understand the energy body. These cases were often Western Tantrics who believed, as I once did, that their energy flow was supposed to move only up the spine in a linear, one-way direction from lower to upper chakra. The Daoist model was that the energy was always moving in spirals, cycles, and orbits; the Orbit was a kind of unified chakra. Any energy movement up had to be balanced by a movement down, until one finally arrived at the still point of no movement at the intersecting center of the physical and subtle body, called the lower dantian ("field of the elixir"). This is the doorway to pre-natal jing, from which all embodiment effortlessly emanates. But to shift my spiritual focus from the third eye to my navel was extremely challenging, as my Tantric Fire teachers had always considered this a lower energy center to be swiftly left behind. It took me a while to understand that chakras are centers of post-natal energy, and are not operating at the inner dimensional depth as the dantian. This shift in my practice led to my writing collaboration with Chia, which over time produced seven books on qigong and neigong ("inner skill"). Chia taught me the techniques he knew, and I would test them out on myself before writing about them, often under his name. Our second book, Taoist Secrets of Love: Cultivating Male Sexual Energy (1984) catapulted him to fame, and sold hundreds of thousands of copies with virtually no advertising. The book became a key force in a larger paradigm shift in Western culture, begun earlier by an influx of Tantric ideas, that sexual and spiritual development were inseparable. Why was a book on semen retention, radically antithetical to Western sexual values and even to RajneeshNew Age Tantra style, so successful? One, it linked biological sex-as-natural-science to a kind of spiritual science, a comfortable fit for Western minds. This helped remove guilt promoted by Judeo-Christian religious beliefs separating sex and spirit and labeling sex as sinful. Two, the book was written in my sophisticated Western literary voice, infused with insights from from my years of Tantric practice, posing as Mantak Chia's voice, the Daoist transmitting his oral tradition. (This was such an effective literary device for entraining readers that it created confusion among readers who met Chia. Hearing his "Chinese English" created difficulty believing he was the author). Three, there was no missionary pressure on the reader to leave one's chosen path and join a Daoist religion. The sexual and energetic teachings were put out as the "energetic open architecture" of the Dao, from which one could take what one needed, whether for sexual health or spiritual health. Chia and I were frankly surprised at the time by the diversity of response, and in retrospect, at the book's contribution to the globalization of emerging new spiritual attitudes towards sexuality. We received hundreds of letters from men following many other spiritual paths -Sufi, Buddhist, Christian, Jewish - thanking us for giving them a way to stay on their chosen path and embrace their sexuality instead of repressing it. For example, the well known Catholic mystic David Stendl-Rast wrote to say the book had been of immense practical help to him and he was recommending it widely to other Catholic priests to help them deal with their celibacy. It was just as typical that a man with no spiritual background would show up at a "Healing Love" workshop because "I just met a girl and thought this might help." The sexual teachings became the hook that converted many such seekers with superficial external desires into serious students of Daoist internal cultivation. This book,Taoist Secrets of Love and its later sequels - Healing Love: Cultivating Female Sexual Energy (1986), The Multi-Orgasmic Man (1996), and The Multi-Orgasmic Couple (2000) - combined with a global network that grew to one thousand Healing Tao teachers in thirty countries certified to teach Daoist sexual and subtle body practices, became a major doorway for tens of thousands of Western spiritual seekers to enter on a path of the previously obscure Daoist alchemy formulas passed on by the hermit One Cloud. (Winn, 2001). Daoist Female Sexual Practices in the West Teaching Daoist female sexual practices to Western women who expected equality of the sexes and wanted to use these practices to improve their personal relationships presented a special challenge. Douglas Wile in his definitive Art of the Bedchamber (1992) surveyed the last twenty five hundred years of Chinese texts on sexuality, and noted a progressive decline in the treatment of women and a proportional increase in patriarchal type of sex manuals in which the yin essence of women was used by male adepts for their own spiritual progress. The Chinese women who use these practices today are mostly Daoist nuns stopping their menstrual cycle because they've made a lifetime commitment to childless, monastic meditation - not a motivating factor for most women in the West.

In 1983 at a Daoist retreat I met a potential female consort, Joyce Gayheart, shortly after I had conveniently decided to drop my four year experiment with celibacy, in order to test the practices I was writing about inTaoist Secrets of Love . She later became my wife and has remained my partner for the last nineteen years, offering us the opportunity to explore the full range of Daoist physical and subtle body sexual practices that require time and maturity to master. Joyce taught me directly about my own hidden yin nature. I now recognize every relationship as a transmission to one's partner that the essence they are seeking is already hidden inside them as an inner male or inner female. In the early years we used Daoist methods to prolong physical love-making for many hours, interspersed with periods of meditation. Our most powerful early experience together is interesting because it reversed my expectation that physical sex's main spiritual use was to jump start our subtle body meditations. The opposite proved to be true - our subtle bodies jumped in and made love first. We had sat naked for a few minutes, facing each other in a cross legged meditation position to tune in. We were both suddenly overtaken by a powerful energy field with extremely intense and unusual vibrations. Not a word was spoken, as our mental, emotional, and speech faculties were completely suspended, but we later confirmed having an identical experience. One aspect of our consciousness began experiencing a very yang orgasm, expanding out of the bedroom faster than the speed of light, whizzing through galaxies, exploding supernovas, and then beyond. Another part of us was orgasmically imploding inward with opposite and equal force, grounding and and concentrating the great intensity in our physical bodies. After a half hour in this wonderful sacred trance, the vibrational field subsided in intensity. We afterward made physical love as planned. It was pleasurable, but seemed anticlimactic, mostly a way to digest the subtle body orgasm that had spontaneously enveloped us. This permanently shifted the nature of our sexual relationship. Our subtle bodies would quickly attune and we found we could exchange deep sexual energy for hours, lying beside each other, naked or clothed, without any physical stimulation or intercourse. It was a direct exchange of sexually polarized subtle bodies. As our energy bodies mingled and coupled, we were infused with loving spiritual qualities. This led us to long periods of spontaneous abstention from physical intercourse that could last for many months, but with exquisitely sublime daily subtle body coitus. As our subtle bodies crystallized and became more "real", it eventually graduated to astral sex - the ability to intentionally exchange orgasmic subtle energy at great distances. I attribute the longevity of our relationship to this subtle body love making, and it created a very solid foundation for making advances in our individual inner alchemy practices. Joyce's early experiences with the female sexual practices I anonymously appended to my third editing project, Healing Love: Cultivating Female Sexual Energy (1986), written under the name of Mantak and his wife Maneewan Chia. Maneewan in fact did not contribute any content to the book and appeared to me to be a non-practitioner. I was forced to resort to interviewing Joyce and dozens of Chia's Western female students to evaluate the effectiveness of the Daoist female sexual practices because there was no pool of qualified Chinese Daoist female practitioners available. The female sexual practices (Ovarian Breathing, Slaying the Red Dragon, and others) focus on initially reducing or later completely stopping loss of eggs and blood through menstruation, said to be the main source of women's loss of jing. They progress to cultivation of ovarian essence, absorbing male sexual essence and redirection of the genital orgasm up the spine and or to the lower dantian and other vital organs until full body orgasm is achieved. Its medical applications include relief of Pre-Menstrual Syndrome and menopausal hot flashes, healing of infertility ("cold womb syndrome") and a variety of glandular and sexual dysfunction including frigidity. But application of these practices to Western women was largely experimental, due to the lack of role models. Study groups were formed to compare results, resulting in deeper levels of female sexual practice. (Piontek, 2001) Several women did completely stop their menstrual cycle through voluntary internal practice. Most used it to simply lighten the amount and color of blood flow as they learned how to detoxify their blood. But most important was the paradigm shift of women gaining control of inner sexual forces and liberation of qi trapped in the uterus using Daoist subtle body methods. Westernizing of Daoist Sexual Practices Editorial collaboration by myself and other senior students with Mantak Chia resulted in the conversion of what had been a one-to-one "ear-whispered" transmission in China into an open and detailed curriculum of progressive courses that Westerners could pay for and take when they were ready. Transmission was given according to the level of the teacher and received according to the openness of the students in the course. Those who didn't get the transmission simply took the course again. The integration of sexual energy, whether physical-sexual or subtle body sexual polarities, remained central to this curriculum.

This process meant the information on Daoist sexual practices presented to the public was filtered through Western editors and teachers. Daoist principles were honored as the cornerstone of every practice. But the content of the books and courses was inevitably re-shaped to suit modern Western psychological and sexual needs. This included acceptance of gay, lesbian, and bi-sexual practioners; the need to enhance the sexual and emotional quality of personal relationships, the relationship of sex to sports performance and artistic or career creativity. Supportive Western sexological research was marshaled showing the difference between the prostate spasm that causes ejaculation and the whole body physiology of orgasm. We presented Western scientific biological studies relevant to semen retention and longevity, showing how nematode worms, when genetically altered to stop sperm production, lived twice as long. The Healing Tao organization was an educational structure created so Westerners would feel comfortable learning sometimes strange sexual practices that did not fit into the ordinary context of their culture. A good example is the Bone Marrow neigong practice of hanging weights of up to fifty pounds by a silk cord tied around the testicles and penis to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles and increase capacity to absorb sexual energy into the bone marrow. Or for women to exercise their vaginal muscles by inserting a jade egg into their womb and move it about as an internal exercise. This evolved into an innovation for women drilling holes in their jade eggs in order to also hang two or three pound weights for greater isometric effect in strengthing the internal fascia. There was "tongue kung-fu" for strengthening that versatile sexual muscle, and methods for absorbing qi directly into the genitals from the sun. Sexual energy was cultivated (often by mixing it with qi drawn up the earth) to magnify one's power of healing oneself and others, or to add power to martial arts skills like tai chi. Unlike Rajneesh's promotion of Tantra in the West, there was a deliberate attempt to de-sensationalize these Daoist sexual practices. No nudity was allowed in workshops and teachers focused on them as primarily internal sexual-spiritual practices that could be practiced fully clothed, but also had optional application to the bedroom arts. California Tantrics criticized Healing Tao practitioners for their focus on semen retention, claiming it made men uptight and selfish about holding onto the seed instead of sharing it with women. This was sometimes true for men who did not integrate semen retention with other Daoist subtle body practices. I know of men who transferred old sexual patterns of guilt onto their inability to quickly master semen retention, instead of treating it as a gradual subtle body training process. In other cases, emotional struggle was created in their love relationships if men became too technique oriented. The transmission of these Daoist sexual practices to Westerners was complex, involving subtle body experiences, and not always successful. Over the past two decades tens of thousands of Westerners learned these sexual practices with virtually no negative side effects. The few cases with side effects usually already had an extreme imbalance, and did not have a teacher, did not learn the other methods to open energy channels first, or used too much force. Yet periodically I was challenged by Chinese students who would repeat warnings from some mainland China qigong master that all sexual practices were very dangerous and should be avoided, as they can cause craziness and deep psychological disturbances. Investigation led me to conclude that these warnings were valid - but mostly for mainland Chinese, whose culture of collective "face" suppresses individual emotional and sexual impulses in order to not disrupt the larger social harmony. The emphasis in China is on fitting in, not making trouble, but certainly not on personal self-improvement. Sexual kung-fu could unleash suppressed feelings in people that had no model for integrating them, and hence they "went crazy" from what are called "qi deviations" by qigong professionals. Western students occasionally reported similar problems, but these were almost always people who had bypassed all preliminary practices such as the Six Healing Sounds and Inner Smile. Westerners are generally encouraged to explore their individual impulses. In my experience they are sexually and emotionally better equipped to practice Daoist sexual cultivation than the average Chinese person. This curious conclusion was confirmed by a top qigong teacher in Beijing, Dr. Cai Jun, with a Ph.D. in qigongology, who told me it was easier for Western students to open their qi flow than for his Chinese students, who had fixed ideas about qi. The addition of sexual force to any energetic practice is the equivalent of throwing gasoline on an open fire. The expansive force and multiplying nature of sexual energy needs a safe and clear energy channel to flow in, physically, emotionally, mentally, and spiritually. This integration must occur both internally and in one's outer relationships. This defined the Healing Tao's multi-level Daoist training as a far more complicated and ambitious transformational process than other meditation traditions which did not consciously engage sexual energy and its accompanying emotional and mental challenges. Modern awareness of psychoanalytic processes and growing public acceptance of sexual equality, combined with the Daoist energy body training of the Inner Smile, Six Healing Sounds, Microcosmic Orbit, and Fusion of the Five Elements from White Cloud's first alchemy formula, allowed most Westerners the

possibility of safely integrating the self-released sexual forces in a way suitable for their relationships and spiritual development. The methods taught by Chia have since been further developed by myself and others to deepen and simplify their psychological accessibility to westerners. In China this integration could also possibly occur through a close personal supervision by a qualified teacher. But since the cultural milieu is still largely Confucian, patriarchal, and sexually repressive, finding a suitable teacher and achieving a Daoist model of male-female harmony within oneself is difficult. One very visible stage in the process of Westernizing Daoist practices was my founding in 1995 of Healing Tao University. This has a faculty of twenty Western and Chinese specialists teaching the full spectrum of Daoist Arts and Sciences, with the sexual cultivation and alchemy as the core curriculum. No similar institution exists today in China. Ironically, it is only in the West that Daoist sexual practices are being publicly taught. This sexual freedom is apparently irresistible to some young Chinese Daoists who migrate to the United States. I know of two Chinese priests, ordained in celibate Complete Perfection monasteries, who married here and are openly teaching practices of internal alchemy. In China they would be told that sex would spoil their practice, and asked to leave the order. In America, nobody cares or knows better. A New Yorker cartoon circa1995 sums up public perception: a fashionably dressed young lady walking down the street exclaims to her friend, "Wow! You've just got to try Taoist sex!"

Sex, Enlightenment, and Immortality What is the functional relationship between ordinary human sexual desire and the more abstract realm of subtle bodies? The short answer is that physical sex nourishes post-natal qi, and subtle body sex nourishes pre-natal qi. Sexual intercourse can "cook" the male-female post-natal qi and speed its transformation back into the yuan qi from which they originated. The long answer is more complicated. Most people are stuck in deep struggle, paralyzed by the wide gap between their sexed animal body and their core non-polar original being. The experience of one's androgynous (bi-sexed) subtle body offers a transitional stage in both Daoist and Tantric esoteric traditions. Nature's lure to pursue subtle body refinement is the feeling of spiritual orgasm. The sexual identity issues are complicated by celibacy issues. When learning a new subtle body practice, it is often best to avoid sex as a distraction, but it may be resumed once the subtle body practice is stable. Or the reverse: many who learn Daoist alchemy "self-intercourse" find themselves spontaneously losing outer sexual desire, and needlessly panic. It returns, just like a woman regains her sexual appetite after being occupied by pregnancy. But subtle body sex may trigger deep fears around changing one's physical sexual identity. When one begins the Daoist subtle body practices of neidangong, the vertical axis of heaven-earth communication is activated. The coupling of yang jingshen (heart and liver spirits) with yin jingshen (kidney and lung spirits) causes one's parental and ancestral jing to begin resonating with its "true earth". This is the infinite pool of prenatal yuanqi flowing into the lower dantian through the Door of Life (mingmen), the point of moving qi between the kidneys. The attraction between inner male-inner female, water-fire, kidneysheart, jing-shen, outer body passion - inner loving acceptance - all are polar forces of Destiny (ming) and Original Nature (xing) played out in a very dynamic theatre of meditative alchemy. But the bottom line is that the subtle body heaven-earth axis cannot fully open if the horizontal male-female axis has not first been made conscious and its impulses harmonized. Sexual balance precedes and is a prerequisite to stable experience of heaven-earth harmony. The opposite is also true; some practitioners rush this transition, and try to use the sexual force prematurely to open up the Heaven Earth axis without first balancing the malefemale axis. In the sexual cultivation process the human adept leads a double life. One life is physical, where the adept appears quite ordinary, and may have sexual relations as the desire to complete one's essence spontaneously arises. Physical sex may benefit health and add longevity, but not make one physically immortal. The other life is inner, where parallel relationships are played out between one's own polarized subtle bodies, and possibly with others. There are periods of intense subtle energy copulation and active love-making that birth new spiritual virtues and powers. These alternate with phases of deep stillness, gestation, and observation. The adept's inner life follows invisible currents flowing between heaven and earth. The inner and outer sexual couplings intersect and nourish each other. The human heart holding the balance point between the inner and outer lives is what defines humans as one of the three treasures of the Dao, along with heaven and earth. This is the human path of spiritual immortality.

West as Cauldron for Dao and Tantra The growth of Tantric and Daoist sexual cultivation practices in the West since 1974 initiated a period of remarkable experimentation, adaptation or outright re-invention inspired by ancient methods from Asia. Westerners radically reshaped these sexual practices to suit their own needs, a process likely to continue as they mature and study more deeply the subtle body maps of the Daoist and Tantric traditions. Since my explorations into Tantra in the 1980's, new writers on its theory and practice have published (Svoboda 1993, Frawley 1994, Tigunait 1999, White (2000). Whether they fuel a new wave of Westerners exploring lineage Tantric subtle body and sexual cultivation remains to be seen. Sales of Rajneesh's Tantra tapes and books, claimed to be in the millions sold, have reportedly increased every year since his death. Nik Douglas predicts Westerners will evolve virtual Tantric initiations, with mantras delivered over the internet. On my journey seeking out Tantric and Daoist practices in the West, I observed three general approaches to sexual cultivation: physical sex only, celibate subtle body cultivation only, and physical and subtle body sex together. I noted a pattern among some highly achieved male teachers of a strong, possibly excessive kundalini fire in the head being a possible cause for seeking female energy and/or sex. My observation about these teachers is not meant as a criticism of their methods, as I personally used many of them for years to great benefit. Simple modifications to most methods can easily ensure energetic balance, and this has already happened as part of the globalizing process of Westerners exposed to both Tantric and Daoist practices. I found the Fire-solar culture of Tantra and the more Water-Lunar culture of Daoism (Torchinov, 1997) to balance each other. Because I feel the current cosmic cycle is favoring the rebirth of the feminine, I eventually settled into Daoist practice. The difficulty some highly achieved adepts had in balancing their sexual energy highlights the possibility that the cosmological splitting of our original non-dual being, first into an etheric androgyne and then into physical male and female sexed bodies has created a spiritual trauma so deep that it cannot be fully resolved by what are considered states of enlightenment in the Daoist and Tantric traditions. Individual selfrealization may be insufficient to heal the vastness of this collective wound, which may be the core issue driving the human incarnational process. Sexual issues may continue to arise as long as one is still in a physically sexed form, perhaps a bleed over from the collective field of human sexual consciousness into the highly purified (non-polar) vessel of an individual adept. The resolution of this cosmic sexual tension may occur only by achieving what is called immortality, the alchemical re-fusion of spirit and body-matter into its original essence, requiring an adept to merge not only into the mind of Nature (enlightenment) but to merge fully into its body. This is the ultimate focus of subtle body sexual cultivation. A major force attracting Western spiritual seekers to Daoism and Tantra is the drive to integrate their sexual desire into a subtle body experience that I term the quest for spiritual orgasm. This quest has put Daoist and Tantric sexual cultivation practices into a Western cultural cauldron and created positive evolutionary pressure on their traditional methods. I believe this process will ultimately birth a new spiritual science in the West with recognizable Daoist and Tantric principles as its foundation. Permission granted to share it digitally as long as entire article is intact. Bibliography Bokenkemap, Stephen. Early Daoist Scriptures, UC Press, Berkeley 1997. Chang, Stephen. The Tao of Sexology: The Book of Infinite Wisdom. Tao Publishing, SF 1986. Chang, Jolan. Tao of Love and Sex, Dutton 1977. Chia, Mantak & Maneewan. Healing Love: Cultivating Female Sexual Energy, Healing Tao,1986. Chia, Mantak, and Abrams, Douglas. The Multi-Orgasmic Man, Harper 1996. The Multi-Orgasmic Couple, Harper 2000, Douglas, Nik and Slinger, Penny. Sexual Secrets: The Alchemy of Ecstasy. Destiny Books, 1979. Douglas, Nik Spiritual Sex: Secrets of Tantra from Ice Age to New Millenium, Pocket Books 1997. Frawley, David. Tantric Yoga and the Wisdom Goddesse, Morson Publishing, Utah 1994. Gyatso, Kelsung. Clear Light of Bliss, Wisdom, London, 1982. Hariharananda, Swami. Bagavad Gita in the Light of Kriya Yoga. Michael Winn, ed India 1989. Heng, Cheng. The Tao of Love, Marlow, NY 1997. Jwala. Sacred Sex: Ecstatic Techniques for Empowering Relationships. Inner Juice, Ukiah 1993. Krishna, Gopi. Kundalini: The Evolutionary Power in Man, Shambala, London 1971. Lai, Hsi. The Secret Teachings of the White Tigress: Female Taoist Masters, Destiny Books, 2001. Mann, John. Divine Androgyny, Portal Press, 2000.

McNeil, James. Ancient Lovemaking Techniques: The Journey to Iimmortality. Pine Press, Calif. 1999. Piontek, Maitreyi. Exploring the Hidden Power of Sexuality, Weiser 2001. Pregadio, Fabrizio, and Skar, Lowell. Daoism Handbook, ed. L. Kohn. Brill 2000. Rajneesh (Osho). The Book of Secrets, 112 Meditations of Vignan Bhairav Tantra, Osho Pub. 1998. Ruan, Fang Fu. Sex In China: Studies in Sexology in Chinese Culture, Plenum Press, NY 1991. Rudrananda, Swami. Spiritual Cannibalism, Overlook Press, NY 1978. Rama, Swami. Living with the Himalyan Masters, Himalayan Institute, 1975. Satyeswaranada, Swami. Original Lahiri Mahasay: Father of Kriya Yoga, San Diego 1988. Short, Lar and Mann, John. The Body of Light, Fourth Way Books, 1988. Svoboda, Robert. Aghora II, Kundalini, Brotherhood of Life, 1993. Tigunait, Pandit. Tantra Unveiled:Seducing the Forces of Matter & Spirit, Himalayan Institute 1999. Tortchinov Evgueni. "The Doctrine of the Mysterious Female in Taoism" in Everything Is According to the Way (Bolda-Lok, Australia 1997 ) Wile, Douglas. Art of the Bed Chamber:The Chinese Sexual Yoga Classics. SUNY Press, NY 1992. Winn, Michael and Chia, Mantak. Taoist Secrets of Love: Cultivating Male Sexual Energy, Aurora Press, 1984. White, David Gordon. The Alchemical Body:Siddha Traditions in Medieval India, U of Chicago, 1996. -Ed, Tantra in Practice, Princeton 2000. Winn, Michael. "Daoist Alchemy as a Deep Language for Communicating with Nature " paper, May 2001 conference on Contemporary Daoism. http://www.healingdao.com/, Articles.

3 Acupuncture (www.womensintegrativehealth.com) 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

What is Acupuncture? How does Acupuncture work? How can Acupuncture help? What does it feel like? Acupuncture Channels and Meridians What to Expect During Your Treatment How many treatments will I need? "Do's and Dont's" On The Day Of A Treatment Potential Complications Acupuncture FAQs

When most people think about acupuncture, they are familiar with its use for pain control. However, acupuncture has a proven track record for treating and addressing a wide range of illnesses, including a variety of endocrine, circulatory, and systemic conditions. Its focus is on improving the overall well being of the patient, rather than the isolated treatment of specific symptoms. According to a study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, 51% of medical doctors understand the efficacy and value of acupuncture, and more medical doctors refer patients to acupuncturists more than any other alternative care provider. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH), over one million people in the U.S. alone receive acupuncture annually. From Acupuncture Today

Acupuncture and modern Western medicine combined together have the potential to support, strengthen, and nurture a patient back to vital health and well-being. What Is Acupuncture? Acupuncture has been practiced in the Orient for thousands of years. It is part of a complete medical system and integrated approach to health maintenance and the treatment of "dis-ease". According to traditional Chinese philosophy, our health is dependent on the body's motivating energy known as Qi - moving in a smooth and balanced way through a series of meridians (channels of energy) beneath the skin. Qi consists of equal and opposite qualities - Yin and Yang - and when these become unbalanced, illness may result. The flow of Qi can be disturbed by a number of factors. These include:

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emotional states: anxiety, stress, anger, frustration, over-excitement, worry, self-pity, fear or grief poor nutrition an erratic diet: eating at irregular hours or on-the-run weather: hot, cold, damp/humidity, summer-heat, dryness, or wind hereditary factors infections poisons and toxins: snake bites, insect bites, plants, or toxic chemicals trauma

The principal aim of acupuncture in treating the whole person is to recover the equilibrium between the physical, emotional and spiritual aspects of the individual. By inserting very fine sterile needles into the

meridians, an acupuncturist can stimulate the body's own healing response and help restore its natural balance. How Does Acupuncture Work? Several processes have been proposed to explain acupuncture's effects, primarily those on pain. Acupuncture points are believed to stimulate the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to release chemicals into the muscles, spinal cord, and brain. These chemicals either change the experience of pain or release other chemicals, such as hormones, that influence the body's self-regulating systems. The biochemical changes stimulate the body's natural healing abilities and promote physical and emotional well-being. The 1997 National Institute of Health, US (NIH) Consensus of Acupuncture reported that "studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can cause multiple biological responses, mediated mainly by sensory neurons to many structures within the central nervous system. This can lead to activation of pathways affecting various physiological systems in the brain as well as in the periphery." The NIH Consensus also suggests that acupuncture "may activate the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, resulting in a broad spectrum of systemic effects. Alteration in the secretion of neurotransmitters and neurohormones and changes in the regulation of blood flow, both centrally and peripherally have been documented. There is also evidence of alterations in immune functions produced by acupuncture." Skeptics maintain that acupuncture has basically a placebo effect, since the acupuncture meridians and their energy or Qi as described in TOM cannot be directly observed, dissected, or measured with standard anatomic approaches or physiologic instrumentation. The acupoints are located at sites that have a high density of neurovascular structures and are generally between or at the edges of muscle groups. These locations, curiously, are less painful than random needle sticks into a muscle group. An interesting study demonstrating the map of a meridian pathway involved the injection of Technitium99, a radioactive tracer, into both true and sham acupoints. The scan of the injection sites showed random diffusion of the tracer around the sham point but rapid progression of the tracer along the meridian at a rate that was inconsistent with either lymphatic/vascular flow or nerve conduction. Another study demonstrated that needling a point on the lower leg traditionally associated with the eye activated the occipital cortex of the brain, the part of the brain associated with vision, as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Below are current theories on the mechanism of acupuncture: Conduction of electromagnetic signals: Scientists have found evidence that acupuncture points are strategic conductors of electromagnetic signals. Stimulating points along these pathways through acupuncture enables electromagnetic signals to be relayed at a greater rate than under normal conditions. These signals may start the flow of pain-killing biochemicals, such as endorphins, and of immune system cells to specific sites in the body that are injured or vulnerable to disease. Autonomic Nervous System Theory: Research has found that acupuncture stimulates the release of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and several types of opioids, affecting changes in their turn-over rate, normalizing the autonomic nervous system and reducing pain. Neurotransmitter Theory: Acupuncture affects higher brain areas, stimulating the secretion of betaendorphins and enkephalins in the brain and spinal cord. The release of neurotransmitters and neurohormones influence the immune system and the anti-nociceptive system.

Gate Control Theory: Acupuncture activates non-nociceptive receptors that inhibit the transmission of nociceptive signals in the dorsal horn, "gating out" painful stimuli. Vascular-interstitial Theory: Acupuncture manipulates the electrical system of the body by creating or enhancing closed-circuit transport in tissues. This facilitates healing by allowing the transfer of material and

electrical energy between normal and injured tissues. Blood Chemistry Theory: Acupuncture affects the blood concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids, suggesting that acupuncture can both raise and diminish peripheral blood components, thereby regulating the body toward homeostasis. Changes in sensation and involuntary body functions: Acupuncture also has been documented to affect the parts of the central nervous system related to sensation and involuntary body functions, such as immune reactions and processes whereby a person's blood pressure, blood flow, and body temperature are regulated. How Can Acupuncture Help? Many people come to acupuncture for help with specific symptoms or conditions. These might include:

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anxiety states arthritis asthma back pain circulatory problems depression

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high blood pressure indeterminate aches and pains infertility menstrual problems migraines sciatica

facial paralysis

skin conditions and ulcers


Acupuncture has proved to be helpful for people trying to overcome addictions such as those related to smoking, alcohol, food or drugs. Some people may have acupuncture as a preventive measure to strengthen their constitution, or because they feel unwell in themselves without being "ill" in the Western sense. It can also be used alongside conventional medicine in the treatment of both acute and chronic disease. As with any therapy, the response to acupuncture can differ from one person to another. What Does It Feel Like? Most people's experience of needles is of those used in injections and blood tests. Acupuncture needles bear little resemblance to these. They are much finer and are solid rather than hollow. Depending upon where on the body the needle will be used, the size of the acupuncture needles will range from 30-36 gauge. The typical hypodermic needle ranges from 16-21 gauge. (The larger the number, the smaller the needle!) When the needle is inserted into the skin there is a small "pricking" sensation. The doctor usually presses firmly on the skin with the plastic tube that the needle comes in to cause pressure analgesia in the skin before inserting the needle. Once the needle is through the skin, it is inserted about 1-2 cm further depending on the site. Different sensations are perceived and have been described as gripping, spreading, warm, tingling, a dull ache, and many more. Needles are inserted either for a second or two, or may be left in place for 30 minutes or more, depending on the effect required. During treatment, patients commonly experience a heaviness in the limbs or a pleasant feeling of relaxation or even of euphoria. Occasionally people may experience drowsiness after treatment, in which case it is advisable not to drive or do anything that can put you at risk.

The benefits of acupuncture frequently include more than just relief from a particular condition. Many people find that it can also lead to increased energy levels, better appetite and sleep as well as an enhanced sense of overall well being. Acupuncture Channels and Meridians Chinese use the term "jing luo" which means channels, conduit, or meridian. These are the invisible channels through which Qi circulates throughout the body. The acupuncture points are locations where the Qi of the channels rises close to the surface of the body. There are 12 main meridians, six of which are yin and six are yang and numerous minor ones, which form a network of energy channels throughout the body. Each meridian is related to, and named after, an organ or function, the main ones are: the Lungs, Kidneys, Gallbladder, Stomach, Spleen, Heart, Small intestine, Large intestine, Urinary bladder, the three body cavites San jiao (Triple heaters), and Pericardium (Heart protector). There are also 8 extraordinary channels that are considered to be reservoirs supplying Qi and blood to the twelve regular channels. These are believed to have a strong connection to the kidneys. Along these meridians are more than 400 acupuncture points, classified by the World Health Organization, or WHO. (There may be as many as 2000 points in use for different treatments.) These are listed by name, number and the meridian to which they belong. When Qi flows freely through the meridians, the body is balanced and healthy, but if the energy becomes blocked, stagnated or weakened, it can result in physical, mental or emotional ill health. An imbalance in a person's body can result from inappropriate emotional responses such as excess anger, overexcitement, self-pity, deep grief and fear. Environmental factors such as cold, dampness/humidity, wind, dryness, and heat can also cause imbalance. So can such factors as wrong diet, too much sex, overwork, and too much exercise. To restore the balance, the acupuncturist stimulates specific acupuncture points that will counteract the imbalance. If you have stagnant Qi, she will choose specific points to stimulate it. If the Qi is too cold, she will choose points to warm it. If it is too weak, she will strengthen it. If it is blocked, she will unblock it, and so on. In this way, acupuncture can effectively rebalance the energy system and restore health or prevent the development of disease. However, the points that the acupuncturist selects may not necessarily be at the site of the symptoms. What to Expect During Your Treatment Acupuncture needles are as thin as human hair and are tapped in through a tiny tube. They are presterilized, individually packed, disposable, and used once and then discarded. Most acupuncture treatment occur with you lying down, although a seated position is sometimes used. Your acupuncturist will guide you and help you relax and receive the most benefit from the treatment. The needles are usually left in body for 25 - 30 minutes. Most patients go into a state of deep relaxation and some even fall asleep due to the endorphins which are released during the treatment. In areas where the muscles are especially tight, electrodes may be attached to the needles. The electrical current provides a steady vibration to the tight muscles which feels like a gentle massage. Occasionally moxibustion is also used. Moxibustion, also referred to as moxa, is an unique blend of dried herbs rolled into a "cigar" that is carefully burned above acupuncture points or near inserted needles to expel cold and warm the meridians. This stimulates the flow of Qi and blood and warms the acupuncture meridians. It is commonly used to treat pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, and patients who have a cold or stagnant condition. How Many Treatments Will I Need? Each patient is unique. The number and frequency of treatments will vary from patient to patient and upon the nature of the disease. Some symptoms are relieved after the first treatment, while others may take four

to ten treatments. After the first 2-3 treatments, however, Dr. Prevost should have a good understanding of your condition and be able to offer you a reasonable idea of how many treatments you will need. While many people will feel some change in their condition immediately or within the first 2-3 treatments, others with more serious or recalcitrant conditions will need many months of treatment before a significant change occurs. If you are not noticing any changes it does not mean that acupuncture is not helping you. Many times the changes are slow and somewhat subtle as the entire body begins to rebalance from the condition. During these initial stages, Dr. Prevost can usually guage the relative effectiveness of the treatments through precise questioning and by monitoring subtle changes in your tongue and/or pulse among other parameters. Generally, one month of treatment may be necessary for each year that a condition has been active. For example, if you have had dysmenorrhea (painful menses/periods) for the past 5 years, you may need approximately 5 months of treatment before you will see a resolution. If you are experiencing acute back pain, you may receive immediate relief of the acute pain, but may need further treatments to account for the underlying factors which led to the acute flareup. In the acute phases, while a specific problem is being worked on, you may require treatments once or twice a week, and gradually reduce the frequency to once or twice a month. Thereafter, to simply maintain good health, you may limit your treatments to once every season - four times a year. Do's and Don't's On The Day Of A Treatment To enhance the value of a treatment, the following guidelines are important:

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Do not eat an unusually large meal immediately before or after your treatment. Do not over-exercise, engage in sexual activity, or consume alcoholic beverages within 6 hours before or after the treatment. Plan your activities so that after the treatment you can get some rest, or at least not have to be working at top performance. This is especially important for the first few visits. Continue to take any prescription medicines as directed by your regular doctor. Substance abuse (recreational drugs and alcohol) especially in the week prior to treatment, will seriously interfere with the effectiveness of acupuncture treatments. Remember to keep good mental or written notes of what your response is to the treatment. This is important for your doctor to know so that the follow-up treatments can be designed to best help you and your problem.

