Undergrad Thesis Report

August 5, 2017 | Author: Chetna Gaurav Chauhan | Category: Masonry, Slum, Concrete, Composite Material, Brick
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This is my thesis report about slum rehab...


I hereby recommend that the thesis entitled slum rehabilitation scheme dr. ambedkar nagar ludhiana submitted by chetna sheetal, a student of 5th year B.Arch.,2002-2007 , under my guidance be accepted for the partial fulfillment for the five year degree program of Bachelor of Architecture. This submission is her original work and may be accepted for the partial fulfillment for a five year Bachelor of Architecture program.

Thesis Guide

Thesis Coordinator

Head of Department

Ar. Ranbir kaur

Ar. Sandeep Dua

Ar. P.S. Mahoora

Department of Architecture

Department of Architecture

Department of Architecture

Guru Nanak Dev University

Guru Nanak Dev University

Guru Nanak Dev University




To, The Thesis Coordinator, Department of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar. Subject: Undertaking regarding authenticity/originality of B.Arch Thesis (Jan-May 2007). Sir, This is for your kind information that I, Chetna Sheetal am working on the project slum rehabilitation scheme dr. ambedkar nagar, ludhiana as my B.Arch Thesis.I hereby state that the work submitted by me is my original and has not been copied from anywhere at any stage of the thesis.If at any time(even after I pass out from the department),my work is found to be copied, I am ready to face consequences as per the University Rules.

Your’s faithfully,

Name: Chetna Sheetal Class: B.Arch 10 th sem Roll No: 05/02 Dated:

My first thanks to God my parents my brother manav my bhua and my best friend vrinda who are solely responsible for where I am today and for giving me unconditional love and support. Then thanks to head of department mr. paramjit singh mahoora for giving us good lessons and always helping us whenever we went up to him. My sincerest thanks to my thesis guide Ms. Ranbir Kaur for believing in me, guiding me, and churning the best out of me, which only she could do. I would like to thank all faculty and staff of my department for always being helpful and always making things easy for us. Then my thanks to Mr.Balkar Singh brar, senior town planner Ludhiana, Mr.. S.S. Bhatia, municipal town planner ,Ludhiana, Prof. Rajiv mishra from J.J. College of Architecture,mumbai for helping me thoroughly with my case studies. I would also like to extend my thanks to Ar. Chaman Lal, chief architect , Delhi development authority, Mr.. Jitram , architect, slum and J.J wing ,municipal corporation of Delhi, for helping me understand the topic in depth. My sincerest thanks goes to Ar.. Vivek Gupta of Arvind Vivek and associates for inspiring me to give my best. I would also like to thank my senior Ar. Jaspreet bedi for lending his valuable support during the case studies This acknowledgement cannot be complete without thanking my friends harjit, manrit, ketan, simran, jasmine, gagan, kanika, mayank, shikha, mansi, abhineet and my juniors manvi and arandeep for helping me whenever I needed, standing with me in every thick and thin and supporting me unconditionally. I also want to thank gaurav for always believing in me. Last but not the least I want to thank all residents of Ambedkar Nagar, Ludhiana, Ajanta Nagar ,Pune and Sion Shivaji housing society for giving their full support during the surveys.

Chetna sheetal b.Arch 10th sem Deptt. Of architecture Guru nanak dev university, Amritsar

Slums-the myths and the reality Slums...the picture that conjures up in our minds is that of a dirty, unhygienic group of make shift shanties ………..long lines of people waiting at the Municipal water pump………… bawling babies literally left on street corners to fend for themselves and endless cries of help……..!!!! Unpaved Roads and narrow lanes…..Puddles and slush are common-place after every rain shower…..This adversely affects the safety and security of residents and is generally believed to be largely responsible for high rates of night-time crimes. Surely such an area is not what we want in our cities but it is a sad reality that according to 2001 Census, data was collected for slums which says that population of slums all over India is 40,297,341 (40 million) from the 607 cities/towns reporting slums. This comes to ~4% of total Indian population (assuming Indian population of 1000 million). More interestingly it comes to ~22% of the total population of these cities (178,393,941). According to an Expert Group of the United Nations, a slum is an area that combines to various extents the following characteristics (i) inadequate access to safe water (ii) inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure (ii) poor structural quality of housing (iv) overcrowding (v) insecure residential status.

High time now we need to do something bout it…………….. Upgradation of slums Slum rehabilitation and redevelopment- rehabilitation means treatment, remedy or healing. So slum rehabilitation means healing of slums i.e. eradicating the very basic reason which makes a place slum by giving these people basic amenities like water supply and sanitation facilities proper roads. So that they can also live a healthy life.

Is this what we call urbanization…….????

Objectives of the Project •Provide slum dwellers with resources and freedom to uplift their standard of living and not just houses. •Recognize their problems and treat them like human beings and not to ignore their existence amongst us. •Legalize them and give them a scope of progress. •Take their profession to higher step and give the a scope to prosper in life. •To provide them with supplementary mental growth through counseling and awareness workshops absence of which results in failure of most of rehabilitation schemes. •To create an awareness and sensitivity amongst the higher classes of society-mainly the industrialists to provide their poor workers with proper accommodation and basic amenities, and discourage the growth of slums.

Data regarding slums of Ludhiana As per survey conducted by town planning department of Ludhiana • The city Ludhiana has the largest population (1.3 million, census 2001) in Punjab. • The city has been divided into 70 municipal wards in which only 31 municipal wards report slums. • The rapid and immense industrialization of Ludhiana city has resulted in the emergence of several slum colonies in and around the city. • There is no formal housing for industrial workers, due to which there are many slums that have come up near the industrial areas. • Total slum population - 2,33,400 (survey carried out under SJSRY) • Identified slum pockets - 209 nos. • House hold size - 7 • No. of dwelling units - 33,343 Year

populatio n (in lakhs)

No. of poor in lakhs

percentag e














Stitch in time saves nine At present the problem of slums in Ludhiana is not as adverse as it is in other metropolitan and industrial cities of India. At this this time problem of slums is at a bud stage. If at this time proper steps in terms of improvement schemes and rehabilitation measures are not taken and ignored by governments, local authorities architects and planners, in future it might become a Herculean task to remove them form city’s face like in some of the most industrial towns of India like Mumbai Calcutta etc.

High immigration in Ludhiana Because Ludhiana is the commercial capital of Punjab ,laborers have been migrating from states like U.P., Bihar, Haryana come here for employment and finally settle down in the city. inadequacy of proper housing schemes for these people and lack of initiative on the part of employer and government to provide decent shelters combined with extreme poverty forces these people to live in makeshift shanties and unsanitary conditions.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF DESIGN •To turn Dr. Ambedkar Nagar into well worked out livable habitat complete with landscape interventions, streetscapes, boulevards, shopping streets and community facilities which are well integrated. •Keeping in mind the needs and aspirations of the dwellers, dwelling such a scheme that they can identify with. •To develop a scheme which is conducive to their lifestyle and their work culture. •To involve building material ,technology, and methods of construction appropriate for such conditions keeping affordability factors and acceptability in mind. •Methods to be employed for garbage recycling, water harvesting and harnessing people’s initiative for complete project.-community participation in development ,improvement and maintenance of the scheme. •Propose a module for slum rehabilitation for the whole city and on a broader perspective the whole state.

Approaches towards slum Upgradation • • • • •

Sites and services Slum networking On site development Slum relocation/resettlement Transit housing

Site and services Under this scheme people residing in slum area are provided with the site. They are allotted plots on a certain plot of fixed area and are given to them. basic services like water supply pipelines, sewer lines, electric substation etc are provided to them. people have to construct their house on their own and for that they might be given loans etc.

