UCSP Handouts

August 10, 2017 | Author: Elaine Borja | Category: Anthropology, Socialization, Gender Role, Sociology, Social Sciences
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

understanding culture,society and politics...

Description

Understandi ng

Culture, Society, and Politics 1

(Handouts)

Prepared by: Mr. Glen Mark M. Mariano

Chapter 1: Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics Lesson 1: Defining Cultue, Society, and Politics

Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Gender) Gender and Gender Roles People play different roles in society depending on one’s age and occupation. There are jobs that require a specific gender to perform tasks while other jobs are open to both men and women. Gender 

Gender refers to social, cultural, and psychological characteristics or traits related to males and females based on certain social contexts.



It is different from sex, which refers to the biological characteristics that distinguish a male from a female.



Thus, sex makes a person male or female, while gender makes a person masculine or feminine.

Gender Roles 

Gender roles refer to attitudes and behaviors that the society expects a person to exhibit based on his/her sex.



For example, in the traditional Philippine society, women are expected to be plain housewives and take care of the children, while the men are expected to be a professional and provide the needs of his family.



Another example is how society expects women to be more emotional and sensitive while men should be strong and capable of doing things that women cannot do.

2

Gender Roles in Pre-colonial Philippine Society During pre-colonial Philippines, males and females enjoy the same rights and privileges. There are different social functions that are assigned to different members of the society. However, there are functions that are specifically given to males or females or both. The babaylan (Visayan) or catalonan (Tagalog) is a shaman or priestess who performs various religious and social functions. The babaylan can either be a man or a woman, but the role is often given to women. Aside from being a priestess, the babaylan is also considered a healer, an adviser, and a seer. Gender Roles in the Philippine Society During Colonial Period Gender roles during the colonial period had changed drastically. Women were restrained from other activities outside their homes, while men were given more social functions. These roles also changed as the Philippines was occupied by new colonizers. 

Upon the coming of the Spaniards and the introduction of Catholicism, the babaylan lost their role in the religious life of the Indios. This role was taken over by Catholic priests.



Women were also relegated to doing household chores and taking care of children. More often than not, young women were not sent to school; rather, they are trained to be good wives and mothers for their future families. Some women were also forced to marry someone they do not love for economic and political gain.



During the American period, women became more open. They were allowed to study and work in whatever field they want. They also became “liberated,” which is a term used by older people to refer to Filipino women who have adopted American values. Men and women became equal, in the sense that it is acceptable for both genders to have jobs and to be educated.



Although men and women were able to maintain their status in society during the Japaneseperiod, women were usually kept inside their houses to protect them from abusive Japanese soldiers. Men also became busy defending the country, with most of them serving as soldiers.

Gender Roles in Current Philippine Society Philippine society today is more open to allowing both men and women to perform different tasks, not based solely on gender, but on an individual’s capabilities and strengths. For example, fields like engineering, architecture, and medicine, which is often associated with men, have long been open to women. Likewise, there are also a lot of male teachers, nurses, and even chefs and hairdressers. Tips Gender is a set of characteristics that pertains to a person’s masculinity or femininity while biology determines sex. For example, a man is male because he has male sex organs. He, however, can be considered feminine because the things he likes are often associated with women. Key Points 

Gender refers to social, cultural, and psychological characteristics or traits related to males and females based on certain social contexts.

3



Gender roles refer to attitudes and behaviors that the society expects a person to exhibit based on his/her sex.



During pre-colonial Philippines, males and females enjoy the same rights and privileges. There are different social functions that are assigned to different members of the society. However, there functions that are specifically given to males or females or both.



Gender roles during the colonial period had changed drastically. Women were restrained from other activities outside their homes, while men were given more social functions. These roles also changed as the Philippines was occupied by new colonizers.



Current Filipino society has become more open to allowing people of different genders to do things not based on their gender but based on their capabilities. Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Socioeconomic Class)