Potential Complications Acupuncture is safe when used by a trained physician. However, it is an invasive procedure with certain inherent risks. Common Minor Complications:

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Pain during and after treatment: this is usually associated with trigger-point deactivation therapy which requires more aggressive needling in order to break-up the spasms of tight bands of muscle. This usually settles in a short time with over-the-counter simple analgesics such as Tylenol. Local Bleeding: usually stops with firm pressure after a few minutes. Fainting: also referred to as "needle shock." Occasionally occurs in the anxious and inexperienced patient. The initial symptoms are usually experienced as nausea, dizziness, shortness of breath, faintness, or cold sweats, which may result in fainting. This is usually manageed by immediately ending the treatment and withdrawing the needles.

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Sweating (local or generalized): can be a normal response in some patients due to the effects on the autonomic nervous system, especially in anxious and inexperienced patients. Sedation: can occur due to the release of endorphins in the central nervous system. Patients should not drive afterwards if this is pronounced. Bruising: most noticeable after facial acupuncture. Firm pressure with an iced spoon after needling, and taking Homeopathic Arnica sublingually just before needling, can reduce this. Not serious, and more of a cosmetic irritation. Stuck needle: difficulty in removing a needle occurs mostly during acupuncture of the large spinal muscles when they are in severe spasm. Relaxation techniques and patience usually allows the needle to be removed.

Rare Minor Problems:

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Broken needles: occurs more commonly in those who are liable to move suddenly during treatment or during sudden powerful muscle contractions. Burns: may occur during electroacupuncture or with moxibustion. Contact dermatitis: can occur in those allergic to nickel, chromium, silicon or zinc, depending upon which brand of needles used. Neuropathy: short-lived nerve symptoms can occur in relation to needling close to a peripheral nerve; rarely ever permanent.

Rare Major Problems:

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Cardiac Tamponade: some patients have a small defect in the front part of the sternal bone, allowing a needle to pass through it into the outer lining of the heart (pericardium). If sufficient bleeding occurs into this space, then the heart can stop. Prompt surgical removal of the clot is the treatment of choice. Pneumothorax: needling over the ribs can sometimes cause a small hole in the outer lining of the lungs (pleura). Leakage of air can cause severe difficulty breathing, and can occasionally be fatal. Prompt treatment with the insertion of a chest drain to relieve the excess air is the treatment of choice. Pacemakers: electroacupuncture may cause pacemakers to mal-function. This technique should not be used over the heart or front of the neck. Ordinary acupuncture is safe in these sites.

(www.womensintegrativehealth.com) Women's Integrative Health - integrating the best of Eastern & Western healing traditions for optimal health and vitality - Body, Mind, and Spirit. 3.10

Acupuncture FAQ

(www.qi-journal.com) Acupuncture gained popularity and recognition in the United States when the press followed President Nixon into China in 1974. There, representatives of major US news networks witnessed and reported on several demonstrations of serious surgeries being performed with acupuncture as the only anesthetic. While these demonsrations didn't teach the American public how Acupuncture works, it did make the term a household word and drove millions of people into clinics for treatments when conventional medicine failed. But acupuncture is far more than just a pain-blocker... it is one of the fundamental methods of healthcare in all of Asia, and one of the most profound healing modalities in the world. The Origins of Acupuncture Acupuncture can be tranced back as far as the Stone Age in China, when stone knives and pointed rocks were used to relieve pain and diseases. These instruments were known by the ancients as "bian." In the Han Dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) an Analytical Dictionary of Characters "Shuo Wen Jie Zi" describes the

character "bian" as meaning a stone to treat disease. Later these stones were replaced by needles made of bamboo and slivers of animal bone, then finally in the Shang Dynasty bronze casting techniques made metal needles possible, which conducted electricity (and qi). This led to the mapping of the meridian system or "channels" of energy within the body. (Historical Time Line). A summary of medical knowledge, the "Huangdi Nei Jing" or "Yellow Emperer's Classic of Medicine" compiled in 475-221 BC, describes the use of acupuncture and moxibustion, pathology of the meridians and viscera, acupuncture points, indications, contraindications and the application of nine kinds of needles. In fact, acupuncture was a large part of the entire compilation of medical knowledge at that time. m The famous Chinese surgeon, Hua Tuo, was an expert in acupuncture, and it was during his time period (Han Dynasty) that the "tsun", a measurement system that uses the width of a joint of the patient's own finger was developed to help locate the acu-points more accurately. Acupuncture developed rapidly and was systematically researched during the Western dynasties. A book appeared around 400 AD called "Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing" "A Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion", which described the names and number of points for each channel, their exact locations, indications, and methods of manipulation. Although medical advances and modern technology has helped to refine the art, his text describes the basic point locations that are still used in modern Acupuncture and Acupressure. In the Sung, Kin and Yuan dynasties (960-1368 AD) the text "Tong Jen Shu Xue Zhen Jiu Tu Jing" or "Illustrated Manual on the Points for Acupuncture and Moxibustion as Found on the Bronze Figure) written by Wang Wei-yi, made detailed studies and observations of 657 points on the human body. Wang also sponsored the casting of two life-size, hollow bronze figures with the surface marked with channels and exact point locations. With these models, the teaching of acupuncture flourished and spread through the country, and the established practice of herbal medicine began to adopt the channel and meridian theories into their practice. With this common theory between the two leading health disciplines, the medicine of China was quickly transformed as both schools contributed to the extensive library of data being collected and recorded. But Not Everyone Was Convinced The rulers of the Manchurian Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) issued a decree banning Acupuncture practice because they felt as though it was inferior to medicines being introduced by invading Western cultures. But by that time, it was too late... the people were convinced that acupuncture worked and it was in widespread use among the common people as well as the wealthy and educated. In fact, China's contact with other foreign countries at that time enabled acupuncture and herbal medicine to be exported to other countries. A jesuit priest brought acupuncture to Europe via France when he wrote "Les Secrets de la Medicine des Chinois," in 1671 and a German, Dr. E. Kampfer, introduced acupuncture to his country in 1683 with a book entitled "The Medicine of China", which was published in France. Another attempt at banning acupuncture occurred in 1920s by the Kuomintang (Nationalist) government, which banned all Chinese medicine. But again, in spite of setbacks, Acupuncture, Moxibustion, and other forms of traditional medicine (taijiquan, qigong, etc.) remained popular among the people who relied on it. By the 1900s, Chinese medicine had already spread to Japan and other nearby countries as well as Arabian and European countries who traded with China. When the Communist government took over in the 1940s, Mao Tsetung advocated the use of both Chinese and Western treatments. Acupuncture played a major role in the healthcare of the Chinese people and soldiers during their war with Japan and their internal struggles. It was cheap, effective and could be used almost anywhere. In the 1950s, clinics, research organizations and colleges specializing in Chinese medicine were established in Beijing and other major cities throughout China. It was this East-West approach that developed "Acupuncture Anesthesia" which is widely recognized in the West. Although the Communist government helped revive traditional Chinese medicine and standardize it, much of the Daoist-based theory was eliminated and regarded as superstitious. As in previous attempts to ban or control the art, the common people and those who practiced Taijiquan and Qigong in the quiet corners of the parks keep the theories alive for future generations. American Acceptance In the United States, Franlin Bache, M.D. a great grandson of Benjamin Franklin, wrote an article, "Case illustrative of Remial Effects of Acupuncture" showing the benefits of the art, and in 1916, Sir William Osler, M.D. wrote an article recommending acupuncture for treatment for lumbago in the "Principles and Practice of Medicine". Despite an occasional article, Acupuncture remained rare until 1971 when James Reston, a reporter for the New York Times accompanied President Nixon on a trip to China where they witnessed an appendoctomy using Acupuncture Anesthesia. There are mountains of anecdotal evidence that Acupuncture and Acupressure is effective on various different types of illness. But despite many efforts, Western science has never been able to reconcile how Acupuncture works. They can prove "that" it works, but not "how" it works...so many doctors and researchers remain skeptic. Since Acupuncture is based on Daoist (Taoist) oriental theories like "yin" and "yang" and "the five elements", a Chinese diagnosis may seem strange and unprofessional to Western physicians. The Chinese have less problem understanding how Acupuncture works because their culture, philosophy, and even their language makes explanations of "vital energy" or "Qi" within the body plausible,

and for the most part, unquestioned. For the Chinese, "Qi" is no more mysterious than electricity. Anything that helps "move" this vital energy when it is stagnant will help bring the body back into balance or homeostatis, thus allowing it to heal. It is important to understand that Acupuncture (and Traditional Chinese Medicine in general), is not "folk medicine". It is a highly developed, systematic, recorded, researched, and peer reviewed form of medicine with several disciplines that continues to evolve. It has a massive amount of real-world data to justify the application of techniques based on several thousand years of human trials. Throughout the world, lay-persons have adopted the techniques far more readily that scientists because they do not have to understand how it works to take advantage of it. From janitors to high-profile quarterbacks, the word is out... it's cheap, it's painless, and most importantly... it works. Yin/Yang Theory The principle of Yin /Yang in Chinese philosophy is simple... but to understand such a "foreign" concept, Westerners have written numerous books on the subject. Originally, the "Yang" was the sunny side of a slope, and the "Yin" was the shady side of the slope. These terms are used to describe any item in nature. When the two forces are in balance, the item being described is in its natural state. It Yang is described as "hot", the Yin must be described as "cold"; if Yang is "outside", then Yin is "inside"; if Yang is "up", then Yin is "down"; if Yang is the "head" of a coin, Yin is the "tail" of the coin, etc. In the exercise system of Taijiquan, the practitioners upset this balance in their opponent while maintaining their own Yin/Yang balance. Whenever one of the forces increases to its extreme, a violent transition will occur to bring them back into balance (this is where the legends of extraordinary strength originates). It is important to realize that Yin and Yang are not separate items, they always appear together when speaking about the principles of Yin/Yang. Since one is opposite, yet complimentary of the other, one cannot appear without the other. In fact, the presence of one without equal amounts of the other is exactly what Acupuncture and Acupressure is designed to correct. When there is a condition in the body where the Yang force is excessive, then an acupoint that either reduces the Yang of this force, or an acupoint that increases the Yin of this force is stimulated. Either of these treatments will balance the two forces of Yin and Yang, thus bringing the body back into its natural "balance" or state of homeostatis. When the body is in a state of homeostatis, it is considered healthy. The selection of what acupoints to use and whether to increase or decrease forces in the body is difficult and why acupuncturists go through rigorous training, and have access to thousands of case studies. Five Element Theory There are several schools of theory within the modern Acupuncture community. One of the most popular is the theory of the Five Elements. Proponents of this system use the relationship of five elements and the meridians or channels of energy in the human body to bring forces back into balance. For instance, if their diagnosis shows an excessive Yang condition in an energy related to a "fire" element, they may look for the cause as being either a Yin or weak condition in the "water" element (not enough water to control the fire), or they may find an Yang condition in the "wood" element (too much wood feeding the fire). Now when you consider the "fire" as the heart, the "water" as the kidneys, and the "wood" as the liver, you can begin to see how a typical treatment may be configured. This also explains the reason why the Acupuncturist may ask a lot more questions than a typical Western physician as they inquire about seemingly unrelated topics. A Western physician would seldom ask if you have trouble urinating or other kidney-related questions like a craving for salt when you go for a heart checkup, yet surprisingly, Western science has led to many similar conclusions (excessive salt can be bad for your heart). The theory itself is simple but the relationships and diagnosis can become quite complex with creation cycles and destruction or controlling cycles, etc. Most body functions are divided into Yin/Yang tendencies, then subdivided into elements or qualities. Another important difference in Eastern and Western medicine is that every traditional Oriental diagnosis is individual and unique. Two persons with the same symptoms may receive completely different treatments because the cause of their "imbalances" may be different. Oriental medicine looks for the "causes" of the disease, not necessarily treating the symptoms directly. Elements










































Body Part






Vital Substances Traditional Chinese Medicine views the human as being made up of basic substances that continually interact with each other to create the whole being. Qi (vital energy): Literally translated as "air", Qi is the vital energy of any living organism and source of all movement and change in the universe. Energy we create from the digestion of food, air and liquids and how we interact with our environment via exercise, meditation, etc. Deficiencies or blocked Qi can result in an inability to transform and transport our food and drink, inability to keep warm or tolerate extreme temperatures, and a lack of resistance to diseases and chronic fatigue. Xue (blood): Not only the fluid that circulates in the vascular system as in Western medicine but it also houses the Shen (or spirit) and aids in the development of clear and stable thought processes. Qi and Xue have mutually interdependent functions and Xue follows Qi throughout; the body. Deficiencies in blood typically leads to pale complexion, dry skin and dizziness. Jing (essence): Usually translated as "essence" and sometimes referred to as "prenatal Qi". The essential energy of all living organism which is derived both from the energy we inherent from our parents and from the energy we require from our daily lives principally from food and air. It governs growth, reproduction and development, promotes kidney Qi and works with Qi to help protect the body from external factors. Infertility, poor memory and chronic tendency to colds, flu and allergies may also be due to deficient Jing. Shen (spirit): Non-physical, mental, emotional aspect of human consciousness that is stored in the Chinese heart. The Chinese heart is not the Western organ in the chest but the spiritual aspect and attitude of the person. Jin Ye (body fluids): the functional secretions of the body includes tears, sweat, saliva, milk, mucous, vaginal secretion. Jin are the lighter fluids which moisten and nourish the skin and muscles. Ye are the denser fluids which are processed in the spleen and the stomach to moisten and nourish the internal organs. Deficiency in body fluids can lead to various forms of dehydration such as dry skin and constipation. Meridians The Vital Substances flow through channels or "meridians" in the body. There are 12 main meridians, and a network of other smaller channels branching off from these main channels. Each of these 12 main meridians is connected to one of the twelve organs and travels along its own route within the body. Unlike the Western blood circulatory system, these meridians are not visible to the naked eye. Acupuncture models show these meridians as lines running and occasionally crossing throughout the body. The individual Acupuncture points fall along these meridians. When the vital substances fail to flow smoothly through the meridians, disease occurs. By stimulating one of the Acupuncture points along the meridian, it is possible to release any blockages, thus restoring the body to its natural state. What Happens in a Typical Visit? If you are a bit nervous about trying out an Acupuncture session, don't worry...you are not alone. Since Western medicine uses needles in a different (and sometimes painful) way, it is natural for us imagine the pain of becoming a human pin-cushion. In Western medicine, needles are used to inject medicine or to withdraw fluids from the body. The needles are hollow and the tip is beveled and sharpened so that it can cut the skin upon entry. In comparison to Acupuncture needles, Western needles are huge because the diameter needs to be large enough to transfer the thick fluids of the body. Acupuncture needles are very thin and solid. They are not designed to cut the skin, but to displace the skin and stimulate areas beneath the skin. Needles are sterile and most doctors now use disposible brands for safety. The needles are usually inserted by placing them in a "tube-like" holder to keep them from bending upon insertion, then the doctor will "tap" the top of the holder to insert the thin needle to the desired depth. The holder is then removed, leaving the actual needle in place. The needles are left in place for a presribed period of time (up to 30 minutes) before removal. Depending on the treatment plan, from one to several dozen needles could be inserted in various points. While Western patients are mostly concerned about the needles, the real treatment begins with the diagnosis. In some training clinics, the "teaching" doctor will review all data and make the diagnosis, marking the insertion points, then the students will do the needle insertion, simply following the doctor's instructions. Diagnosis

Much like the first visit to a Western doctor, the visit starts with medical history forms. It is important to answer all questions accurately to assist the medical staff in evaluating your condition. Acupuncture is part of "Traditional Chinese Medicine", which is typically a more holistic approach than Western medicine, so questions which may seem unrelated to your reason for making the visit are often important to the diagnosis (questions about sleep habits, ability to tolerate heat and cold, current diet, etc.) After reviewing your records, the physician will visit and begin the diagnosis. Most clinics will do the customary stethoscope routine, along with letting you describe your condition verbally. Then, depending on your condition, may do a rather extensive tongue examination and an unusual pulse examination. The Chinese pulse examination is a major diagnosis technique for traditional Chinese medicine. It is a method of establishing the condition of the "meridians" or pathways of "qi" (energy) within your body. Then, using all of the information gathered from the diagnosis, the physician will determine the "cause" of the symptoms that you have described (the reason for your visit). Needles will then be inserted into very specific acu-points that will help bring the body back into "homeostatis" or balance, thus removing the source of the symptoms. Allow at least an hour for the first visit. The actual treatment will last around 30 to 40 minutes and it may take several visits to make progress, depending on the seriousness of the condition and the length of time it has been causing you discomfort. As with any treatment plan (Western or Eastern), make certain your questions are answered to your satisfaction, and the treatment plan seems reasonable based on your condition. If you have tried Western medicine for many years with no progress, it may take more than a single visit to an Acupuncturist to see results, yet you don't want to make an acupuncture treatment a weekly event for the rest of your life to heal a sore elbow. If you do not have previous experience with Chinese culture or medicine, be prepared for a cultural experience that can not only relieve your medical condition, but enrich your life. Make sure you ask questions if you don't understand something. I recommend visiting a clinic that has some Western visitors because they are used to explaining their diagnosis in Western terms and answering lots of odd questions about the treatment. When you call to get an appointment, it is a good time to ask if they have other "Western" patients.


TOM Gynecology 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

What is Traditional Oriental Medicine Gynecology? TOM view of Women's Anatomy and Physiology Predisposing Factors for Gynecological Disorders Treatment Principles and Modalities

What is Traditional Oriental Medicine Gynecology? TOM (Traditional Oriental Medicine) has a long history of treating women's diseases that dates back to the Yellow Emperor's Medicine Classics, a famous TOM classic written 2000 years ago, that includes a description of the anatomy, physiology, diagnosis and diseases specific to women. TOM Gynecology is a special branch of TOM; it is closely associated with other branches, especially internal medicine. Although both Western and TOM Gynecology share the same goal of restoring health, there are some significant differences between the two medical systems. The TOM approach to understanding illness and maintaining well-being is unique; its practice is highly sophisticated with particular theories, diagnoses and treatments for women. Women's "dis-eases" are commonly classified under categories of menstrual disorders, pregnancy, abnormal uterine bleeding, vaginal discharge, antepartum (before delivery), postpartum (after delivery) and miscellaneous disorders. In fact, TOM Gynecology covers all kinds of women's dis-eases which may not be covered under our Western understanding. TOM Gynecology also incorporates the use of advanced diagnostic methods commonly used in the Western medicine. It looks at the type of dis-ease from a Western diagnostic perspective and then further identifies the TOM syndrome of the woman to decide on appropriate therapeutic strategies. Additionally, some complicated conditions that cannot be diagnosed in Western medicine can often be successfully treated using TOM methods because its syndrome differentiation approach to diagnosis makes it complementary to Western medicine therapies. TOM Gynecology is highly effective for treating a number of common gynecological conditions including:



Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Ovarian cyst

Dysmenorrhea (painful periods)



PMS (Premenstrual syndrome)

Fibrocystic breast disease

Post-partum care


Sexual dysfunction

Insufficient lactation

Stress incontinence

Irregular periods

UTI (urinary tract infection)

IVF Adjunctive therapy

Uterine fibroids

Leukorrhea (excessive vaginal discharge)

Uterine prolapse


Women's Anatomy and Physiology In TOM anatomy, the female reproductive system consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, birth canal, vaginal orifice and the surrounding acupuncture meridians. With the exception of the meridians, this is not unlike Western Gynecology. TOM understands the gender variation in physiology and disease development. Generally, the organs, meridians, blood and qi (vital energy) of both men and women have similar activities, but women have special physiological organs that affect menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. These organs especially need blood and qi to function, with the meridians acting as communicating channels. As a result, the physiological functions are dependent upon the promotional effects of the organs, meridians, blood and qi working together. Normal physiological functioning also depends on the proper regulation of the eight extraordinary meridians, also referred to as the Secondary Vessels. Because the majority of uterine qi and blood travels within these meridians, the relationship of the uterus and the extra meridian network is extremely close. The eight extra meridians include the Governor Vessel, Conception (Directing)Vessel, Penetrating Vessel, Girdling Vessel, Yin and Yang Linking Vessels, and Yin and Yang Heel Vessels. Unlike the twelve regular meridians, these extra vessels are not distributed regularly but are situated in a rather complex pattern among the regular meridians. Their main function is to strengthen the links between the twelve regular meridians and to regulate qi and blood circulation. Of these, the Penetrating Vessel, Conception (Directing) Vessel, Governor Vessel and Girdling Vessel have the most relevance with respect to gynecology. They have special relationships with the liver, kidney, uterus, brain and marrow, and thus influence these structures physiologically and pathologically. The "uterus" has a broad definition in TOM, encompassing structures beyond the uterus itself, including the fallopian tubes and the ovaries. The primary function of the uterus is to produce menses and to cultivate the fetus. Additionally, the physiological functions of the uterus are associated with the heart, lungs, liver, spleen and kidneys as well as the Directing and Penetrating Vessels. This is because producing menses and cultivating a fetus rely on the nourishment of blood and promotion of qi and kidney essence. These nourishing substances are regulated according to the following TOM concepts: The Heart rules the blood. It provides the motive force that moves blood through the blood vessels to nourish the uterus and other vital organs. The Lungs governs the qi. Qi is essential to aid the heart to circulate blood. Although the heart controls the blood and blood vessles, the lungs controls the circulation of qi in both the bloods vessels and the meridians. If Lung-Qi is strong, the circulation of qi and blood will be good. Lung-Qi also contributes to making blood in conjunction with Spleen-Qi. The Liver stores the blood. It regulates the volume of blood circulating in the body according to the needs of various organs. The liver also controls the smooth flow of qi; blood needs qi to move. Therefore, it greatly influences the function of the uterus. The Spleen governs the blood. The spleen and stomach are the main organs of the digestive system. They perform the transformation and transportation processes that provide essenctial nutrients for proper blood and qi production. The spleen also keeps blood circulating within the blood vessel. The Kidneys store Essence, also referred to as Jing, or Essential Qi, which is the basis for growth, development, reproduction, and other various physiology functions. It is regarded as our "congenital

foundation", or our genetic constitution. Essence is pure undifferentiated Yin and Yang. The kidneys, along with the spleen, are responsible for making blood. In terms of energies, the Conception (Directing) Vessel is connected to the Yin and Essence, while the Penetrating Vessel is relates to the qi and blood. The Governing and Directing Vessels are two branches, one Yang and one Yin, respectively, of the same continuous energetic circuit arising from the space between the kidneys, flowing through the uterus, emerging at the perineum and flowing upwards, one at the back (Governing Vessel), the other at the front (the Directing Vessel), to reach the head and the brain, connecting with the heart on the way. From a Western perspective, the Governing and Directing Vessels represent the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis which is responsible for ovulation. A smooth flow of blood and qi means the organs are harmonious and the uterus vessels are properly regulated; therefore menstruation and other functions are normal. For this reason, nourishing the kidneys, regulating the liver, invigorating the spleen and stomach, and harmonizing the blood and qi are important methods for relevant treatments in TOM Gynecology. Every month until we become pregnant or reach menopause, the same cyle of rising and falling energy occurs within certain organs and meridians. In most cases this process takes approximately 28 days, or the amount of time from one full moon to the next. The menstrual cycle can be broken down into phases, just like the phases of the moon. Phase I may be thought of as the new moon, Phase II (ovulation) as the full moon, and Phase V as the dark of the moon. In TOM, different energies dominate each phase of the menstrual cycle: Phase I:

Kidney Yin and Blood energies govern the follicular phase.

Phase II:

Liver Qi and Blood movement control ovulation.

Phase III: Kidney Yang and Spleen Qi energies manage the luteal phase. Phase IV: Liver Qi helps the premenstrual transformation. Phase V: Blood is allowed to flow. Menstruation is a time of rest for all energies. Predisposing Factors for Gynecological Disorders From a TOM perspective, development of women's dis-eases are usually associated with a number of predisposing factors, including:

• • • • • • • • •

a congenital deficiency sex at a very young age multiple births too close together excessive sex overwork stress an improper diet injuries infections

These factors lead to under-functioning in the organs and/or irregular movements of qi and blood with damage to the extra meridians which results in different dis-ease patterns.

Blood is the elementary basis for menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Due to the periodic loss of blood through menstruation, TOM believes that a woman is always in a state of blood insufficiency and relative qi excess inside her body. Since blood and qi mutually generate and depend on each other, the disharmony of the blood will affect the qi circulation, and the disharmony of qi will affect blood circulation. Because they have such a close relationship, the two cannot be separated pathologically. In this way, disorders of blood and qi play important roles in women's pathology. External pathogenic factors such as cold, heat and dampness tend to enter into the blood and affect its functioning. On the other hand, emotions like anger, pensiveness, fear and worry tend to damage qi circulation, which in turn influences the blood. Also, specific women's dis-eases develop when there is direct or indirect damage to one of the four extra meridians: the Penetrating Vessel, Conception Vessel, Governor Vessel and Girdling Vessel. These extra meridians can be damaged by external pathogenic factors or excess sexual activity directly, or in other cases, influenced by the disorders of qi, blood or organs indirectly. Apart from pathogenic factors like cold, heat and dampness, many other factors induced by an improper lifestyle are influential. These factors affect the organs, blood and qi, disturb the normal function of the Conception and Penetrating Vessels, and give rise to various gynecological and maternity diseases. Treatment Principles and Modalities Treatment based on syndrome differentiation is one of the main principles of Chinese medicine. The therapeutic effects of TOM depend greatly on it. Under normal circumstances, TOM diagnoses do not follow standard Western pathological classifications of disease, but rely on a complex pattern of signs and symptoms that manifest at a given stage of a dis-ease. The physician first determines at which stage the dis-ease has developed, its location, and the degree of opposing forces between the body's resistance and the pathogenic factors. Therefore, therapies are typically individualized according to the imbalance of the body measured by various TOM parameters including Yin, Yang, Qi, Blood and Body fluids. Alleviation of these symptoms usually reflects that the patient's body has returned to its normal state of balance and good health. TOM has successfully treated all kinds of women's health issues using two major types of treatment modalities: medicinal and non-medicinal. The two types are mutually coordinated and benefit each other to provide holistic and comprehensive treatments internally or externally. Medicinal therapy is based on observing the variations in the body's Yin, Yang, Qi, and Blood, and choosing the correct herbs for proper treatment. TOM herbal combinations are very individualized according to the patient's constitutional make-up and their particuluar condition. Non-medicinal modalities commonly used include acupuncture, moxibustion, Tui-na (massage), cupping, gua-sha (scraping), Medical QiGong, nutritional counseling, and lifestyle modification.



Medical QiGong

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

What is Qigong? What is Medical Qigong? Therapeutic Benefits Regulation of Breathing Regulation of the Mind Relaxation Qigong Basics to the Practice

In the West, we seem to feel that disease begins with symptoms. Western medicine will tell you disease process begins much earlier, at a cellular level. However, according to the Traditional Medicine, disease begins with a disruption in energy flow (Qi) through the meridian system. Qigong is designed to make that energy flow return to normal. It is one of the most rapidly alternative healthcare systems in the United States.

that the Oriental Medical growing

What is Qigong? Developed more than 5000 years ago in China, Qigong has been used throughout history by emperors to achieve health and longevity, by monks to attain inner peace and clarity, and by martial artists for inner strength and power. Qigong is the mother of acupuncture. It is acupuncture without needles. Today, Qigong is an integral part of Traditional Oriental Medicine. It is a system practiced for health maintenance, healing and increasing vitality. The word Qigong is made up of two Chinese words. Qi (pronounced "chee") means the life force or vitalenergy that flows through all things in the universe. The presence and active movement of Qi energy and force in the body is the vital difference between being alive and being dead. When ill, the Qi flows either excessively or weakly through the body compared to when in good health. Gong (pronounced "gung") means accomplishment or skill that is cultivated through steady practice. Together, Qigong means cultivating energy. When Qi is properly cultivated or managed in the body, a person remains in good mental, emotional and physical health. What is Medical Qigong? Medical Qigong integrates physical postures and movements, breathing techniques, visualization, and focused intention. The primary goal is to purge toxic emotions from within the body's tissues, eliminate energetic stagnations, as well as strengthen and balance the internal organs and energetic fields. Medical Qigong is a highly effective healthcare practice, and many healthcare professionals recommend it as an important form of alternative complementary medicine. Although powerful on its own, when used in conjunction with other medical treatments, Medical Qigong accelerates healing processes while minimizing side effects. Acupuncture's effectiveness can be increased by up to 40% when used in conjunction with Medical Qigong. When used in conjunction with chemotherapy in cancer treatments, negative effects such as nausea and immune disorders can be significantly reduced in intensity. There are literally over 1000 Medical Qigong exercises. These exercises are classified as "self-healing," in that the patient can do them herself. They vary from the soft internal styles such as Tai Chi, to the external vigorous styles such as Kung Fu. However, the slow gentle movements can be easily adapted, even for the physically challenged and can be practiced by all age groups. They are simple and effective, being very specific to the disease in question, the application of which shows very quick and substantial results without adverse side effects. There are various Medical Qigong exercises for each specific "dis-ease", designed to take into account the fact that a particular dis-ease will not only have different stages and ways of manifesting, but also arises in an array of individuals, each of which may have significantly different internal and external conditions and

environments. Thus, Medical Qigong is a very effective way of dealing with dis-ease in all its varied manifestations. Therapeutic Benefits While physical exercise is aimed at building up health or restoring physical functioning by enhancing strength, it is purely somatic. Medical Qigong, however, is generally psycho-somatic. Another important difference between physical exercise and Medical Qigong is that physical exercise expends energy by tensing the muscles and accelerating the heart beat and respiration, while Medical Qigong works to ease, smooth and regulate breathing to store up or accumulate energy in the body. With consistent and regular practice, the gentle, rhythmic movements of Medical Qigong in general has the following health benefits:

• • • • • • • • • • •

reduces stress calms the mind develops mental acuity builds stamina increases vitality enhances the immune system prevents illness helps speed recovery from illness improves cardiovascular, respiratory, circulatory, lymphatic and digestive functions helps you regain a youthful vitality maintains health even into old age

More specifically, a number of studies have shown that Medical Qigong has the following therapeutic effects: Cardiovascular effects: increased blood supply to the heart as well as stronger contractions of the heart muscle and a slower, more efficient heart rate. This improves the overall health of all the body's organs, as well as decreases the chances of hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and coronary heart disease. Respiratory effects: increased elasticity of lung tissue and the improved efficiency of the lungs themselves, resulting in them extracting more oxygen with each inhalation. Effects on muscles and bones: increased strength of both muscles and bones as well as improved posture and increased overall flexibility. Effects on the central nervous system: the high degree of concentration required to do the exercises, stimulates the cerebral cortex of the brain, causing excitation in certain parts and protective inhibitions in others. Moreover, these exercises focus attention so deeply on the movement and breath that they give the mind a needed rest from the myriad of thoughts and worries. One of the more important long-term benefits of Medical Qigong is that it reestablishes the body-mind-spirit connection. When these three aspects of our being are integrated, it encourages a positive outlook on life and helps eliminate harmful attitudes and behaviors. It also creates a balanced lifestyle, which brings greater harmony, stability, and enjoyment. Medical Qigong's great appeal is that everyone can benefit, regardless of ability, age, belief system or life circumstances. It creates an awareness of, and influences dimensions of, our being that are not a part of

traditional exercise programs. Since it can be practiced anywhere or at any time, there is no need to buy special clothing or to join a health club. Regulation of Breathing Medical Qigong employs various exercises to regulate the mind and breathing in order to control and promote the smooth and harmonious flow of Qi and blood. The regulation of breathing in Medical Qigong is the regulation and exercise of respiration. It not only regulates the flow of Qi and blood, but also massages the internal organs, calms the mind and relaxes the body. Regulation of breathing can be done during an acupuncture treatment, during meditation and visualization, or while doing the various Qigong postures and movements. The breathing methods commonly used include: Natural Respiration: One simply breathes naturally. Orthodromic Abdominal Respiration: During inhalation, the diaphragm descends with the abdomen bulging out; and the diaphragm rises with the abdomen drawn in during exhalation. Counter-abdominal Respiration: Contrary to the above method, the abdomen is drawn in during inhalation and bulges out during exhalation. Pausing-Closing Respiration: During respiration, you momentarily pause, and therefore "close" the flow of Qi, for several seconds at the end of each full inhalation and each full exhalation. Nose-inhaling and Mouth-exhaling: During respiration, you inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth. Regulation of the Mind The key link in the regulation of the mind is to concentrate, to get rid of all stray thoughts, to replace the myriads of thought, and thus gradually induce mental "tranquilization" (calmness) and enter a state of void. This is also referred to as "training the mind to return to the void". It is the most essential exercise in Medical Qigong "dirigation" (to consciously direct the flow of Qi). The effect of the practice is mainly determined by the degree of tranquilization. It is comparatively difficult for beginners to tranquilize. The tranquilizing methods commonly used include: Mind Concentration Method: The mind is highly concentrated on a certain part of the body, a certain acupressure point, or a certain object outside the body. Most commonly it is usually concentrated on the Dantian. (The Dantian is the general area located three inches below and behind the navel, about one-third of the way into the abdominal cavity. This area corresponds to the Svadhisthana, or Sex Chakra.) The concentration should be obscure, without any forceful exertion, relaxed and natural. Breath-following Method: The mind is highly concentrated on the breath and the rise and fall of the abdomen so as to unite the mind and Qi and to reach a tranquil state of mind. Breach-counting Method: During respiration, you silently count the breath until the ear fails to hear, the eyes fail to see, and the mind fails to think, thus naturally reaching a tranquil state of mind. Silent "Reading" Method: You silently repeat certain single words or phrases, for instance, the word "relax" during exhalation, and the word "tranquilize" during inhalation. The purpose is to replace the myriads of thoughts with one thought, gradually achieving a state free from stray thoughts and full of relaxation and great happiness, thereby comfortably reaching a tranquil state of mind.

Relaxation Qigong Relaxation Qigong aims at regulating the whole body into a relaxed, comfortable and natural state through a step-by-step and rhythmical relaxation of all parts of the body coordinated by silently repeating a single word such as "relax" or "peaceful" or phrase such as "I am relaxed" or "I am peaceful." This activates Qi and blood, dredges the meridians, strengthens your health, prevents and cures diseases. Relaxation Qigong consists of the following three steps: 1)

Preparation: Assume a relaxed and comfortable standing, sitting or lying posture, with the tip of the tongue raised and touching the hard palate, the eyes slightly closed, the chest slightly drawn in and the back straight. Regulate your breathing and concentrate the mind on the Dantian.