Slum networking Slum Networking is an innovative concept which exploits the linkage between the slums, natural drainage paths which influence the urban infrastructure and the environmental fabric of the city. Slum Networking is an initiative driven primarily through community control. In a holistic frame which converges scales, activities, agencies and resources it exploits the slum fabric in the context of the total city for sustainable and cost effective improvement in the quality of life of its people as a whole. The objective is not to find solutions unique to the slums but, instead, explore the commonality between the slums and the better parts of the city to integrate the two. As slums are not the causes of urban degradation but the consequences of distorted development, the solutions likewise must treat the slums as mere symptoms and use them to work back into the city fabric to the origins of the problems. examples of this kind of project are slum networking in Indore, slum networking of north Baroda and slum networking of Ahemdabad.

On site development Under this project type, the site which already has slums is redevelopment and the dwellers are rehabilitated by giving them better living conditions a strong pacca shelter. On site development can be of two types 1.


Land sharing project: Under such project a piece of land is acquired on which slums already exist. then is constructed a building which can be sold out in open market and profits made from it are used to construct houses for slum people and then given these free of cost to them. On the same site. Complete site rehabilitation: this kind of project redevelops the site as a whole. it involves local government and N.G.O. participation and funds are allotted for this purpose.

Slum relocation/resettlement this project aims at relocation of slum dwellers. People are relocated at a new site , new area either by their consent or forcefully. They might be given a better living condition in this area but they have to vacate the area inhabitated by them.

Transit housing This is a relatively new concept and has been introduced in cities like Hyderabad and Bangalore. Under this project a housing is set up by the government and people are given the tenements on lease for some period of time and amount taken from them is very nominal. They are not given the ownership of the house so as to avoid them to sell it off and go back to the slum. After the lease period is over depending upon the propensity and willing ness of the dweller the house may be transferred at his/ her name by giving some amount of money.

Different schemes for slum upgradation •


Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission is designed to assist city governments in improving property tax collection and bring user charge to the levels that cover at least operating and maintenance costs and change their accounting methods. The Mission is meant to bring in transparency in local budget making, as also a higher degree of community participation in d ecision-making processes. under this project there are further two schemes as follows: 

B.S.U.P- basic services to urban poor

I.H.S.D.P.-integrated housing &slum



The Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY) : The Central Government scheme has the primary objective to facilitate the construction and upgradation of the dwelling units for the slum dwellers and to provide health and enabling urban environment through community toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, a component of the scheme. This is the first scheme of its kind meant exclusively for slum dwellers with a Government of India subsidy of 50 percent. The balance 50 percent is to be arranged by State Government with ceiling costs prescribed both for dwelling units/community toilets. During the financial year 2002-03, central subsidy to the extent of Rs.218.35 crores for the construction of 110388 dwelling units and 21488 toilet seats was released. So far a total of 2.08 lakh dwelling units covering 20 States and Union Territories have been sanctioned under VAMBAY. • N.S.D.P. National Slum Development Programme (NSDP) was introduced in the Eight Five Year Plan during 1996-97 with the specific objective of providing basic amenities to slum dwellers in the field of physical & social amenities, community infrastructure etc.. NSDP is a centrally sponsored scheme meant for the improvement of slums

INTEGRATED HOUSING & SLUM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ( IHSDP ) GUIDELINES – 2005 INTRODUCTION • 1.1 Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme aims at combining the existing schemes of VAMBAY and NSDPunder the new IHSDP Scheme for having an integrated approach in ameliorating the conditions of the urban slum dwellers who do not possess adequate shelter and reside in dilapidated conditions. • 1.2 the scheme is applicable to all cities and towns as per 2001 Census except cities\towns covered under Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Development Renewal mission (JNNURM). • 1.3 The scheme seems to enhance public and private investments in housing and infrastructural development in urban areas. 2.OBJECTIVES The basic objective of the scheme is to strive for holistic slum development with a healthy and enabling urban environment by providing adequate shelter and basic infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers of the identified urban areas. 3.COVERAGE 3.1The scheme will apply to all cities\towns, excepting cities\towns covered under JNNURM. The target group under the scheme is slum dwellers from all sections of the community through a cluster approach. 3.2 Allocation of funds among States will be on the basis of the States’ urban slum population in the country. 3.3 States may allocate funds to towns\cities basing on similar formula. However, funds would be provided yo only those towns and cities where elections to local bodies have been held and elected bodies are in position 3.4. The State Government may prioritize towns and cities on the basis of their felt-need. While prioritizing towns, States would take into account existing infrastructure, economically and socially disadvantaged sections of the slum population and difficult areas.

4.COMPONENTS • 4.1The components for assistance under the scheme will include all slum improvement/upgradation/relocation projects including upgradation/new construction of houses and infrastructural facilities, like, water supply and sewerage. Cost of land for such projects will not be provided under the programme and has to be borne by the State Government. In case the project is to be undertaken on private land, which is to be acquired by the State, cost of land may also be part of the project costing only in the case of North Eastern States and hilly States of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Jammu & Kashmir. •

4.2TITLE OF THE LAND Title of the land should preferably be in the name of the wife and alternatively jointly in the names of husband and wife. In exceptional cases, title in the name of male beneficiary may be permitted.

4.3A&OE Not more than 5% of the total allocation of funds under the scheme for A&OE purposes for preparation of project reports and for administrative purposes which may be distributed among Ministry and State/UTs/Implementing Agencies.

4.4Ceiling Cost for Dwelling Unit will be @Rs.80,000 per unit for cities other than those covered under the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Development Renewal mission (JNNURM). This ceiling cost will, however, be reviewed after one year.For special category/hills States and difficult/far flung areas, 12.5% additional will be permissible over and above the prescribed ceiling cost per dwelling unit. 4.5Selection of Beneficiaries By SUDA/DUDA/ULBs/Government Nodal Agency authorized by the State Government. 4.6Minimum Floor Area of Dwelling Unit Not less than 25 sq. meters. Area and preferably two room accommodation plus kitchen and toilet should be constructed. 4.7Infrastructure Development and maintenance in the slums State Government should ensure a separate provision for upkeep and maintenance of the public assets created under the scheme. 4.8Beneficiary Contribution Housing should not be provided free to the beneficiaries by the State Government. A minimum of 12% beneficiary contribution should be stipulated, which in the case of SC/ST/BC/OBC/PH and other weaker sections shall be 10%.

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4.9 Admissible Components Provision of shelter including upgradation & construction of new houses. ii) Provision of community toilets. iii) Provision of physical amenities like water supply, storm water drains, community bath, widening and paving of existing lawns, sewers, community latrines, street lights, etc. iv) Community infrastructure like provision of community centers to be used for pre-school education, non-formal education, adult-education, recreational activities, etc. v) Community Primary Health Care Centre Buildings can be provided. vi) Social amenities like pre-school education, non-formal education, adult-education, maternity, child health and Primary health care including immunization, etc. vii) Sites and Services/houses at affordable costs for EWS & LIG categories. ix) Slum improvement and rehabilitation projects. x) Land acquisition cost will not be financed except for acquisition of private land for schemes/projects in the North Eastern States & Hilly States, viz., Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Jammu & Kashmir.

Cost effective Housing •Cost Effective Housing is a relative concept and has more to do with budgeting. •it seeks to reduce the cost construction through better management, appropriate use of local materials, skills and technology but without sacrificing the performance and life of the structure. •It needs to be emphasized that low cost housing does not mean houses constructed by utilizing cheap building materials of substandard quality. •A low cost house is designed and constructed as any other house with regard to foundation, structure, strength etc. the reduction in cost is achieved through effective utilization of locally available building materials and techniques that are durable, economical, accepted by users and not requiring costly maintenance,. •Economy is also achieved by postponing finishing and/implementing them in phases. •Further, it aims at increasing the efficiency of workers, minimizing wastage in design and space and applying good management practices, so that shelter can be provided at prices which people can afford.

Building cost The building construction cost can be divided into two parts namely: Building material cost : 65 to 70 % Labour cost : 30 to 35 % The scope for effective means of reducing cost of construction lies with minimizing the quantity of building materials which consumes less energy. This is possible if one could follow a rational design procedure of the efficient use of materials. Cost of reduction is achieved by selection of more efficient material or by an improved design.