The Philippine society can be categorized into various socioeconomic classes. During the prehistoric times, our ancestors have developed a society where people were assigned with different social functions. However, as the society changes, differences in one’s function in the society became wider and more diverse. Socioeconomic Classes during the Pre-Colonial Period Prior to the coming of the Spaniards, the community is called a barangay. It is headed by a datu orraha. Our ancestors were divided into three different groups: the maharlika, the timawa, and thealipin. Maharlika (Leaders and Royals) 

first social class



composed of the leaders (datu) and their families



also called the group of the maginoo, raha, or gat

Timawa (Freemen) 

second or “middle” social class



composed of all freemen living in the barangay



consists of workers, warriors, merchants, and others who are not under debt bondage



have their own property like their own houses and a piece of land to cultivate

Alipin (Slaves) 

third class



serve another person or family as payment for debt



became an alipin when their family lose in a war with another family



are not bound to their master for life

4



can go back to their previous status as soon as they pay off their debts, or if they marry amaharlika, who will then pay for their debt



has two kinds of alipin: the aliping saguiguilid and the aliping namamahay

Aliping namamahay 

has their own property, like a house or a piece of land



often from the timawa class and became alipin because of debt or as punishment for a wrongdoing



can go back to being part of the timawa class once they pay off their debt

Aliping saguiguilid 

does not have the right to own any property



often came from a family of alipin or are captives in war



can also be sold or exchanged for goods or other alipin Socioeconomic Classes during the Spanish Colonial Period

Upon the coming of the Spaniards, they changed the society and created a new set of socioeconomic class. During this period, the people were divided based on their ancestry— peninsulares, insulares,mestizo, and indio. Peninsulares 

Spaniards in the Philippines who were born in Spain



came from “peninsula,” meaning "came directly from the Spanish peninsula"

Insulares 

Spaniards who were of Spanish descent but were born in the Philippines



came from “insular,” meaning "from the islands"

Mestizo 

those of mixed ancestry



usually children of Spanish and Chinese couples or of Spanish and Indio couples



have both economic and political power, coming from their mixed heritage

Indio 

consists of the natives



the lowest class in the society



were stripped of their rights and freedom and were forced to bow down to the Spanish colonizers

5

This kind of system lasted for hundreds of years, until such time when some insulares and mestizos were able to gain some form of power. In the 19th century, the so-called “middle class” emerged— theprincipalia and the ilustrado. Principalia 

consists of native leaders in the government and their families



are often educated and served as a gobernadorcillo (town mayor) or cabeza de barangay(barangay leader)

Ilustrados 

the children of the principalia who usually studied in Europe



most of the popular artists and scholars at that time, including Jose Rizal

Modern Socioeconomic Classes Socioeconomic classes changed when the Philippines gained independence from Spain. The Americans introduced democracy and did not impose any form of socioeconomic classes. At present, a person’s position in the society is based mainly on his or her family’s economic status.Social stratification, or the division of society based on occupation and income, wealth or power; is simpler at present than in the past. The National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) divided the population into high-income, middle-income, and low-income classes. High-income Class 

people earning an average of P200,000 a month, or approximately P2.4 million a year



the “rich” class and accounts for merely one percent of the country’s total population

Middle-income Class 

people earning an average of P36,000 per month



consists of professionals and small-scale entrepreneurs

Low-income Class 

people earning less than P10,000 a month



consists of laborers and minimum wage earners

Social Mobility Unlike in other societies where one who is born into a specific class has no choice but to die as part of the same class, people in the Philippines usually have the opportunity to transfer from a lower socioeconomic class to a higher one. This is called social mobility. 

the movement of people or families within or between different levels in the society



the opportunity to transfer from a lower socioeconomic class to a higher one

6



possible through education, or in some cases, through marriage

Key Points 

Knowing about one’s socioeconomic class is not a cause for discrimination. Everyone in the Philippines has the same set of rights, regardless of his/her socioeconomic class.



Anyone can move from one socioeconomic class to the other, depending on his/her educational attainment and decisions in life.



If one can move from one socioeconomic class to a higher one, it is also possible for one to move from a higher class to a lower one.



Social mobility is the movement of people or families within or between different levels in the society.



Social stratification is the division of society based on occupation and income, wealth or power. Cultural Variations and Social Differences (Ethnicity)

Ethnicity and Race Every society consists of people from different families, ethnic groups, and races. This makes society very diverse and unique. 

Ethnicity refers to a group of people, also called ethnic group, who have a common or shared culture, language, history, religion, and tradition.



Here, the people are divided into groups based on different social factors.

Examples: Filipinos, Malays, Anglo-Saxons, and Muslims. 

Race refers to a group of people who share the same physical attributes, such as skin color, height, and facial features.



People are grouped into different races based on their physical appearance.



Human beings are classified into three major races: Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid.



These classifications are based on the color of the skin, the shape of the face, texture of the hair, shape of the eyes, and other prominent physical features.