Three-route Relaxation: Begin to relax using the first route, going on from top to bottom. Having finished the first route, go on to the second and third routes. Generally, first focus on one location of one route and mentally repeat the word "relax" or "peaceful", then focus on the next location. Relax in this way link by link, route by route, for 3-5 cycles altogether.

• •

The first route: Down from the bilateral sides of the head, neck, shoulders, upper arms, elbows, forearms, wrists and hands, to the ten fingers. Then from the armpits, sides of the chest, waist, flanks, hips, outer sides of the thighs, knees, calves, ankles and feet. Then from the crotch, inner sides of the thighs, knees, calves, ankles and feet. The second route: Down from the face, front of the neck, chest, abdomen, thighs, knees, shins and top of the feet, to the ten toes.


The third route: Down from the back of the head, nape, back, buttock, posterior thighs and calves, to the soles of both feet. Inner Nourishing Exercise:

• • • •

Relax both your mind and body. Your focus should be on the inhalation more than the exhalation. Decide on the phrase or sentence to be used. Usually the content is about relaxation or peacefulness. Begin with shorter phrases and increase its length as you become more experienced. Examples are "I am relaxed", "I am peaceful and relaxed", "I am relaxed, peaceful and healthy", etc. While inhaling, raise the the tongue against the hard palate and mentally say the first word. Hold the breath, and say the rest of the phrase or sentence slowly except for the last word. Meanwhile imagine Qi flowing into your Dantian.

Say the last word while exhaling, and return the tongue to its normal position.

Repeat the process several time until it has completely inundated the core of your being.

Basics to the Practice In addition to the regulation of breathing and the mind and Qigong Relaxation, Medical Qigong has several basic core practices that are essential to the process of internal alchemy or transformation of energies that

will take place inside of your body. This internal alchemy begins with learning to gather the energies from the five major internal organs and to harmonize this energy and change it from negative to positive energy. The Taoists call this process the Fusion of the Five Elements. The ancient Taoists sought to connect themselves to nature and the universe around them. They believed that humans are a minature or microcosm of the Universe. They reasoned that in order to connect to the energies of the outer universe, it was first necessary to learn to control the energies of your inner universe. The process is one of refining yourself, so that you are capable of absorbing healing energy from nature, from the Earth, as well as from the Sun, planets, stars and constellations. The core basic Medical Qigong practices essential to the process of internal alchemy are: the Six Healing Sounds, the Inner Smile, the Microcosmic Orbit, and the Golden Eight QiGong Exercises, also known as the Healing Art of QiGong. What is Qi? Qi is universal life force. It is a term used in chinese medicine, martial arts and Qi gong for instance. Qi From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Qi or, as spelled in Wade-Giles, ch'i (氣 ; in pinyin: qì; ki in Japanese; gi in Korean), in English very often spelled as chi. Qi is a fundamental concept of everyday Chinese culture, most often defined as "breath" (for example, the colloquial Mandarin Chinese term for "weather" is tiān qi, or the "breath of heaven") and, by extension, "life energy" or "spiritual energy" that is part of everything that exists. References to it or similar philosophical concepts as a type of metaphysical energy that sustains living beings are used in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Philosophical conceptions of qi date from the earliest recorded times in Chinese thinking. One of the most important early figures in Chinese mythology is Huang Di or the Yellow Emperor. He is storied to have been the culture hero who collected and formalized much of what subsequently became known as Traditional Chinese Medicine. Although the concept of qi has been very important within all Chinese philosophies, the way that these philosophies describe qi have been very different and conflicting. One basic difference has been the question of whether qi exists as a force separate from matter or whether qi arises from matter. Buddhists and Taoists have tended toward the former belief, with Buddhists in particular, believing that matter is an illusion. By constrast, the Neo-Confucians sharply criticized the notion that qi exists separate from matter, and viewed qi as a arising from the properties of matter. Most of the theories of qi as a metaphor for the fundamental physical properties of the universe that we are familiar with today were systematized and promulgated in the last thousand years or so by the school known as the Neo-Confucians. Knowledge of the theories they espoused was eventually required by subsequent Chinese dynasties to pass their civil service examinations. Theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine assert that the body has natural patterns of metabolic energy associated with it that circulate in channels called meridians in English. Symptoms of various illnesses are seen many times as the product of disrupted or unbalanced energy movement through such channels. Traditional Chinese Medicine attempts to relieve these symptoms by balancing the flow of qi in the body using various techniques. Some of these techniques include herbal medicines, special diets, physical training regimens (qigong) and acupuncture, which uses fine metal needles inserted into the skin to reroute or balance qi. Traditional Asian martial arts theories also discuss qi. For instance, internal systems attempt to cultivate and direct this energy during combat as well as to ensure proper health. Many other martial arts include some concept of qi in their philosophies.

The nature of qi is highly controversial, and the old controversy among Chinese philosophy as to the nature of qi still exists. Among some TCM practitioners, qi is merely a metaphor for biological processes similar to the Western concept of the soul, and there is no need to invoke new biology, much less new physics, to account for its effects. Others argue that qi involves requires some new physics or biology. Attempts to directly connect qi with some scientific phenonomenon have been attempted since the mid-nineteenth century. The philosopher Kang Youwei argued that qi was synonomous with the later abandoned concept of lumeniferous ether. Some in the early 21st century are attempting to link the concept of qi to biophotons. As of yet, science considers these claims of qi as an independent force to be unconvincing. Claims that control of qi allows one to transcend normal physical and biological processes are widely regarded as pseudoscience by the scientific establishment. Views of qi as an esoteric force tend to be more prominent in the West, where it is often associated with New Age spritualism. They are less prominent in China, where traditional Chinese medicine is often practiced and considered effective, but in which esoteric notions of qi are considered to contradict Marxist notions of dialectic materalism. The consensus among scientists is that the results claimed by martial arts students and patients of traditional Chinese medicine practitioners while real can be explained without invoking esoteric processes. In answer, most proponents of the effects of the cultivation of qi maintain that since modern scientific technologies have to this point been unable to create life out of organic chemicals in their laboratories, and that as qi is a metaphor for the energy of life itself, it is to be thereby demonstrated that the mechanisms of how the subject of such a metaphor would work so far elude the abilities of the scientific community to describe. Opponents argue that qi is merely a form of vitalism, a theory that was largely abandoned in the early 19th century. The concept of qi appears often in Chinese fiction, in which a stock character is that of the kung fu master who has gained control of qi, to the point that he can alter the forces of nature. This character has entered Western consciousness through the martial arts film. Many have also remarked on the similarity between the concept of qi and that of the Jedi's Force in the Star Wars movies, and have suggested that George Lucas may have borrowed the concept. See also: Qigong



Martial Arts

Tai Chi Chuan





Eastern philosophy More definitions The vital energy believed to be responsible for health and disease in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Chinese word for life force.

(chi [chee], ki): Broadly, an alleged vital force that underlies functioning of body, mind, and spirit. The concept of this purported, multifaceted "cosmic life force" is fundamental to various practices termed Chinese, including architecture, art, "health" practices, magic, and martial arts. According to Qigong theory, Qi encompasses air and internal Qi, or true Qi, which includes essential Qi ("vital energy"). www.hcrc.org/diction/q.html pronounced "chee", this is the vital energy or life force which flows through the meridians and is used to protect, transform and warm the body www.aworldofchinesemedicine.com/chinese-medicine-terms.htm

(chee) – in Chinese thought, this substance/energy is said to assume many forms in the body and the environment. Usually translated as “vital energy,” qi is thought to determine a person’s health. “Qi” can also be used in a much broader sense to describe substances that are invisible and amorphous, such as air, odor, anger, etc. www.falundafa.org/book/eng/flg_glo.htm Chinese word for life force. www.mountcarmelhealth.com/Health_Info/cam/glossary.shtml vital energy that, according to principles of traditional Chinese medicine, flows along pathways throughout the body

"Breath of Life." The primordeal energy which is the basis for the universe and everything in it. It is the matrix out of which matter and energy are formed, and is expressed as the "life force" in all living things. (see FAQs About Qi) www.kungfuonline.com/info/glossary.html The Chinese word which describes the life-force which flows throughout the universe, animating matter and manifesting as various frequencies of energy. www.monasticreiki.info/glossary.htm (chee) In Chinese culture, it is believed to be "vital energy"; but compared with gong, it is a lower form of energy . www.sfu.ca/~falun/zflus/lec_glo.html the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things; in traditional Chinese medicine the balance of negative and positive forms in the body is believed to be essential for good health www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn What is gong? from http://www.sfu.ca/ Gong is the practice or Qigong exercise we do to develop "true Qi" throughout the body and is usually called Gongfu in the terms of Qigong. Gongfu may mean the time and quality of exercise or it may mean the learning of methodology and attainment of skill in Qigong exercise. In short it is a method to build up Qi. (Excerpts taken from Chinese Qigong Therapy by Master Sun Kui Yuan (Xingyuan) gong 1. Cultivation energy; 2. practice that cultivates such energy. gongli "Energy potency." gongshen (gong-shuhn) A body made of gong. gongzhu (gong-jew) An energy pole that grows above a practitioner’s head. guanding (gwan-ding) Pouring energy into the top of one’s head; initiation ritual. Check as well

What is Qi? Is it Energy? How do I get more qi? ... What is Qi? By Brian Benjamin Carter This alternative medicine journal article reviews: Is Qi energy? Those who are fatigued, or ... What is QI? Qigong, Tai-chi chuan and encounters. of the fourth kind. If your body and mind become one, will you be able to avoid death? If you ... General Information ... So long as a person breathes, he or she has vital qi. What is Qi (ch'i)? Qi is a widely used word in China that has many meanings. ... www.tai-chi.com Qi Development, Yo-san University Academics » Certificate Programs » Qi Development » What is Qi? Search Yosan.edu, ... What is Qi? Qi is the basic matter of the universe. ... What is Qi Gong What is Qi Gong? Qi Gong is a part of traditional Chinese culture that has been practiced for some thousands of years. It is an ... What is Qi Qong Qigong practices can be classified as martial, medical, or spiritual. All styles have three things in common: they all involve a ... Frequently Asked Questions ... diseases. In China, qigong gained its recent fame in the treatment of cancer. Back to Top. What is Qi? That's the question, isn't it. The ... www.qi.org Academy of Qi Dao | What is Qi Dao? Qi Dao Home, Q: What is Qi Dao Select a Question. ... www.qidao.org/whatisqidao.html Googlism what is qi gong what are your googlisms? Googlism.com will find out what Google.com thinks of you, your friends or anything! Search for your name ... www.googlism.com/what_is/q/qi_gong Qi Lounge - Bar - What is Qi What is Qi. When we first thought of a new lounge bar in Cambridge, we were influenced by the trendy and modernist bars we go to in London and New York. ... www.qilounge.com/qi/qi.asp Amazon.com: Video: The Spirit of Qi Gong- Chinese Exercises for ... ... Was this review helpful to you? 31 of 32 people found the following review helpful: What is Qi?, February 13, 2002, Reviewer: A viewer from Millbrae, CA USA. ... What is Qi Kong WHAT IS QI KUNG? Qi Kung is a ancient science in the Chinese medical tradition. For thousands of years, it has been successfully ... Qi and Qi Gong by Ray Baars What is Qi Gong and Qi? Qi is an energy field created by all living things. ... It is, in short, very real. But sadly, poorly understood. What is Qi? ...

What is Qi in Chinese Medicine 1. The Concept of Qi. What is meant by Qi? The concept of Qi is based on the ancient Chinese initial understanding of natural phenomena. ... -------------------------------------------------------------------------


Tantra and Tantric Sex

"Many of us have been fortunate enough to experience moments in love where all boundaries dissolve and we become one with our beloved and all of existence. Unfortunately these experiences are usually very short lived. Sex in Tantra aims to heighten and prolong the magical connection that develops between a man and a woman when they are lost in the ecstasy of love. We have not been trained in the skills required to expand that fleeting moment into a sustainable state." From the text of the video: Ancient Secrets for Modern Lovers, by Michael and Suzie Heumann Definition of Tantra: Western Tantra brings to the contemporary world what the ancient Tantricas understood so well. It is a blend of Sacred Sexuality, the Kama Sutra teachings, modern psychology, and eastern philosophy. Using a variety of tools, supreme among them sexuality, the Tantric masters considered the ultimate goal to be the dissolving of the ego and complete union with the divine energy that is within us all and throughout all of nature. "Being well practiced at the art of sexual ecstasy and having entered the divine realms of ego dissolution over and over allows for the veils and boundaries of separation to fall at our feet. We open again and again, each time allowing more in - friends, lovers, family, orgasms, nature, abundance, light, dark, and spirit. Nothing seems separate anymore, including our selves. At times we can even experience our own divinity - our own true nature. That is when transformation and transcendence occurs." - Suzie "Unfortunately, and contrary to what we would like to believe, we are not born naturally good at sex or at relationships. Few of us have benefited from a formal education in sexuality or sexual love. Even though we are children of the sexual revolution, we are still largely conditioned by belief systems that may have instilled in us guilt or fear or insecurity or shame. Such negative imprints, although they may reside quietly in the subconscious and cause only minor or occasional disturbances, rarely allow us to journey into the spiritual potential of sexual love. Tantra can help us do just that because a spiritual goal is as important to the couple as their love." From Tantra, The art of Conscious Loving, by Charles and Caroline Muir Today, it is more likely that your lover, partner, husband or wife, or even yourself, may possibly be your "guru". In earlier times a guru might have been your mentor, though this is still possible today. When you are able to honor, trust, tell the truth, communicate effectively, greatly improve your skills as a lover, and focus your mind and body in the appropriate ways, a whole new world of possibilities opens to you. Greater understand. Deeper compassion, fuller life experiences, empowerment, bliss and ecstasy, and better health are available to you. Kama Sutra "Kama" means pleasure, all things pleasurable. This includes sexuality and sensuality but it also encompasses experiences with eating, gaming, cultural activities, activities with friends - all these are "Kama". It is the name of the Indian God that represents the sexual nature in man, much like Eros did to the Greeks. "Sutra" means a short book or aphorisms. Many people are interested in exotic sex and that's why they want to know more about the Kama Sutra. Erotic, exotic techniques, practices, and positions spark an immediate vision and response in our mind and body. In turn, that leads us on a quest for more information on sacred sexuality and the techniques from the ancient love manual "The Kama Sutra". Almost everyone knows the term Kama Sutra but they often don't know much about the actually manual. When one speaks of the Kama Sutra, in modern culture, it is most often equated with sex and sex positions. That's not all it is, though. Definition of Kama Sutra:

The Kama Sutra details the many kissing techniques, the Sixty-Four Arts, courting practices, modes of touching including biting and scratching, sexual positions or asanas, ways of treating marriage partners as well as consorts, the concocting of aphrodisiacs, and so much more. High cultures of the past honored the life force that our sexual nature is and they understood that teaching this to the next generation was supremely important. In the past 3,000 years we've seen the development of many sex manuals, throughout

all of the eastern cultures, which shows us that care and mentoring was important to the future of these cultures and the people who lived in them. It's no wonder we seek out the Kama Sutra's information. Yes, we have modern sex manuals, but the mystique that lies within cultures that loved sensual and sexual play is the obvious reason we are drawn to it and other ancient texts like the Kama Sutra. Continue to learn more about the Kama Sutra's sexual positions and what they have to offer. More information is available at this link and you'll find many instructional Kama Sutra & Tantra books and videos in our catalog. Click Here for MORE

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Kama Sutra and Tantra Books Kama Sutra and Tantra DVD's Sexual Enhancement Catalog

:: Member Login :: Member Tour :: Personals :: Contact Us :: Hotlinks :: Free Newsletter :: Search :: This site and all its contents and graphics are copyright c 1995-2005 Tantra.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED WORLDWIDE 800-982-6872 Privacy Policy 18 U.S.C. 2257 Statement Tantra Techniques (Yogajournal.com) Each of us has days when we arrive home tired and cranky, wake up on the wrong side of bed, or get stuck in a conflict with our partner. Rather than waiting until you drift apart, couples can proactively build love by bonding twice a day through practices that Western Tantra teachers Charles and Caroline Muir call "10Minute Connects." Here are three such techniques. 1. Nurturing Meditation. The position for this practice is good old-fashioned spooning. (Esoteric theory of energy flow dictates that you should both be on your left sides.) Decide which one of you feels most in need of nurturing. Let's say it's the woman. Since the partner in back will be the giver (though you'll both rebalance your energy through the exercise), the man should snuggle in close behind her, lining his chakras up with hers: heart center to heart center, belly center to belly center, and so on. Both partners should use pillows to prop head, neck, and shoulders high enough so the man can slip his left arm under the woman's neck and bring his hand to rest lightly on the third eye chakra of her forehead or the crown chakra at the top of her head. The man's right arm should cradle the woman, with his hand over her heart; she should rest her hand on top of his. After a few moments, move into the "harmonizing breath." Notice your partner's breath, and begin to synchronize with it: Inhale together, pause together, exhale together, and pause again. As the woman inhales, she focuses on accepting energy through her back into all of her chakras; as the man exhales, he concentrates on sending energy out the front of his body and into his partner. When you're ready, you can use this technique to charge each chakra individually. Begin with the heart chakra, and focus there for three full breath cycles. Then move your awareness to your third eye chakra for three breaths; then your "root" chakra at the base of the spine. Next, move up your body to your second chakra (your genital area), then your navel chakra, your throat chakra, and your crown chakra. (Skip the heart and the brow, since you've already charged those.) 2. Hand on Heart. Sit comfortably, cross-legged, facing your partner. Each of you places your right hand on your partner's heart chakra and your left hand atop your partner's right hand. Tune in to your heart: first, your physical heart, and then the emotion and energy of your heart chakra. Can you sense your heartbeat? How does your heart chakra feel? Expansive and open? Constricted? Fluttery? Vibrating? Peaceful? Try closing your eyes and focusing on the connection between your heart and your partner's hand, or you can gaze into each other's eyes and/or engage in the harmonizing breath.

3.Yab-Yum. The man sits cross-legged and the woman sits on his upper thighs, crossing her ankles behind his back. Because this upright sitting posture promotes alert awareness, aligns the partners' chakras, and allows them to breathe each other's breath and either touch their brow chakras together or gaze into each other's eyes, yab-yum is the classic position for Tantric sex. Note: Although Tantra teachings have traditionally been geared to heterosexual couples, a few teachers are experimenting with adapting the techniques for gays and lesbians. January/February 2000 (This article can be found online at http://www.yogajournal.com/practice/216_1.cfm). The Truth about Tantra Promising physical and spiritual ecstasy, Tantra workshops lure couples who want more from their relationships. But what really goes on? By Todd Jones Bill and Susie McKay grew up in the same small Southern town. His father was a military man; hers was a Baptist preacher. Duty was an important word in both of their households, and it applied to just about everything—including sex. "I grew up with the message that sex was a duty that a wife does for her husband," Bill says. "That didn't seem quite right, but I didn't know anything different." "For a long time, I hadn't been happy with our sex life," Susie chimes in. (Names and some biographical details have been changed to preserve subjects' privacy.) "We were still pretty much repeating what we did 25 years ago when we were inexperienced kids. It reached a point where there wasn't much for me to like. Then a friend started telling me about these Tantra workshops. At first I was reluctant, and then one day everything just dropped into place and I knew I wanted to go. I didn't just want sex, I wanted to connect with both my heart and my second chakra—to have an open heart in a loving, sexual act. And a Tantra seminar seemed like the perfect place to learn." In the past, couples like Bill and Susie might have sought to infuse more love and passion into their marriages by consulting a minister, a priest, or a rabbi. In the first half of this century, they might have consulted a psychoanalyst; beginning in the '60s, they might have made an appointment with a sex therapist armed with the research data of sexologists like William Masters and Virginia Johnson. All those options are still available. But over the last couple of decades an increasing number of Americans and Europeans have turned instead to books, videos, and seminars with such titles as Spiritual Sex, The Art of Sexual Ecstasy, The Love and Ecstasy Training, and Tantra: The Art of Conscious Loving. These teachings claim to fuse sex and spirituality in a transcendent mix that can transform sexual relationships into both physical ecstasy and a path to personal growth, liberation, and enlightenment. Seekers exploring a consciously spiritual approach to sex are not just motivated by sexual dissatisfaction. Many already have fulfilling sex lives, but sense that sex and relationship have the potential to provide them with deeper experiences of connection with each other and with the cosmos. Others embark on a search for sacred sexuality after years of meditation in some Eastern tradition. These traditions offer time-honored methods of achieving spiritual growth and insight, but they offer scant wisdom on the subject of sexuality, since they have historically been practiced mostly by celibate monks and nuns. The sacred sexuality teachings that have gained popularity over the past 20 years incorporate ideas and techniques from the human potential movement workshops that have been evolving since the '60s, from pre-modern Taoist and Middle Eastern sexual teachings, from India's extensive texts on the sexual arts (including the famous Kama Sutra), and from mainstream sex therapy. But, above all, the modern sacred sexuality movement draws its inspiration and techniques from the same ancient spiritual tradition of the Indian subcontinent that spawned most of the practices we now know as hatha yoga—the tradition known as Tantra. Tantra Comes West

Tantra arrived on the cultural radar of mainstream America in 1989, with the publication of Margot Anand's The Art of Sexual Ecstasy (Tarcher, 1991). But even before Anand's ascent to the best-seller lists made Tantra a household word, other writers and workshop leaders had been mining Eastern sexual and spiritual techniques and blending them with elements of Western sexology, psychotherapy, and New Age selftransformational techniques. One of the first of these was Charles Muir, a yoga teacher who had been a follower of Swami Satchidananda until he became disillusioned by revelations of Satchidananda's illicit sexual relations with some devotees. He then spent time as a student of Swami Satyananda, and as a teacher in the tradition of TV yoga guru Richard Hittleman. After his first marriage, Muir began to reexamine his ways of relating with women, and, as he puts it, "was blessed with the teachings of a number of remarkable women" who initiated him into their knowledge of Tantric sexuality. Muir also started to study the ancient Tantric texts, and began including more and more such teachings in his yoga workshops. By 1980, Muir made a full-time switch from hatha yoga teacher to Tantric sexuality teacher. Two decades later, he and his wife Caroline are still probably the best known teachers of Western Tantra. On the first night of the Muirs' weeklong workshop entitled "The Art of Conscious Loving," at the Rio Caliente spa about an hour outside Guadalajara, Mexico, nine couples gather in a circle. The group seems subdued and a bit tense, with a palpable undercurrent of nervous anticipation. Tom, a handsome psychologist born to Central American parents but raised mostly in the States, and his partner, a black-haired social worker with a mischievous grin named Leslie, emit a honeymoon glow as they sit entwined around each other. In contrast, Susie's back is turned like a stiff wall toward Bill, who hunches as though he's trying to take up as little space as possible. Stan and Liz, an outgoing pair of 67-year-olds from a wealthy Southern California suburb, chatter about their upcoming nuptials—"the second for both of us," Stan says, "but we're telling people it's our first real marriage." Next to them Anja, a native of Denmark and a healer, and Merle, her American partner, seem the most relaxed pair as they sit quietly with placid, taciturn smiles. The couples are almost as diverse occupationally as geographically—no blue collar workers, but, for such a small group, a fair slice of middle and upper middle class white America: a retired government bureaucrat now doing volunteer work; several entrepreneurs, an architect, a secretary, a teacher, an accountant, and a disproportionate number of healers of various types—a doctor who specializes in alternative/complementary medicine, the psychologist and the social worker, an art therapist, and four bodyworkers/energy healers. Quite a few turn out to be committed to Eastern spiritual practices. The doctor practices Zen; for several years he attended a sesshin, an intensive meditation retreat, for one week out of every two months. Anja started and ran a yoga school for 17 years, closed it to open a school of esoteric energy healing, and finally lived alone in the woods for six years of intense personal spiritual practice. Merle, who runs a bodywork school, has practiced vipassana meditation for several years. Another bodyworker mentions a decade-long association with Yogi Bhajan's Kundalini Yoga community. Later, when Charles asks each couple to share what drew them to this Tantra workshop, Anja reports that she was so inspired by a visit to the Tantric temples at Khajuraho, in central India, with their relief carvings of hundreds of ecstatically (and acrobatically) entwined lovers, that she swore to some day find a man with whom she could share Tantra. Now, she says, after 12 years of celibacy, she has. Two participants attended the workshop previously and have returned to share it with a newfound soul mate. On the whole, though, the couples seem quite reluctant to talk publicly about their sexual lives. Yet, traveling from as far away as Hawaii and Denmark and anteing up $3,400 per couple (plus airfare), they have all committed a substantial investment of time, money, and energy to their relationships—and to the exploration of Tantra. The Muirs begin by contrasting the sexual education—or, more accurately, the lack of it—most Westerners receive to the more respectful, celebratory, and unconflicted attitudes they attribute to ancient Indian culture. With his characteristic humor and earthy language, Charles offers up as fairly representative his teenage tutelage with the leader of a Bronx street gang in the 1950s: "'Get it hard, get it in, and get it off. Fuck 'em hard and fuck 'em deep.'" Many of us, Charles points out, receive little more information than this about the vast possible joys of sexual loving. "We learn most of what we know about intimacy from those great fonts of wisdom and experience, dear old mom and dad," Charles says, drawing snorts of rueful laughter from the group. Outside our families, we glean information—often misinformation—from the locker-room talk and slumber party whispers of our peers, and we absorb intensely mixed messages from the adults, religious institutions, and pop culture around us. "How can you not be confused" asks Charles, "when you're told both 'Sex is dirty' and 'Save it for the one you love?'" Caroline picks up the thread, pointing out that many of us also approach adult sexuality scarred by childhood and adolescent experience of incest or other sexual abuse. When we finally find partners for our

first sexual explorations, often as not we end up with further emotional wounds from fumbling in the dark with lovers as misinformed, ignorant, and scarred as ourselves. "Is it any wonder," Caroline asks rhetorically, "that many of us don't really know how to 'make love?' We may have learned how to get off, but not how to use sex to make more love in our relationships." As models of a healthier attitude, Caroline holds up ancient cultures, especially that of India. She points out that Indians revered sexuality as a holy gift from the creator, regarding sex as both a sacrament and an art form, celebrating it in their art, and teaching its secrets to their children. Sex was used not just to join two lovers, but as a meditation through which the lovers could unite with the divine energy of the universe. "This week," she says, "we'll learn how to make sex be sacred again." The Yoga of Relationship Before adjourning for the evening, Charles outlines the three interwoven topics he and Caroline will be teaching throughout the week: increasing energy and pleasure; increasing intimacy; and quieting the mind. "We'll learn many techniques for increasing the energy and pleasure you can feel in your body," he says. Many of the techniques will be what he calls White Tantra—practices that can be done individually, like asana, pranayama, repetition of mantras—while others will be Red Tantra—practices that involve joining your energy with a partner's. Techniques for fostering intimacy, Charles says, are designed to allow lovers to increase their ability to give and to receive each other's energy. He adds that workshop participants will discover that they don't need to learn to do more; they simply need to surrender and allow themselves to be who they naturally are. In the end, says Charles, "Relationship is the ultimate yoga. If you're in a relationship, it is a yoga, a spiritual pathway. Relationship will bring up every lesson you need to learn." All these techniques culminate, he emphasizes, in the quieting of the mind. Instead of habitually using the thinking mind, students will learn to cultivate the mind's capacity for being completely quiet and receptive. "Ultimately, Tantra is a meditation," Charles notes. "In fact, orgasm is the only universally shared meditative experience, the one that cuts across all cultures. At the moment of orgasm, you're not in your thinking brain, you're in your receptive, being brain; when you're completely absorbed in the present, you enter into timelessness." As the week progresses, some of the information and exercises are explicitly sensual and sexual. Participants are given primers on touch, kissing, and oral sex, on using the breath to intensify and prolong orgasm, on strengthening the pubic-coccygeal muscles to increase sexual pleasure. One session especially directed at the men focuses on a number of methods for delaying (and heightening and lengthening) orgasm. Using hand puppets—an oversized, furry yoni and lingam (respectively, the Sanskrit names for female and male genitalia)—Charles and Caroline demonstrate how to use your hands to delight your partner, how to mutually pleasure each other using a man's "soft-on" instead of a "hard-on," and how to bring infinite variety to intercourse by changing the speed, depth, and angle of penetration. Inviting their students to gather around them, the Muirs conduct a graphic (though fully clothed) seminar on sexual positions, complete with detailed demonstrations of how to use pillows to support an aching back, and how to gracefully segue from front to side to back entry positions, and from woman on top to man on top and back again, without ever losing contact and intimacy. Charles and Caroline also spend just as much time on techniques that are far more esoteric and far less explicitly sexual. Almost every day, they lead the class through a half-hour or more of gentle hatha yoga. The routines wouldn't pose much physical challenge to any regular practitioner, but that's not the Muirs' focus. Instead, as in all the yogic techniques they teach, they emphasize awareness of the subtle energy body and the chakras. All the chakras, Charles says, contain dormant energy, consciousness, and intelligence, and the Tantra techniques he teaches aim to arouse and harness those latent energies. He stresses that the goal in doing these asanas shouldn't be to achieve any particular stretch or outward form, but instead "to recognize and reconcile yourself with your body just as it is." "These asanas are not exercises," Caroline chimes in, "they are poses: sacred geometries for awakening and becoming aware of energy." As they lead a simple but well-rounded sequence (standing and balancing poses, side stretches, forward and backward bends), Charles and Caroline direct the participants to support the circuits of energy in the body with the breath: In a forward bend, for instance, students breathe energy

up from the feet through the legs and torso and exhale it out through the crown of the head before beginning the cycle again with the feet. The Muirs also give instruction in pranayama (breathing techniques), ranging from simple, full breaths to more advanced practices, such as using bandhas (energetic "locks") to contain and heighten energy in the body, or directing energy up to the space between the third eye and crown chakras by using the rapid forced exhalations of "breath of fire" (Kapalabhati). The group intones various bija mantras, sacred "seed syllables" whose vibration is said to awaken each chakra; visualizes yantras, geometric diagrams that serve the same purpose; and practices mudras, potent hand gestures that create specific flows of energy. Along with all these solo yogic techniques, Charles and Caroline direct participants in breathing with a partner. First the class members practice simply coordinating and harmonizing their inhalations and exhalations. They go on to practice reciprocal breathing—in which each breathes in his or her partner's energy as the partner exhales, and vice versa. Eventually, they use breath to link their bodies together in a circular flow of energy. Sacred Spot Massage Although the Muirs present an enormous range of information and lead many exercises, their workshop pivots on the practice they call "sacred spot massage." In this intimate ritual, conducted by each couple in the privacy of their own room, the man will spend an entire evening in the role of sexual shaman, offering his partner the loving presence and touch that can help heal old wounds and allow her to open more completely into her full sexual power. (Later in the week, the couples reverse roles, with the women giving and the men receiving healing and empowerment.) According to the Muirs, Tantra believes women's sexual arousal and orgasm can open them to channel ever increasing amounts of shakti, the basic energy of the universe, which both she and her partner can then tap into. (Men, on the other hand, are said to have a more limited, less renewable store of sexual energy, which is depleted every time they ejaculate. For men, the key is not so much opening up to sexual energy, but instead learning to contain and experience an ever greater degree of energy and ecstasy without dissipating it through ejaculation.) "The knowledge of women's limitless sexual potential has been lost to our culture," says Caroline. She and Charles insist not only that all women are endlessly, naturally multiorgasmic, but that all are capable of both explosive clitoral orgasms and deeper, longer, more wavelike vaginal orgasms that can be accompanied by female ejaculation. A key to fully awakening a woman's sexuality, the Muirs say, is loving massage of the "sacred spot," a region of highly sensitive tissue located about two inches up the front wall of the vagina. (In Western sexology, this is the "G-spot," named for Ernst Grafenberg, the gynecologist who first described it in Western medical literature.) But along with previously unknown pleasures, sacred spot massage can also unleash memories of sexual confusion, repression, pain, and abuse. We don't just store such memories in our minds, but in our bodies—and especially in the tissues around our second chakra (the genital region), which Tantra regards as the wellspring of our energy. The pain surrounding these memories must be addressed and released, the Muirs believe, before we can experience all the joy of unfettered sexual energy. The Muirs stress that sacred spot massage should never be undertaken with the goal of orgasmic fireworks. Instead, they say, sacred spot massage should be viewed as a process that invites a couple into ever greater vulnerability, trust, intimacy, and caring. "Orgasms are part of a natural flow of events," says Charles. "Don't go after orgasms, but let them be signposts on the road to sexual wholeness." The Muirs devote hours of instruction to ensure that their students learn how to use sacred spot massage to integrate the emotional experience of loving connection with the passion of sexual arousal. But once Charles takes the men off for their separate class, he concentrates on preparing them to serve as sexual healers. First, he coaches each man to honor his partner by making the whole evening a feast for her senses: Tidy and decorate the room. Build a fire. Gather flowers. Dress up. Prepare a special treat of food or drink. Draw her a bath. Give her a massage. Then, he urges, tell her the things you appreciate and love most about her. "Don't hesitate to invite God—whatever meaning that may have for you—into the bedroom," Charles tells them with a little grin as he sets up his punch line: "It makes for the best threesome!"