Avenues for reducing cost of construction – concept • • • • • • • • • • •

The following are the avenues exist for reducing building construction cost. Reduce plinth area by using thinner wall concept.Ex.15 cms thick solid concrete block wall. Use locally available material in an innovative form like soil cement blocks in place of burnt brick. Use energy efficiency materials which consumes less energy like concrete block in place of burnt brick. Use environmentally friendly materials which are substitute for conventional building components like use R.C.C. Door and window frames in place of wooden frames. Preplan every component of a house and rationalize the design procedure for reducing the size of the component in the building. By planning each and every component of a house the wastage of materials due to demolition of the unplanned component of the house can be avoided. Each component of the house shall be checked whether if it's necessary, if it is not necessary, then that component should not be used. Cost reduction is possible by eliminating redundant components. Ex: Avoid plastering the walls, eliminating the use of plinth slabs in the foundation. Accept lower quality finishes like exposed brick work without plastering. Reducing standards - providing jalli work in place of windows, no plinth concrete.

Cost reduction through adhoc methods 1. Foundation •

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Normally the foundation cost comes to about 10 to 15% of the total building and usually foundation depth of 3 to 4 ft. is adopted for single or double store building and also the concrete bed of 6"(15 cms.) is used for the foundation which could be avoided. It is recommended to adopt a foundation depth of 2 ft.(0.6m) for normal soil like gravely soil, red soils etc. use the un coursed rubble masonry with the bond stones and good packing. Similarly the foundation width is rationalized to 2 ft.(0.6m).To avoid cracks formation in foundation the masonry shall be thoroughly packed with cement mortar of 1:8 boulders and bond stones at regular intervals. It is further suggested adopt arch foundation in ordinary soil for effecting reduction in construction cost up to 40%.This kind of foundation will help in bridging the loose pockets of soil which occurs along the foundation. In the case black cotton and other soft soils it is recommend to use under ream pile foundation which saves about 20 to 25% in cost over the conventional method of construction.

2. Plinth • • •

It is suggested to adopt 1 ft. height above ground level for the plinth and may be constructed with a cement mortar of 1:6. The plinth slab of 4 to 6" which is normally adopted can be avoided and in its place brick on edge can be used for reducing the cost. By adopting this procedure the cost of plinth foundation can be reduced by about 35 to 50%. It is necessary to take precaution of providing impervious blanket like concrete slabs or stone slabs all round the building for enabling to reduce erosion of soil and thereby avoiding exposure of foundation surface and crack formation.

3. Walling • Wall thickness of 6 to 9" is recommended for adoption in the construction of walls all round the building and 41/2 " for inside walls. It is suggested to use burnt bricks which are immersed in water for 24 hours and then shall be used for the walls.

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Rat - trap bond wall It is a cavity wall construction with added advantage of thermal comfort and reduction in the quantity of bricks required for masonry work. By adopting this method of bonding of brick masonry compared to traditional masonry, it is possible to reduce in the material cost of bricks by 25% and about 10to 15% in the masonry cost. By adopting rat-trap bond method one can create aesthetically pleasing wall surface and plastering can be avoided. Concrete block walling In view of high energy consumption by burnt brick it is suggested to use concrete block (block hollow and solid) which consumes about only 1/3 of the energy of the burnt bricks units production. By using concrete block masonry the wall thickness can be reduced from 20 cms to 15 cms. Concrete block masonry saves mortar consumption, speedy construction of wall resulting in higher output of labour, plastering can be avoided thereby an overall saving of 10 to 25% can be achieved. Soil cement block technology It is an alternative method of construction of walls using soil cement blocks in place of burnt bricks masonry. It is an energy efficient method of construction where soil mixed with 5% and above cement and pressed in hand operated machine and cured well and then used in the masonry. This masonry doesn't require plastering on both sides of the wall. The overall economy that could be achieved with the soil cement technology is about 15 to 20% compared to conventional method of construction.

4. Doors and windows   

It is suggested not to use wood for doors and windows and in its place concrete or steel section frames shall be used for achieving saving in cost up to 30 to 40%. Similarly for shutters commercially available block boards, fibre or wooden practical boards etc. ,shall be used for reducing the cost by about 25%. By adopting brick jalli work and precast components effective ventilation could be provided to the building and also the construction cost could be saved upto 50% over the window components.

5. Lintels and Chajjas  

The traditional R.C.C. lintels which are costly can be replaced by brick arches for small spans and save construction cost up to 30 to 40% over the traditional method of construction. By adopting arches of different shapes a good architectural pleasing appearance can be given to the external wall surfaces of the brick masonry.

6. Roofing

Normally 5"(12.5 cms) thick R.C.C. slabs is used for roofing of residential buildings. By adopting rationally designed in-situ construction practices like filler slab and precast elements the construction cost of roofing can be reduced by about 20 to 25%. Filler slabs are normal RCC slabs where bottom half (tension) concrete portions are replaced by filler materials such as bricks, tiles, cellular concrete blocks, etc., These filler materials are so placed as not to compromise structural strength, result in replacing unwanted and nonfunctional tension concrete, thus resulting in economy. These are safe, sound and provide aesthetically pleasing pattern filings and also need no plaster.

Section through filler slabs

….And this is how the simplest filler slab looks like !!!

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Funicular shell roof is compression structure, which ensures conservation of natural resources by utilizing waste materials effectively and optimizing the use of expensive steel and cement. Further, the arch distributes the point load in all direction equally thus, is able to withstand impact loading at any point. Diagonal g rid of funicular shell gives the illusion of a larger space. Eliminate use of high-energy steel reinforcement used in the conventional RCC roof. Allows efficient use of waste materials and provides personality, colour and texture. Minimizes requirement of internal plasters. Provides roofing at a lower cost. Can be demoulded every 48 hours. using natural materials and technology as can take any shape- square, rectangle, trapezium, triangular or any other shape. can carry various conduits, toilet pipes in the area above the brick -bat layer.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 5 Step 3

Step 4

facilitates the installment of fixtures like- ceiling fans, light fixtures etc. The edge beam can be given a slight camber or lift in the centre, about 1"-3". Thus, the beam also acts as an arch, comes under compression, further increasing its load bearing capacity. This also reduces the amount of steel and cement consumed in the beam. Since it acts as an arch, it takes load in compression and distributes it equally in all directions. Thus, on the first floor, the wall can be placed anywhere since it will always rest on the arch.

Construction of a funicular shell roof

Ferro cement channel/shell unit provide an economic solution to RCC slab by providing 30 to 40% cost reduction on floor/roof unit over RCC slabs without compromising the strength. These being precast construction is speedy, economical due to avoidance of shuttering and facilitate quality control.

7. Finishing Work The cost of finishing items like sanitary, electricity, painting etc., varies depending upon the type and quality of products used in the building and its cost reduction is left to the individual choice and liking.

Cost effective construction materials Not only the construction techniques but building materials also need to be cost effective and easily available.

1.Insulating material clay-coated straw •One of the best low-cost insulating materials is clay-coated straw (or other lightweight plant materials). •A light coating of clay acts as both a binder and preservative. Clay-coated straw has been shown to last over 700 years as a non-deteriorating insulation!! •As the clay dries, it binds the straw together in a surprisingly rigid mass. It's a "natural Styrofoam".

Uses •In addition to being an insulator, it can be used as a wall forming material. In the middle ages, even up the present time, the method works like this: •A post and beam structure is first built. •Two boards are temporarily nailed to the posts, one on each side. •The resulting cavity is filled with straw-clay. •The material is tamped down (a 2x4, 4x4, or small post will do). The idea is not to compact it into a solid mass, you couldn't do it easily anyway because the straw will remain springy until it dries. •The two side boards are moved up immediately and stuffed again and again until the wall is as high as desired. No need to wait for the straw-clay to dry before moving the boards up. (A moveable, sliding form could also be used to make walls.)