RACE

PHYSICAL FEATURES Skin color

Caucasoid

Mongoloid

Negroid

Fair

Yellowish

Dark

Hair

Light colored; straight or wavy

Straight; black

Curly; black

Eyes

Round

Almond-shaped

Large round

7

Others

High nose bridge

Low to medium nose bridge

Low nose bridge

Origin

Americas and Europe

Asia

Africa

Two people belonging to the same race may be part of different ethnic groups. For example, Asians belong to the Mongoloid race but consists of different ethnic groups like the Japanese, the Chinese, and the Malays. They all share the same physical features but have different culture, history, and language. Ethnolinguistic Groups in the Philippines There are more than 180 ethnic or ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines, which are based on the language each group use. 



There are eight major ethnolinguistic groups in the country: 1. Ilokano,

5.

Bikolano

2. Kapampangan,

6.

Ilonggo

3. Pangasinense,

7.

Cebuano and

4. Tagalog,

8.

Waray-waray.

Other smaller ethnolinguistic groups are the Ibanag, Ivatan, Sambal, Subanon, Maguindanaoan, and Zambuangueño.

There are also indigenous groups in the country that may belong to the same ethnolingguistic groups, but have a different culture, tradition, or culture. Some of them are the Mangyans of Mindoro, the Igorots of the Mountain Province, and the Moros of Mindanao. Issues About Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity and race are categories that divide people based on their social affinity or physical similarity. However, differences in ethnicity and race made some people believe that one ethnic group is better or superior than others. Thus, this belief creates discrimination and prejudice against people from minor or perceived to be “inferior” ethnicity or race. There are different types of discrimination against one’s ethnicity or race: Racism 

Racism is discrimination or prejudice based on one’s race.



In the 1970s, white Americans (Caucasians) discriminated black Americans (Negroids), who were descendants of immigrants from African countries.

Ethnocentricism 

Ethnocentrism is discrimination or prejudice based on one’s culture.

8



Recently, Muslim extremists discriminate Christians and non-Muslims in Muslim countries because of their religion.



In the Philippines, Muslims experience prejudice and discrimination in Christian-dominated regions like in Metro Manila. Because of the ongoing conflict in Mindanao between the government and Islamic militants, Christians tend to think that all Muslims are terrorists.



On the other hand, some Christians and ethnic groups are discriminated and prejudiced in Muslim-dominated areas.

Discrimination against one’s race may cause crimes against it. Genocide 

Genocide is the elimination of a group of people from the same race, ethnic group, religion or nation.



It is an extreme action against people from other ethnicity or race.



The Holocaust during the World War II, done by the Nazis of Germany and headed by Adolf Hitler, killed millions of Jews all over Europe.

Ethnic cleansing 

Ethnic cleansing is the harassment, rape, or forced migration of an ethnic group to vanish them from a certain area or territory.



This happens in certain areas in Africa.

Key Points 

Ethnicity refers to a group of people, also called ethnic group, who have a common culture, language, history religion, and tradition.



People from the same ethnic group share a common culture, language, religion, beliefs and tradition.



There are more than 180 ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.



Race refers to a group of people who share the same physical attributes, such as skin color, height, and facial features.



Racism is prejudice or discrimination against people of other races, with the idea that one’s race is superior than the other.



Ethnocentrism is similar to racism, but it discriminates based on differences in culture.



Ethnocentrism and racism may lead to genocide or ethnic cleansing, which are crimes against a specific ethnic group or race. Cultural Variations and Social Differences(Religion)

Religion as a Cultural Variation 

We live in a world with varying and diverse cultures.



Cultural variation or differences take many forms within and among societies. One of which is religion.

9



Religion can be defined as a set of practices and behaviors that relate to a group of people's belief in a God or a group of gods.



Sociologists studying religion consider it a part of society's culture.



In most cases, religion not only affects a person's belief, but one's way of life.

Variety of Religion 

There are many religions around the world.



Among the major religions in the world are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Taoism, andBuddhism.



Each of these religions has its own set of beliefs and practices that must be followed by its believers.



In a society, several religions may exist and since religion affects an individual’s way of life, we can observe the cultural variation in the form of different religions.

Religion in the Philippines 

The Philippines is a secular country, which means that the government does not prescribe a specific set of activities or laws based on religion. A citizen's right to choose his or her own religion is protected by the Philippine Constitution.



In the Philippines, the majority of the population are Christians, with a certain portion of the population practicing Islam, particularly in the southern part of the country.



Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism are also practiced by a small number of inhabitants in the archipelago.



Different religions are being practiced in the Philippine society today. This variation in religion is a product of the evolution of Philippine society across time.