Most of all, Charles prepares each man to give his partner concentrated, loving attention—to remain present with whatever emotional experience comes up for her. "Real presence is far more important than physical technique," he assures the men. "Get out of your head and into your heart. If difficult emotional stuff comes up for her, it's not just her stuff; it belongs to both of you." Charles encourages the men to approach the whole evening as a sacred meditation, an exercise in empathy: "Make the evening a peace offering to your woman and to the collective womanhood of humanity, a healing for every woman who's ever been raped or molested or demeaned in any way." Before sending the men and women off for their "homeplay," Charles offers them some predictions. "For many of you," he promises, "this will be the most important night of your life. About 25 percent of couples have ecstatic experiences in sacred spot massage; about 25 percent encounter mostly shadow residues of old experiences that need to be released; and the remaining half have a mixed experience." In the morning, when the couples reconvene and begin to share their experiences, Anja validates part of Charles's forecast: "I would say it was the most romantic time in my life, the most happy moment in my life, and now I am so peaceful. I think I am joining with my higher consciousness in a way I've never been before, and I know it's going to influence my work." (In class, Anja talks mostly of the spiritual effects of the evening, but in later conversation she also mentions "wave after wave of orgasmic energy" that ran through her body for almost two hours.) Though none of the other women report transports of ecstasy, all the couples tell stories of increased intimacy, of insights and breakthroughs. For the most demonstratively passionate couple in the group, Tom and Leslie, the exciting shift wasn't in sexual intensity but in emotional vulnerability. "The biggest gift," says Tom, "was Leslie crying in my arms, which had never happened before." Many of the men reveled in their role as giver and healer, delighting in pleasing and nurturing their partners; some also enjoyed an unexpected freedom from performance anxiety. Not that everyone had smooth sailing. For Susie, the sacred spot massage was painful—both physically and emotionally. "When Bill started to massage my sacred spot, it was uncomfortable, and it brought up all my issues. So I cried and screamed and ranted and raved, and then I cried some more. Bill cried too." Despite her pain, Susie felt "it was still a healing experience. I'm starting to realize that healing doesn't happen in one fell swoop. Last night I got a piece of healing." Turning to Bill, she says, "What I really appreciated was that you were there for me." Looking back at the group, she says firmly, "He was really there the whole time. And I realized that he has been there for me for a long time; I just didn't see it." Beaming back at her, Bill drawls, "I got yelled at all night, and I loved it. I feel a little guilty. I was supposed to be the giver, and I received so much. After a couple of hours, it dawned on me that I didn't have to try to quiet my mind. It just happened. Of course, the greatest blessing was that last night was the first time in my life I ever felt like a healer." True Tantra? Despite positive reports from participants in workshops like the Muirs', some scholars and teachers of more traditional Tantric pathways criticize modern, Western interpretations of Tantra as having little in common with Tantra as practiced over the centuries in India, Nepal, and Tibet. Tantra began to blossom as a distinct movement within both Buddhism and Hinduism around A.D. 500, reaching its fullest flowering 500 to 700 years later. From its very beginning, Tantra has been a radical teaching that challenged religious orthodoxy. Within Hinduism, Tantra stood in contrast to the Vedic practices of the Brahmins (the priestly caste of Indian culture), who presided over a religion of dutifully performed rituals and strict adherence to standards of purity forever out of reach of the lower castes. Within Buddhism, says University of Virginia religious studies professor Miranda Shaw, Tantra "arose outside the powerful Buddhist monasteries as a protest movement initially championed by lay people rather than monks and nuns." It's never been easy to neatly define Tantra, because it encompasses such a huge, varied, and sometimes contradictory range of beliefs and practices. But first and foremost, although it has produced many philosophical texts, Tantra is a collection of practical techniques for achieving liberation or enlightenment. The word "tantra" itself comes from a Sanskrit root that means "to weave or extend." Tantra's practitioners

have always seen it as a comprehensive system for extending knowledge and wisdom—for realizing that the whole world is a completely interwoven unity. Second, far more than most strands of Indian spirituality, Tantra accords great respect to women and to the female aspect of divinity. In the Hindu Tantric view, the world constantly arises from the erotic dance and the union of the divine male (Shiva) and the divine female (Shakti), with Shiva providing the necessary seed but Shakti providing the active energy that brings everything into being. (Tantric Buddhism sees the male principle as the more active, but still emphasizes the importance of women and female energy far more than do other forms of Buddhism.) Third, Tantra functions not just as an enlightenment practice, but also as a system of practical magic. Certain kinds of Tantra place great emphasis on developing supernormal powers—the ability to fly, to materialize objects at will, to disappear or to become enormous, to be in two places at one time. In fact, the same term—siddhi—can mean either "spiritual perfection" or "supernatural power." Tantra claims to allow its practitioners to understand the way the world is woven together, and these insights are said to give its adepts incredible powers over the physical world, including their own bodies. In Tantra, the body is seen as a microcosm of the whole universe; the divine female energy is present in the individual person as kundalini, the serpent energy that coils at the base of the spine. Much of Tantric practice centers on awakening and channeling this energy. Thus, where the mainstream of Indian spirituality tends to regard the world as a trap and an illusion, and to lean toward asceticism and a distrust of the body and the pleasures of the senses, Tantra insists that the world is the manifestation of divinity and that all experience is potentially holy. This fourth trait of Tantra is perhaps its crucial characteristic: Rather than regarding the everyday life of the body and its desires as a defilement to be purified and transcended, Tantra regards embodiment as the fortuitous and necessary vehicle for enlightenment. Tantra's appreciation for the body made it into an enormous laboratory where generations of yogis experimented with ways to purify their bodies so they could carry the enormous energy of awakened kundalini. According to noted yoga scholar Georg Feuerstein (himself a practitioner of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism), "Hatha yoga grew straight out of the concern in Tantra for creating a transubstantiated body—a body that was totally under the control of the yogi, that he/she could manifest and de-manifest at will, a body that was immortal, like the body Taoist mystics sought to develop." Eventually, the focus on purification led much of yoga practice toward asceticism. But much of Tantra headed off in unascetic directions. As you might expect in a magical tradition that sees the cosmos as the constant product of sexual intercourse, the Tantrikas (Tantra practitioners) didn't just explore sex as a metaphor; they made it a crucial activity in their spiritual path. Viewing all of life as holy, they rejected the traditional Indian tendency to categorize activities and experiences as either pure or impure. The most radical Tantric groups convened their rituals in the charnel grounds, meditating atop corpses, smearing themselves with the ashes of the dead, eating and drinking from cups fashioned from skulls, and indulging in all the activities most condemned by mainstream religion: eating meat and fish, consuming aphrodisiacs, alcohol, and other drugs—and engaging in ritual sexual intercourse as a way of raising and exploring the movement of heightened energies. It's true that, as scholars have pointed out, only a small proportion of Tantric texts—less than 10 percent— deal with sexuality; well over half the texts focus on the use of mantras, while others focus on the worship of deities and the creation of visual aids to meditation and magic. In addition, over time more conservative Tantric groups (known as "right-hand Tantra") minimized the most daring practices, transforming forbidden activities into metaphoric representations of spirituality rather than actual ritual practice. (More radical groups—practitioners of "left-hand Tantra"—tended to remain underground, safe from attacks from the mainstream of Indian culture.) But from the first outraged denunciations by scandalized Brahmins centuries ago, right up through the West's recent curiosity, outsiders' fascination with Tantra has always focused on sex. It's Not Just Sex Feuerstein believes that Neo-Tantra—his term for Western versions of Tantra that focus on sex and relationship—"can do a great deal of good for people who have been raised in an atmosphere that represses and denigrates pleasure," and that "it provides meaning and hope for some of those who have

outgrown guilt-ridden puritanism and conventional sexuality." However, he expresses concern that many teachers of Neo-Tantra have neither studied Tantric texts enough to understand the tradition clearly nor received "proper initiation by a competent Tantric guru." Although ancient texts are chock-full of dire warnings of Tantra's risks, Feuerstein doesn't believe gaps in Western Tantra teachers' education place students in any serious danger. "Unless you are instructed by a true guru—in other words, a teacher who has succeeded in raising his or her own shakti—you aren't likely to raise dangerous energies that could unbalance you physically or mentally," he says. But Feuerstein does fear that Neo-Tantra practitioners can easily get caught up in egoistic motivations, rather than learning to transcend the ego. He claims that in more traditional Indian Tantra, adepts never started by opening the second chakra—the sexual center—but by opening the fourth chakra (the heart) or the sixth chakra (the third eye, seat of intuitive wisdom). "Only when the guru was sure the adept had established pure intention and strong control of energy was the enormous power of sexuality invoked," he says, adding that perhaps the greatest danger of Neo-Tantra is that practitioners will fool themselves into thinking they're having "spiritual" experiences when all they're doing is enjoying a blast of increased prana (life energy). Feuerstein fears that by confusing physical pleasure with spiritual bliss, many Neo-Tantra practitioners may miss out on the deepest rewards of Tantra—the ecstasy of union with all Being. Rod Stryker, a teacher of right-hand Tantra who studied with Tantra master Yogiraj Mani Finger and is also an initiate in the tradition of Tantric master Sri Vidya, echoes many of Feuerstein's concerns about contemporary Western Tantra. "As a yoga teacher," says Stryker, "I've worked with a lot of people— essentially, I've treated a lot of people—who were deeply scarred by the experience of trying to direct sexuality, cloaked as Tantra, as a tool of enlightenment." According to Stryker, maithuna—the sexual techniques of Tantra's left-hand path—were traditionally regarded as catalysts to awaken psychic energy, so powerful that some schools even regarded them as shortcuts past more basic techniques like asana and pranayama. But right-hand paths, says Stryker, never saw sexual techniques as substitutes for the gradual, progressive use of asana, pranayama, and meditation. "The danger is that if someone's nadis [the body's energy channels] are not as open and clear as possible, the sexual techniques can create psychic turbulence and have a dis-integrating effect," Stryker says. "It's very likely," he notes, "that people who go do a Tantra weekend have done very little of the foundational work of asana and pranayama. They may experience a lot of energy moving, but if they are neurotic and they start to awaken vital energy, they can wind up empowering their neuroses." Like Feuerstein, Stryker stresses the difference between pleasure and bliss and the need for a guru. He points out that the approach to Tantra he has been taught delineates three distinct stages of ecstasy— physical, psychic, and spiritual. Only in the second stage of ecstasy does a seeker achieve not just heightened sensory awareness, but also the necessary energy to change his or her life to align with an awareness of spirit. (In the third stage, once the seeker has awakened the state of consciousness associated with each chakra and can apply the appropriate state to any situation, ecstasy becomes constant.) Without the guidance of an experienced Tantric guru, Stryker fears, students may get stuck at this first stage. Stryker suggests any Tantra student should examine their teachers with two questions in mind: "To what extent do the teachings live within the teacher and in their relationships? And to what extent do the teachings live in the lives of this teacher's students?" Whether or not Western Tantra teachers are equipped to be full-fledged gurus, says Stryker, he hopes they at least educate their students to realize that physical ecstasy is only a fraction of the gifts of Tantra. Whatever the limitation or perils of Tantra as it's now being adapted for Western consumption, its advocates are passionate about its ability to change lives—and, by extension, to change the world. Margot Anand, for one, says, "Once you've opened your five senses, once you've brought all the levels of yourself into engagement with life, you may find yourself transformed. You may never be willing to go back to a life that doesn't leave room for your creativity, your playfulness, your capacity for joy." And Charles and Caroline Muir urge workshop participants to consider that they're not doing this work just for their own benefit, but also so they can bequeath a saner, healthier sexual legacy to their children and grandchildren. In answer to criticisms from more traditional Tantrikas, Charles insists that the Tantra he and Caroline teach is in the spirit of ancient practices, even if its outer form is different.

"We seek to awaken and integrate the dormant energy of the chakras," he says, "just as they did in ancient India." Explaining his adaptations, Muir claims "You don't need all the trappings of Indian culture and philosophy to experience the benefits of Tantra." Muir readily admits that modern Western Tantra may not look much like its ancient antecedents. But, citing the enormous historical variety of Tantra practices, he points out that "like yoga, Tantra has been born again and again, age to age, based on people's needs at the time." His version of Tantra, he thinks, addresses major needs of our current place and time: restoring proper reverence for women and the feminine; finding an appropriate, beneficial outlet for male "warrior" energy; and healing the rift between men and women. On the last morning of the workshop at Rio Caliente, as the participants gather to share their thoughts on the week, no one seems especially concerned with whether or not they're on their way to enlightenment. They're too busy basking in the benefits the week has brought them. In contrast with the first evening of the workshop, all the couples snuggle together, some holding hands, some smiling into each other's eyes, some just sitting in a relaxed, companionable silence. "I got all I had dreamed might be possible, and more," says Merle. (Unable to resist the joke, someone adlibs, "Plenty of bang for the buck, huh?") Merle's partner Anja, who had described the sacred spot massage as the happiest moment of her life, says the workshop renewed her commitment to the hatha yoga practice she'd dropped years before, and several other participants echo her determination to continue with yoga after returning home. The workshop seems to have inspired many of the participants to eloquence. Stan, the 67-year-old grandfather and fiancé, reads a poem of appreciation for his partner that leaves almost everyone in tears. Matthew, the Zen-practicing doctor, says he sees all the workshop participants as "a vast, beautiful, green healing field of love," with Charles and Caroline as the cultivators. And his partner Amy vows that she now knows "Nothing is more important than learning how to love each other better." When Bill's turn comes, his characteristic directness lends the simple poetry of economy to his words. "This week," he says, "tore down walls it took Susie and me 25 years to build." Looking at the pair as they sit with their legs entwined, occasionally stealing glances at each other like shy teenagers just discovering love, Caroline quips, "OK, you two win the Most Improved Campers award." As the laughter dies down, Susie says, "I've been on a healing journey for a long time, and I often thought I would have to leave Bill behind. This week I discovered I have a partner in healing." January/February 2000 Tantra.com - The Resource for Tantra, Tantric Sex & The Kama Sutra Saturday, March 11, 2006 Margot Anand Presents The Art of Orgasm - The Multi Orgasmic Couple is a program that Margot Anand recommends couples watch together. The techniques in this DVD will help you to become the best lover you can be. (more) Our Favorite DVDs Revitalize your love life with this gorgeous new program designed to help you explore your sexual potential. click here for more Tantra Between the Sheets Tantra is about the flow and exchange of energy, the movement of life. Tantrics believe that the most powerful energy is sexual energy. Tantric practice shows you how to circulate this energy around your own body and then move it between you and your partner. (more) Living in Meditation It is essential to cultivate our “Compassionate Witness.” The essence of meditation is allowing ourselves to fall into the arms of this Beloved that is within us. This is the Beloved of our heart’s desire. It is, so to speak, our individual moment of Holy Spirit, our access to the lifeforce that lives within us, the abundantly and

exuberantly erotic energies that flow through us rendering our access to the Sacred Unity of Love. (more) Exclusive for Members Only: Erotic Adventures for Men Men, here are six very fun, erotic adventures to do with your lover. You might try printing some of these out on small, beautiful pieces of paper and then presenting them to your lover, one by one, over the course of a month. Tease a little bit by slipping the note to them a few days early so they can fantasize as part of the foreplay! (More: Join Now or take the tour) Female Ejaculation - The Elixir Amrita Women have been curious for many years about the fluid they exude during sexual lovemaking. An analysis of the fluid has scientists realizing that it is exactly like male ejaculate only without the sperm content. Learning the techniques to facilitate female ejaculation can be fun and useful even if you don't ever ejaculate..... (more) Helping a Woman to Ejaculate Successfully When your partner first tells you about her interest in female ejaculation, it is wise to take a back seat, keep an open mind, and see what transpires. Let her get used to the idea, and encourage her to experiment and develop her abilities on her own for a while..... (more) Expanding Your Orgasm Peace, wholeness, well-being, mental clarity, hormone balance, heightened spirituality, strengthened selfesteem, and an increased sense of power and effectiveness in life. Many people use expanded orgasm to access expanded or non-ordinary states of awareness to achieve a sense of wholeness. Read further to discover the benefits of expanded orgasm... (more) Becoming Multi-Orgasmic Women have the capacity for virtually inexhaustible sexual pleasure. Yet, while all women have the capacity to have multiple orgasms, many do not experience them or do not experience them regularly. Why do some women have them while others do not? ..... (more) The Art of the Quickie There is a time and place for almost everything we do in life. And often there is the long version and the short version. In the case of sex, the "quickie" often gets the bad rap. Here's a new perspective.... (more) Dr. Deepak Chopra: "The Journey to Wild Divine computer graphic CD-Rom Game allows people to get in touch with the innermost core of their being, to know they have more power than they ever realized, to know they can influence what is happening in their body, mind, and emotions, and also in the world they create everyday" (more) You and Your Body Women have questions, frustrations, and judgments about their bodies. Today, even supermodels may complain about how imperfect their bodies are. If they can't accept their bodies, how can the rest of us accept ours? ..... (more) $10 VHS Special -- All VHS Tapes are now $10 -- Limited Supply Kundalini Yoga Live! with Ravi Singh (VHS-NTSC) Kundalini combines multiple practices into one stress-relieving program that improves Tantric focus.


The Physiology of Meditation

Introduction © DC Taekwondo, 1996–2006 Eastern religious and secular groups, such as the Buddhists, Taoists, and the Indian Yogis have practiced meditation throughout history in order to achieve certain mental and physical ends; these include muscular relaxation and "clearing" the mind, as well as the more esoteric union with nature or God. For these practitioners, meditation further serves to reduce negative tensions in both conscious and subconscious realms, and facilitates the integration of an individual into her or his physical, social and psychological environment. A variety of these ideas were incorporated into the philosophy of the martial arts as they developed in Asia. In contrast to most exercise cultures, the martial arts actively strive to develop both the inner and outer individual, guided by a holistic view of human nature. The union of mind and body lies fundamental to martial art philosophy and practice, which consists of both mental and physical exercises. The practice of meditation characterizes the martial arts as a psychophysical engagement, as opposed to a purely physical activity. Although diverse types of meditation exist, all meditative techniques attempt to focus attention in a nonanalytical way without discursive or discriminating thought. By muting the analytical, reasoning functions of the mind one achieves a sort of non-discriminatory or relaxed awareness. In the martial arts, this state has been given various descriptions such as "Satori," "enlightenment," or "Zanshin." Eastern philosophers have known for centuries that the practice of meditation allows the human mind to transcend thinking processes into a state of thoughtless awareness. Given the complicated structure of the brain, with its multitude of neurons, infinite possibilities of synaptic connections, and numerous chemical mediators, this transcendent state may one day have a physiological explanation. Indeed, increasing scientific and popular interest in the Eastern practices of meditation has accumulated significant empirical evidence about the physiological modifications produced by the practice of meditation; these include metabolic, autonomic, encephalographic, and psychological effects. These scientific studies clearly show that the meditative state of awareness is distinct from a normal everyday awareness bound by logic and reason, and validate the traditional Eastern belief that mental function has a direct implication on physical function. The Physiology of Meditation A review of the scientific literature on meditation reveals that its practice can provide numerous benefits for the martial artist. For example, meditation can reduce stress and anxiety, enhance motor reflexes, increase motor control, increase exercise tolerance, sharpen perceptions, increase awareness, improve concentration, maintain health, provide a general positive outlook on life, and foster the development of a sense of personal meaning in the world. In general, meditation produces a reduction in multiple biological systems, resulting in a state of relaxation. These changes are, in most studies, significantly different between meditating and non-meditating groups. Benson (1975) argues that this physiological response pattern is not unique to meditation per se, but is common to any passive relaxation procedure. Although some studies have found no physiological or overt behavioral differences between meditation and other relaxation techniques, it is significant to note that subjects report meditational experiences as more profound and enjoyable than their comparative control groups (Cauthen & Prymak 1977, Kohr 1977). These subjective differences may have critical relevance from a clinical or research perspective. Scientific studies reveal that meditation produces a specific physiological response pattern that involves various biological systems. The mechanisms most frequently suggested to mediate or produce meditative effects include metabolic, autonomic, endocrine, neurological, and psychological observations. Precisely how these mechanisms are involved in producing the final pattern of responses is yet unclear. The vast complexity of biological organization indicates that the physiological response to meditation probably occurs on a multidimensional, interactive basis.

Meditation and Metabolism Mental states can markedly alter physiologic function. For example, stressful situations result in a hypermetabolic state, with increased oxygen consumption, heart rate, and blood pressure. In contrast, the majority of scientific studies show meditation to be a wakeful state accompanied by a decreased metabolism. This generalized decrease in body metabolism manifests with a decreased breathing pattern, decreased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure. There is also a marked decrease in the level of oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide elimination by muscle. These findings have been verified by an impressive number of studies.1 Oxygen consumption is generally regarded as a reliable index of physical activity and arousal. For example, exercise requires an increased consumption of oxygen by muscle. During this metabolic process, oxygen is converted to carbon dioxide, which is eliminated by the lungs. If the body is starved of oxygen, reduced oxygen consumption does not lead to a parallel reduction in carbon dioxide elimination because the cells continue to metabolize the remaining oxygen in the blood. Therefore, oxygen starvation causes a decrease in the concentration of oxygen and an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in arterial blood. The relative amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood is called the respiratory quotient. During normal respiratory processes, this quotient remains constant; in abnormal respiratory situations, however, the reduction in available oxygen and increase in carbon dioxide changes the quotient. Wallace et al (1971) found that during the practice of meditation the amount of carbon dioxide elimination drops in proportion to the amount of oxygen consumed; therefore, the respiratory quotient remains constant. In conclusion, the metabolic changes of meditation arise from a natural reduction in metabolic activity at the cellular level, not from a forced reduction of breathing. Circulation, especially in muscle and brain, is closely related to the metabolic requirements of tissues, and is very sensitive and consistent in its response to behavior. A study by Jevning et al (1996) illustrates an interesting redistribution in the blood flow of meditators. Blood flow to the kidneys and liver declined in practitioners, with a surprisingly increase in cardiac output. These changes of blood flow imply a marked redistribution of blood flow during meditation. It is hypothesized that most of the redistributed circulation must be to the brain, a hypothesis that has been supported by direct estimation of increased relative cerebral blood flow (Herzog et al 1990, Jevning et al 1992, Jevning et al 1996). The redistribution of blood flow with an increase in cardiac output has interesting significance for the pattern of metabolic changes elicited by meditation; although the response to meditation is hypometabolic overall, it appears likely that there is a concomitant increase in the metabolism of certain tissues. Meditation and the Autonomic Nervous System Skin resistance to electrical current provides a measure of autonomic nervous system reactivity. An increase in the skin resistance of meditators has been reported by several groups. 2 Increase in skin resistance indicates a decrease in skin conduction and a reduction in its fluctuations. It is well established that skin resistance decreases in states of anxiety or stress, and increases during relaxation. The large increases in skin resistance of meditators found in these studies are impressive. Galvanic skin responses, or GSR, was used to measure recovery from stress; a study by Orme-Johnson (1973) showed that meditators recovered from stress more quickly than non-meditators. Specifically, habituation of the GSR to stress was faster for meditators than for controls, and meditators made fewer multiple responses during habituation, indicating greater stability in response to stress. In other experiments, meditators produced fewer spontaneous GSR than their non-meditating controls, both during and while out of meditation. Spontaneous GSR is defined as spontaneous fluctuations in skin resistance and the frequency of spontaneous GSR defines the lability of an individual to stress. For example, the frequency rises with anger, fear, and increased epinephrine and norepinephrine blood levels. Those individuals with lower frequencies of spontaneous GSR exhibit more effective behavior in a number of stressful situations, are less impulsive on motor tasks, and have quicker perceptions. Rapid GSR habituation and low levels of spontaneous GSR are reported in the literature to be correlated with physiological and behavioral characteristics associated with good mental health. Therefore, meditation benefits practitioners by decreasing the frequency of spontaneous GSR. In general, these studies indicate that meditators possess a more adaptive pattern of stress response than controls. On another level, meditation produces specific neural activation patterns involving decreased limbic arousal in the brain (Schwartz 1975). Since the limbic system contains the hypothalamus, which controls the autonomic nervous system, reduction in limbic arousal may explain how meditation reduces stress and

increases autonomic stability to stress. Ultimately, meditation strengthens and enhances the ability to cope with stress. Meditation and the Endocrine System Based upon the metabolic characteristics of meditation and the subjective reports of meditators, several studies were initiated in order to ascertain whether the blood levels of stress-related chemicals decreased during this practice. A number of endocrine reactions have been identified in the meditative response pattern, including reduced blood levels of lactate, cortisol, and epinephrine (Wallace 1970, Sudsuang et al 1991). The reductions in these blood chemicals denote a state of decreased tension and anxiety. For example, the infusion of lactate can produce anxiety symptoms in normal subjects (Wallace et al 1971); the decrease in lactate concentration during and after meditation may explain the subjective feelings of wakeful relaxation. These studies further reveal that the reduction in stress-related chemicals persists into the postmeditation period. The most likely explanation of these results seems to be that the long-term practice of meditation develops a psychophysiological response of persistent decreased endocrine activity, thereby reducing sensitivity to stress. It has been recently demonstrated that meditation reduces sympathetic adrenergic receptor sensitivity, producing a decreased response to stressful situations (Mills et al 1990). Certain studies have also found unique patterns of blood hormone levels and blood flow to a number of organs including the brain (Jevning & O'Halloran 1984). Increased levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), melatonin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been reported (Glaser et al 1992, Elias & Wilson 1995, Massion et al 1995). Meditation is associated with changes in the secretion and release of several pituitary hormones. The hormonal changes induced by meditation mimic the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Elias and Wilson (1995) hypothesize that meditation produces its anxiolytic effects by promoting GABA action in specific areas of the brain, via a mechanism similar to the effects of synthetic anxiolytic and tranquilizing agents. Melatonin has been associated with a variety of biologic functions important in maintaining health and preventing disease, and the serum level of the adrenal androgen DHEA-S has also been associated with measures of health and stress. For example, increased levels of DHEA-S has been connected with a reduction in age-related disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. DHEA-S excretion also decreases in times of stress; since meditators have been shown to have an attenuated autonomic response to stressors (Orme-Johnson 1973), the higher DHEA-S levels found in during meditation may provide protection against stressor stimulation of the adrenal gland. That the physical effects of meditation persist after the meditation period itself has ended is demonstrated by the fact that hypertension can be effectively controlled by meditation alone without the use of antihypertensive drugs (Schneider et al 1995). Meditation has also been shown to have long-term effects on the endocrine system (Werner et al 1986). Another recent study (Zamarra et al 1996) reveals that meditators have a general increased exercise tolerance and maximal cardiac workload as compared to non-meditators. Meditation and the Central Nervous System Interestingly, the practice of meditation decreases muscle reflex time (Warshal 1980, Robertson 1983). Significant reductions in reflex time provides possible neurological evidence for the improved motor performance skills reported in other studies on meditation, such as higher performance on perceptual-motor speed tests, static motor performance tests, and physical task tests of balance.3 Meditation may somehow accelerate neural conduction or augment the release of neurotransmitters, thereby decreasing synaptic time, resulting in a change in muscle firing threshold and pattern. These findings appear consistent with the development of a heightened sensitivity of the human central nervous system and suggest a neural mechanism underlying the motor performance improvements of those who meditate. Studies of brain physiology during meditation have most frequently employed the electroencephalograph (EEG) for the measurement of brain wave electrical activity. With most meditative practices the EEG patterns exhibit a slowing and synchronization of brain waves, with alpha waves predominating. More advanced practitioners of meditation demonstrate an even greater slowing of their brain waves, with the possible emergence of theta wave patterns.4 These patterns are consistent with deep relaxation. Alpha rhythm is the classical EEG correlate for a state of relaxed wakefulness, also described as relaxed vigilance (Niedermeyer & Da Silva 1993). Indeed, emotional tension attenuates or blocks the alpha rhythm. Theta activity is associated with emotional processes and indicates relative maturity of the mechanisms linking the cortex, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus; theta rhythm also occurs during a state of maximal awareness (Niedermeyer & Da Silva 1993). Apparently, an alpha wave pattern is most conducive to creativity and to the

assimilation of new concepts, while the theta response seems to be a stage at which the mind is capable of deep insights and intuition. It is significant to note that practiced meditators can continue to exhibit alpha and theta waves after the meditation period has ended (Wallace et al 1971). One study compared different types of breathing during meditation and discovered that diaphragmatic, or deep breathing was associated more with an EEG alpha response than thoracic breathing (Timmons et al 1972). Meditative traditions place a great deal of importance on breathing; indeed, breath becomes the object of awareness in most methods. Specifically, Taoist and Zen traditions of meditation have historically placed great value in abdominal breathing, consistent with the popular belief that the vital center, or hara, is located in the abdomen (Huard 1971). The study by Timmons and collaborators validates the merit of deep abdominal breathing. The cortex of the brain is popularly believed to consist of two halves, the left and right hemispheres. Although simplistic, activities such as speech, logical thinking, analysis, and sense of time are thought to function in the left hemisphere, while the ability to recognize faces and comprehend maps is thought to function in the right hemisphere. On the physiological level, it has been demonstrated that the two hemispheres of the cortex are specialized for different modes of information-processing; the left hemisphere operates primarily in a verbal, intellectual, sequential mode, while the right hemisphere operates primarily in a spatial oriented mode. The right hemisphere concerns space more than time, and intuition more than logic or language. The right lobe also houses the purported center of motor skills connected with spatial awareness. Most people, under scientific measurement, demonstrate a marked preponderance towards left hemisphere usage. Several authors hypothesize that systems of meditation alter consciousness by inhibiting cognitive functions associated with the dominant or left cortical hemisphere. Ornstein (1975), for example, states that meditation "turns off" the verbal, linear, analytic style of information processing associated with the normal waking state. By inhibiting the left cortical hemisphere, the sense of time and logic no longer dominate consciousness during meditation. In association with this repression of the left hemisphere occurs a hypothesized shift to the right hemispheric manner of experience, described as holistic, receptive, and beyond language or logic. Since it is nonlinear, the right cortical hemisphere devalues the concept of cause and effect. Davidson (1976) argues that meditation leads to the development of right hemisphere associated abilities. This assertion has been verified by several research projects; meditators show faster reaction times on simple visual reaction time tasks, thus demonstrating that meditation facilitates right hemisphere specific abilities (Appelle & Oswald 1974, Holt et al 1978, Pagano & Frumkin 1977). Furthermore, EEG alpha and theta wave coherence is most marked in the right cortical hemisphere during the practice of meditation (Gaylord et al 1989). Other analyses suggest the existence of synchronization patterns both between corresponding areas of the two cortical hemispheres and within individual hemispheres (Glueck & Stroebel 1978). Some tests indicate that the EEG activation patterns in meditators display a greater flexibility in shifting between hemispheres in response to the demands of specific tasks (Bennet & Trinder 1977); this represents an integration of the left and right hemispheres of the brain, synchronizing the logical with the intuitive. Meditation and Psychology The research literature on meditation suggests that practitioners experience subjective phenomena, such as pronounced feelings of "self-transcendence," "felt meaning in the world," "a heightened sense of connectedness with the world," and "a sense of purpose and meaningfulness"5; these subjective experiences involve radically revised perceptions of self and the external world. Mood changes include happiness, freedom from anxiety, content with self, and greater vitality. Other articles also suggest that meditators gain enhanced confidence, a sense of self-control, empathy, and self-actualization (Hjelle 1974). Several investigators conclude that the practice of meditation improves cognitive task performance, increases mental concentration, and reduces susceptibility to stress.6 As described above, many researchers report that meditation reduces the biological components of anxiety. In general, meditation promotes psychological health (Gaylord et al 1989, Gelderloos et al 1990). Other psychological consequences of meditation include decreased anger aroused in high-anger situations (Dua & Swinden 1992) and an increased concentration for mental as well as physical tasks (Dhume & Dhume 1991). Indeed, Davidson et al (1976) found that experienced meditators had significantly increased attentional absorption and that attentional absorption increased as the length of meditation experience increased. Long-term meditators appear to possess a more developed ability to voluntarily control attention.

A general profile of psychological well-being and perceptual sensitivity emerges from various studies on meditation. Some of the more commonly reported experiences include amplified perceptual clarity, widened range of psychological insights, and greater openness to experience.7 As Walsh writes (1984), "Sensitivity and clarity frequently seem enhanced following a meditation sitting or retreat. Thus, for example, at these times it seems that I can discriminate visual forms and outlines more clearly. It also feels as though empathy is significantly increased and that I am more aware of other people's subtle behaviors, vocal intonations, etc., as well as my own affective responses to them." One of the fundamental objective observations of the enhanced perceptual sensitivity of meditators is a decrease in both absolute and discrimination sensory thresholds8; these include a more subtle awareness of previously known concepts and an increased perception of previously unrecognized phenomena. Thus, both subjective and objective examinations agree that meditation enhances perceptual sensitivity. Conclusion The concept of meditation arose within the philosophical framework of Eastern religious and spiritual disciplines. These traditions practice meditative techniques in order to maintain physical health, induce altered states of consciousness, develop insight, achieve peace, and gain spiritual strength as well as spiritual purification. In these ways, meditation modifies the perception of the world and promotes a more unified conception of self, nature, and humanity. Martial arts training, by including the practice of meditation, encourages the development of these attributes and fosters a more intuitive way of relating to life. Formal meditation refers to the practice of meditation at specific times, in a specific place and posture, as practiced in a Taekwondo dojang. Informal meditation, however, requires no specifications, but can be practiced at any time and place. The primary goal of meditation in the martial arts is not simply to be able to make a meditative effort during formal sittings, but to maintain and generalize conscious attention to all aspects of martial arts practice and life in general, thereby eliminating mental tension. Ultimately, the greatest achievement in the martial arts is the simultaneous refinement of mind and body. The special training of consciousness effectively regulates every biological system of the body as well as its technical and mechanical facilities. Cultivation of the mind leads to cultivation of the body, leading to further cultivation of the mind and so on, eventually attaining an exquisite level of cooperation and coordination between the two. Notes 1

Reduced heart rate -- Wallace 1970, Wallace et al 1971, Delmonte 1984, Zeier 1984, Sudsuang et al 1991, Telles et al 1995; Decreased Blood Pressure -- Wallace et al 1971, Wallace et al 1983, Delmonte 1984, Sudsuang et al 1991, Schneider et al 1995; Decreased oxygen consumption -- Wallace 1970, Allison 1970, Wallace et al 1971, Hirai 1974, Fenwick et al 1977, Zeier 1984, Wilson et al 1987, Benson et al 1990; Decreased carbon dioxide generation by muscle -- Wallace 1970, Wallace et al 1971, Wilson et al 1987, Jevning et al 1992. 2


Wallace 1970, Wallace et al 1971, Orme-Johnson 1973, Delmonte 1984, Telles et al 1995. Kolb 1974, Orme-Johnson et al 1976, Jedrczak et al 1986, Dhume & Dhume 1991, Telles et al 1994.


Wallace 1970, Wallace et al 1971, Banquet 1973, Hirai 1974, Corby et al 1978, Dillbeck & Vesely 1986, Gaylord et al 1989, Jevning et al 1992. 5

Osis et al 1973, Kohr 1977, Severtsen & Bruya 1986, Bogart 1991.