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A saw is used to cut out windows, or window frames are placed first. The wall is allowed to dry and is hand plastered inside and out. The soft undulating plastering adds a charm that cannot be found in modern buildings. The straw-clay can also be pressed against forms to create a structure. Then the structure can be plastered and waterproofed. This method is talked about in the Design Ideas section. Or it can be used as an insulated fill material for the honeycomb construction method as described in the Design section. The important concept here is that insulation materials protect us from extremes of heat and cold. The best insulators are ones that are non-toxic, renewable, and widely available. Low cost insulation materials such as straw or expanded aggregates such as perlite, vermiculite, and other expanded ceramics make excellent non-toxic insulation. In developed countries with the requisite technologies, the perlite type materials may be preferable to straw-clay. Fiber composites can be both structural and insulating.

2.Structural Materials Composites: Fiber, Lightweight Aggregates, and Binders •The best low-cost structural materials are composites. Composites are a combination of distributed fiber reinforcement, lightweight aggregate, and a binding agent. •Ferro-cement is one such composite using metal or synthetic fibers and portland cement, but there are many others. Fiberglass is a common (but toxic) composite.

•A newcomer in fiber composites is papercrete or fibercrete, which is a combination of pulped paper, or other cellulose-based raw material, and binders such as lime, cement, and/or clay. •Sand adds strength and density to these composites, but lightweight aggregates could also be used. •Any composite material can be used to create shell structures which we call Composite-Shell construction. Domes 100 ft. in diameter, (and only 10 mm thick!) have been built using portland cement and glass fibers. •Using lesser fibers and binders, more modest structures can be built. If the fiber composite is applied to both sides of a thick insulating layer such as straw-clay, perlite cement, or agcrete (see below), a strong "sandwich" is formed. •If the insulation layer is made from a structural honeycomb of lightweight fiber composite (filled with insulation), the strength of the shell is even better.

Composite materials can be sprayed (using compressed-air driven sprayers), or poured, or packed directly onto a reusable formwork (using hand methods). Simply pour from a bucket, or apply from a scoop, and spread. Fiber reinforcement options include natural fibers such as wood (paper), bamboo, industrial hemp, sisal, and jute, for low-tech applications, and synthetic, glass, and steel fibers for high-tech applications where greater rigidity is desired. • Recycled clothing fibers can be used. Bamboo has been used successfully in place of rebar in many countries for decades. Wood (paper) fiber has been used in Japan for centuries for its strength and beauty. Industrial hemp fiber has tremendous potential where it is available. • It is used for architectural molding in North America. Discrete bamboo fibers have tremendous strength, exceeding hemp, and could be the most effective fiber of all if properly processed. Jute (burlap) is also a strong natural fiber. All high silica fibers last a long time if protected from rust or rot. 3.Designing Materials • Fibercrete Composite A suggested composite material is paper fiber and mineral binder. So much waste paper is available, it makes sense to use it. One suggested mix is 60% paper and 40% binder by weight. The binder can be 50:50 Portland cement/hydrated lime or 25:25:25:25 cement, lime, clay, and sand. Sand adds strength and density. Liquid soap adds bubbles for a lighter, insulating mix. By volume, these mixes are primarily paper fiber, but will not burn. Various mixes emphasize strength or insulating qualities. • AgStone Composite Another composite with even more potential than papercrete is Agcrete. This method uses common agricultural wastes such as crop stalks, chipped wood, or any other low density, commonly available lightweight material. It's similar to using perlite, vermiculite, scoria, or other lightweight mineral aggregates. Waste material is simply chopped (up to golf ball size or so), blended, and mixed with cement (and/or lime) just as you would use ordinary gravel. When cured and dry, it makes a very lightweight composite. In France, hemp Hurds are used for aggregate and they have been building quite successfully with it.A formula developed by John Stahl is: • Lightweight AgStone Formula • 20 parts chips (any agricultural waste) Plants which are high in silica include: Hemp Hurds, Western Sorghum, Concho Wheat, Corn, Bamboo, Lantana, Sunflower, and Medusa Head. We're searching for more information and more specifics on high silica plants. 5 parts clay (with sand is OK) 5 parts binders (3 lime, 2 cement)

It may not be such a good idea to build too rigidly, as is common in both industrialized countries and developing countries. Rigid concrete materials are brittle and fail catastrophically during earthquakes. Rebar reinforcement is totally inadequate. Ferro cement structures fare better. But these structures are very heavy. As a result, we now favor very light composites such as Fibercrete and Agcrete as more forgiving structural building materials. A lightweight foamed composite using paper-hemp-bamboo for fiber reinforcement with cement/lime/clay binder may be an ideal building material. Natural glues may improve flexibility, but some minerals (20-40% by weight) are needed for fire protection.

Fibercrete Mixers

Depending upon the scale of operations, several types mixers are used. The simplest is a 5 gallon bucket. A 1/2 to 1 hp electric motor with mixing blade is attached to the lid (plywood reinforced) of a 5 gallon bucket and small batches are mixed. A sharp 4-6 inch blade (S-blade is ideal) is mounted 4-6 inches from the bottom. Paper is inserted through a hole, or the operation is stopped and the lid is lifted to add fiber. For larger batches, a 55 gallon drum is cut in half and a gasoline engine from 3-10 hp is mounted on a board. A larger blade of up to 7-9 inches is attached to an extended shaft. Large round animal "stock" tanks, watering tanks, can be used for larger volumes. Shafts are extended by a collar attached to the motor shaft and a length of shaft is added. Replaceable blades are screwed on. For long shafts, some lateral reinforcement may be necessary to avoid excess stress on the motor or engine bearings. Place a bearing near the blade using a frame. Such mixers can be moved from tank to tank for mixing many batches or different ingredients.

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Uses Composite Shell construction can be used to build ultra low-cost housing, approaching nearly rs.50 per square foot (shell only) for the do-it-yourselfer. Also, walls, gazebos, hot tubs, solar greenhouses, garden walls, almost anything can be made out of these materials inexpensively using inflatable forms or reusable solid forms. Combined with natural insulation, every kind of life supporting, non-toxic construction can be built. Waterproofing is necessary for fiber composites. For light duty, drying type vegetable oils, such as soy or linseed, can be used.

In these days of increasing cost of instruction of the dream of owning a house particularly for low income and middle income family is becoming a difficult reality. Hence it has become a necessity to adopt cost effective, innovative and environmental friendly housing technology for the construction of houses and buildings for enabling the common people to construct houses at affordable cost. Building Centers (Nirmithi Kendras) Established by the Govt.& HUDCO in all the districts are promoting Low Cost Housing Technologies and are providing their Technical Advice and Guidance services to the general public for enabling them to construct the houses at an economical cost.

Conclusion The above list of suggestion for reducing construction cost is of general nature and it varies depending upon the nature of the building to be constructed, budget of the owner, geographical location where the building is to be constructed, availability of the building material, good construction management practices etc. However it is necessary that good

planning and design methods shall be adopted by utilizing the services of an experienced engineer or an architect for supervising the work, thereby achieving overall cost effectiveness to the extent of 25% in actual practice.

Sion Shivaji Cooperative Housing Society, Mumbai Project details Client: Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA), Mumbai Architect: Ranjit Naik Builders: Kaushik Builders Total site area: 2567.03sq m Total no of dwelling units :150 Cost of project: Rs.3,31,20,019 Basic policy and type of development This is a land sharing project in which a piece of land is acquired on which slums already exist. then constructing a building which can be sold out in open market and profits made from it are used to construct houses for slum people and then given these free of cost to them. This kind of project gets an additional advantage of 2.5 F.S.I. i.e. they can increase their F.S.I. up to 2.5 which otherwise is not allowed. Financial Arrangement Houses to the dwellers have been given free of cost. However there has been an earnest amount of Rs.7000 that has been deposited by the owner of the house as maintenance.