10

Understanding Cultural Variation in the Form of Religion 

Cultural variations do exist as exemplified through different religions in the world, more so in our Philippine society.



For example, Christians and Muslims believe in one God, yet Hindus believe in many gods, while Buddhists do not.



The sets of practices and beliefs of a particular religion influence the behavior of its followers and their interaction with other members of the society.

Issues Surrounding Differences in Religion Because the people have different religions, issues and conflicts between religious groups or denominations cannot be prevented. Problems/Conflicts 

Since a difference in religion does not only mean worshipping a different god, conflicts sometimes arise between their believers.



Some believers of a particular religion feel like they are being marginalized, while some feel like those following other religions are taking advantage of their number.



It may come easy to be swayed by religious differences and start a conflict. A believer or follower of a particular religion may offend a follower of another religion if he or she imposes his or her beliefs or practices of his or her religion.



In history, bloody wars happened because of religious differences, and unfortunately, conflicts continue until now due to varying religions.

11

Solutions/Actions 

To prevent conflicts, the Philippine government, for example, has started recognizing some of the special days in different religions.



Employees are not required to work during Holy Week; wherein Catholics commemorate the suffering and death of Jesus Christ.



The start and the end of the Ramadan are also considered holidays, just like when the Chinese celebrate the start of their new year.



This way, the government allows followers of different religions to attend to their religious obligations without their work getting in the way.



To those conflicts brought about by differences in religion, the key word here is respect. And respect entails a conscious effort of acquiring cultural knowledge and understanding which this course is mainly about.

Key Points 

Cultural variation takes its many forms, one of which is religion.



Religion is a set of practices and behavior that relate to a group of people's belief in a god or group of gods.



Among the major religions in the world are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.



In the Philippines, the majority of the population are Christians, with a certain portion of the population practicing Islam, particularly in the southern part of the country while some inhabitants practice Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism.



Protestants also believe in Jesus Christ, but they do not share the same practices as Catholicism.



The Philippine government has started to recognize special days in different religions to give the believers freedom to practice their own religions.



Despite being largely Catholic, the Philippines remains a secular country. A citizen's right to choose his or her own religion is protected by the Philippine Constitution.



Many conflicts happened because of cultural variations such as differences in religion.



Recognizing cultural variation and showing respect to different religion can avoid conflict.



Respect can effectively be achieved through the conscious effort of acquiring cultural knowledge and understanding.

Cultural Variations and Social Differences(Exceptionality) Exceptionality and the Exceptional People People has different characteristics, needs, desires, lifestyles, and challenges. However, there are people who, from one reason or another, are described or categorized by the society as exceptional. What do the words "gifted," "disabled," "challenged," or "different" mean to you? How does society influence your knowledge and attitudes toward people with labels and differences?

12

Exceptionality 

a quality or a characteristic of a person that makes him or her different from an established norm in a society



various physical and mental interference or problems that affect a person and which makes it difficult for him/her to function properly in society

Existing Categories of Exceptionality Behavior

Communication

Intellectual

Physical

Excessive fears or anxieties

Autism

Giftedness

Physical disability

A tendency to compulsive reaction

Deaf

Mild intellectual disability

Orthopedic impairment

Inability to build and sustain satisfactory interpersonal relationships

Language impairment

Development disability

Health impairment such as asthma

Speech Impairment

Multiple Exceptionalitie s

A combination of one or more disabilities or impairment

Blind and low vision

Exceptional people 

who differ from societal and community standard of normalcy



with learning or behavioral problems and with physical and sensory disabilities



who are intellectually gifted

The characteristics which make a person exceptional may have been acquired from birth, through a medical condition, or through an accident. Exceptional People: Challenges and Problems Exceptional people, disabled or intellectually gifted, encounter challenges and issues in dealing with other members of the society. Here are some of the common problems and challenges that exceptional people experience.

13

Overcoming Challenges and Problems In the Philippines, despite the passage of Republic Act 7277 or the Magna Carta for People with Disabilities (PWDs) in 1991, there are still significant barriers that keep them from fully participating in the society---including the stigma surrounding disability and the society’s poor understanding of the abilities and aspirations of exceptional people. However, the government, private sectors, media, and some concerned groups have been working together to solve these existing problems. Here are some ways on how both private and public sectors have been helping them.

This symbol is the International Symbol of Access (ISA). It can be found at places that are designated for all persons with disabilities. The location or spot is intended for them.