Blasdell 1973, Orme-Johnson 1973, Appelle & Oswald 1974, Keller & Seraganian 1984, Severtsen & Bruya 1986, Gaylord et al 1989, Dhume & Dhume 1991, Jin 1992, Tsai & Crockett 1993, Janowiak & Hackman 1994, Elias & Wilson 1995, Telles et al 1995. 7

Banquet 1973, Osis et al 1973, Shapiro 1980, Walsh 1984, Brown et al 1984.


Davidson et al 1976, Brown et al 1984, Freed 1989, Colby 1991.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

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Taoism (Daoism)*

Daoism stands alongside Confucianism as one of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China. Traditionally traced to the mythical Laozi "Old Philosopher," Philosophical Daoism owes more to "philosopher Zhuang" (Zhuangzi) (4th Century BC). Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated doctrines. The term "Daoism" is also associated with assorted naturalistic or mystical religions. Sometimes the term "Lao-Zhuang Philosophy" is used to distinguish the philosophical from the more religious "Huang-Lao" (Yellow Emperor-Laozi) strain of Daoist thought. Both the Daode Jing and the Zhuangzi are composite texts written and rewritten over centuries with varied input from multiple anonymous writers. Each has a distinctive rhetorical style, the Daode Jing terse and poetic, the Zhuangzi prolix, funny, elusive and filled with fantasy dialogues. Both texts flow from reflections on the nature of dao (way) and related concepts that were central to the ethical disputes of Ancient China. Neither Daoism nor a distinctively Daoist doctrine existed in ancient China. This reflective, metaethical focus on ethical ways, rather than any specific normative theory, is what distinguishes "Daoists" from other thinkers of the period. These reflections were by turns skeptical then relativist, here naturalist and there mystical. Daoism has no "constant dao." However, it does have a common spirit. Dao-centered philosophical reflection engendered a distinctive ambivalence in advocacy -- manifested in their indirect, non-argumentative style, their use of poetry and parable. In ancient China, the political implication of this Dao-ism was mainly an opposition to authority, government, coercion, and even to normal socialization in values. Daoist "spontaneity" was contrasted with subtle or overt indoctrination in any specific or social dao. 1. Definition of Daoism 2. Philosophical Daoism: A Primer 3. Origins of Daoist Theory 4. Dao and Names: The Laozi or Daode Jing 5. Impact of the School of Names 6. Mature Daoism: The Zhuangzi 7. Neo Daoism 8. Daoism and Buddhism 9. Important Daoist Concepts 10. Texts and Textual Theory Bibliography Other Internet Resources Related Entries

8.1 Definition of "Daoism" A clear definition of Daoism is difficult because of the complex twists in its development as it played its role in the long history of China. Even the coining of the term creates ambiguity about what to count as its doctrine. Three to seven centuries after they were supposed to have lived, Han dynasty (around 100 BC) historians named six schools of classical thought -- Confucian, Mohist, Yin-yang, Legalist, Daoist and school of names. They coined the term dao-jia (way-school) or (dao-de jia) (way and virtue school) and came to identify Laozi and Zhuangzi as paradigms of the study of dao way. "Legalist" and Huang-Lao thought were at the time dominating intellectual life. The historians who coined the term "Daoism" were probably thinking of Huang-Lao content when they introduced the term, but they came to fix its reference by pointing to Lao-Zhuang as the originating zi philosopher:master of the school. So the operative definition of Daoism was "what Laozi and Zhuangzi taught." Other early Han writers cribbed and copied from the original texts but, under Huang-Lao influence, exhibited little further philosophical reflection. The products of this "recovery" have also come to be thought of as Daoist texts and include the Huinanzi (around 140 BC) and the Liezi (Fourth Century AD). During the early Han, Confucianism became the official orthodoxy. Superstitious cosmological speculation (five-phase theory and portentology) dominated Han thought and the intellectual lives of Chinese thinkers for four centuries. When the Han declined, Confucianism lost much of its grip and intellectuals turned to Lao-Zhuang for inspiration -- but now read through cosmological lenses. Western scholars identify this movement as Neo-Daoist but since it fixed the enduring forms of a "traditional text" and provided the first systematic commentaries, their cosmological conception has come to dominate the Chinese view of Daoism. The Neo-Daoist movement also coincided with the initial spread of Buddhism in China. Neo-Daoist discourse practices helped introduce Buddhist ideas into China and Daoism heavily influenced distinctively Chinese forms of Buddhism, particularly Chan (Zen). This development blended the content of the two religious doctrines in the intellectual consciousness so much that Neo-Confucians eventually took them to be essentially similar religious-metaphysical outlooks. Meantime, "Daoist" religious groups (often rebellious or millenarian movements) emerged in varied forms in each dynasty. Because of its "naturalistic" and anti-authoritarian ethos, the term could encompass virtually any "local" religion with its familiar natural "Gods." The result is that Daoism an essentially malleable concept. Creel's famous question[1] "What is Taoism?" remains as difficult as ever. We will not attempt to settle that larger controversy, but will focus on the less controversial contrast between philosophical and religious Daoism. Even focusing only on philosophical Daoism invites enough controversy. Those who speak of it often identify Daoist philosophy with metaphysical monism or mysticism and contrast that with practical or political thought. For our purposes, we will refer to Daoist philosophy using our own distinction between ‘philosophy’ and ‘religion’ and use ‘philosophy’ to embrace both metaphysics and ethical-political thought particularly when marked by second-level reflection -- thinking about thinking. Although we treat Laozi and Zhuangzi as the exemplars of ‘Daoism,’ the use of Lao-Zhuang to identify a strain of thought may have become common only as late as Neo-Daoism. Not only is it true that "Zhuangzi never knew he was a Daoist",[2] he also didn't know he was "following" Laozi. The reasons for denying that Zhuangzi had heard of Laozi or the Daode Jing are stronger than for believing it. However, albeit without the name, writers responsible for later chapters of the Zhuangzi itself recognized an affinity between the two texts. A large chunk of the "outer" chapters use the character of Laozi as spokesman and often echo the style and attitudes of (though not quotations from) the Daode Jing. Common themes, tropes and modes of expression seem to link the authors of the outer chapters with Daode Jing. One plausible speculation is that anonymous students of the Zhuangzi, working after his death, were "developing" the text while in contact with the group anonymously composing the Daode Jing. They shaped each other's themes, expressions and ideas. See further discussion in Texts and Textual Theory. The underlying distinction between the philosophical and religious poles is an epistemic issue. Both species of Daoism start from a common critique of "ordinary" knowing of dao way:guide. From this mildly skeptical or relativist base, philosophical Daoism tends toward pluralism, perspectivalism, skepticism, political equality and freedom. Religious "mysticism" professes to control of an esoteric way of overcoming the skepticism and typically claims some "superlative" or direct access to a single correct dao way:guide. As the special insight cannot be justified to those with "ordinary" perspectives and/or cannot be put into language and argument, it tends to generate esoteric, hierarchical and authoritarian forms.

The latter tendency is associated with a Confucian-like emphasis on "cultivating" this special epistemic ability, obediently following teachers and traditions. The philosophical strain's emphasis on natural spontaneity, freedom and egalitarianism, leads them to favor political anarchy. This is because in the context of Ancient China, the assumed role of government is cultivating moral character, that is, instilling the same moral dao way:guide in everyone whether by education, attraction or force. The gap between the religious and political attitudes can partly be closed by claims that the content of the religious dao is egalitarian, empty or anarchist. Confucianism argues that the religious strain's shared interest in cultivating a special moral status means that Confucianism and Daoism are ultimately compatible. Both have at their core a dogmatic asseveration of a "special," cultivated ability of direct (not mediated by language or reasons) access to the single, correct, dao -- which cannot be cast in the form of "fixed" principles. The supposedly shared presupposition is the possibility of cultivating an intuitive guidance that is not undermined by the philosophical Daoist arguments. Insofar as they are accountable for justifying or answering those arguments, tendencies in that direction can still count as ‘philosophical.’ We draw the line of definition when the claim to special insight rests on dogmatic claim, special pleading or "revelation." The domination of Confucianism in Chinese intellectual life has brought with it the wide acceptance of this "friendly" orthodox religious interpretation of Daoism. History does little to settle which line of interpretation is "original" since lines of thought leading in each direction can be found in early classical sources. This difficulty is compounded by the diffidence of the writing styles in both the Daode Jing and the Zhuangzi -which is so marked that it is often tempting to suspect the writers intended to be ambiguous, to invite divergent interpretation as an object lesson in the "inconstancy" of any discourse-based dao. Conceivably, therefore, both trends may have drawn "support" from reading the early texts as expressing ideas compatible with their own. See Origins of Daoism. The plethora of strains of Daoism makes it hard to specify the content of Daoism to the satisfaction of all parties attracted to the texts and its ideas. Treatments range from interpreting Daoism as a sophisticated metaethical position rooted in analytic studies of language tending toward ethical skepticism and relativism at one end and "praising" Daoism as an anti-logical, deliberately self-contradictory mysticism -- a cultural rebuke of Western rationality -- at the other. Despite (or because of?) their "Rorschach" quality, the two main texts remain among the most popular in Chinese philosophy. No one doubts their literary qualities and poetic style which they combined with a lighthearted humor to leave readers with a compelling inkling that these texts are somehow philosophically profound. See the section Philosophical Daoism: A Primer. This entry will focus on exploring that hint of philosophical depth in Daoism and touch on the familiar religious interpretations mainly for context and contrast. We will look at a range of loosely related philosophical positions and some of the interpretive theory fueling them. The philosophical side of Daoism takes the ru-mo Confucianism-Mohism debate about dao as a model of what goes wrong in trying to formulate a "constant dao ." This critique takes the form of metaethics -- a study of the nature or metaphysics of dao ways as well as daos knowability, objectivity and the pragmatics of dispute about dao. This strategy generates a distinctive analysis of key normative concepts of Ancient China. See the section Important Daoist Concepts. Philosophical Daoist interest in dao ways:guides is thus distinct from the first-order normative focus of Confucians and Mohists, who certainly used the word dao as often as did the classical Daoist thinkers. We distinguish Daoism here as meta-theorizing rather than direct advocacy of some first-order dao . Often the reflections have (or seem to have) implications for how to choose which first-order dao to follow (or whether to abandon all of them). Meta-reflection constitutes the umbrella that covers this wide range of first-order options that includes nihilism, relativism, skepticism, intuitionism, mysticism, primitivism, value contrarianism and naturalist stoicism. Echoes of all these can be found in both texts -- often, as we noted, as if the writers are unable to make up their own minds what follows from their philosophical ascent to meta-critique. The metaethical views also motivate first-order political daos, e.g., daos of suspicion of political authority (anarchism), social convention and traditional mores. The philosophical focus usually construes Daoism as a meta-level challenge to Confucianism, while the religious treats it as a sibling -- with similar emphasis on cultivation, direct intuition, sages and a prosaic interest only in enunciating an alternative first-order normative dao. 8.2 Philosophical Daoism: A Primer Ancient Chinese thinkers discussed mainly three species of dao: human (or social) dao, tian natural dao, and great dao. When I instruct you to put your hand on your partner's head, I am delivering a bit of human dao.

Natural dao (often translated heavenly dao) is akin to what we would consider the constancies of science. It is the way things reliably happen. Great dao refers to the entire actual history of space and time -- whatever has happened, is happening or will eventually happen in the universe is part of great dao. (A form of determinism might treat tian dao and great dao as identical -- the laws of nature make only one world history possible. Technically, however, Great dao is simply the counterpart of Wittgenstein's "All that is the case.") Daoist philosophers typically express their doubts about various human dao (paradigmatically Confucian dao) by considering them in relation to natural dao and/or great dao (the actual dao). This works mainly because ancient Chinese moralists tended to treat tian nature:sky as the authority for their human daos. Mature Daoist analysis centers on the insight that while human daos are normative, neither the natural nor the actual dao are. Natural dao and Great dao are "constant" while human dao are inherently changeable and subject to interpretation. This insight is most famously expressed in the first line of the Daode Jing "dao guides that can dao guide are not constant dao guides. One shared feature of the ru-mo Confucian-Mohist debate was their appeal to the normative authority of tian nature:sky as endorsing their respective daos. Daoists aver that nature does not authorize or endorse any particular social dao. This claim has two versions (pluralist & primitivist). Denying that it endorses a particular one is compatible with its endorsing either many or none. To answer none and still treat tian nature:sky as the normative authority generates a conflict between human and natural dao . Since the metaphysical type of human dao is guiding discourse, this line of thought motivates Daoist "silence" -- the notorious reluctance to use language. The Zhuangzi strain, informed by contact with Chinese philosophy of language, recognized that a blanket anti-language position was self-censuring. Their pluralist reading is that all de facto rival practices are natural daos in virtue of their being actual practices. Human daos in general are a part of natural dao . That they "are walked" shows they are, in that sense, compatible with natural constancies. Similarly, all actual rival daos are part of great dao simply in virtue of being followed -- as the Zhuangzi says, "daos are made by walking them". Both pluralist and primitivist Daoism would reject the Confucian-Mohist assumption that political authority should bring about a harmony of daos -- making everyone follow a single dao. The social world survives as well (or better) when people follow different ways of life. Focus on either tian nature:sky dao or Great dao thus undermines the sense that it is imperative to master any particular first-order dao. The primitivist version of Daoism, however, typically takes the form that nature does endorse a particular normative dao, albeit not a human one (particularly one in discourse form). There is a single, constant, correct way of life that cannot be expressed or presented in practices, rules, narratives, maps, examples, songs or any other human or social form of communication and advocacy. Though we usually think in terms of the natural dao, there could, in principle, be multiple, equally natural and "primitive" daos. The contrarian version expresses itself via deliberate flaunting or "reversing" all the norms and attitudes in the conventional dao. Laozi's is the most famous example of this dao of reversal, though overtones can be found in Zhuangzi's description of "the perfect" person or ability as one that is so incomprehensible and so irrelevant to our concerns that he appears as the opposite whatever we normally respect. The political consequence is still a government guided by a discourse dao -- the systematic reversal of the dominant Confucian dao. Relativist (pluralist) or skeptical versions need not deny that that there are norms for endorsing some daos over others, but would observe that the norms of endorsing a dao constitute a distinct dao that is presupposed. It, by hypothesis, is also both natural and "actual." Relativism may deserve the ‘Daoist’ appellation on the further ground that it entails that normative authority comes from dao not from the Confucian-Mohist tian nature:sky. It's not that we should flaunt or violate nature, but that, in principle, we can't. Hence, "follow nature" is empty (tautological) as a normative guide -- a dao that does not dao. Whatever dao we choose will be a natural one, in virtue of being one we can choose and "walk". The naturalist, mystical, and intuitionist versions similarly draw differently nuanced conclusions from this analysis of the role of daos in nature and actual history. Intuitionism tends toward the religious strain's claim of special epistemic access, but could be developed in a egalitarian way. Naturalism is inherently more egalitarian while mysticism's implications are unclear. Daoist mysticism tends toward what some call

"external" mysticism. It arises from these reflections on the context sensitivity and normative complexity of dao rather than on some "inner" experience as of an inexpressible "oneness." If combined with some doctrine of a particular (discourse or non-discourse) dao, it tends to foster religious claims of superlative "access" to a mystically "correct" penetration of the complexity -- though it may still claim that the insight is equally accessible to everyone. Despite the divergence in these versions of Daoism, all can claim to underwrite a theme of harmony with nature -- the pluralist seeing the point of such harmony as permissive & tolerant, the primitivist seeing it as a more intolerant rejection or prohibition of any conventional dao and so forth. Metaphysically, Daoism is naturalistic in that any first-order dao must be rooted in nature. 8.3

The Origins of Daoism 8.3.1

Attitudinal Daoism I: Anarchism


Attitudinal Daoism II: Authoritarian Intuitionism


Pre-Laozi Daoist Theory

Much of the thrust of Daoism, as we have seen, naturally motivates a reaction against the moralistic and elitist inclinations of Confucianism. Confucianism stood for a rigid, detailed, traditional pattern of hierarchical social behavior. Duties were assigned to all of one's roles -- and a person typically had many such roles, e.g., husband, father, minister, younger brother, teacher, student, etc. One could escape this heavy scheme of obligations mainly in retirement or, paradoxically, the traditional duty to spend three years "in mourning" for the death of one's father. The withdrawal from society the antipathy toward ritual roles, traditional "morality," and any social structures or traditional culture suggests a kind of Daoist "ethos" as an antithesis to Confucianism in China. We can trace the origin of Daoism, accordingly, in two ways. One is attitudinal, the other theoretical. The theoretical mark of Daoism is an interest in the meaning or nature of dao which may inform or encourage Daoist attitudes. In view of the religious strain, however, we have to recognize two attitudes as marks of proto-Daoism in China. The first is the vague reaction against the demanding scheme of traditional Confucian rules. The second is interest in techniques for cultivating the adept to achieve an elevated epistemic status resulting in with some special or transcendent access to a dao that is impenetrable to those who have not had this "cultivation." 8.3.1 Attitudinal Daoism I: Anarchism Traditionally scholars have traced the first "Daoist spirit" back to "proto-Daoist" hermits who sporadically crop up in the Analects, confronting Confucius and his disciples as they traveled to or fled from various rulers. Their approximate message was an early version of Yangist purification by withdrawal from society. Robert Eno[3] argues that Confucius himself had a heavy dose of this "Daoist" attitude and his "political" theory was actually a justification of his staying remote from government -- at least until a sage is in power! This attitude tends to be expressed as anti-moral or amoral mainly because it targets a Confucian conception that systematically elides morality and conventional mores. It also seems to include some of the attitudes that let to the agriculturalists with their opposition to the division of labor the differential social status and ranks to which it gives rise. These are early manifestations of egalitarianism and the value of impartiality. Mencius attacks another candidate for this "proto-Daoist" status. According to Mencius, Yang Zhu advocated a kind of ethical egoism and derived from it an opposition to society and politics. Graham has influentially (and controversially) reconstructed Yang Zhu's ideas, but they significantly do not include any meta-theorizing about the nature or meaning of dao. Like Mozi's attack on Confucianism, the Yangist thrust is mainly the proposal of a (shocking!) rival first order normative dao -- egoism. Yangist attitudes are evident in the Laozi and huge chunks of the "outer chapters" of the Zhuangzi. At its core is a worry that social conventions and structures (including mores) damage our natural spontaneity and interfere with efficient functioning of our natural powers.

8.3.2 Attitudinal Daoism II: Authoritative Intuition Others credited as precursors of Daoism seemed to share with Mencius the confidence that they had achieved some non-linguistic or intuitive access to a dao guide that resists "ordinary" formulation (and vitiates the need for interpretation with its associated inconstancies). The Confucian value of ren humanity may be the first instance of this tendency. Anti-language intuitionists disagreed with each other about who else had such access, about what the intuited dao required and about the best method of cultivating this special access to dao guidance. Some scholars cite evidence of early interests in breath control, fasting, hallucinogenic drugs and perhaps even meditation. Others suggest that Yogic techniques were already transmitted from India. The epistemic commitment these hypotheses impute to their proto-Daoists, however, is that these techniques help achieve superlative epistemic access to the correct normative dao guide. Usually this access was direct and unmediated by language or culture. So they might echo the anarchists rejection of rules or principles but for quite different reasons, i.e., that they can neither formulate nor inferentially defend the intuitively "correct" dao. These seemingly contradictory attitudinal streams leading to Daoism may come together in being equally compatible with the anarchist, egalitarian and even philosophically skeptical Daoism. One strategy is to treat the skeptical passages as directed at "ordinary" or Confucian or linguistic claims to access, not at the mystical, direct, transcendent or otherwise superlative access of Daoist sages. It may further reduce the tension by taking the mystical dao to be an egalitarian or anti-authoritarian one.[4] No doubt a general trend of "authoritarian intuitionism" does have roots in classical thinking -- clearly evidenced in Warring States Confucians (Mencius and Xunzi) as well as sections of proto-Legalists such as the Guanzi (Nei-ye Inner work and Xin-shu heart-mind arts) and arguably a component of Huang-Lao ruler worship. Religious interpretations take these to be the real forerunners of Daoism. The argument could be bolstered with evidence of experimentation with techniques that produce strange experiences. The attraction to special or supernatural access to knowledge of dao could coexist, as noted above, with a disinclination to claim special implicit authority -- to treat the insight as shared by all humans. When combined with an assumption of privileged access and when it claims authority, the esoteric special access position frees the "master" of an inner cultivation technique from accountability. He need neither defend nor answer for his judgment nor need he justify imposing his dao on the rest of us. A characteristically religious excuse for coercive indoctrination is available. After "proper cultivation," the rebellious person would "see" and appreciate their wisdom in thus coercing him. Thus the Huang-Lao tradition could mesh with the authoritarian Confucian and Legalist elites who dominated the Han. With the Mawang Dui discovery (see Texts and Textual Theory) came more evidence of Huang-Lao theory. Just how far back its history extends into the classical period remains controversial. It was highly influential in the Qin and Han, when it seemed to be highly favored by the superstitious rulers. Han historians categorized many of the figures in the Daoist history as students of Huang-Lao. Many scholars have come to believe the Laozi stems from forerunners of this cult. The arguments are inconclusive, necessarily so since Laozi remains (for most) a mythical figure. Neither the Laozi nor the Zhuangzi ever clearly grounds its reasoning on claims of a direct mystical access or insight. In any case, the ambiguous style of both texts comports poorly with the implicit authoritarianism of the religious movement. We have little reason to think any proto-yogic techniques could have initiated or explained the sophisticated philosophical understanding of dao. Ultimately, the question is whether assertions of Daoist intuitionism would or would not be refuted by the skeptical arguments that Zhuangzi directed against the Confucians. Given their similarities, it's difficult to imagine how these religious conclusions could escape his analysis. Modern champions of irrationalist Daoism would not be disturbed by this inconsistency, of course, since, they allege, that Daoists refuse to think logically. 8.3.3 Pre-Laozi Daoist Theory The earliest known "history of thought" in ancient China is Chapter 33 of the Zhuangzi. It surveys trends of thought leading from the "ancients" (the Chinese golden age"?) to Zhuangzi. After introducing the ancient dao it implies a "fall," then lists a series of groups of thinkers leading to Laozi's group and finally to Zhuangzi. The list takes key thinkers to be motivated by goals of neutrality, universality, freedom from bias and natural "spontaneity" in action. The list starts a group that includes Mozi (universal, impartial utilitarians), then discusses anti-conventionalists headed by Song Xing, third came Shen Dao's group (metaphysical anti-knowledge stoics), then Laozi and Zhuangzi. It bitterly dismisses Zhuangzi's friend and

frequent philosophical debating companion, Hui Shi along with the school of names as if he were irrelevant to understanding Zhuangzi's thought. Thus we must use this history cautiously and here I will use this internal history but temper it with external accounts, and demur from this last, counter-intuitive, historical rewriting. Initially, it is a surprise to see Mozi listed as a "forerunner" of Daoism since in many respects, Daoist takes their dispute with Confucianism as its main target. However, in both attitudinal and theoretical senses, Daoism could be said to have roots in the anti-Confucian Mozi (5th Century BC). First, his early challenge to Confucianism initiated higher level philosophical reflections on dao, its role and the kind of thinking it involved. Mozi, for example, theorized that a dao should be constant, not a matter of a special history or arbitrary social convention. He supported his use of a utilitarian standard to evaluate social daos on grounds of the impartiality and constancy of the benefit-harm distinction. He taught this "constant" feature of utilitarianism was evidence that it was tian nature's standard. Mozi's challenge to Confucianism focused on his crucial philosophical realization that our own traditional norms do not warrant taking traditions as correct. Mozi thus launched the meta-search for a way (a dao ) impartially to select a first-order dao. He first formulates the goal of unbiased, universality in morality. Both of these results, further, involved important theoretical insights into the concept of dao. The Mohists developed much of the terminology of analysis that other Chinese thinkers, including Mencius and Zhuangzi, adopted. (See Concepts.) Zhuangzi deployed the language to undermine all moral authority. However, Mohism did directly advocate a first order normative dao and followed Confucianism in the assumption that an orderly society needs to follow a single constant dao. Though they developed an account of how to justify a dao and first formulated the standard of dao adequacy (constancy), they did not directly address the nature of a dao nor did they exhibit much worry about whether such a dao was knowable. They disagreed with Confucianism mainly on the content of the dao guide to be imposed on society by authority. Theoretical Daoism focused on the insolubility of this ru-mo Confucian-Mohist debate. We know far less of the doctrine of the next "step" in the development -- Song Xing. Our main sources are the Zhuangzi description here and a lengthy attack on Song Xing in the Xunzi . He is said to have specialized in a theory of the xin heart-mind and to have argued that destructive values are injected into the heart by socialization and conventional attitudes. Song Xin developed the idea that conventional values incite competition and violence and the way to order is to get people to simplify their heart's ambitions. The heart's qing naturaldesires are relatively few and easy to satisfy. Socialization creates a plethora of desires for "social goods" such as status, reputation, and pride. Socialized values create the attitudes of resentment and anger. If we can remember that being insulted (conventionally) is no (real) disgrace, we can eliminate the violence occasioned by "honor and moral rectitude." In effect, names will never hurt me. This theme is developed with great skill in Laozi's Daode Jing and it has roots in Mozi's search for impartiality and universality without presupposing changeable social values. Mozi had also explained the source of conflict as the clash of moral ideals, but advocated unifying the concept rather than abandoning it. Zhuangzi built on the same view -- that people develop different moral attitudes from different natural upbringings. Each treats his own views as obvious and natural. Zhuangzi adopts a closely related view of the xin heart-mind in his own writing. So we can see a role for Song Xing in the development, but we still find little indication of meta-reflection on the concept of dao itself in his contribution to the theory of xin heart-mind and socialized attitudes. The first plausible candidate for a theoretical Daoist comes next in the Zhuangzi historical survey. We will select Shen Dao as representative of this group of scholars. He is sometimes included in the list of HuangLao thinkers and cited as a source of Legalist thinking. We will not attempt here to reconcile this latter with the essentially Daoist view presented in the Zhuangzi history. Shen Dao's theory (perhaps unwittingly) lays the foundation for Daoism's rejecting the authority of tian nature:sky in favor of dao guide:way. (In religious language, we can describe this as worshipping daoguide rather than tian nature:sky.) The insight that (like God and Nature) appeal to tian nature:sky is normatively empty. All authority presupposes some dao guide. Other theorists appeared to be noticing the same problem. The clearest of these is the Later Mohists 5] who first seemed to realize that the appeal to tian nature:sky could justify the thief as well as the sage. Here is the Zhuangzi account of Shen Dao:

For the general public, not cliques; changing and without selfishness; decisive but without any control; responsive to things without dividing in two. Not absorbed with reflection. Not calculating in knowing how. Not choosing among natural kinds and flowing along with them. They took bonding all the natural kinds together as the key. They said, "tian nature:sky constancies can cover but cannot sustain; Earthly cycles can sustain but cannot cover it. Great dao guide can embrace it but cannot distinguish it." We know the myriad natural kinds all have both that which is acceptable and that which is unacceptable. So they said, "If you select then you cannot be comprehensive, if you teach you cannot convey all of it. Daoguide does not leave anything out." Hence Shen Dao "abandoned knowledge and discarded ‘self’." He flowed with the inevitable and was indifferent to natural kinds … . He lived together with shi and fei, mixed acceptable and avoidable. He didn't treat knowing and deliberation as guides, didn't know front from back. He was indifferent to everything. If he was pushed he went, if pulled he followed -- like a leaf whirling in the stream, like a feather in a wind, like dust on a millstone. He was complete and distinguished (fei) nothing … . So he said, "reach for being like things without knowledge of what to do. Don't use worthies and sages. Even a clod of earth cannot miss Dao." The worthy officials all laughed at him and said, "Shen Dao's dao does not lead to the conduct of a living man but the tendency of a dead man. It is really very strange … ." (Zhuangzi Ch. 33) Shen Dao's great dao is only actual history of everything and there is just one such history -- one actual past and one actual future. The actual is natural so the great dao (the natural pattern of behaviors, events and processes) requires no learning, no knowledge, no language or shi-fei this-not this distinctions. "Even a clod of earth cannot miss the great dao ." Shen Dao's insight undermines all these guiding schemes that claim tian nature's approval as justification. The crucial implication of his approach is that great dao has no normative force. To say "follow great daoguide" is as trivial as "do what you do." When we think of dao as the actual course of all nature, it is obvious we will follow it. On this reasoning, Shen Dao adopted a stoic attitude. His slogan was "abandon knowledge; discard self." "Abandon knowledge" means do not guide your behavior using prescriptive discourse -- a learned dao guide. "Discard self" would mean to discard even Yang Zhu's discourse of self-preservation. Egoistic guidance is also a dao guide and similarly based on a right-wrong or normative, guiding distinction between ‘self’ and ‘other.’ It recommends a particular possible future history. So to abandon knowledge is to discard ‘self’ as a prescriptive term -- to give up using ‘self-other’ as a guiding distinction. Yangzhu's egoism violates Shen Dao's anti-language naturalism as much as does Confucius's traditionalism or Mozi's utilitarianism. Why does Shen Dao think we should give up guiding ourselves by shared moral prescriptions? His stoicism and some of his reasoning suggests that like the Stoics, he was a fatalist. However Shen Dao's argument has no basis beyond simply logical determinism "what will be will be." The account above has no hint of a theory of causal laws, neither of predictability nor of knowledge of the future. It says nothing here about free will, but Shen Dao does advocate something like giving up moral responsibility. We should not make shifei this-not this judgments. Consequently, he can not be saying that we should follow the Great Dao, because that would be to shi this:right whatever actually happens. He avoids this inconsistency and thus is not committed to the Stoic view that the natural/actual course of events is rational or good. It simply is. In using the notion of the actual dao to motivate avoiding any prescriptive discourse, Shen Dao is saying to Confucians and Mohists, "if you are speaking for the nature of things, you need not say anything!" Nature does not prescribe. What about Shen Dao's naturalism itself, however? Is it not itself another guide, a doctrine that he has managed to put into yan language? And, is it not natural for humans to use language in coordinating and ordering their interactions, accumulating and transmitting knowledge? "Abandon knowledge" amounts to a prescriptive paradox. The concept of knowledge it uses is prescriptive knowledge. In form and intent, it is a prescription -- a dao guide. If we obey it, we disobey it. This is our first example of Daoist paradox! Shen Dao's dao guide is a dao guide that can't dao guide us.

The Zhuangzi history where we find this account of Shen Dao's doctrine, seems critical of Shen Dao's position along similar lines. Still, it moves from Shen Dao to Laozi in it's explanation of the evolution of thought that leads to Zhuangzi. Laozi produces a different line of reasoning for "abandon knowledge." He abandons the fatalist grounds -- and implicitly, therefore, the concept of great dao as a guide (though he keeps a version of tian nature's dao). We can view Laozi as combining Song Xing and Shen Dao. His reason to "abandon knowledge" is that knowledge is a form of social control that instills unnatural desires, stimulates unnatural action and constrains and distorts natural freedom or spontaneity. The Zhuangzi ordering is theoretically coherent, though perhaps chronologically inaccurate. 8.4 Dao and Names: The Laozi or Daode Jing We will discuss, here, only the contributions the Laozi makes to the Daoist dialectic. For a more complete and detailed treatment of the philosophy of the text, see the entry under Laozi. The Zhuangzi history lists Laozi (along with Guan Yin) between Shen Dao and Zhuangzi. Whatever its actual date and manner of composition, the Laozi plays a part in the development of Daoist thought that best fits there. The most famous line of Daoist meta-theory of dao opens the Daode Jing. "Dao that can be dao-ed is not constant dao." Though the text betrays no hint of exposure to the School of Names, this famous slogan is duplicated with ming name replacing dao. Thus it shifts the focus of meta-discourse about dao to the issue of the language used in dao -ing. Since language is not constant, no dao that can be conveyed using symbols can be. What is being denied in saying such dao are not constant? The text does not explain this, but the issue in ancient Chinese thought can be traced back to the Confucian Analects’ notion of "rectifying names." A name is rectified when an instruction containing it (a ritual or a law) correctly guides peoples action. "If names are not rectified … people will not know how to move hand or foot."[6] The typical Confucian way of rectifying a name is to set an example -- either of correct use of the term or correct action in following a dao that contains the term. So what is Laozi denying when he is made to say "names that can be named are not constant names?" The skepticism here can be read in two ways. One is there is no correct way to use a name and the other is, no pattern of right past use uniquely determines what counts as correct use here and now. So, as Mozi had argued, tradition cannot determine correctness, but the Laozi seems to add even if tradition is correct. The negative result may be read in several ways.

1. 2. 3.

It may be pure nihilism -- there is no such thing as correct dao. It may be skepticism -- the correct dao can never be known, or as anti-language -- The correct dao cannot be put in words or conveyed as guidance to another.