This what is what sion shivaji nagar looked like earlier

Target population

From here….

To this …lot has to be done

The population statistics show that: 1. Majorly population has a monthly family income between 2500-500,and thus after the regular monthly expenditure they are left with almost nothing to save. 2. This means their propensity to maintain their tenement is almost negligible. 3. Almost 90% of residents have an occupation which takes them out of their houses. thus they do not need too much working space within their tenements. 4. Most of the people who reside here have a family size of 6-7 so they feel that a mere 180 sq ft tenement is in sufficient for them. 5. Most of the population of this locality are either gujrati or Marathi in their origin. So they have some kind of similar cultural practices. 6. Almost 30% of the population is Andhraites and almost all of them live in block A of the complex while rest live in block B.`

Daily wages Vendors laborers and small 15% shopkeeper s 20% Monthly income employees Misc. 55% 10%

Occupational groups

4 – 8 person 88%

Above 8 Up to 4 2% 10%

Family size

Between 2500-5000 65% Below 2500 25%

Above 5000 10%

Monthly income

Gujarati 45% Others 5%

Andhra 30%


Maharashtrians 20%

Site • Location The site is located very near to the famous Sion hospital or Lokmanya Tilak Hospital and about 5 km from Mahim railway station. • Condition The site was earlier as any other slum would be dirty unhygienic and dilapidated.

The site is divided into two parts one part is of the commercial building and the other part contains slum rehabilitation building. Even slum building has two wings, wing Awith 28 tenements and wing B- 122

•as we can see that the site is longitudinal in nature and runs from south to north being broad at the north end not much could be done for open spaces because prime concern here is to give shelter and not open spaces

Part Plan

•Standards say that the minimum corridor width in front of the staircase should be twice the width of the single stair or 5 ‘ which ever is more, thus the corridor width In front of staircase is very less.

Only one window and that too occupied by kitchen area

•View of corridor lit up naturally…the only source of natural light. •Natural light is a big problem because there is only on window in the tenement

•The bath and toilet could have been separate so that in a big family both can be used at a time

Socio behavioral interpretation

Post -occupancy evaluation

Community interaction • most of the site in this is covered by built up area so there is very little scope left for open spaces and community interaction spaces. but Mumbai being such a city where land prices are quite high and a scheme like this it is not advisable to leave open spaces • If such space are left, building will go all the more vertical which neither bye laws allow nor does it suit the dwellers. • Also planning has hot been done taking care of the living style of people. But the social bonding is so strong that it overcomes this flaw in design. • People are of the fact that that their interdependence is their lifeline. • The corridors are the only place where people (ladies) sit during day time , or kids use them as their play areas Flexibility • The design is not flexible at all because the dwellers are not given any scope to grow their tenement with time. • The area provided to each tenement is so low that they have hardly any scope of incremental growth.

Ownership • Almost 85% of the dwellers are the ones who are the original occupants. out of the rest only 2-3% are those which are living here on rent. rest 10 -12 % are those who have bought the tenements , but officially they say that they are the tenants because the original owners are not allowed to sell this tenement before 15 yrs. • Those who have sold the tenements have only one reason that they are short of money and the maintenance of the house is what they cannot afford Maintenance and condition of buildings • Residents have formed their own cooperative society and they elect 10 people out of themselves who take the responsibility of safety , secuirty , cleanliness and maintenance of the complex. • For this each house hold has to pay rs. 1000 yearly or rs. 200 monthly as it it suites for the maintenance of the building. • This clearly shows that this is not true that slum dwellers do not want to live in a congenial environment. Its just that they have to given an opportunity to do so.

Ajantha Nagar slum rehabilitation scheme, Pune Project details Client: Pimpri Chinchwad municipal Corporation (PCMC) Architect: Shelter Associates Total site area: 31,100 sq m (8 acre) Cost of project: Rs.15,31,12,000 Total no of dwelling units :708 Tenement carpet area:20 sq m Tenement Built up area: 25sq m

Basic policy and type of development   

Ajanta Nagar Slum Upgradation Scheme is a joint venture of Mata Amritanandamayi Math and Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC). This is an on-site development project. This project has been funded 50% by Mata Ashram. This project has been achieved through community participation as the slum dwellers have worked themselves in the construction of the buildings.

Financial arrangements • •

First phase of this scheme, which consists of 688 households, has been funded 50% by ma math. Second and third phase of this scheme has been proposed under JNNURM.

Roadside view

Maharashtrians 86%

Target population and its characteristic others 2%

The statistics show •Majorly dwellers are of Maharashtrians origin. they have come to Pune from neighboring villages and small towns. •The other major community which have been found in this housing are from Andhra Pradesh •Monthly income of almost 60% of the dwellers is between 2500-5000. But 30%people have a monthly income of less than 2500.This clearly indicates that the people cannot afford expensive land and shelter.

Andhra 12%


Misc. 12%

Daily wages Labourers 38%

Rickshaw pullers 25%

vendors 25%

Major occupational groups

rs.2500-5000 60%

Site Location: Ajanta Nagar was an 8-acre slum, home to over 1700 families, is located in Nigdi,12km from Pune city.

Condition: Site of Ajanta Nagar was like any other slum.

Analysis: site is quadrilateral in shape and is surrounded by roads on all 4 sodes and the level of the road is

Above Rs.5000 Below 2500 10% 30%

Monthly Income

Site plan •Trapezoidal site contains two types of planning. • there is A block which has cutouts in centre and stairs running along the A type blocks are 3 in no. and they go uptil g+3 •Whereas type b wing has simple linear type of planning in which dwelling units are arranged on both sides of a corridor and stairs at the end. •they are 25 in no. and go only upto two floors •Whole buit up is standing on stilts and area under stilts act as multi usage area. •There are two wide open spaces yet to be converted into gardens.

•4 main arterial pathways

•Building blocks placed in a grid pattern.

•The distance between two blocks is very less, so the whole row looks like one single strip

Upper ground floor plan (b block) The building stands partially on stilts So the space thus created acts as multifunctional spaces, like parking area, working area, playing and assembling areas Typical floor plan (b block)

Upper ground floor plan (a block) Creating a sense of enclosure Typical floor plan (a block)

Dwelling unit level +ve points •Separate toilet and bath •One duct catering two units make service pipelines maintenance very easy.

section x-x’

View of stilt parking

•The building stands partially on stilts So the space thus created acts as multifunctional spaces, like parking area, working area, playing and assembling areas

-ve points •Only one window and that to is not able to give proper light and ventilation. •Grouping tenements could have been better so as to provide better one to one interaction

Socio behavioral interpretation Community interaction • very little scope left for open spaces and community interaction spaces. • Only the area under the stilts is where kids can play and act as interaction hubs • Building could have gone one storey high to leave more space on ground for parks gardens and other social amenities. • The set up of the whole place is so formal that people feel that they were much close to their neighbours when they lived in slum. • planning has hot been done taking care of the living style of people. But the social bonding is so strong that it overcomes this flaw in design. • People are of the fact that that their interdependence is their lifeline. • The corridors and the area under stilts are the only places where people (ladies) sit and chat during day time , or kids use them as their play areas. Flexibility • The design is not flexible at all because the dwellers are not given any scope to grow their tenement with time. • The area provided to each tenement is so low that they have hardly any scope of incremental growth. Sense of belongingness • Loss of intimacy of planning and restriction of growth make them feel alien when they shifted to the tenement

Post occupancy evaluation

Ownership • All tenements are registered on the name of a female in the family. • As the dwellers have sifted here very recently i.e. just three years back the original owner ship is almost 95%. • The remaining 5%are those who live as a tenant. • Another reason for this is that many families are such who have been allotted more than one tenement so they rent out one and live in the other. • There is no visible case of a dweller who has sold he tenement. Maintenance and condition of buildings • There are total 28 buildings, and each one has its own small society , and its own chairman, which takes care of the building maintenance. • The dwellers pay Rs. 50 per month as maintenance charges. • They have their separate water meter and electricity meter. • Even after these measures and building being very new, the condition of services is very poor.

Slum Networking of Indore Project details Client: Indore development authority Architect: Himanshu Parikh Cost of project: Rs.60 crores • This is a community driven approach which sees slums, not as resource draining liabilities but, instead, as opportunities of sustainable change for the city as a whole. • The Indore Slum Networking project is based sanitation and environmental improvement programme. • The infrastructure is upgraded using the network of slum settlements as a starting point and the project encompasses the entire city of 3'218 km2 Out of the total Indore population of 1,400,OOO (1995), 28% live in slums. • The expected slum population in urban Indore, a textile manufacturing and industrial engineering centre, is expected to increase to 30% by year 2000. • There are a total of 183 slums within the networking system.

Slum fabric and natural drainage courses of Indore city

Process of slum networking work •

All cities have strong natural drainage paths. Without these, villages and towns would drown in their own waste long before they ever grow into cities. The paths are nature's own means of disposal and, if properly exploited, also become ideal routes for the manmade urban infrastructure systems of sewerage, storm drainage, water supply and roads. The environmental skeleton of city greens and water bodies also lies on the same paths. Studies of several cities in India and in other parts of the world showed that slums are consistently located along these natural paths. Once this correlation between slums, urban infrastructure and environment is clearly understood, it is easy to see how slum can be used to transform cities. Thus slums help to build up low cost service trunks, particularly for gravity based systems of sewerage and storm drainage, together with environmental improvements such as creation of fresh water bodies, cleaning up of polluted rivers, development of green pedestrian spines and restoration of waterfront structures. The slums naturally benefit from the improved city level support. For the city too, the slums offer opportunities of change through this symbiotic process.

Objectives of slum networking • • • •

Improve the overall quality of life of the urban poor in terms of health, education, skill upgrading and access to finance for shelter improvement and income generation. Transform the sanitation and environment of the entire slum matrix of cities within a set time scale. Revitalize the service infrastructure and environment of the city as a whole as a consequence of slum intervention. Converge the strengths of the communities, economic forces of the city and the government for the planning and implementation of the programme.

Riverfront before

Riverfront after

Slum before

slum after

Special features of slum networking •Slums are used to improve environment and infrastructure of the city as a whole. •A holistic and integrated mix of physical, educational, health and income generation improvements. •Substantial human and material resources are mobilized in the partnership approach. •Community responsibility and control are increased. Costs are reduced significantly.

Indore habitat project Key elements CITY LEVEL IMPACT • strengthening of sewage network to receive slums, particularly in areas where city sewers do not exist • environmental improvement of the river and the streams of the city • landscaping within slums and development of lakes and gardens in marginal land/or low-lying open spaces around shims • improving city roads on the peripheries of slums improvement of water supply pressures around slum localities extension of city storm drainage to reach the slum pockets and low-lying areas improvement of solid waste management SLUM LEVEL PHYSICAL WORKS • roads and paving • individual water supply • house to house underground sewerage with individual toilets (in preference to public latrines) • storm drainage • street lighting • solid waste management • community based landscaping COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT • setting up neighborhood groups, women's groups and youth activities • mobilizing community savings for undertaking physical works • educational activities for pre-primary age children, school dropouts and illiterate adults • community health education and other interventions related to mother and child care • supporting income generating activities by providing vocational training, job access to unemployed persons developing linkages with formal sector finance to help people start small businesses and trades

City level impact • •

• •

• • • •

Most development alternatives designed for the urban poor rarely transcend beyond the slum boundaries. In contrast, as a byproduct of Slum Networking, Indore now has 90 kms. of piped sewer mains installed in the non-slum areas. The city like 80% of cities in India, had until recently no underground sewerage to speak of. This transformation was possible, firstly, by interconnecting the internal sewerage lines of slums along the rivers to create city level network and, secondly, by increasing the pipe sizes to accept the sewage from the entire city population. The cost was less than half that for conventional city systems. As the sewage is intercepted, the polluted rivers of the city are being converted to fresh water lakes in stages the historical riverside structures are restored and new pedestrian greens formed,. A recent study has shown that the quality of water in the wells around these areas has also improved.

Slum level physical works

Providing community taps results into this

Community toilets can never be maintained and thus add to the plight of slum

In Indore Habitat Project, instead of using the conventional ‘Slum' solutions to physical services, an attempt has been made to penetrate the conventional, high quality urban infrastructure deep into the slums. Based on the following principles. 1) Consult with the slum dwellers closely in order to obtain a better understanding of their needs and lifestyle. This enables a clearer idea of needs to be established, as well as preparing communities for the changes to come and increasing willingness to pay for and maintain the systems. 2) Coordinating the roads, storm drainage and sewerage to natural gradients results in economy and improved function. 3) Simple and inexpensive topography management measures such as cut and fill, site grading and appropriate landscaping ensure that gravity based services operate efficiently. 4) Design infrastructure networks to ensure that basic services reach the entire population in an equitable manner. 5) Ensure minimum disturbance and relocation of existing housing and slums. 6) Infrastructure network must be easy to maintain, repair and upgrade. 7) Avoid wasteful overlaps and uncoordinated services by using and integrated and holistic approach to design Ensures that the design makes provision for future growth and expansion of the slums.

8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

Do not use short-term measures to save money e.g. the provision of community toilets is wasted investment when income levels in the slum become higher. (In any case they are rarely used or maintained) Provide flexibility to enable upgrading when the resources of the slum dwellers increase e.g. by making provision for private toilets and house-to-house water supply, the slum dwellers are able to invest in the option when they can afford it. The success of a project depends on the information available to those designing it. Data banks and drawing archives must be established prior to design so as to ascertain need and existing provision, as well as the physical conditions of the site. Professionalism is needed in all aspects of the work carried out, since slum upgrading is more complex to plan and implement than conventional engineering projects. Use appropriate and innovative technologies. For example, conventional expensive brick manholes will not work in the narrow and twisting lanes of the slums, but small earthenware gully traps can be used instead. Set realistic standards and workable specifications. For example, designing for an ideal water consumption of 250 liters per capita per day, which is unlikely ever to be achieved, will only result in expensive water supply systems and dry sewer runs. Balance the standards adopted with affordability. The infrastructure systems need to be assessed on the basis of both the capital costs and continuing maintenance. Looking a capital costs only can produce a deceptive picture. For example, the cost of public latrines appears low if only the capital cost is considered but once maintenance costs are included a different picture emerges.


• •

As slums are not the causes of urban degradation but the consequences of distorted development, the solutions likewise must treat the slums as mere symptoms and use them to work back into the city fabric to the origins of the problems. Physically, Slum Networking is an integrated upgradation of the entire city using slums, not as isolated islands but an urban net. The spatial spread of slums over a city together with contiguity between slum settlements gives an opportunity to strengthen the city level networks. Using this principle, out of the 360 km. of roads provided in slums, about 80 km. on the slum peripheries were widened and linked up at the city level to reduce the traffic congestion on the existing trunk roads. Similarly, the storm drainage runs in the slums were placed in such a manner that large areas of the remaining city were also relieved of flooding.