The second and third are compatible with their being a correct dao and the third even with someone's knowing it. It simply cannot be conveyed. The rest of the text -- the very fact that there is more to the text -makes these two readings, particularly the last, the most common ones. However the traditional story of Laozi undermines the argument for placing too much emphasis on the fact that after this opening stanza, he goes on to write a text. It suggests that he writes only because compelled to do so by the keeper of the pass. Adopting the latter interpretations doesn't remove the paradox. Laozi is still left with a version of Shen Dao's "abandon knowledge" position. The text, however, does develop a different motivation for it. We find few traces of Shen Dao's stoic reasoning. Laozi's opposition to knowledge derives more from Song Xing's insights about how social knowledge shapes our values and desires. So we attribute to the Laozi a theory of pragmatics, how language shapes action. Laozi talks mainly of name (word) pairs -- opposites. Naming is analogous to "carving." (The symbol of the nameless is pusimplicity an uncarved block of wood.) When we learn the way to use a word (e.g. watching teachers "rectify" names) we adopt an institutional practice of "cutting" things and assigning names to them

in acting. With the names we acquire a value or desire for one of the discriminants. The desires then shape our wei deeming:action. Much of the reasoning attributed to Laozi here follows that of Song Xing. The artificially created desires lead to unnecessary competition and strife. When we see that they are not natural, acquiring socialized desires (e.g. for status, reputation, for rare objects) starts to look ill advised. He hints at places that acquiring the system of names dulls our capacity for appreciation or reaction to nature ("the five colors blind the eye…").[7] And most important, acquiring knowledge in this way is losing the natural spontaneity and becoming subject to social control. The text, accordingly, entices us to free ourselves from this system signified by the slogan wu-wei lack-action. We are to set about forgetting all our socialization and return to the state of a newborn babe. The slogan is famously paradoxical and is even formulated in the text in a paradoxical way -- "lack acting and yet lack ‘don't-act’." The bulk of the Daode Jing is thus given over to motivating this paradoxical attitude. Its essential strategy for doing this centers on the notion of "reversal." In passage after passage, advice is given that reverses the values usually taken for granted in social (Confucian-Mohist) discourse -- either rejecting the usual positive value term or motivating valuing the opposite (non-being, water, the female, the lower position etc.). The result is a fascinating exercise in normative advocacy even including a political theory -- which you can find elaborated more fully in the main entry. Clearly, the advocacy is inconsistent with the meta-theory and its purpose must be indirect -- perhaps to induce us to "see" one of the three negative positions considered above. Still it gives the text a tone that has come to be known as primitivism -- nullifying socialization and cultivating only the "natural" attitudes and actions. 8.5 Impact of the School of Names As noted above, one stark difference between the two main texts of Daoism is the relation to the School of Names. The Laozi, though clearly using a theory of naming, betrays no exposure to the doctrines nor the analytical terminology developed by the dialectical Mohists for dealing with theory of language. The Zhuangzi, just as clearly, does. So to understand this next phase in the reconstructed development of Daoism, we must note briefly what the issues were and how they were formulated so we can see the implications of Daoist responses -- particularly those found in the Zhuangzi. The focus on analysis of language (ancient Chinese thinkers tended to treat all words as names) grows out of a recognition of the classical "rectifying names" problem we drew attention to above in explaining the Laozi. The disputes about dao are intimately tied to issues about language -- how it works and, in particular, what is to count as a correct use or interpretation of words found in familiar examples of guidance -- in discourse daos. The early Mohists found themselves committed to using their utilitarianism in determining the correct use of words as well as in action. "Which dao should we follow" becomes "which words shall we use in socialization, in what order, and under what practical interpretation?" In effect, the early Mohist answer to all three questions is settled by reference to making an allegedly "natural" distinction between benefit and harm. Thus language conventions themselves should be governed by the utility principle. Later Mohists formulated a more "realistic" theory of what counts as the normatively correct way to use names. We should mark the distinctions that underlie names in ways that trace patterns of objective similarity and difference in things. This realism governs the correct ways both to use terms and to interpret them. We rely on utility to determine how we structure terms into strings in guidance -- in discourse dao . So, for example, a thief is a man -- governed by the rules of similarity. But we still allow guidance that includes both the guiding strings "don't kill men" and "you may kill thieves." This realism led the later Mohists to linguistic conclusions that challenged any anti-language attitude -including those expressed by early Daoists. First, the later Mohists argued that in any disagreement about how to distinguish using a name, there was a right answer -- even though it may be hard to know or prove. So, for example, if we are disputing about whether to use "ox" or "non-ox" of some obscure object, one of the answers will be correct. This undermines both the nihilistic and the anti-language options to

understanding Laozi. Second, Mohists argued that any attempt to formulate the anti-language position was self condemning. "All language is bad" must be a "bad" thing to say. Other figures classified in the School of Names responded to the Mohist realists. Gongsun Long (mentioned sporadically in the Zhuangzi) took himself to be defending Confucian accounts of rectifying names and Hui Shi constructs what looks like a relativist challenge to Later Mohist accounts. We will look only at Hui Shi's account here because he plays such a significant role in the text of the Zhuangzi . Hui Shi implicitly addressed the claim that the correct use of words depends on objective patterns of similarity and difference. What we know of his writings (which the Zhuangzi history suggests were truly prodigious) is mainly a sequence of theses cited in at same Zhuangzi history. These focused on propositions about comparative "names" -- e.g., large and small. Clearly some things properly termed ‘large’ are objectively smaller than other things properly called ‘small.’ A small elephant is considerably larger than a huge ant! So correct naming must not be based on objective distinctions in the world, but on our projections from a point of view or purpose in using them. Similarly, ‘tall’, ‘short’, and time words (e.g., ‘before’ and ‘after’, ‘today’ and ‘tomorrow’) are implausibly attributed to objective distinctions From this, according to the list of propositions in the Zhuangzi history, Hui Shi apparently concluded that we can speak of a great "one" that is a kind of everything concept -- nothing lies outside it and of a small "one" which cannot be further distinguished or divided. Objectively there are no distinctions -- the cosmos is one, and we should direct the same guiding attitudes toward the whole -- "love all things equally." 8.6 Mature Daoism: The Zhuangzi From internal evidence, we would judge Hui Shi to have had much more influence on Zhuangzi than any knowledge of Laozi or of the contents of the Daode Jing as we know it. Hui Shi appears more often in dialogue with Zhuangzi than any other figure and in ways that suggest a long-term philosophical involvement and interaction, like relationship of philosophical friends. [8] And, as we observed, the inner chapters of the Zhuangzi show mastery of the technical terminology and state of the art theories of language in ancient China. Still the tone seems "Daoist" in the senses we've identified. Zhuangzi marks the high point of mature Daoist philosophical theory as he finds a better way to answer the later Mohist challenge than did Hui Shi. Zhuangzi finds a "naturalist" position that explains and makes coherent use of the normative priority of dao over tian nature:sky. The way to avoid the anti-language trap is:

• •

To acknowledge that language is natural, which Zhuangzi does in his famous image of the "pipes of tian nature:sky." To resist concluding that, in being natural, all language is right or permissible.

The first may superficially appear to give in to the Confucians and Mohists -- allowing them to claim that their respective ways have tian nature's endorsement. However, its Daoist thrust consists in depriving the absolutists of what they really want -- the ability to declare that their opponent violates tian nature:sky or lacks its similar approval. The strategy draws on the correct lesson to be learned from Shen Dao's notion of great dao -- that "follow nature" has no normative significance. Normative questions must be answered from within dao, not from nature or authority. Thus Zhuangzi's first step does not warrant treating all discourse dao as right or as wrong -- or even as equal. All normative evaluative judgments can be made only against the background of a presupposed way of making, justifying and interpreting -- they depend on or presupposing some way . The priority of dao over tian nature:sky underwrites the themes of dependency and relativism that pervade the Zhuangzi and ultimately the skepticism, the open-minded toleration and the political anarchism (or disinterest in political activity or involvement). Yet, while nature is not a standard, Daoism must acknowledge natural daos. Mohism had presupposed one (a natural impulse to benefit) as had the Confucian intuitionist, Mencius (a natural moral tendency in the heart-mind). Zhuangzi's does not deny natural or innate guides, but notes:

1. 2.

There are many such natural ways, and We presuppose further ways when we choose among natural ones and when we cultivate them in one way rather than another.

So the dependence on dao goes "all the way down." The Zhuangzi summarizes in a famous image, humans live and act in ways as fish live and act in water. We don't notice how, and in how many ways, we depend on ways. Being in a sea of ways is what it is for humans to exist. We cannot get outside of dao to treat it as an object or find an ultimate source or base of its authority. These meta-reflections inform relativist (perspectival and pluralist) and skeptical themes in the inner chapters of the Zhuangzi. Even the style furthers the two themes. Rather than speaking with an authorial voice, the text is filled with fantasy conversations between perspectives, including those of millipedes, convicts, musicians and the wind. A Zhuangzi reflective passage is likely to end with a double rhetorical question: "is it … or isn't it …?" Does Zhuangzi then have anything to teach us? His is an example of the key lesson -- open-minded receptivity to all the different voices of dao -- particularly those who have run afoul of human authority or seem least authoritative. Each has insights that may be surprisingly valuable -- viewed from within our own ways. On the flip side, we gain nothing from trying to imagine a perfect or ultimate source of guidance. If there were a perfect man or ideal observer-actor, we probably could not understand him. Would his ways have any relevance for us with our limits? Perfection may well look like its opposite to us. But the Zhuangzi differs in one important attitude from the Laozi -- we need not try to escape from social life and conventions. Conventions underlie the possibility of communication and are, thus, useful. So Zhuangzi's Daoism has less of the primitive thrust of the Daode Jing (the term wu-wei virtually disappears in the inner chapters). The most dramatic message of the Zhuangzi is a theme that links Daoism to Zen (Chan -- the distinctively Daoist influenced branch of Buddhism) -- the "mysticism" of losing oneself in activity, particularly the absorption in skilled execution of a highly cultivated way . His most famous example concerns a butcher -hardly a prestige or status profession -- who carves beef with the focus and absorption of a virtuoso dancer in an elegantly choreographed performance. The height of human satisfaction comes in achieving and exercising such skills with the focus and commitment that gets us "outside ourselves" and into such an intimate connection with our dao . Other examples include lute players, cicada catchers, wheelwrights and logicians. Each description has a hint of realism in the recognition we must put in effort to acquire the skills and then to convert them to "second nature." We come to see them as natural and as ourselves being at one with nature. Yet in the throes of skillful performance, we still can perfect them more and no matter how good we may become at one thing, may be miserable at others -- particularly at conveying the skills to others. Finally politically, Zhuangzi famously prefers fishing to high status and political office. He asks what a turtle would choose if offered the option of being nailed in a place of veneration an honor in some place of worship or staying at the lake and "dragging his tail in the mud." However this anti-political stance is unlikely to be simple self-preservation. The openness of Zhuangzi's pluralism does undermine the justification of political authority that was assumed in ancient China. Confucians and Mohists disagreed bitterly about what dao to follow in a society, but agreed without question that proper order was achieved only when a society followed a single dao . Zhuangzi's stance suggests that society could function with people following many ways of acting. Nothing requires suppressing or eliminating a dao that works from some point of view. The Zhuangzi text, as we noted, contains the writings of a range of thinkers loosely allied with these Daoist themes. Large sections lean toward the primitivism of Laozi and others emphasize the relativism, and still others become eclectic and uncritical in their openness. For a more complete account see the entry on Zhuangzi and Texts and Textual Theory below.

8.7 Neo-Daoism The establishment of an authoritarian empire and the long-lived but philosophically dogmatic (Confucian) Han dynasty temporarily drained the quality from Chinese philosophical thought. Classical Daoist philosophy was successfully extinguished by the imperial suppression of thought that initiated China's philosophical "Dark Age." The institution of Confucianism as the official orthodoxy of the Han cemented the stagnation firmly in place. Only Huang-Lao thinking remained as a live influence mingled in the eclectic Confucian blend. The fall of the Han saw the emergence a new form of Daoism -- Neo-Daoism (See Neo-Daoism). It's most influential writers, Wang Bi and Guo Xiang who wrote commentaries respectively on the Daode Jing and the Zhuangzi, were avowed Confucians. Their philosophy reinvested a stoic spirit in their new-Daoism embodied in the enduring slogan "Sage within, king without." They understood Daoism as a kind of inner emptiness or non-commitment coupled with a meticulous conformity to one's actual role in the times -whatever it might be. Thus they were Confucians on the outside and Daoists inside. This elaborated, for them, the concept of wu-wei (non-deeming action). They buttressed this social stoicism with metaphysical systems focused on the puzzle of "being and nonbeing" which formed the central issue for their "abstruse studies." Wang Bi (ca. 300) interpreted the Laozi alongside a Confucianized cosmological divination manual, The Book of Changes (I Ching or Yijing). The Book of Changes with its yin-yang account of change and its generational cosmology thus entered the list of Daoist texts and the Daode Jing was transformed in conventional wisdom into a detached cosmology. Wang Bi identified dao with non-being while still treating it as the source of all creation -- the basic substance (which he associated with the taiji Great ultimate of the Yijing). While the basic substance is nothing, its "function" is being -- thus being depends on non-being, from which it is constantly produced as a kaleidoscopic function of an unchanging, paradoxical reality of nothing. (The ideal Daoist-Confucian person mirrors this cosmology in being a "Sage within; king without".) The other Neo-Daoist, Guo Xiang commented on the Zhuangzi . His cosmology was an interesting twist on that of Wang Bi. Non-being, he argued, was finally, simply nothing and thus could not create anything. Simply put, there is no non-being -- there is only being. Being comes of itself and generates and changes itself constantly by the totality its own interrelations. These differences in emphasis partly reflect the differences in the original texts -- the Daode Jing's emphasis on wu non-being-values and the Zhuangzi's diverse pluralism and sense of freedom from ultimate cosmic control. Pragmatically, the two pictures were not very different. Each still had nothing at the center and being around the edges, but with Guo Xiang we have less emphasis on lines of force from non-being to being and more on the relations within the realm of being. He similarly reads his cosmology as "realized" in someone who achieves "sage within, king without." 8.8 Daoism and Buddhism Buddhism came to China at a time when the intellectuals were hungry for fresh ideas, but with massive handicaps. It was saddled with the Indo-European focus on metaphysics and epistemology, with its emphasis on truth, experience, prepositional knowledge, representational belief, a belief-desire psychology with a logic-informed notion of "reason" as a human faculty as well as a property of beliefs. Its arguments had little purchase on Chinese intellectuals and the only available common form of discourse that could "domesticate" this system was the Neo-Daoist "abstruse learning," which focused on the metaphysical notions of being and non-being. That issue resonated well with a Buddhist puzzle about the nature of Nirvana. If Nirvana was the opposite of Samsara (the eternal cycle of rebirth or reincarnation) then was it a state of being or of non-being? Nirvana is the achievement of the Buddha -- the expression of Buddhanature. Meantime, Buddhism came armed with a paradox that would delight thinkers of a Daoist turn of mind -- the famous paradox of desire. Rebirth was caused by desire and Nirvana could be achieved only by the cessation of desire. That meant that in order to achieve Nirvana, one had to cease to want to achieve it. This level of the argument informs the Mahayana notion of a Boddhisattva -- the one who qualifies for Nirvana but voluntarily stays behind in the cycle of rebirth to help the rest of us. The Mahayana wing of

Buddhism was the more successful in China because its implicit egalitarianism -- everyone could be Buddha, just as everyone can be a Daoist or Confucian Sage. The other Buddhist philosophy that had the greatest appeal in China was Madyamika, which answered the question of the nature of Nirvana or the Buddha nature by not answering it. The realization was a kind of inexpressible, mystical, special-knowledge. This helped blend discussion of dao and Buddha-nature even more and fueled the conclusion that they were the same. Meantime, the introduction of a more "Western" religious model (monasticism) to China and coincided with the launch of organized "Daoist" religions. Modeled thus in style and progressively in content, Daoism and Buddhism began to blend. The two dominant Theoretical Chinese sects of Buddhism reflect the cosmological structures of the two Neo-Daoists. Tian-tai is "center dominated" with a single thought (the inexpressible Madyamika Buddhanature) determining everything. Hua-yan shifts emphasis to the inter-relations of all "dharmas." It's a cosmos of interaction that constitutes the expression of Buddha nature. The most Daoist of Chinese sects is famously the Chan (Japanese 'Zen') sect. We can understand its Daoist character by returning to the paradox of desire. Laozi's analysis says artificial desires are those created by learned distinctions. If we are to eliminate the desire for Nirvana, it must be by "forgetting" the dichotomy of Nirvana-Samsara. This corresponds to a mystical answer to the question of the nature of Nirvana and underwrites the Chan emphasis on practice here and now -- "every moment Zen" -- and the signature "realization" that we are already Buddha. The Buddha nature is your self-nature. The Daoist abandonment of Buddhist theory is accompanied by another traditional Daoist feature -- the emphasis on total absorption in practice of a highly cultivated skill. Chinese Zen was dominated by the notion of "sudden enlightenment" which consists of the denial that any process leads anyone closer to the Buddha-nature. You can't get any closer -- you're just there. Pay attention! 8.9 Important Daoist Concepts Some important concepts that have played a role in the doctrines of Daoism are: 8.9.1 Dao and de : The Ethical Concepts Dao (Way, Guide, Road) De (Virtuosity, Virtue, Power) 8.9.2 Ming (Name) 8.9.3 Chang (Constant) 8.9.4 Wei & wu-wei (Deeming Action & Non-deeming Action) 8.9.5 Pu simplicity (Pre-linguistic Purity)

8.9.1 Dao and de : The Ethical Concepts Dao (Way, Guide, Road) Daoism has a reputation of being impenetrable mainly because of its central concept, dao. Yet surprisingly, the almost universal translation in English uses one of the smallest, simplest, most familiar and least consciously noticed terms of the language -- ‘way.’ This common translation, ‘way,’ is apt in several ways. Dao (Tao) is a pivotal concept of ancient Chinese thought. ‘Way’ is similarly primitive (it resists analytic definition). We can only offer synonyms: e.g., ‘course’, ‘method’, ‘manner’, ‘mode’, ‘style’, ‘means’, ‘practice’, ‘fashion’, ‘technique’ and so on. We discover the circularity when we try to analyze one of the synonyms without recourse to the term ‘way’ with which we began. The partial synonyms, however, remind us of a second way in which ‘way’ is an apt translation of dao. A way is the answer to a "how" or "what-to-do" question. We typically use talk of ways in advising someone. Ways are practical (i.e., prescriptive or normative). Dao is also used concretely to refer to a road or path in Chinese, e.g., Queen's Road. Again, ‘way’ fits -- as in highway and Broadway. In figurative English use they are interchangeable -- the road/way to salvation. Roads guide us and facilitate our arrival at a desired destination. The are, as it were, prescriptive structures. Though practical, describing something as a dao or a way need not be to recommend it. The Zhuangzi reminds us that thievery has a dao . We can use both dao and ‘way’ mainly to describe -- as when a Confucian undertakes to pursue his father's dao for three years after his death or we say "I saw the way you did that." Now for some interesting differences between dao and ‘way’. Chinese nouns lack pluralization, so dao functions grammatically like a singular term and semantically like a plural. The first tempts translators to render each occurrence as "the way." The advice is to treat dao as a collective noun -- as the sum of ways. What we think of as one way would be one part of dao. Multiplicity emerges in ancient Chinese most clearly when we modify common nouns. So we can talk about, e.g., my-dao, Sage-King's-dao, natural-dao, past-time's-dao and so forth. This feature explains why dao appears more metaphysical than ‘way’ and invites the familiar Daoist spatial metaphors like "humans encounter each other in dao as fish do in water" (Zhuangzi Ch. 6). Dao is a little like the water -- an expanse constituting the realm in which humans live, work and play. To be human is to be in a realm of ways to act/go. Daoists are more likely to play with these metaphysical metaphors than Confucians or Mohists -- who mainly point to (their favored part of) dao. Another difference is that while both dao and ‘way’ are almost ineliminable terms in their respective languages, Westerner philosophy has hardly noticed the word ‘way.’ It's barely visible in the history of Western philosophy – more like a bit of grammatical filler. Western philosophers have endlessly analyzed and dissected a cluster of terms thought to be central to our thinking, e.g., ‘good’, ‘right’, ‘being’ (to be), ‘know’, ‘believe’, ‘true’, ‘beautiful’, ‘reason’, ‘change’, ‘subject’, ‘mind’, ‘meaning’, ‘refer’, ‘object’, ‘property’, and so forth. Yet one looks in vain to find a Western philosopher showering her analytic attention on the concept of ‘way’. Dao, by contrast, was the center of Chinese philosophical discussion. It occupies the position at the center of thought that in Western philosophy is filled by terms like ‘being’ or ‘truth’. The centrality tempts interpreters to identify dao with these central concepts of the Western philosophical agenda, but that is to lose the important difference between the two traditions. Metaphysics and epistemology dominated early Western philosophy while ethics, politics and philosophy of education/psychology dominated Chinese thought. Although it's insightful to say humans live in dao as fish do in water, the insight is lost if we simply treat dao as being. Dao remains essentially a concept of guidance, a prescriptive or normative term. In the late Classical period, dao paired with de virtuosity to form the Chinese term for ‘ethics’ "dao-de." Dao is the key to Chinese philosophy -- but it still translates as ‘way’, not ‘being’.

A third difference is that unlike ‘way’, dao may be used as a verb. The best known example is the famous first line of the Daode Jing. Literally "dao can be dao not constant dao." For the dao in the middle of the three daos in the passage, roughly one out of three translators uses ‘speak’, another third use ‘tell’ and the rest use near synonyms such as ‘expressed’, "defined in words", or ‘stated’. In a famous Confucian example of this use, Confucius criticizes dao-ing the people with laws rather than dao-ing them with ritual. (This verbal sense is now often marked by a graphic variation dao to direct). Throughout classical texts, we find that daos are spoken, heard, forgotten, transmitted, learned, studied, understood and misunderstood, distorted, mastered, and performed with pleasure. Different countries and historical periods have different dao. Footprints of the linguistic component of the concept of dao are scattered through all kinds of modern Chinese compound words. ‘Preach’ is jiang-dao -- speak a dao. To know is to know a dao. The character dao is part of ‘doctrine’ ‘truth’ ‘principle’ ‘law’ and of course, ‘morality’ or ‘ethics’ ‘reason’, ‘religion’, ‘philosophy’ ‘orthodoxy’, ‘thank’ ‘apologize’ ‘tell’ ‘explain’ ‘inform’ and so on. Is ‘speak’ the right way to translate these verbal uses of dao? It is in some ways too narrow and in others too broad. We can write, gesture, point, and exemplify as well as speak daos. On the other hand, not all speaking (writing etc.) is dao-ing -- particularly not if we think of language as describing, representing, picturing, expressing, defining, or "capturing" some reality. The Chinese verbal use, is more accurately translated normatively as "to guide" or to "recommend." The activity of dao-ing is primarily giving advice. To dao is to put guidance into language -- including body language. Consider, again, the concrete translation for dao: ‘road’ or ‘path’. A woodsman with an ax daos when he chops bark from the trees as he enters the forest; He is dao-ing when "blazing" the trail. We must avoid regarding roads as simple natural objects -- they are, like the woodman's blazes, akin to texts that we "read" for guidance as we proceed on our way. Roads or paths are embodied in physical reality, but are not simply the reality. They are normative guides and "invitations" to "pass this way". One feature that dao and speech share is the need for interpretation. But with dao the interpretation is in xing conduct, not in a theory or a belief. In this respect, the relevant notion of interpretation is the aesthetic one -- as when a conductor interprets a score or an actor a character in a play. A complete metaphysics of dao involves a distinction between normative way types and interpretive tokens . Daoist theory does so most dramatically with Shen Dao who focuses on the great way -- the actual history of the world past, present and future. That image draws our attention to a purely descriptive way -- a way that is not a way (not a guide). To talk, however, about a way of interpreting a way, is to remind ourselves of Zhuangzi's point. That we can never make ways purely objective. In selecting it from the alternative "invitations" open to us, and then in interpreting in our actual "walking" we have relied on still some other dao from the one that has our attention. We forget we are in a sea of dao . Besides the actual dao, we can speak of tian nature:sky ways that are also descriptive. We still presuppose dao in choosing not to "reform" or "compensate" for our nature (as we do in choosing to follow it). Whichever dao we rely on is, presumably, itself natural at least in the sense of being naturally available ways of choosing and interpreting -- as are all the real alternatives. De (Virtuosity, Virtue, Power) A Daoist formula for de is "dao within." Translators most commonly use "virtue" as a translation but hurry to remind us that it is ‘virtue’ in the ancient Greek sense of an excellence. ‘Power’ is an alternative translation that reflects the link between de and successful action or achievement for its possessor. Given the importance of aesthetics in Chinese accounts of dao, we may think of de as ‘virtuosity.’ Virtuosity exhibits itself in a performer by making his "interpretation" of the thing performed (a ceremony, chant or ritual) work in the context. Thus de links dao with correct performance. This explains the overtones of "power" as the performer's ability to respond to clues in the context that make the performance "work."

8.9.2 Ming (Name) The character ming names really includes all words. (Grammatically, Chinese common nouns share more features with proper names than is the case in familiar Indo-European languages.) The translation ‘name’ is still close in content. The simple reason is that ancient Chinese theorists of language thought of all words as naming the segment of reality which the word "picked out" -- roughly what we think of as its denotation or range. Thus ‘white’ is a name and ‘horse’ is a name. Each names a scattered region of the world. The most familiar statement of a widely shared implicit theory of names in ancient China is expressed beautifully in the Daode Jing . Call it the "contrast theory" of names. It treats all words (norms or values) as "coming with" a complement, converse of opposite. To learn and understand a word is to know what is and what is not picked out by it. In the Daode Jing, the theory tends toward a linguistic idealist conclusion. Names literally "create" things. This line of interpretation informs the "chaos" interpretation of Daoist metaphysics in which reality is an undifferentiated stuff which humans divide into "things" by the use of ming names. An interesting near homonym is ming fate which is commonly used as a verbal form of ming names. It may be translated as ‘command’ (reminding us of the Chinese view that the role of language and names is guiding and coordinating behavior) and as ‘fate.’ Another is ming discern-discriminate which is typically rendered as "clarity" in the Zhuangzi.

8.9.3 Chang (Constant, Eternal) There is little controversy about the meaning of chang constant, but its uses and importance in Chinese thought are not well understood. Someone familiar with causal reliability theories in philosophy will more easily appreciate the uses of chang constant in ancient Chinese. The Daode Jing has a famous example of such uses -- modifying dao and ming names. Hu Shih speculated that in this use, chang constant was a counterpart of ‘true.’ He pointed to a related use in the Mozi which advocates that we should chang constant language that promotes [good?] behavior. Mohist use of the concept is instructive. Tian nature:sky is a paradigm of constancy. The Mohists alluded to its regularity and universality to contrast with the temporary and local authority of social conventions and guidance by authority. They cast their disagreement with Confucians in terms of who offered a constant dao. This seems to bridge two measures of constancy.

1. 2. 3.

A constant dao should apply equally to people of all cultures, times, and levels of social development. A constant dao should be operationally unambiguous -- like measurements operations. Its interpretation into action should not invite irregularity. A constant dao should be consistent with natural tendencies so it reinforces and draws reinforcement from them rather than resistance in practice.

Daoists, as the Laozi famously puts it, suggest that any dao that can dao (guide or be used as a guide) will not be a constant dao. It follows this claim with a parallel claims about ming names. Any name that can name is an inconstant name. This is arguably offered as the explanation of the inconstancy of dao asserted in the earlier sentence.

8.9.4 Wei & Wu-wei (Deeming Action & Non-deeming Action) Laozi's famous slogan has puzzled interpreters for centuries and has given rise to numerous analyses. The first character is not the main problem. Wu is simply "does not exist." In this phrase, however, interpreters treat it as a negative prescription: "avoid wei." The harder problem is to understand wei.

Textbook interpretations say wei means "purpose." In modern Mandarin, the character has two different tones. The fourth tone reading is usually translated as "for the sake of." In the second tone reading, the character would normally be translated as ‘to act’. Thus, translators argue, wu-wei really means no purposive action. The second tone reading, however, has another important use. Some grammar textbooks call it the putative sense -- "to deem, regard or interpret." Wei functions in this sense in Literary Chinese belief ascriptions. Wei also figures in a related way in some knowledge contexts -- "know to deem as …". Ancient Chinese has several meaning-related homonyms, including wei is-only, wei to be called, and wei artificial which adds a ‘human’ radical to wei do:deem. Typical translations of this character include ‘artificial’ or ‘false’. The cluster of concepts correspond to the pivotal Daoist contrast between tian (nature) and ren (the human). Wei is something done by human conceptualizing rather than something "natural." If we include this content in our explanation of Laozi's use of wei, we can explain its role more fully than simply lacking ‘purpose’ or deliberation. Little in the Laozi (or earlier Chinese thought) suggests any development of a distinction between voluntary, deliberate, or purposive action and its opposite. To act without wei is to remove the conceptual character from our behavior and act on "sheer" instinct or intuition. As we noted, the "inner chapters" of the Zhuangzi rarely mentions the slogan. However, its use in the "outer chapters" invites us to construct a possible Zhuangzi version of the slogan. One tempting view associates wu-wei with the "inner chapter" discussions of skillful behavior that develops into a kind of satisfying and tranquil state of harmony with action that we might describe as "second nature." In effect one acts while in an aesthetic or performative trance. The most famous expression of this ideal comes in the paean to the butcher who carved oxen with the grace of a dancer. Such behavior requires a focus and absorption that is incompatible with ordinary self-consciousness, purpose and rehearsal of instructions. We experience mastery as "becoming one with the activity." In some sense, our weiing has become natural! The wu-wei ideal also informs the Neo-Daoist slogan "Sage within; king without." It suggests (following Zhuangzi) that Daoist wu-wei may be consistent with being a good Confucian. Being a scholar-official is as much a skill as being a butcher and one may practice it with the same attitude of inner emptiness. As long as one takes the "right" attitude, one may pursue any activity consistent with Daoism. Neo-Daoists conform to Confucian roles without regarding or interpreting them as ultimately right -- or as anything else. With the importation of Indo-European Buddhism from India, wu-wei started to be interpreted via the Western conceptual apparatus contrasting desire or purpose and reason. This shaped the modern Chinese interpretation and probably undermined the ideal. It became the target of attack among "modern" Chinese who regarded Daoist "non-striving" or "purposelessness" as the source of Chinese passivity. The activist 19th century reformer, Kang You-wei (Kang have-wei) took the denial of the slogan as his scholarly name.

8.9.5 Pu simplicity (Pre-linguistic Purity) The Daoist "primitivist" ideal as expressed mainly in the Laozi. It stands for the result of forgetting ming names and desires (See Wu-wei). The most "detailed" translation is D. C. Lau's "nameless uncarved block." This translation captures Laozi's account of the Daoist contrast theory of language according to which names or language divides things. When societies adopt names or terms, it does so in order to instill and regulate desires for one of the pair created by the name-induced distinction. Thus Daoist forgetting requires forgetting names and distinctions, but in doing so, frees itself from the socially induced, unnatural desires that cause strife and unhappiness in society (e.g. status, rare objects, fame, authority). Thus, "The Nameless uncarved block thus amounts to freedom from desire." (Daode Jing 37) [Return to Index] 8.10 Texts and Textual History Questions of textual theory are the focus of the bulk of modern scholarship. They include these kinds of questions.

Existence (did Laozi or Zhuangzi actually exist)

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Authorship (did they write the texts attributed to them?) Dating (when did they exist or write their texts?) Relations (did Laozi influence Zhuangzi?)

Traditional "fantastic" textual stories dominated explanations of religious Daoism. This effectively replaces philosophical content with mythical narrative and claims of pedigree or status of the founder. This aversion to exposition is compounded with the traditional view that Daoist philosophy defies rational clarification. This philosophical site, accordingly, will give only abbreviated attention to these textual theories. The traditional story centers on Laozi and the Daode Jing. It credits the text to Laozi who was stopped at the pass while attempting to leave China (to go to India and come to be known as Buddha). The keeper of the pass required him to leave his dao behind so Laozi dashed off 5000 quick characters of poetry. Zhuangzi inherited the insights and developed the Daoist outlook in parable form. Modern text detectives, Chinese and Western, have successfully cast doubt on this traditional view. However, their alternative scenarios, while collectively more plausible than the traditional story, are diverse enough to lead a skeptic to conclude that no one knows the correct textual theories -- even if some of them out to be true. The time is too remote and the evidence too scarce to warrant using "know" of any detailed textual theory. Textual theorists themselves tend more toward interpretive skepticism. They argue that textual theory is prior to and more certain than interpretation -- which they treat as subjective projection. They would reject textual skepticism as defeatism and as self-defeating for an interpretive theorist. Current textual thinking tends toward the view that all the classical Chinese texts were being continuously edited and maintained in textual communities over sometimes hundreds of years. This editing and emendation often reflected interaction with other text communities as they worked out alternative answers to shared questions. Clearly such an accretion theory undermines the traditional goal of uncovering the "original" in the sense of the earliest version of the text. Text selection for interpretive and theoretical purposes becomes a more normative issue -- which text is best? Textual theory was further complicated when archeologists unearthed new copies of the Daode Jing. The traditionally dominant text was named after one of the earliest commentators -- the Wang Bi version. Most translations deviated only slightly from that traditional version prior to the first archeological discovery in 1973. In that year, two versions of the Daode Jing were unearthed in a Mawang Dui tomb site. The discovery energized textual theorists who reasoned that as the earliest physically extant text, the Mawang Dui must be closer to the original should be treated as authoritative. The discovery was quickly followed by a rash of new translations of the Dedao Jing (the two parts of the text were reversed in the newly discovered manuscripts). The argument for its authoritative status was weak. The enthusiasm rested on the traditional attachment to an "original" text (earlier in time). In fact, the discovery tended to confirm the evolutionary, multiple-editor view, while this enthusiasm treated textual evolution as if it took place by successive operations on a single physical text item. Like physiological evolution, text evolution more probably operated on a population or "stream" of copies, abridgements and additions. Wang Bi probably had access to a range of that population in selecting his version. The archeological discovery was of a single instance -- a branch of the stream. The historical circumstances of the presumed time of burial further undermined the optimistic assumption that the Mawang Dui was the original. The tomb's date places the texts after a radical disruption of textual husbandry -- in 200 BC when the Qin "burned books and buried scholars." The Qin had set out to destroy traditional learning. The later Han ostensibly cherished and tried to recover textual scholarship. In the succeeding Han, text collection, veneration preservation (and copying) became the norm. The theory that the Mawang Dui was the authoritative text assumes that the destructive political frenzy at the end of classical period had not affected the integrity of transmission that produced the Mawang Dui instances. Then it must insist that in the succeeding period of textual veneration and preservation, radical changes were introduced into the entire population of copies and versions of the text so that all

those on which Wang Bi drew on after the Han were corrupted -- and in similar ways -- from the orthodox Mawang Dui version. The opposite story is more probable -- the sample was a version written with punctuation and interpretive emendation for a member of the superstitious ruling class. Taking it as representing of the whole population of texts at the time is an elementary sampling error. The Mawang Dui fervor was further undermined in 1993 more when another discovery of a still older pair of abridged texts (dating from about 300 BC) turned out to be more like the traditional text (the order of selection reflected the traditional daode arrangement). Even more notably, it strongly confirmed the gradual accretion view of the text suggesting that the Daode Jing was still in the process of being compiled at that late date. This locates the composition of the Daode Jing and the Zhuangzi almost side-by-side. Laozi's existence is widely disputed partly because the traditional story seems impossible for one person to satisfy. That only entails, however, that not all the things in the story are true of him, not that he didn't exist. On the other hand, there is little positive evidence that he did and there are many alternative stories of how he came to be regarded as the author of the Daode Jing. It is common for theorists to treat ‘Laozi’ as a definite description referring to "whoever wrote the Daode Jing. -- "Many thus regard the question of his existence as equivalent to the question of his authorship of at least a part of the text -- hence improbable given current textual theory. The issues, however, are also separate. Laozi could have existed and not written any of the text attributed to him. On balance, the existence of Zhuangzi is considerably more probable, though little is known of him that is not from the text bearing his name -- many of whose stories are obviously fanciful. In China today, parts of the traditional theory have been resurrected. Some scholars are arguing for a preConfucius date for Laozi on various textual grounds (especially poetic structure). Traditional as well as modern scholarship tends to attribute the first eight "inner" chapters to Zhuangzi and there has been little doubt about his existence. So far one important implication of modern textual theory has had little effect on popular interpretations. If we inevitably rely on the stories in the Zhuangzi -- for our knowledge about him, then the known chief intellectual influence on Zhuangzi should be treated as the sophist and linguistic theorist, Hui Shi, not Laozi or the Daode Jing. Textual theories of the Zhuangzi are more elaborate and consistent. Though they differ in details and identification of parts, text scholars largely converge on attributing the chapters, outside of the eight assigned to Zhuangzi himself, to students of Zhuangzi, to primitivists who are associated with Yang Zhu (Yangists), and to other more eclectic and religious writers associated probably with the production of the other texts associated with Daoism. To be strict, however, despite the prevalence of the opinion, there is nothing resembling a convincing argument that Zhuangzi wrote all eight of the so called "inner chapters." Probably the association of the two texts began when students of Zhuangzi noticed some shared or reinforcing themes expressed in a contemporary anonymous textual group working on the evolving Daode Jing. Perhaps both groups appreciated the affinity and began to exchange themes, expressions, and related lines of thought. Graham argued that the association of Laozi with the Daode Jing dates from a conspiratorial attempt to gain authority over Confucianism by claiming that the Daode Jing stemmed from Confucius' teacher who was known in legend as Laozi. This is a rough table of the state of textual theories of the two defining texts of Daoism.


Traditional story


Laozi and Zhuangzi like Zhuangzi inspired the formulation Zhuangzi knew only the teacher-student or prophet- of the myth of Laozi and the Confucian story of Laozi. disciple attribution Laozi's actual existence merely possible.

Range of theories

Authorship Laozi wrote the Daode Jing Zhuangzi wrote only chapter two. before' traveling to India to Daode Jing a product of Huangfound Buddhism. Zhuangzi Lao ruler-mysticism. wrote the Zhuangzi.

Most plausible answer

Both books the product of textual communities who continually edit and add to the text. Zhuangzi wrote at most eight chapters.


The Daode Jing was written before Confucius. Zhuangzi inspired to expand on its mystical insight.

Daode Jing being edited well into Both being edited through and the Han dynasty. Miscellaneous beyond the classical period. and Outer chapters of the Zhuangzi edited or composed into the Han.


Laozi prophet/teacher, Zhuangzi formulated first and Textual communities began to Zhuangzi disciple/pupil. chief influence is his sophist borrow from each other after friend Hui Shi. the inner chapters completed.

Other textual theories address the authorship, dating and relations to the two canonical Daoist texts to the later "religious" texts mentioned above. Essentially the upshot is that they borrowed heavily from the two classical texts, often changing the context and failing to understand the philosophical point. The quotations they used were embedded in popular cosmological and religious contexts. The Story of Chinese Taoism: Taoist History and Effective Meditation Techniques ( pdf file) by Nan Huai Chin $35 > Click here to Buy Now (www.meditationexpert.com) If you want to learn Taoism, you truly cannot afford to miss out on this information from the man who re-established Taoist understanding in Taiwan and Mainland China Discover materials on Chinese Taoism that include correct meditation practice principles, the history of Taoism, gong-fu explanations ... and honest advice ... from a recognized Taoist master! Hard to find info on the founders of Taoism, history of Taoism, Taoist religion, Taoist meditation practice and more. China's only surviving tripartite Zen, Esoteric and Taoist master ... who has sold over seven million books in China ... recounts the history of Taoism and the principles of proper Taoist meditation practice. Inside you'll find fully comprehensive explanations of Taoism along with recommended methods and results of bodymind cultivation. For the first time in English, Nan Huai-chin's Taoist breakthrough insights are available to true Taoist seekers. Inside this work, which is the other half of The Story of Chinese Zen, published by Charles E. Tuttle, you will find discussions of Lao Tzu, Chuang Tzu, Wei Bo-Yang, fang-shih (or ancient "magicians" of China), the Yin-Yang school, kundalini, pranayama, chi, Taoism and the sciences, feng shui, Confucianism, medical longevity sciences, I-Ching, popular Taoist meditation methods and all the major topics of Taoism, including a trustworthy history of Taoism with critical analysis (something missing in most texts). You will find information on the battles Taoism fought with Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism. This is a veritable treasure trove of Taoist practice insights and history, and more importantly, it contains the proper road of meditation practice according to the real Taoism that has all but disappeared from the world. What Master Nan teaches is different than any other Taoist information you can find today as he weaves practical experience together with Taoism history of practice,and proper meditation technique. In your hands you'll have Chinese Taoism details - never before available in English - that illuminate a safe and correct road of meditation practice according to the correct Taoist vision. When I first encountered Tao and Longevity by Master Nan in the 1980's, I was dazzled by the information presented. Being trained in the Taoist cultivation path since my teens, the information and secrets presented in this book filled in lots of gaps. Thereafter, I seek out more of Master Nan's work in Chinese. To my disappointment, I find his work daunting. Master Nan, being a scholar-practitioner of the highest caliber, can extract from the full length and breathe of Chinese culture, history and spirituality. If you are not familiar with

Chinese history, basic Chinese classical language and no experience in cultivation practice, there is no way to have a full appreciation of his published work. I'm ever grateful to Bill Bodri who has tirelessly and generously organized and brought out the essence of Master Nan's work, including The Story of Chinese Taoism, into the English speaking public. The materials in this book have reoriented Taoism practices and scholarship in its right direction. If I was still in graduate school, I would like to be a proud holder of a PhD based on the materials presented in this volume. For scholars in this area, there are so much new materials (in almost every other page) for reference and research that it'll break new ground, make you all excited and perhaps not finish your graduate studies! More importantly, seasoned cultivation practitioners (of all schools), will gain further insights and guidance on the most popular Taoist practices so popularly promulgated like microcosmic orbit circulation, Qi-gong, sexual cultivation, anti-aging and alchemical formulations. You'll see how and when all these practices have been put aside in one way or another, in favor of something better that has come along. The tricky thing with Chinese historical thought is that nothing is ever fully abandoned, out of respect to scholarship. Most of the time, it's just put aside, and there lies the problem. If you don't know when and how they've been put aside, it's always available somewhere and you'll ignorantly picked up something that has been deemed less effective. It has happened to me and please don't let that happen to you. The Story of Chinese Taoism is no easy read, but it's worth it if you are serious into Taoist practices as it is full of secrets that most masters don't even know (most do not have the luxury, merit and wisdom to ponder, practice and experience the full scope of Chinese spirituality). Matured cultivators should use it for reference either for themselves or keep it for posterity. -- Lee, Malaysia "I just got your e-book on Taoism and couldn't wait--I stopped everything and read it! I had a successful Chiropractic practice in San Diego and gave it all up to move to Taiwan and study Internal Kong-fu and Taoism 20 years ago. Luckily for me, a Chinese patient of mine who is an entepreneur and philanthropist, introduced me to Bill Bodhri and his teacher Master Nan, in Hong Kong. They are truly for real, and can explain theory & practice in an understandable way that NOBODY else can. They kindly straightened out many of my errors on understanding & practice. (The truth be told, finding 'real Taoism' is almost impossible, and most Chinese are nearly as confused as the rest of us!). Master Nan's scholarship, experience, as well as personal cultivation practice is without peer in the world of Chinese Philosophy and Spiritual disciplines. Master Nan had privately told me a number of times that Bill is his finest student, and I know this to be trueas I know him and have seen him firsthand in his practice and study. We are unbelievably lucky to finally have such authoratative information presented in English, by someone who has "sat at the feet" of perhaps the last genuine Master of our time! In this age where the confusion surrounding Taoism is taken for fact (don't believe me? look at all the mis-information and crap on the internet!) and the tide of "new age" confusion is mixing with it, this wonderful book sets it straight and sets the ground work for authetic, genuine Taoist Cultivation. Bill has a great sense of humor, but deep down he is a low-key humble person. So, I hope you guys print what I wrote in its' entirety- so that others can have an appreciation for what Bill is doing with his website and books, and understand the rare value of what he is making available to the western world. -- Dr. Mark W. Griffin DC, Taipei Taiwan The translator, Dr. William Brown, once spoke to me about this text saying, "I've translated Nan Huai-Chin's works on both Confucianism and Taoism. You know the scholars say one thing about these fields, and he says another, and frankly, to tell you the truth, his revolutionary ideas are right and they're wrong!" That's why the author has sold over 7 million books in Asia, and is widely recognized as the premier Chinese authority on Taoism today. Scholars typically write dry books without any experience of the matter they're discussing, but this one seamlessly weaves a master's interpretations of facts and trends together with meditation principles and personal insights to provide you with guidance for your own spiritual efforts, even if you don't follow Taoism. In fact, the whole purpose of the book is to help you practice better by understanding how body-based cultivation schools (such as Taoism, yoga, Tantra, and Tibetan Buddhism) should be practiced correctly. With this sensational information in your hands you will avoid many of the detours discarded by ancient Taoist practice ... but popularized today by uninformed teachers. Now you can challenge them yourself using this material. Having met dozens of Taoist practitioners who hurt themselves because they thought

they understood things, I have to say that what they were lacking was Nan Huai-chin's insights! At last you have a chance to have them yourself without having to learn Chinese, travel to Asia, and then spend years collecting the same sort of information. This book is itself an important development in the history of Taoism. To give you just a small flavor of this 205 page ebook, let's take a peek at a tiny section discussing the Taoist idea of cultivating the body's ching (jing), ch'i (chi) and shen -- akin to cultivating our body, mind and spirit: In the philosophy of the Yellow Emperor and Lao Tzu, humility, restraint and refinement are taken as the guiding principles, and being pure, empty and without desires are regarded as the ethical basis of human cultivation. The alchemical methods promoted by Wei Po-yang took "cleansing the mind and retiring into secrecy" as the highest principle, and maintaining one's good position by restraint and preserving the inner light to nourish the true principle as the basis of practice. However, those who have cultivated the alchemical practices of the Wu-Liu Sect from the time of the Ming Dynasty down to the present have been arrogant, wild, narrow-minded, mysterious, and ignorant, fully exposing the negative and debased side of Chinese culture. This is truly a shame. The first wrong path taken by this sect of alchemy was the absurd idea that the ching of the spiritual vitality (ching shen) spoken of in the Taoist School was referring to sperm and blood. This was a fundamental error. Most people initiate their practice by quiet sitting and a great number of them experience some physiological reactions. They feel that there is circulatory flow through the ch'i channels in the body, and pulsations in some of their muscles. These are natural effects of practicing alchemical methods, and they consider them the achievements of having already opened up their conception and governor channels as well as the eight extra channels. In reality, these are all physiological reactions that naturally occur in quiet psychological states. There is not anything strange about them as they only verify the initial effects of quiet cultivation. Actually, the governor channel is the function of the spinal nervous system, the conception channel is the function of the autonomic nervous system, ching is the endocrine functions of the kidney glands and reproductive organs, and the spiritual saliva of the mouth is the endocrine functions of the pituitary and lymph glands. If we integrate certain common knowledge of modern physiology and medicine, psychological and philosophical knowledge, and various scientific theories and experience, we can then know that this is a very ordinary method of cultivating one's health. It is the result of the blending of spiritual vitality and psychology and not any mysterious secret of orthodox alchemy and immortality. There are also some schools of thought in modern medicine that are now studying the relationship between sexual hormones, blood and the restoration of youth. However, those are the ideals of medical science experiments such as the implantation of pituitary glands and afterbirths, and the injection of various types of hormones. These still remain within the ideological sphere of 2,000 years ago when the "fang-shih" were searching for means to extend life. The only difference lies in the theoretical names, drugs and methods employed. It can thus be seen that human wisdom is forever young, and this is another major problem in the cultural history of mankind. To summarize, the ching, ch'i and shen brought forth by the Taoist School are, from the scientific point of view, the spiritual functions of the eyes, ears and mind in terms of the physical and mental lives of people. The manifestation and application of spirit (shen) is then the function of one's vision, the manifestation and application of ch'i is then the function of one's sense of hearing, and the manifestation and application of ching are then the active thoughts of the mind and the inherent activities of the body. If we approach this from the point of view of the physical functions of the unity of Heaven and man, shen, ching and ch'i are then the functions of light, heat and power. From a philosophical perspective, the shen mentioned by the Taoist School is close to the "nature" spoken of in Buddhism, and the ching of the Taoist School is close to the "mind" in Buddhism. We therefore see the line "the essence (ching) of the mind is perfected" in the T'ang Dynasty translation of the Surangama Sutra; the ching referring to sperm (ching ye) is the stimulation of psychological desires triggering the functions of the internal secretions of the sex glands and the circulation of blood by the heart. It is just as Kuang Ch'eng-tzu of the Taoist School stated: "With the arousal of sexual desires there is necessarily stirring of the ching."

The ch'i spoken of by the Taoist School is close to the breathing discussed in Buddhism, the function of postnatal life. If we draw from phenomena of the physical world for purposes of illustration, shen is comparable to the light energy bestowed upon the myriad things by the sun as it gives energy to all life on earth. Ch'i is comparable to the vapors issued forth from the light energy of the sun radiating on the earth. Ching is then comparable to the combined physical effects produced by the sun bestowing light energy on the myriad things in the world. However, it should be noted that I have employed illustrations because there is no way of explaining the conditions of ching, ch'i and shen in detail, and illustrations are merely analogies, and not the essence of the original. The Taoist practices of the Chou and Ch'in dynasties began with the cultivation of the spirit which encompassed the functions of ching and ch'i. The methods of the Taoist School during and after the Ch'in and Han dynasties emphasized the cultivation of ch'i, and although they varied slightly from the cultivation of the spirit, they changed from the metaphysical to the physical realm. The cultivation of ching during and after the Sung and Yuan dynasties descended even deeper into the physical realm, and the techniques completely focused on postnatal concepts of form quality. The principles of form and spirit involve a very broad area and for the moment we will not discuss them here. Let us further explain by discussing the relationship between sitting in meditation, the Tantric School, and yoga. Sitting meditation was introduced into China from India as a Buddhist method for concentrating the mind so as to enter a state of deep contemplation. This method of sitting with folded legs was a form derived from ancient Indian yoga, and it was not originally from the Buddhist School nor from the alchemical sect of the Taoist School. It is a method which can be utilized in all forms of cultivation of the mind and body, but we rarely see mention of the relationship to sitting meditation in the alchemical texts of the Taoist School prior to the T'ang and Sung dynasties. However, there is no doubt that sitting meditation is a very useful method which can aid in the cultivation of the Tao. It would be a mistake to discuss the cultivation of the path of immortality and the meditation (ch'an) of the Ch'an School of Buddhism together. During and after the Sung and Yuan dynasties, the Tantric Sect of Buddhism transmitted from Tibet, like the Taoist School, paid serious attention to the cultivation of the ch'i channels and realizing bliss, clarity and a state of no thought. These were also originally excellent Buddhist methods of practice which focused on verification of the material by means of the metaphysical. However, by the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties, they had become like the alchemical methods of the Taoist School which focused on the effects of form quality and cultivation of the ch'i channels. It had thus taken a plunge down from the original profound sublimity. The highest achievements in yoga techniques are only equivalent in value to the internal practices of the ch'i guidance and health cultivation school of Taoism, and are not the ultimate teaching. Most people who study the alchemical arts often mix up sitting meditation, Tantric, yoga and other methods of cultivation popular throughout the world without clarifying the differences in focus among them. Purity of mind and few desires is always the starting point in practice whether one is studying the path of the immortals or Buddhism, and the ultimate aim is calmness, extinction and non-action. This is aptly stated in the Taoist text Classic of Purity and Quietness (Ch'ing Ching Ching): "If one can constantly be pure and quiet, both Heaven and earth will revert to you." However, people in the real world are often as Confucius mentioned: "Food and sex are the major desires of people." Kao Tzu also stated: "Food and sex are the nature of people." It is quite impossible for people who desire after food and sex, and scheme to enjoy wealth and fame to want to accomplish "abandoning desires and cutting off entanglements." Here's another lesson taken from the The Story of Chinese Taoism ... which has implications for the use of vitamins and nutritional supplements in holistic medicine: It is here applicable to explain a problem involving Chinese history. Several emperors and famous individuals of the Han, T'ang, Ming and Ch'ing dynasties who sincerely believed in the Taoist arts and the taking of alchemical drugs such as Han Yu (768-824 A.D.), Su Tung-p'o (1036-1101 A.D.), and Wang Yangming (1427-1528 A.D.) brought about their early deaths by ingesting the alchemical drugs of the "fang-shih" of the Taoist School. What was the reason for this? We wish to sincerely warn each of our friends here today who superstitiously believe in modern patent medicines, who take large amounts of tonics, and take special injections of restoratives that they should pay careful attention to this problem. The "fang-shih" invented and refined mineral drugs made from metals and other substances. In terms of medical and pharmaceutical worth, they made doses for physically treating the human body, and only if suitable doses were applied, not only would it be correct but it would be extremely valuable. However, these

types of drugs refined from mineral substances were all irritating in nature, and moreover they acted to fiercely develop physiological functions much like modern vitamins. The first important point in the methods of ingestion by the "fang-shih" orthodox Taoist School is the need to very thoroughly "purify the mind and restrict the passions" in terms of psychological behavior and one can absolutely not be covetous of sexual activities and the consumption of meat before beginning to take the drugs. Otherwise, one will have a very intense tonifying yang reaction as soon as the drug is consumed, which will necessarily promote sexual impulses. There is no doubt that this became an amulet for hastening on death by those emperors and famous nobles who spent their days dallying in wine, women and song. This is not at all surprising! The second important point is that the alchemical drugs consumed by the Taoists required first practicing up to the level wherein the spirit was fixed and the ch'i accumulated, grains were avoided and one did not eat the food cooked in the world of men. Only then could one absorb and fuse the drugs, otherwise one could actually be poisoned by food or die from the ingestion of the drug. In sum, generally those who took alchemical drugs were unable to cut off the desire for "food and sex," but rather, on the other hand, they came to rely upon the effects of the alchemical drugs to realize the pleasures of "food and sex." Then "the taking of drugs to seek immortality contrarily became a misunderstanding of the use of these drugs." This was a necessary outcome but this great mess need not be blamed on the "fang-shih." Don't you think so? Here is an abbreviated Table of Contents: Introduction Chapter 1: The Origins of the Learning and Thought of the Taoist School and Those of Huang-Lao and Lao-Chuang · The Relationship of the Taoist School with Huang-Lao · The Relationship of the Taoist School and Lao-Chuang Chapter 2: The Relationship of the Thought of the Recluse and the Taoist School · Counter-Evidence to the Legends of Ancient History · The Relationship of the Thought of Confucius and the Recluse · Relationship of the Recluses and Historical Politics Chapter 3: The Learning of the Fang-shih (Occultist) and the Taoist School · Early Natural Sciences · The Yin-Yang School Evolved Into the Humanities · Theoretical Physical Sciences Chapter 4: Origins of the Learning and Thought of the Fang-shih in the Taoist School · Ancient Traditional Culture and the Taoist School During the Chou Dynasty · Cultural Background of the Northern Chinese States of Ch'i, Lu, Yen and Sung During the Warring States Period · The Culture and Thought of the Southern State of Ch'u During the Warring States Period Chapter 5: Contents of the Learning and Thought of the Taoist School and Taoist Religion · Cosmological Theories of Heaven and Man in the Taoist School and Taoist Religion -- The Concept of the Yin and Yang -- The Concept of the Five Elements -- The Concept of Sixty Year Cycle Using the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches · Learning and Thought of the Cultivation of Immortals in the Taoist School · Estimation of the Meaning of Human Life by the Taoist School and Taoist Religion The Influence of the Thoughts of the "Fang-shih" (A) The theories and methods on the cultivation of the spirit were naturally first advocated by Lao Tzu (B) The first theories of the cultivation of ch'i and the refinement of ch'i (C) The reasons for the taking of drugs (D) The two theories related to the taking of alchemical drugs (E) The three types of alchemical drugs ingested (F) The three methods for ingesting alchemical drugs (G) The cultivation and practices of the sect of worship and prayer

Chapter 6: The Immortal Alchemical Sect During and After the Han and Wei Dynasties · The Originator of Alchemical Texts Wei Po-Yang · The Alchemical Method of Refining Ch'i and Nourishing Life Through the Combination of the Medical Sciences of the Fang-shih and the Representations and Numerology of the Book of Changes Chapter 7: General Discussion on the Thoughts of the Founders of the Taoist School and Taoist Religion · The Meaning of "Heaven" Prior to the Split of the Confucian and Taoist Schools · The Meaning of "Tao" Prior to the Split of the Confucian and Taoist Schools · Lao Tzu -- The Concepts of the Way of Heaven, Non-Action and Spontaneity in the Thought of Lao Tzu -- Lao Tzu's Views on Benevolence, Righteousness and the Sage -- Misunderstanding of Lao Tzu's Political Thought -- Lao Tzu Has Been Falsely Charged as the Instigator of Schemes and Intrigues -- The Focal Point of Lao Tzu's Political Thought -- Lao Tzu's Theories on the Cultivation of Life (A) The cultivation of quietude begins with attaining utmost emptiness and internal stillness (B) The cultivation of the spirit proceeds from utmost stillness to being dimly visible as if not present (C) The cultivation of ch'i is designed to aid the cultivation of stillness and the spirit (D) Realizing that which is shadowy and indistinct (E) The results of the cultivation of life ·The Classic of Purity and Stillness · Chuang Tzu -- The Fables in the Chuang Tzu -- Chuang Tzu's Free and Easy Wandering and the Seven Inner Chapters -- The Style of the Outer Chapters of the Chuang Tzu -- The Mutual Causation of the Ideas of Caring for Life in the Chuang Tzu and the Fang-shih Immortals · The Influences of the Yin-Yang School and Fang-shih of the Warring States Period · The Learning and Thought of Tsou Yen -- The Motives and Aims of Tsou Yen's Theories on Yin and Yang -- The Contents of the Yin-Yang Theory -- The Geophysical Thought of Tsou Yen -- The Prevalent Trend of Learning in the State of Ch'i

· The "Fang-shih" of the States of Yen and Ch'i and the Origins of the Thought of Immortals During the Ch'in and Han Dynasties · Emperor Ch'in Shih Huang and the Feng and Shan Sacrifices · The Spirit Way and Spirit Immortals at the Beginning of the Han Dynasty · General Contents of the Learning and Thought of the Taoist School During and After the Han and Wei Dynasties Chapter 8: The Taoist Religion · Reasons for the Formation of the Taoist Religion at the End of the Han Dynasty · The Taoist School and Taoist Religion During and After the Chin and Wei Dynasties · The Taoist Religion During the T'ang Dynasty · The Taoist Religion During the Sung, Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing Dynasties Chapter 9: The Ideas of the Taoist School and Taoist Religion and the Educational Spirit of Chinese Culture To understand more about Chinese Taoism and body-mind cultivation -- and even tantra techniques, yoga, kundalini cultivation, pranayama and Tibetan Buddhism because of their similarities of practice and shared materials -- there's nothing better than first grabbing a copy of Tao and Longevity for your own personal practice, and then a copy of The Story of Chinese Taoism to understand the broader principles and framework of Taoist practice along with the evolution of Taoist philosophy and cultivation methods. Inside this work you will find many translated source materials that you won't find in any other English publication. Furthermore, you find Taoist trends and fads put into the right perspective along with

discussions of their pros and cons. This is the information that lets you reach the highest stages of Taoist cultivation. Because Taoism focuses on body-mind cultivation, you need this book to deepen your knowledge of practically any school of cultivation that focuses on the body and discusses physiological changes due to climbing the spiritual ladder. It will definitely teach you what you must do in your own spiritual practice to become a "true man," the perfected individual, and to claim all the other benefits and virtues of Taoist practice. Oh yes, one more thing. I forgot to tell you that we do something different here that amazon.com doesn't offer ... The Story of Chinese Taoism has a 90-day 100% money back guarantee. Read the book and absorb the information without risking your money whatsoever. If the information isn't helpful to you, if it isn't new, if you don't like it, if you didn't learn anything, if it isn't what you want, ... if you don't like us or think we're a bunch of %&$#* maniacs -- we'll still cheerfully send you back your money and you can still keep the materials. That makes your order 100% RISK FREE so there's nothing to lose. Why not try it and read till your heart's content? To study Taoism -- to really know it, understand it and practice it -- you need this information which is why we make such an offer. As publishers we have to charge money to cover our production costs, but we're doing the most possible to help you purchase it because it is in your best interests to have it. And there's a very special BONUS for ordering, too. With your order you'll also get access to a 57-page article on do-it-yourself blood electrification and all sorts of other antibiotic alternatives for doctors and patients that cut down on the viral and bacterial loads in your blood stream, just as the Tao school tries to do using all sorts of toxic herbs, minerals and metals. Reducing this pathogenic load, which gives off all sorts of negative chi you have to plough through, is a great way to help your spiritual cultivation. Search the internet and you won't find this information elsewhere. Copyright (c) 2003 Top Shape Publishing, LLC All Rights Reserved in All Media (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)


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Daoism in Histories of Philosophy Focused Treatments Collections Translations Religious Treatments Textual Studies

Daoism in Histories of Philosophy The most influential treatments of Daoism are those that place their discussion in more general accounts of Chinese Philosophy. Some important ones are:

• • •

Fung, Yu-lan (1952). History of Chinese Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [A classic widely used treatment.] Graham, Angus (1989). Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China. La Salle, IL: Open Court. [A very influential recent approach. Beginning to be more controversial.] Hansen, Chad (1992). A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought. New York: Oxford University Press. [Controversial treatment locating Daoism in ancient Chinese theory of language.]

• • • •

Hsiao, Kung chuan (1979). A History of Chinese Political Thought, Volume I: From the beginnings to the Six Dynasties. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Very clear treatment from a traditional political perspective.] Munro, Donald, J. The Concept of Man in Early China. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1969. [Influential treatment locating Daoism in the theory of human nature and conduct.] Needham, Joseph. Science and civilisation in China, vol. 2: History of scientific thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1962. [Influential treatment viewing Daoism in connection with Chinese science.] Schwartz, Benjamin (1985). The World of Thought in Ancient China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Highly regarded orthodox treatment.]

Focused Treatments More focused treatments develop sometimes classic and sometimes controversial lines of interpretation of philosophical Daoism. These often disagree with each other so none is definitive but notable contributions include:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Alt, Wayne (1991) "Logic and Language in the Chuang-tzu" Asian Philosophy v. 1 n. 1 p. 61-76 Chen, Ellen Marie. Nothingness and the mother principle in early Chinese Taoism. International Philosophical Quarterly, 9 (September 1969), pp. 391-405 Cook, Scott (1997) "Zhuang Zi and his carving of the Confucian ox." Philosophy East and West v. 47 n. 4 p. 521-554 Creel, Hurlee G. (1970). What is Taoism?. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cua, Antonio S. Opposites as complements: reflections on the significance of Tao. Philosophy East and West, 31, 2 (April 1981), pp. 123-40. Fu, Charles Wei-hsun. Creative hermeneutics: Taoist metaphysics and Heidegger. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 3 (1976), pp. 115-143. Graham, Angus (1983). "Daoist Spontaneity and the Dichotomy of ‘Is’ and ‘Ought'." In Mair, Victor, ed. Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 3-23. Hall, David L. Process and anarchy: a Taoist vision of creativity. Philosophy East and West, 28, 3 (July 1978), pp. 271-85. Hansen, Chad (1983). "A Tao of Tao in Chuang Tzu." In Mair, Victor, ed. Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 24 55. Kasulis, T. P. The absolute and the relative in Taoist philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 4 (1977), pp. 383-94. Kupperman, Joel J. Not in so many words: Chuang Tzu's strategies of communication. Philosophy East and West, 39, 3 (July 1989), pp. 311-17. Lau, D.C. The treatment of opposites in Lao-tzu, Bulletin of the Society for Oriental and African Studies, 21 (1958), pp. 344-60. Smullyan, Raymond (1977). The Tao is Silent. New York: Harper and Row. T'ang, Ch?-i. Cosmologies in ancient Chinese philosophy. Chinese Studies in Philosophy, 5, 1 (Fall 1973), pp. 4-47. Van Norden, Bryan V. (1996) "Competing interpretations of the Inner Chapters of the ‘Zhuangzi.’" Philosophy East and West v. 46 n. 2 p. 247-269 Watts, Alan Wilson. Tao: The Watercourse Way. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1975. Watts, Alan Wilson. The Philosophy of the Tao. In The Way of Zen, Pantheon Books, New York, 1957; Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1962, pp. 23-48. Welch, Holmes (1966). Taoism: The Parting of the Way. Boston: Beacon Press.

• • • •

Wong, David (1984) "Taoism and the Problem of Equal Respect" Journal of Chinese Philosophy v. 11 n. p. 165-183 Wu, Kuang-ming. Chuang Tzu: World Philosopher at Play. Scholars Press and Crossroad Publishing Company, n.p. 1982. Yearley, Lee (1983). "The Perfected Person in the Radical Chuang-tzu." In Mair, Victor Yearley, Lee (1996). "Zhuangzi's Understanding of Sillfulness and the Ultimate Spiritual State." In Kjellberg Paul and Ivanhoe Philip J, ed. Essays on Skepticism, Relativism and Ethics in the Zhuangzi. Buffalo: SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. 152-182.

Collections Collection of articles mainly focus on Zhuangzi. Some of the focused discussions are found in such collections which include:

• • •

Victor, ed. Experimental Essays on Chuang-tzu. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Wandering at Ease in the Zhuangzi, Ames, Roger, ed. Buffalo, SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. Kjellberg Paul and Ivanhoe Philip J ed. (1996). Essays on Skepticism, Relativism and Ethics in the Zhuangzi. Buffalo: SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture.

Translations Interpretive theories are presented most systematically in translations, but there are too many to list here (and most tend to religious lines of interpretation). Some of the more influential philosophical translations of the key texts include:

• • • • • • • • • • •

Carus, Paul (1913). The Canon of Reason and its Virtue. Chicago: Open Court. Chen, Guying (1977). Lao Tzu: Text, Notes, and Comments. Ames and Young,tr., San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center. Duyvendak, J. J. L. (1954). Tao Te Ching. London: John Murray. Graham, Angus (1969) "Chuang-tzu's Essay on Seeing Things as Equal," History of Religions v. 7 n. p. 137-159 Graham, Angus (1981). Chuang tzu: The Inner Chapters. London: Allen & Unwin. Graham, Angus tr. (1960). The Book of Lieh-tzu. London: John Murray. Henricks, Robert G. (1989). Lao-tzu: Te-Tao Ching: A New Translation Based on the Recently Discovered Ma-wang-tui Manuscripts. New York: Ballantine Books. Lau, D. C. tr. (1963). Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching. Baltimore: Penguin Books. Mair, Victor tr. (1990). Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way. New York: Bantam Books. Waley, Arthur (trans). The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and its Place in Chinese Thought. Allen & Unwin, London, 1934. Watson, Burton. The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu. (Records of Civilization: Sources and Studies No. LXXX, Columbia College Program of Translations from the Oriental Classics) Columbia University Press, New York, 1968.

Religious Treatments Religious treatments vastly outnumber the philosophical. Here, we will list only a representative sample.

• • • • • • • • •

Berling, Judith A. Paths of convergence: interactions of inner alchemy, Taoism and NeoConfucianism. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 6 (1979), pp. 123-? . Blofeld, John. Taoism: The Quest for Immortality. Mandala Books, Unwin Paperbacks, London, Boston, Sydney, 1979. Girardot, Norman J. (1983). Myth and Meaning in Early Taoism: The Theme of chaos (hun-tun). Berkeley: University of California Press. Kohn, Livia (ed.). Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques. University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies Publications, Ann Arbor, 1989. Maspero, Henri tr. (1981). Taoism and Chinese Religion. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Robinet, Isabelle. Metamorphosis and deliverance from the corpse in Taoism. History of Religions, 19, 1 (August 1979), pp. 37-70. Saso, Michael. Taoism and the Rite of Cosmic Renewal. Washington State University Press, Pullman, 1972. Sivin, N. On the word "Taoist" as a source of perplexity, with special reference to the relations of science and religion in traditional China. History of Religions, 17, 3/4 (February/May 1978), pp. 303-30. Welch, Holmes and Seidel, Anna (eds). Facets of Taoism. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1979.

Textual Issues Discussion of textual issues is a major focus of scholarly activity. Modern textual theories have influenced interpretation particularly of the philosophical content. Some examples include:

• • • • • • •

Graham, Angus (1961) "The Date and Composition of the Lieh-tzu" Asia Major v. 8 n. 2 p. 13998 Graham, Angus (1979) "How much of the Chuang-tzu Did Chuang-tzu Write?" Journal of the American Academy of Religion v. 47 n. 3 p. Hansen, Chad (1997). "The Zhuangzi: A Historical Introduction." In Tsai Chih Chung, ed. The Dao of Zhuangzi. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books (Doubleday and Co.). 9-22. Hu, Shih (1989) "A Criticism of some recent methods used in Dating Lao Tzu" Philosophy East and West v. 40 n. 1 p. 17-33 Liu Xiaogan (). Classifying the Zhuangzi Chapters. Ann Arbor: Universityof Michigan Center for Chinese Studies. Roth, Harold D. (1992). The Textual History of the Huai Nanzi. Ann Arbor: Association of Asian Studies. Roth, Harold D., (1991) "Who Compiled the Chuang Tzu?" in Rosemont, ed. Chinese Texts and Philosophical Contexts, La Salle:Open Court, pp. 84-95

Other Internet Resources General Resources about Chinese Thought

• • •

Chinese thought in General Stephen Angle's Chinese Philosophy Pages [Excellent text resources, online courses, and well designed pages.] Chad Hansen's Chinese Philosophy Pages [Content page for end user of philosophical interpretations that emphasize Daoism.]

• • • • •

Charles Muller's Chinese Philosophy Page [Some texts and resources.] Brian Van Norden's Homepage [Bibliography of "worthwhile" readings on Chinese Philosophy.] Fabrizio Pregadio's Home Page [Lots of resources with a Daoist focus.] Warring States Working Group [A site for discussion of cutting edge textual theory. Not much philosophy.] Internet Guide for Chinese Studies (Philosophy and Religion) [List of Chinese Philosophy Sites.]