Linking slum through pacca roads to entire city benefits both slums and cities

Creating road linkages through slum networking • Similarly, as the city grows, existing water lines branch out further to reach new areas and at the remote ends the pressure drops so much that there is no water available. The internal water lines in the Indore slums were used to short circuit the existing city branches and turning them into loops. This improved the water distribution of the city and increased water pressures in the remote areas.


turning hell into heaven

As per a 1990 survey, over two thirds of the slum families in Indore lived below the poverty line. On average 40% of slum dwellers were illiterate, with the female illiteracy rate as high as 53%. A large proportion of persons reported being sick within the fortnight before the survey. In addition to the working days lost, about 8% of the monthly income was reportedly spent on medical expenses. • A mid-term evaluation of the Indore project showed that many slums are heading towards full literacy, frequency of epidemics has dramatically reduced and incomes, particularly of women, have increased. ACHIEVEMENTS • 120 community halls built • 4 vocational training workshops built • 1 health centre built • 3 existing dispensaries upgraded • 79 neighborhood committees formed with 4,788 members • 71 women's groups started with 4,706 members • 190 kindergarten established in 100 slums • 67 non-formal education centers in 47 slums covering 1098 drop-out children • 83 adult education centre covering 15,541 persons. • 20 slums have reached 100 percent literacy level



• •

The project was financed from a grant given by Overseas Development Administration, U.K. Although the community contributed substantially in terms of house improvements and paying for community services, nevertheless, replicating of a grant based project can always be questioned. The project initiative was with the local government with the communities being ‘beneficiaries' and not ‘clients'. The Indore work started as a project and not a process. Post-sustenance of the project came as an afterthought requiring a great deal of effort to redress the oversight. Solid waste component of the project was weak undermining the excellent work done in other areas of environmental sanitation. Community development activities and physical works did not always run in tandem.

   •

• • •

Slum Networking has a clear vision. It sees the cities of developing countries without slums. To be able to achieve that, three conditions have to be satisfied. Firstly, u workable concept has to be there which is holistic, economic, sensitive to the community, practical and can transcend from micro to macro scale. Secondly, resources have to be mobilised finally, the community has to have control over the development. Indore clearly demonstrates that it is quite possible to address the problems of the urban poor, both physical and socio-economic, at micro and macro scales in parallel with the infrastructure and environmental improvements of the city as a whole. Indore has fully achieved a third of the goal vis-a-vis the method but fall short on resource self-sufficiency and community control. In order to replicate the concept and also plug the deficiencies of Indore, pilot slum projects were initiated in two new cities of Baroda and Ahmedabad. In Baroda, a substantial proportion of the development funds (over 50%) are raised internally from the slum dwellers. Further, the control of development rests with the community. In Ahemdabad, the Slum Networking approach has been taken one stage further by replacing external aid by contributions from the city's industries so as to augment the resource and technical manpower needs of both the slum dwellers as well as the Municipal Corporation. The multi-partite effort of the community, local economic forces, Municipal Corporation, NGOs and professionals at Baroda and Ahemdabad now satisfy all the three conditions needed to replicate Slum Networking throughout the country.

Aranya low cost housing at Indore Project details Client: Indore development authority, Indore Architect: Balkrishna Doshi Project incharge: Himanshu Parikh Total site area: 86 hectares Total no of dwelling units :6500 Cost of project: 100 million Completed:1989

B.V. Doshi ‘s insight behind aranya A sense of continuity of Fundamental Values of the society is the essence of good habitat. The ideological basis for planning Aranya has been the following: • a) Vitality - development to support socio-physical aspirations of the community. • b) Imageability - built form to impart identity and inculcate a sense of belonging amongst the inhabitants. • c) Equity - to create equitable balanced community with satisfactory level of environmental qualities and opportunities for all. • d) Efficiency - to realize development that optimizes natural, material as well as human resources to the advantage of the user group. • e) Flexibility - to evolve framework that absorbs with ease the progressive change and growth as a part of natural development process. • f) Feasibility- to ensure development within given legal, fiscal and organizational milieu.

Site layout •

A rectilinear site measuring 86 hectares is designed on the idea of site and services basis, to accommodate over 6500 families (dwellings), largely from the economically weaker section. Their size and organization incorporates all the neighborhood facilities such as school, medical centers, shops etc. in appropriate quantities to sustain community life. For identity, access equity and cohesive functioning and commercial, community and recreational amenities, required for all, are located in a linear spine in the center of the settlement while convenient shops and other neighborhoods facilities are dispersed to be accessible in walking distance. Amenities are well integrated with open spaces to allow overlapping use all throughout day. Open spaces are interlines to form a pedestrian network connecting the whole settlement.

Site plan showing the layout of the housing. The whole site is divided into6 different sector And a main arterial (not straight) road running through Centre. And nodes are created to bifurcate the wider roads into narrower ones. And gradually into pathways.

Circulation •

The formal street network draws the vehicular traffic outward to the perimeter road while pedestrian on informal pathways and open space network flows in the opposite direction achieving clear and safe segregation of slow and fast moving traffic. Non-rectilinear alignment of streets with varying widths, bends and widenings are provided to accommodate range of spontaneous human activities. The hierarchy of commercial activities coincides with street hierarchy. Formal commercial outlets are along major arterial roads while informal shopping areas occur along narrow streets and open spaces throughout the settlement.

Services •

Introduction of open slot around service core combines twice as much toilets per manhole and cuts down pipe lengths to half, achieving economic efficiency without effecting its performance. The service slot has been integrated as design element helping break the continuous built mass and becoming useful play area for children with platform for neighborly interaction. Fig. Showing the sewage networks in a sector. This is how a proper network is maintained

Socio behavioral interpretation •

• •

• •

To foster community feel and mutual interdependence various income groups have been combined and arranged concentric rings of plots. Each dwelling has its own compound and territory, which encourage social interaction, and supports a way of life of the user group. Like mohallas of traditional towns, dwellings are grouped to create small cluster spaces in a form of short streets, or cul-de-sacs or open squares. Dwellings are oriented north south and arranged as row houses so that minimum of incident solar radiation will be absorbed by the walls. Mass housing where end user is anonymous it is a challenge to offer choices of form through flexibility of design. At Aranya variations in ottas, entrances, staircases, verandah, balconies and fenestration, within the standardized layout, help each house gain a unique character. These variations not only enrich street façade but also help users express their identity. This arouses a sense of belonging in the user, essential to the healthy development of any living environment and its subsequent maintenance.

Salient features of design at each level Township level- approach to integrate • Provide a focus to the township. • Achieve on overall cohesion of different areas and activities. • Allow formation of an environmental area by discouraging through traffic. • Incorporate all the basic community and institutional facilities. • Place the community and central facilities within easy reach. • Provide a well ordered hierarchy of roads. • Provide a well ordered hierarchy of spaces. • Provide a well ordered hierarchy of commercial spaces. • Allow design population densities to accommodate future growth. Sector level-approach to optimization • Use natural features and landmarks to construct and efficiently. • Reflect the local, historical characteristics in the built form. • Encourage interaction and integration amongst income/social groups. • Promote multiple and overlapping land uses. • Segregate pedestrian and vehicular movements. • Optimize land use, roads and other infrastructure. • Provide a sense of boundary to each sector. • Provide defined entry points and discourage through vehicular traffic

Concentric circles showing various amenities and their respective distance as we move from a dwelling unit to outwards

Sewerage network of a cluster

community/street level- approach to social interaction • Promote person to person contact through cluster of human scale. • Provide an individual character to each cluster. • Create a functionally sympathetic and an esthetically pleasing street environment. • Provide spaces for social and religious activities. • Promote income generation at cluster level. • Provide all essential amenities and utilities to every street. • Define clearly each cluster’s territory and the sense of entry. • Have regards for pedestrians. • Optimize cluster patterns for economic infrastructure provision and easy access. For planning the sanitary service core in low cost housing, the following additional guidelines were considered: • Ensure full privacy to the W.C. and wash area. • Provide safe and adequate sanitation for all families. • Consider the environmental impact of the sanitation core. • Integrated the sanitary facilities within the dwelling. • Make the sewage system adaptable to alternative treatment/disposal methods. • Consider energy conservation and the recycling of waste. • Radically streamline the services to reduce costs and ensure easy maintenance. • Propose economic planning of services, structure, sub-structure and cores.