Philosophical Daoism (Copyright © 2003 [Daoism Net (Nice music).]

• • •

Chad Hansen

[email protected]), Daoism Net

Taoism Information page [List of sites and resources including links to Chinese Philosophy sites.] Taoism Information Page (Bibliography) [Exhaustive bibliography.] Shuhai Wenyuan: Classical Chinese Digital Database and Interactive Internet Worktable, edited by Mary Tiles and Roger Ames (University of Hawaii)

HOLISTIC DISCIPLINES (www.astramate.com)

9 Touch & Movement Therapies Touching, Rubbing & Stroking are instinctive gestures of comfort, and human contact can have strong physiological as well as emotional effects.

Massage Therapy

Massage has been used for thousands of years as a simple and effective method of attaining and maintaining good health, and its benefits have long been recognized in many cultures throughout the world. Therapeutic massage can be used to promote general well-being and enhance self-esteem, while boosting the circulatory and immune systems to benefit blood pressure, circulation, muscle tone, digestion, and skin tone. It has been incorporated in into many health systems and different massage techniques have been developed and integrated into various complementary therapies.


Foot massage has been practiced for centuries, but reflexologists believe that it can do more than simply aid relaxation. According to reflexologists, the feet and hands are a mirror of the body, and pressure placed on specific reflex points on them can be used to affect the corresponding areas of the body in order to stimulate natural healing powers and promote well-being. All parts of the foot (or, less commonly, the hand or ear) are massaged, so that the whole body benefits. the therapy has become popular around the world, and is often used in conjunction with aromatherapy or naturopathy.


Many cultures, from Far Eastern to Ancient Egyptian, have established a form of aromatherapy over the centuries, combining the medicinal properties known to exist in plants with the tradition of healing massage with oil. Modern aromatherapy practice is largely based on research by doctors in France, where essential oils are sometimes prescribed as alternatives to conventional medicine. Outside France, aromatherapy initially became popular as a beauty treatment, and its medicinal and therapeutic potential has only recently been recognized.


Developed in the late 19th century by Daniel D. Palmer, chiropractic seeks to diagnose and treat disorders of the spine, joints, and muscles with techniques of manipulation, and to maintain the health of the central nervous system and organs. Practitioners believe that when body systems are in

harmony, the body has the ability to heal itself from within. As a result of its success in treating back problems, headaches, and sports and other injuries, chiropractic is the most widely practiced branch of complementary medicine in the West, with around 60,000 practitioners worldwide.


This holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment originated in the United States in the late 19th century. Practitioners use touch and manipulation of the musculoskeletal system to restore or improve mobility and balance, and thereby enhance well-being. Techniques range from gentle massage to highvelocity mobilization of the joints. Now established along conventional medicine in North America, and practiced throughout Europe and Australia, osteopathy is one of the most respected and widely used complementary therapies, particularly for a pain in the back and joints.

Cranio Sacral Therapy

Cranial Sacral Therapy is a diagnostic and healing approach based on the application of corrective pressure to the cranium and spine (the cranio-sacral system). It grew out of work with cranial osteopathy in claiming that the cranial rhythmic impulse affects every cell in the body. Dr. John Upledger, an osteopath at Michigan State University, developed this approach in the late 1970s. While incorporating some of the techniques practiced in cranial osteopathy, Upledger distinguishes it from osteopathy in being "soft tissue-oriented", "fluid-oriented", and "membrane-oriented" rather than "bone-oriented". The approach is still considered controversial in the UK, though more widely practiced in the US.


The meridians of the body

Part of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It became widely known in the West in the 1970s when it was used as an anesthetic and received sensational press coverage. Practitioners insert fine, sterile needles into specific points on the body as a treatment for disorders ranging from asthma to alcohol addiction, but most often as a means of pain relief in the West. Now one of the most well-known and most widely accepted Eastern therapies, acupuncture is increasingly practiced in a simplified form my medical doctors. The theory is that Qi, an invisible life energy, flows through yin and yang meridians just below the surface of the skin. Any disruption to the flow disturbs the balance of yin and yang and leads to illness. Electro-Acupuncture

Acupressure Described as "acupuncture without needles", acupressure probably predates its better known sister therapy. Part of Traditional Chinese Medicine, it is based on the theory of Qi (life energy) flowing through channels in the body known as meridians. Finger and thumb pressure is applied to acupoints to relieve specific conditions and to promote harmony and good health. Widely practiced in China, acupressure is less common in the West, but is gaining popularity. Many acupuncturists use acupressure as part of treatment, and claim it is suitable for self-treating minor ailments.

T'Ai Chi Ch'uan

Often known as T'AI CHI, this Chinese movement therapy was reputedly practiced by Taoist monks in the 13th century, but its exact origins are difficult to trace. A dynamic form of Qigong, T'ai chi is a non-combative martial art that uses breathing techniques and sequences of slow, graceful movements to improve the flow of Qi or "life energy", calm the mind, and promote self-healing. T'ai chi is often described as meditation in motion and is performed daily by millions of Chinese people all over the world. Its popularity is increasing in the West.


Yoga asanas and relaxation techniques were developed to bring physical and spiritual benefits. Asanas are designed to have an impact on the physical body, stimulating nerve centers and organs. Spiritual benefits are derived from using breathing techniques and meditation to influence the flow of prana, or life energy, which flows through the "subtle" (nonphysical) body in invisible "energy channels", known as nadi. When mind and body are in harmony, the individual can focus on spiritual goals by practicing the higher discipline of meditation.

click on "The Chakras" in the article

In more esoteric yoga teachings, the chakras are centers of life energy, situated in the "subtle body" seat of the senses, emotions, and intellect. Seven chakras ascend in order of spiritual refinement along a central channel, the Sushumna. Chakras are linked to nerve centers along the spinal cord and, like them, are thought to be influenced by asanas. Each chakra is symbolized by an exact number of lotus petals and, according to some schools of yoga, is associated with a specific mantra or sound, such as "Om" or "Ram". These are used in meditation and breathing exercises to act on the chakras. Touch & Movement Therapies Touching, Rubbing & Stroking are instinctive gestures of comfort, and human contact can have strong physiological as well as emotional effects.

Massage Therapy

Massage has been used for thousands of years as a simple and effective method of attaining and maintaining good health, and its benefits have long been recognized in many cultures throughout the world. Therapeutic massage can be used to promote general well-being and enhance self-esteem, while boosting the circulatory and immune systems to benefit blood pressure, circulation, muscle tone, digestion, and skin tone. It has been incorporated in into many health systems and different massage techniques have been developed and integrated into various complementary therapies.


Foot massage has been practiced for centuries, but reflexologists believe that it can do more than simply aid relaxation. According to reflexologists, the feet and hands are a mirror of the body, and pressure placed on specific reflex points on them can be used to affect the corresponding areas of the body in order to stimulate natural healing powers and promote well-being. All parts of the foot (or, less commonly, the hand or ear) are massaged, so that the whole body benefits. the therapy has become popular around the world, and is often used in conjunction with aromatherapy or naturopathy.


Many cultures, from Far Eastern to Ancient Egyptian, have established a form of aromatherapy over the centuries, combining the medicinal properties known to exist in plants with the tradition of healing massage with oil. Modern aromatherapy practice is largely based on research by doctors in France, where essential oils are sometimes prescribed as alternatives to conventional medicine. Outside France, aromatherapy initially became popular as a beauty treatment, and its medicinal and therapeutic potential has only recently been recognized.


Developed in the late 19th century by Daniel D. Palmer, chiropractic seeks to diagnose and treat disorders of the spine, joints, and muscles with techniques of manipulation, and to maintain the health of the central nervous system and organs. Practitioners believe that when body systems are in harmony, the body has the ability to heal itself from within. As a result of its success in treating back problems, headaches, and sports and other injuries, chiropractic is the most widely practiced branch of complementary medicine in the West, with around 60,000 practitioners worldwide.


This holistic approach to diagnosis and treatment originated in the United States in the late 19th century. Practitioners use touch and manipulation of the musculoskeletal system to restore or improve mobility and balance, and thereby enhance well-being. Techniques range from gentle massage to highvelocity mobilization of the joints. Now established along conventional medicine in North America, and practiced throughout Europe and Australia, osteopathy is one of the most respected and widely used complementary therapies, particularly for a pain in the back and joints.

Cranio Sacral Therapy

Cranial Sacral Therapy is a diagnostic and healing approach based on the application of corrective pressure to the cranium and spine (the cranio-sacral system). It grew out of work with cranial osteopathy in claiming that the cranial rhythmic impulse affects every cell in the body. Dr. John Upledger, an osteopath at Michigan State University, developed this approach in the late 1970s. While incorporating some of the techniques practiced in cranial osteopathy, Upledger distinguishes it from osteopathy in being "soft tissue-oriented", "fluid-oriented", and "membrane-oriented" rather than "bone-oriented". The approach is still considered controversial in the UK, though more widely practiced in the US.


The meridians of the body

Part of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It became widely known in the West in the 1970s when it was used as an anesthetic and received sensational press coverage. Practitioners insert fine, sterile needles into specific points on the body as a treatment for disorders ranging from asthma to alcohol addiction, but most often as a means of pain relief in the West. Now one of the most well-known and most widely accepted Eastern therapies, acupuncture is increasingly practiced in a simplified form my medical doctors. The theory is that Qi, an invisible life energy, flows through yin and yang meridians just below the surface of the skin. Any disruption to the flow disturbs the balance of yin and yang and leads to illness.


Acupressure Described as "acupuncture without needles", acupressure probably predates its better known sister therapy. Part of Traditional Chinese Medicine, it is based on the theory of Qi (life energy) flowing through channels in the body known as meridians. Finger and thumb pressure is applied to acupoints to relieve specific conditions and to promote harmony and good health. Widely practiced in China, acupressure is less common in the West, but is gaining popularity. Many acupuncturists use acupressure as part of treatment, and claim it is suitable for self-treating minor ailments.

T'Ai Chi Ch'uan

Often known as T'AI CHI, this Chinese movement therapy was reputedly practiced by Taoist monks in the 13th century, but its exact origins are difficult to trace. A dynamic form of Qigong, T'ai chi is a non-combative martial art that uses breathing techniques and sequences of slow, graceful movements to improve the flow of Qi or "life energy", calm the mind, and promote self-healing. T'ai chi is often described as meditation in motion and is performed daily by millions of Chinese people all over the world. Its popularity is increasing in the West.


Yoga asanas and relaxation techniques were developed to bring physical and spiritual benefits. Asanas are designed to have an impact on the physical body, stimulating nerve centers and organs. Spiritual benefits are derived from using breathing techniques and meditation to influence the flow of prana, or life energy, which flows through the "subtle" (nonphysical) body in invisible "energy channels", known as nadi. When mind and body are in harmony, the individual can focus on spiritual goals by practicing the higher discipline of meditation.

click on "The Chakras" in the article

In more esoteric yoga teachings, the chakras are centers of life energy, situated in the "subtle body" seat of the senses, emotions, and intellect. Seven chakras ascend in order of spiritual refinement along a central channel, the Sushumna. Chakras are linked to nerve centers along the spinal cord and, like them, are thought to be influenced by asanas. Each chakra is symbolized by an exact number of lotus petals and, according to some schools of yoga, is associated with a specific mantra or sound, such as "Om" or "Ram". These are used in meditation and breathing exercises to act on the chakras.

Other Therapeutic Disciplines: Shiatsu, Qi Gong,

Polarity Therapy, Therapeutic Touch, Reiki Healing, Dance Movement Therapy Medicinal Therapies Homeopathy, Bach Flower Remedies, Western Herbalism Chinese Herbalism, Ayurveda, Magnetic Therapy

healmag.htm Crystal Therapy Nutritional Therapies Mind and Emotion Therapies Psychotherapy Hypnotherapy Astrological Counseling Bio Feedback Diagnostic Techniques Hara Diagnosis

Hair Analysis

Kirlian Photography


National College of Naturopathic Medicine 049 SW Porter St. Portland, OR 97201, USA

Classical Chinese Medicine School

an oriental medicine school offering the Master of Science in Oriental Medicine degree NCNM's Classical Chinese Medicine school offers a four-year program to train practitioners in Classical Chinese Medicine. NCNM has one of the few oriental medicine schools offering a degree in Classical (as opposed to traditional) Chinese Medicine. Graduates of the Master of Science in Oriental Medicine (MSOM) program are eligible to apply for acupuncture licensure in the state of Oregon and to take both the herb and acupuncture exams administered by the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, which many states use as a basis for licensure. Students who are concurrently enrolled in the MSOM and ND programs complete a six-year course of study with coursework from the ND program being transferable to the MSOM program. To begin the journey toward your Master of Science in Oriental Medicine degree, click here to fill out our application form. We look forward to reviewing your application! Master of Science in Oriental Medicine Mission The mission of the MSOM degree program is to educate students to become health care professionals in the practice of Oriental medicine as illustrated by the classics. Above all, the program is intended to impart to its students the holistic spirit of Oriental medicine. Specifically, through the MSOM coursework, the program seeks to accomplish the following: • Instruct health care practitioners in the art and science of Chinese medicine. • Immerse students in the culture of Chinese medicine by combining emphasis on scholarly erudition and attention to multi-layered detail with the “atmosphere” inspiring aspects of holistic life science. • Cultivate respect for Oriental medicine as an independent science that has its own parameters and does not require validation by other scientific systems. • Honor the philosophical precepts that are shared by naturopathic medicine and classical Chinese medicine--belief in the healing power of nature, focus on identifying the root causes of disease, and treatment of the person as a multifaceted entity. • Foster awareness of the historical development of Oriental medicine, including knowledge of the major schools of Chinese medical thought.

• Present Oriental medicine as a renaissance-style art that is embedded in and closely related to other traditional arts and sciences. • Educate students to effectively treat disease, especially chronic and recalcitrant disorders, by training them broadly and equally in all major modalities of Oriental medicine, while developing their distinguishing sense for when each of these modalities should be applied in various clinical situations. Educational Objectives The program seeks to educate students in the practice of Oriental medicine as illustrated by the classics and to share the holistic spirit of Oriental medicine. Specifically through the MSOM coursework and training graduates will be able to do the following: • Diagnose according to the traditional parameters of Oriental diagnosis. • Master the theory and practice of the main modalities of Chinese medicine. • Acquire a distinguishing sense regarding the clinical situations under which each of them should be applied. • Engage in scholarly discourse regarding the nature and origin of Chinese medicine. • Work cooperatively with other health care practitioners for optimal patient care. Chinese Medicine as Explained by the Classics The defining image of Chinese medicine for most westerners is that of the acupuncturist’s needles extending porcupine-like from a patient’s skin. This is indeed a dramatic image, but it represents only a glimpse of the philosophy and practice of the world’s oldest intact system of natural healing. The antiquity, beauty, and efficacy of Chinese medicine have drawn western scholars for generations. But as modern China sought credibility for its age-old system of medicine, and as westerners have striven to understand it within their own scientific context, each has emphasized only select pieces from the rich tapestry of Chinese medicine. The MSOM degree program at NCNM emphasizes the holistic spirit of the classic teachings of Oriental medicine. This 212.69 credit-hour, 3768 hour academic and clinical program, taught over four years, was developed and is taught by practitioners trained in China. Delving into the history and philosophy of this challenging system of thought, one will find that it combines the art and science of a medicine developed over millennia. This course of study will take you outside the Western concept of science into an approach that integrates the systematic and intuitive aspects of medicine while remaining observable and reproducible. The classical Chinese medicine approach is especially suited to give new insights into the treatment of difficult and recalcitrant diseases. By bringing the legacy of an independent medical system into modern Western practices, our program is specifically designed to inspire interest in the challenges posed by chronic diseases that are difficult to cure or even diagnose. History of MSOM When the establishment of an Oriental medicine program at NCNM was first considered, the College found that Chinese medicine, as a natural healing art, was well within the scope of the philosophy underlying the general mission of the College. NCNM decided to include the more specific purpose of focusing on the classical tradition of Chinese medicine. Historically, it has been the didactic direction of the College to emphasize the “classical” traditions of naturopathic medicine and homeopathy. The academic background of the Department Chair and all core faculty members is, moreover, distinguished by extensive training in the classical tradition of Oriental medicine. Therefore, the mission statement of the Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM) program was designed to include several items that specifically define its traditional orientation. Dual Degree Program

National College of Naturopathic Medicine ND students who have met the prerequisites for the MSOM program and are in good academic standing may apply for admission into the MSOM program by following the admissions procedures described in the Admissions section of the catalog. If accepted into the MSOM program, the dual degree student would concurrently complete both the ND and the MSOM in a 6-year combined program. See the Office of Admissions and/or the Office of Academic Affairs for additional information. All content © 2004-2006 NCNM | 503.552.1555 | contact us | 049 SW Porter St. Portland, OR 97201 | privacy policy website design/ web hosting

Tantric spiritual sexual cultivation can help pulsate life energy to the whole body and soul, through the reflex organs, associated glands and psychic energy centres (the chakras).

Hand reflex and accupressure points and the corresponding organs

Orgasm and reflex points showing systems and glands that releases divine hormone throughout the whole body during love making.

Anatomy of penis, the male reflex organ and love making tool

Acupuncture / Acupressure Internet Resources (page 115- 122) © Holistic Medicine Resource Center www.holisticmed.com (Updated: November 17, 2001) Back to Link Index. Go to Acupuncture Discussion Groups. Back to Home Page. Go to Browse All Links. Scroll Down To: Extensive Info / Organizations / Practitioner Databases / Web Forums / General Web Pages / Education / Publications / Discussion Groups Acupuncture / Acupressure Extensive Information & Meta-Directories

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Acupuncture.Com -- Meta-Directory of Traditional Chineses Medicine (TCM) Resources Acupuncture.Com -- Articles for the General Public, Students, and Practitioners Blue Poppy Press (Extensive Resources & Articles for the General Public & Practitioners) Chinese Medicine and Acpuncture in Canada Chinese Medicine Psychiatry (for students & practitioners) Chinese Medicine Sampler Dharma Haven Tibetan Medicine Web Page (Article, Resources, News Teachings, *extensive*) Five Element Acupuncture (Articles, Books, News, Practitioners, etc.) Healthy.Net: Acupuncture Articles & Resources Healthy.Net: Traditional Chinese Medicine Articles for the General Public, Students, and Practitioners http://www.holisticmed.com/www/herbdb.html International Veterinary Acupuncture Directory (Practitioners, Links) Korean Society of Sasang Constitutional Medicine (Primer in "Research Institute") Medical Acupuncture Web Page (Articles, Links) Medical Acupuncture Links Page The Medicine Buddha: Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Medtopia (Articles for the Consumer on Oriental Medicine) Oriental Medicine.Com - Oriental Medicine Primer Planet Herbs (Articles, forum, etc. - Michael Tierra's site) Rocky Mountain Herbal Institute: Chinese Herbal Education and Science TCM Central (Resources for Students/Practitioners) TCM Student (Resource for Students) Tibetan Medicine Meta Directory Tibetan Medicine (Primer, Articles, Resources) Traditional Chinese & Western Herbal Medicine Links to Formula & Interactions Databases Traditional Chinese Medicine Primer & Resources at Health World Veterinary Acupuncture Articles and Meta Directory http://www.holisticmed.com/www/veterinary.html Vilberto's Acupuncture Meta Link Directory Yin Yang House (Theory & Practice of Japanese and Chinese Acunpuncture and TCM)

National/International Organzations

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U.S.: American Academy of Medical Acpuncture U.S.: American Academy of Veterinary Acupuncture U.S.: American Academy of Veterinary Medical Acupuncture U.S.: American Association of Oriental Medicine U.S.: American Organization for Bodywork Therapies of Asia U.S.: Institute for Traditional Medicine (Fantastic Resource: Chinese, Ayurvedic, Tibetan, Native American, etc.) U.S.: National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance (USA) U.S.: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association U.S.: National Certificate Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (USA) U.S.: National Sports Acpuncture Association (USA) U.S.: Qi Gong Association of America Worldwide: Acupuncture Sans Frontiers (Acupuncture Missions) Worldwide: International Association for the Study of Traditional Asian Medicine Worldwide: International Council of Medical Acupuncture and Related Techniques Worldwide: International Veterinary Acupuncture Society http://www.holisticmed.com/www/veterinary.html Regional/State: Oriental Medicine Associations Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association Ltd. Australian Medical Acpuncture Society Austrian Medical Acupuncture Society Belgium Acupuncture Federation Brazilian Medical Acupuncture Association Canada: Acupunture Foundation of Canada Institue Canadian Academy of Chinese Traditional Health Science Canadian Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture Association China Information Service System on Traditional Chinese Medicine China State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine (PRC) Denmark: Danish Medical Association of Acupuncture Estonian Acupuncture Association European Acupuncture Association European Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine European Federation of Oriental Medicine European Foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine European Register of Origanizations of Traditional Chinese Medicine French National Federation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (France) German Academy of Acupuncutre and Aricular Medicine German Medical Acupuncture Society German Society for Acupunture and Neuraltherapy German Society for Classic Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine Germany: International Chinese Medicine Society

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Hong Kong Society for Traditional Medicine & Natural Product Research India: Tibetan Medicine International Trust India: Yuthog Foundation for Tibetan Medicine Italian Medical Association for the Study of Acupuncture Korea: Association of Korean Oriental Medicine Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine Netherlands: Dutch Society for Acupuncture Netherlands: Tibetan Medicine Foundation (Web links to sites, articles, research)) New Zealand Register of Acupuncturists Norwegian Association of Classic Acupuncture Swiss Physician Society for Acupuncture Switzerland Association of Medical Acupuncture Societies Tibet Government in Exile Tibetan Medicine & Astrology Web Page Tibetan Medical and Astro Institute Tibetan Refugee Health Care Project United Kingdom Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine United Kingdom: British Acupuncture Council United Kingdom: Foundation for Traditional Chinese Medicine United Kingdom Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Practitioner Databases

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U.S.: American Association of Oriental Medicine Practitioner Referral List U.S.: American Organization for Bodywork Therapies of Asia Practitioner Directory U.S.: Institute for Traditional experience!!!)(USA)







U.S.: National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Alliance Searchable Database (USA) U.S.: National Sports Acupuncture Association Practitioner Listing (U.S.) U.S.: Tibetan Medicine practitioners (U.S. & Canada) U.S.: Veterinary Medicine: Institute for Traditional Medicine Practitioner Listings Worldwide: Acufinder.com - Acupuncture Referral Service Worldwide: Acupuncture.Com Referral Listing Worldwide: Acupuncture Today Acupuncturist Locator (U.S., Canada, Australia) Worldwide: Chinese Herbal Academy Herbal Medicine Practitioner Directory Worldwide: Tibetan Medicine Clinics and Practitioners (Worldwide) Worldwide: Veterinary Acupuncturists (Worldwide) Worldwide: Veterinary Acupuncturists: International Veterinary Acupuncture Society Practitioners (Worldwide) Regional/State: Oriental Medicine Associations Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association Find a Practitioner Australian Medical Acupuncture Society Yellow Pages Austrian Medical Acupuncture Society Certified Physicians

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Belgium Acupuncture Federation List of Practitioners Canada: Acupuncture Foundation of Canada Institute Practitioners Canadian Chinese Medicine and Acupuncture Association Practitioner (Click on "Members' Index) Canadian Traditional Chinese Medicine Pracitioner Search Denmark: Danish Medical Association for Acupuncture Practitioner Finder Estonian Acupuncture Association Practitioner Listing Germany: Acupuncture Therapy List of Practitioners German Academy of Acupuncture and Aricular Medicine Practitioner Listing German Medical Acupuncture Society Physician List Netherlands: Dutch Acupuncture Society Practitioner Directory (#1) Netherlands: Dutch Acupuncture Society Practitioner Directory (#2) New Zealand Register of Acupuncturists Norwegian Society for Classic Acupuncture Practitioner Directory Switzerland Physician Society for Acupuncture Practitioners (Click on AddressList) Switzerland Association of Medical Acupuncture Practitioners United Kingdom: British Acupuncture Council Practitioner Search United Kingdom: British Medical Acupuncture Society (UK)

Web-Based Discussion Forums

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Acupuncture Today (Open Forum, Ask an Acupuncturist Forum) American Organization for Bodywork Therapies of Asia Web Forum Five Element Acupuncture Discussion Board National Sports Acupuncture Association Discussion Board PlanetHerbs Forum (Michael Tierra's Site)

General Interest Pages

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Acupuncture Treatment Specialists Directory Acupuncture Wizard American Acupuncture Council (Practitioner Insurance) Auriculotherapy (Ear Acupuncture) - Li Chun Huang's Web Page Calm Spirit Healthcare (Tibetan and Chinese Medicine) Cancer Treatment & Support Groups (EUCM) Chronic Fatigue & Fibromyalgia - Oriental Medicine Treatment - Presentation Five Element Acupuncture Information Site Gua Sha Bodywork Healing Tradition of Tibetan Medicine Herb Safety Articles at the Institute of Traditional Medicine Herbal Materia Medica (Single Herbs, Patent Medicines, Monographs) - New Century Nutrition International Bibliography of Tibetan Medicine

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Kampo: Japanese Herbal Medicine Site Korean Hand Acupuncture (Koryo) Padma AG -- Tibetan Medicine Herbal Preparations Parkinson's Disease Recovery Project (using TCM) The Pulse of Oriental Medicine Tibetan Medicine Information (Research, Basic Info -- Mostly German)

Education & Training

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Acupuncture Schools Directory by NaturalHealers.com U.S.: Acupressure Institute U.S.: American Organization of Bodywork Therapies of Asia Council of Schools U.S. & U.K.: Five Element Acupuncture Training Schools U.S.: Rocky Mountain Herbal Institute: Chinese Herbal Education and Science U.S. & Canada: TCM/Acupuncture/Oriental Medicine Search at Health World U.S.: Tibetan Medicine: Shang Shung Institute of Tibetan Medicine Worldwide: Oriental Medicine Schools (Acupuncture.com) Worldwide: Vilberto's Extensive List of Educational Institutions Belgium: Belgium College of TCM Canadian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Schools European University of Chinese Medicine French National Federation of Chinese Medicine Schools Korean Colleges of Oriental Medicine United Kingdom: Tibetan Medicine: Tara-Ropka College of Tibetan Medicine


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Acupuncture in Medicine Acupuncture Today AyurVijnana (International Trust for Traditional Medicine) Blue Poppy Journal of Chinese Medicine Clinical Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine De Qi (Journal of the Norwegian Society for Classic Acupuncture European Journal of Oriental Medicine Journal of Chinese Medicine Italian Review of Acupuncture Journal of the National Academy of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Journal of Shiatsu and Oriental Body Therapy Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Spanish) Kampo Today (Japanese Herbal Medicine) Meridiens (French)

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Qi Journal - The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health & Fitness Tai Chi Magazine Web Journal of Acupuncture World Journal of Acupuncture-Moxibustion Publications from China

o o o

Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Foreign Medical Sciences: TCM Section (from CISSTCM) Introduction of Chinese Medical Abstract: Traditional Chinese Medicine (from CISSTCM)

Acupuncture / Acupressure Discussion Groups (Browse through all groups and join the groups that suit you!) Acupuncture Description A place for all to share their their acupuncture experience,questions and opinions. Open to practicioners, patients,students and interested persons. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Acupunture discussion group web page (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/acupuncture) and click on "Join This Group." Acupuncture_Detoxification Description A mailing list for the discussion of the use of Acupuncture in treating addictions. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Acupunture Detoxification discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Acupuncture_Detoxification) and click on "Join This Group." Acupuncture Discussion List Description This Colorado based listserve is open to all members of the Acupuncture community. It is a place to post questions,talk about theory, or, about difficulties with patients, and to make announcements of interest to our Colorado Oriental Medicine community. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Acupunture Detoxification discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AcupunctureDiscussionList) and click on "Join This Group." Acpuncutre Forum Description Open forum for anyone interested in acupuncture Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Acupuncture Forum discussion group web page (http://groups.yahoo.com/group/acupunctureforum) and click on "Join This Group" or on "Click Here to Log On." Acupunture Guild Description A discussion list for professional acupuncturists and matriculated students of acupuncture. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Acupunture Guild discussion group web page ( http://www.pairlist.net/mailman/listinfo/acupuncture-guild) and fill out the subscription form. Acupunture Students Description A mailing list seeks to help students of acupuncture worldwide understand the theory behind the use of points, practices and prescriptions of acupuncture therapeutics. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Acupunture Students discussion group web page (

http://www.pairlist.net/mailman/listinfo/acupuncture-students) and fill out the subscription form. Agopunctura (Italian) Description List regarding topics the acupuncture, the Chinese Traditional Medicine and the not conventional medicines in kind, opened to qualified staff which doctors, veterinaries, nurses etc. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Agopunctura discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agopuntura) and fill out the subscription form. ChineseHealing Description The Chinese Healing community is a place where people can learn about Chinese medicine. Discussions include herbs, acupuncture, acupressure, diet, exercise, massage, TCM syndromes, and meridians/channels. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Chinese Healing discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ChineseHealing) and click on "Join This Group." ChineseMedicineMetaphysics Description This group is for discussion of the use of the Yijing, stems and branches, etc. in Chinese medicine. Techniques to be discussed include plum flower divination, chronoacupuncture methods, Chinese medical astrology, medical palm and face reading, etc. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Chinese Healing discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ChineseMedicineMetaphysics) and click on "Join This Group." ChineseMedicine.Net Description Chinese-Medicine.net is conceived as an online archive of Chinese medical literature, spanning and encompassing the entire breadth of literary sources from both the ancient and contemporary worlds. This list will serve as a discussion of design criteria so that those who bring this archive into being can have the benefit of a broad base of inputs related to this initiative. Instructions To subscribe, go to the Chinese Medicine Net discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ChineseMedicinenet) and click on "Join This Group." Description The Five Element Acupuncture List is an open forum where practitioners, students or people interested in Classical Five Element Acupuncture and the teachings of J.R. Worsley may exchange views, ask questions and join in discussion about this beautiful form of acupuncture. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Five Element Acpunuture discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/5E_acup) and click on "Join This Group." House of Acupuncture Description A place for people to talk acupuncture (TCM) Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the House of Acupuncture discussion group web page http://groups.yahoo.com/group/houseofacupuncture) and click on "Join This Group" or on "Click Here to Log On." Medical Acupuncture Description For physicians using acupuncture to treat patients Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Medical Acupuncture discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/medicalacupuncture) and click on "Join This Group" or on "Click Here to

Log On."

Medical Qigong Description The purpose of this group is to discuss and practice the benefits of medical Qi Gong (also called Chi Kung), Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Yoga, Acupuncture, Nutritional Therapy and other healing methods for cancer, AIDS, obesity, heart disease other chronic disease. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Medical Qigong discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/medical-qi-

gong) and click on "Join This Group." NAET Description A mailing list for the discussion of the Nambudripad Allergy Elimination Technique (NAET). Subscription Instructions To subscribe, send email to [email protected] with the following in the BODY of the message: SUBSCRIBE NAET-L [your_full_name] where [your_full_name] is your real name (without the brackets). Additional Information More information about NAET can be found in an article in Issue 6 of Alternative Medicine Digest located here. Nourishing Destiny Description This List is for those interested in discussing Lonny Jarrett's Text, "Nourishing Destiny: The Inner tradition of Chinese Medicine." General comments are welcome as well as specific questions regarding points made in the text. Any errors found in the text may also be posted here to aid in future revisions. This group is moderated by Lonny Jarrett to avoid noise. All usefull input will be posted. The intention of this group is to provide a forum for thoughtful and respectful discussion of any facet of Chinese medicine. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Nourishing Destiny discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Nourishing-Destiny) and click on "Join This Group." Additional Information PA-L (Professional Acupunturists) Description PA-L is the Professional Acupuncture List. Admission is by application only. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Professional Acupuncturists discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pa-l), read the subscription requirements and click on "Join This Group." Pulse Diagnosis Description This list is dedicated to the study and development of Pulse Diagnosis.It is a professional forum that deals with all issues regarding this facet of the medicine and may include various treatment plans and strategies. In the past, it has been limited to teachers and those with advanced training. However, in the spirit of open professional communication and development, it is now open to any interested parties. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Professional Acupuncturists discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/PulseDiagnosis), read the subscription requirements and click on "Join This Group."

Qiresearch Description A discussion forum for those who are intersted in the scientific exploration of Qigong or human subtle energy, and its applications in medicine and our everyday lives... we welcome all people who are interested in Qigong research to make intelligent contributions and to ask challenging questions, no matter what Qigong he/she is practicing or studying, but we do not promote any specific form of Qigong. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Qigong Research discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/qiresearch) and click on "Join This Group." Sourcepoint Description This is a list for the professional of Traditional Chinese Medicine including Acupuncturists, Herbalists and Massage therapists. The goal of the group is to foster the advancement of our profession and help practitioners to stay linked to each other and assist with difficult cases and in the understanding of theoretical concepts. The list allows the free expression of opinions and experiences within the bounds of the field as well as legal, moral and ethical boundries. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the SourcePoint TCM discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sourcepoint) and click

on "Join This Group." Spiritual Alchemy Description Spiritual Alchemy - East Indian, Chinese, Western, Inner and Outer Alchemy. Topics Enlightenment, Self Realization, Self Inquiry, Vedas, Yoga, Meditation, Tantra, Chi Kung, Kundalini, Sexual Yoga, Tao, Siddha, Kan and Li, Kayakalpa, Ayurveda, Chinese Medicine, Mercury and Sulfur, Vedic and Chinese Astrology, Mantra, Yantra, I Ching, Sacred Symbolism, Prayer Technology, Emerald Tablet, Spirit Body Metamorphosis, Longevity Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Spiritual Alchemy discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SpiritualAlchemy) and click on "Join This Group." Tibetanmedicine Description This list is destined to the study of the principles and methods of Tibetan Medicine. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Tibetan Medicine discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/tibetanmedicine) and click on "Join This Group." Veterinary Acupunture Description PVA-L is an Email Discussion List for Professional Veterinary Acupuncturists. Admission is by invitation only. Please pass the word to qualified colleagues. When we interact in numbers, we increase in professional skill and knowledge and in international influence. Subscription Instructions To subscribe, go to the Veterinary Acpunuture discussion group web page ( http://groups.yahoo.com/group/PVA-L) and click on "Join This Group." Additional Information The Professional Veterinary Acupunture mailing list home page is located at: http://users.med.auth.gr/~karanik/english/pval.html.

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