Ariel view of a street Which gives an effect of mohalla Providing great deal of security as well as social interaction

Such close placing also reduces the pipe lenghts making the whole process of services networking very economical

Dwelling level- incremental approach • Make the dwellings sensitive to the lifestyle and daily needs of the people. • Give each dwelling a rich, unique identity • Integrate the spaces with in and outside the dwelling. • Maintain privacy within and from outside. • Consider orientation, light, cross ventilation, etc. for natural climate control • Allow for vertical and horizontal expansion of the dwelling in future. • Provide rear access for sub-letting bicycle, cattle etc. • Study the efficiency of plot sizes, walls, foundations and internal circulation. • Use appropriate materials and construction methods. • Make the dwelling simple and economic to encourage the ‘self-built’ approach

Scope for incremental growth in a house.

Giving dwellers freedom to build on their own not only brings sense of belongingness but also provides a rich street façade.

Comparative analysis topics

Scion Shivaji, Mumbai

Ajanta Nagar, Pune

Aranya, Indore

Slum networking, Indore

Concept /projec t type

•Land sharing

On site development

Sites and services

Upgradation through networking of slums

Financi al arrang ements

•Fully funded, •dwellers get the tenements free of cost

10% dwellers share 30%math funded 30%hudco funded 30%state funded

Mixed user group so e.w.s people were given loans and monthly installments based on avg. family income

Whole project is funded on sharing basis between Indore development authority and overseas development administration U.K.

Target populati on

•Original slum dwellers

Original slum dwellers

Mixed user group but largely e.w.s . people

Entire Indore including slums and non slums

site plannin g

•Longitudinal site not much could be don •But had an additional advantage of 2.5 fsi •Did maximum that could be done for this site. •Absence of adequate green spaces and open play areas

Site was big enough to accommodate dwelling units, and recreational spaces. But not much has been done to provide green spaces Lack of intimate scale Raising the building on stilts gave adequate space for parking and temporary market place.

Whole site of 86 hectare has been fully exploited Hierchy of spaces from township level to sector level to street level to dwelling unit level has been properly maintained and is clearly visible

Whole city is treated as one whole integrated site Slums are interwoven into city by making them a part of cities functioning All facilities and amenities like underground sewerage and water supply have been provided to them through networking of slums Natural topography is exploited.


Scion Shivaji, Mumbai

Ajanta Nagar, Pune

Aranya, Indore

Slum networking, Indore

Plannin g at communi ty level

•As such community planning has not been aimed at deliberately but the lifestyle work culture and makes community participation must

•Community planning is not fully achieved In design •Absence of Inter community intimacy in design

•person to person contact through cluster of human scale •spaces for social and religious activities •all essential amenities and utilities to every street. •regards for pedestrians

As the whole city is targeted, community planning and sensitiveness had to be achieved

Dwellin g unit level

•No scope of incremental growth •No provision of spill over spaces

•No scope of incremental growth •No provision of spill over spaces

•dwellings sensitive to the lifestyle and daily needs of the people. •Integrate the spaces with in and outside the dwelling. •Scope for incremental growth in a house.

The project aims at overall development so design of tenement depends purely on the dweller

Socio behavio ural aspects

•No flexibility in design •Lesser social interaction than in slums

•No flexibility in design •Good social interaction than in slums

Design aims at proper grouping of income groups community feel encouraged in design User group is the basic of design.

Widely accepted by people living standard improved a lot People actively participate and mobilize their resources for the upgradation

Post occupa ncy evaluati on

•Almost 85% of the dwellers are the ones who are the original occupants. •Nicely maintained complex •Community initiative to keep the housing clean and healthy

•Almost 95% of the dwellers are the ones who are the original occupants. •badly maintained complex •No Community initiative to keep the housing clean and healthy

A sceme dwellers can identify with Highly successful Perfect example of how a housing should be designed specially for ews and slum dwellers

An example for rest of the cities for following this type of project Evolution and replication has already initiated

Site •   • • •

• • •

Location Site is located near one of the very posh colonies-model town extension. Very near to the site lies the Sidhwan canal which carries the waste water disposal of the surrounding areas Physical condition The neighboring area of the site is a one of the very posh area of city but the slum area is in a total dilapidation. There is one road which is a major traffic road which adjoins back side of model town ext to main road which cuts the site into two unequal parts. Total area of the site is approx 9 acres all of which contains illegal and haphazard semi pucca 532 dwelling units 2o shops which people have opened their houses and some are the encroachments on the roads. •Stagnant water at places and level of road higher than plinth of houses make condition all the more worse. •Almost no sewerage system and illegal water supply pipes make the place very unhygienic. •Total no of families to rehabilitate-1005 Site plan



Area %age of total area

Per unit Residential Flatted •Type a •Type b •type c Plotted

1005 840 250 270 320 165

375 325 270 430

Open spaces and parks


Circulation (roads and pathways)

total area (sq ft)










Primary and middle school





Primary health centre





Community centre • Community hall • Slum office • Reading hall • crèche

1 1 1 1 1






Other community facilities  Water pump and tank  Electric substation  Informal markets  shops

1 1 1


1 40


35 30 25 40

Site level considerations •

  •    • •

• •

Site integration As the site is divided by a traffic road, efforts shall be to give site an integrated character through Appropriate zoning Following a pattern in hierarchy of circulation Site planning shall aim at promoting Community interaction Sense of belongingness Creating workspaces, multiple spaces, spill over spaces Planning conducive to the lifestyle of the dwellers such type of layout shall be initiated which is conducive to work culture of the dwellers as many people here work on khaddis and little handmade crafts. So community worplaces and open spaces shall be provided Intimate scale shall be followed while designing of cluster layout. Cluster courts shall be provided which act as community interaction spaces

Dwelling unit level considerations While deciding for the dwelling units following aspects shall be considered: • Flexibility: flexibility might be achieved by giving two types of development  Plotted - min. area of one plot shall be around 35 sq m.  Flatted - min. area of one tenement to be 25 sq m.  Further choice in flatted can be given two to three types of tenements depending upon family type and other personal preferences. • Provisions for incremental growth: care shall be taken to provide such a dwelling unit which accommodates incremental growth naturally and in such a way that it does not disturb the whole setup.

Use of cost effective measures •

• • •    

As my design is for a class of people for whom out of the three food clothing and shelter the last one come at last and their primary concern is to earn money to feed themselves, to convince them for a better shelter means that it has to come to them at a price which they can shell out after fulfilling their basic needs. Also the money that government spends on these projects is very high and is a national asset, it has to be used meticulously . Thus adoption of cost effective measures which not only make the initial cost of the project low but also make its running cost or maintenance cost extremely affordable. This shall be done by adopting Cost effective construction techniques Easily available, cheap and durable construction material Easily available labour, which can be the dwellers themselves Proper orientation measures

Books and articles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

National slum Policy. National Building codes 1970 City development plan, Ludhiana Guidelines—JNNURM Management of Sites and services housing schemes. The Asian experience-Peter J. Swan Emiel A.Wegelin and Komol Panchee. engineered housing for Developing Countries with Psychological implications-Dr. Lonie A homes (housing Problems in Developing countries, vol 2) physical planning aspects in low income urban areas-Bulent Tokman, BRl, turkey housing. (Problems in Developing countries, vol 1) Building systems for Low Income housing -AK Jain Design with climate, approach to architectural regionalism-Victor olgyay Climatological and social data for India-TN Sheshadri and KR Rao. Standards and specifications for low cost building materials.( Published by BMTPC) New Landscape, Charles Correa Environment friendly materials and technologies, BMPTC Rain water Harvesting ,intermediate technology development group ltd sustainable community Principles, Center for Urban Transportation Research, flonda

Websites • • • • • • •

www.ddadelhi.com www.hudcoindia.org www.bmptc.com www.anangpur.com www.jnnurm.com www.urbanindia.nic.in www.archnet.com

•www.sra.com •www.srsindia.org •www.muda.com •www.ludhianacorp.org

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