Key Points 

Society categorizes people based on their characteristics, needs, desires, lifestyles, and challenges.



Exceptionality refers to a characteristic of a person that makes him or her different from the established norms in the society.



Exceptional people are individuals who differ from societal and community standard of normalcy.



Some of the problems and challenges that the exceptional people experience are discrimination, limited access to educational opportunities, and isolation from society.

14



Philippine Republic Act 7277 gives special rights and privileges to people with disabilities (PWDs).



The Internationl Symbol of Access (ISA) is placed in all areas that are reserved for PWDs, regardless of their disability.



By law, all public schools in the Philippines are mandated to offer special education classes for all students with physical or learning disabilities. Cultural Variations and Social Difference(Nationality)

Nation, Nationality, and Citizenship The line of distinction between the terms "nation" and "nationality" is quite thin. Most of the time, "nationality" and "citizenship" are used interchangeably. However, it is important to note that these words do not mean the same and pertain to different concepts. They differ in many aspects. Nation 

a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, language, and economic life inhabiting a particular country or territory

Example: The United Kingdom is a country inhabited mainly by people of four nations: English, Irish, Scott, and Welsh. Whereas the term nation emphasizes a particular group of people, country emphasizes the physical dimensions and boundaries of a geographical area, while state is a self-governing legal and political entity. Nationality 

a person’s instinctive membership to a specific nation or country



can be acquired by an individual from the country where he/she was born (jus soli)



can be acquired by an individual through his/her parents (jus sanguinis)



An individual is national of a particular country by birth. Nationality is acquired through inheritance from his or her parents.



People with the same nationality often share the same language, culture, territory, and in some cases, ancestry. They share the same rights and are protected by the same laws.

Citizenship 

a person’s legal and political status in a city or state, which means that an individual has been registered with the government in some country



An individual becomes a citizen of a country only when he is accepted into that country’s political framework through legal terms.

Examples:

15



An individual born in the Philippines has a Filipino nationality. Chances are, he may have a Brazilian or Colombian citizenship once he has registered with that country.



People of the European Union (maybe French, Germans, English, and others) may have European Union citizenship, but that person’s nationality does not change.



No one will be able to change his nationality, but one can have different citizenships.

Filipino Nationality 

The Philippine nationality law is based on the principles of jus sanguinis or "right of blood." Therefore, anyone with a parent who is a citizen or national of the Republic of the Philippines can acquire Philippine citizenship. This is the primary method of acquiring citizenship.



For those born in the Philippines to non-Filipino parents, the Administrative Naturalization Law of 2000 (R.A. 9139) provides a trail for administrative naturalization for those who qualify.

Issues Regarding Nationality and Statelessness What are some issues concerning nationality and statelessness? Right to a Nationality 

Every person has a right to a nationality.



The right to a nationality is a fundamental human right. It is an individual’s right to acquire, change, or retain his or her nationality. Thus, a country’s law cannot deprive a person the right to gain a nationality, in case he or she loses it.

Statelessness 

People who does not have a nationality of any country are considered as stateless people.



According to Article 1 of the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), "a stateless person is someone who is not considered as a national by any State under the operation of its law."



Most stateless people are considered "refugees" while others lose their nationality due to war, conflict, or if their country is annexed by another country and loses its sovereignty.

Case Study: Statelessness in Sabah Most Filipinos living in Sabah, Malaysia are considered "stateless." Thus, they are not recognized as people with a nationality; they don't belong to any country or nation. Since Sabah is a contested territory between Malaysia and the Philippines, the people in Sabah experience problems in securing their nationality. Filipinos from nearby Sulu and Tawi-tawi, even those who were born in Sabah, were not recognized by the Malaysian government as Malaysians. Worse, they are also denied of their Filipino nationality since they are not properly registered in the Philippines. As a result, they do not enjoy the rights and privileges that citizens of both countries enjoy. This concern is also true in areas and territories under war and conflict.

16

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) handles all issues regarding refugees and stateless people. The role of UNHCR is to identify stateless people and protect their rights, as well as to prevent statelessness from happening all over the world. They also aid stateless people in acquiring new citizenship in other countries. Key Points 

Nationality is the person’s automatic membership to a specific nation while citizenship is a person’s political status in a city or state.



No one will be able to change his nationality, but one can have different citizenship.



Every person has a right to a nationality because it is a fundamental human right.



Statelessness is not having a nationality of any country.



The role of the UNHCR is to identify stateless people and protect their rights, prevent statelessness from happening all over the world and aid them in acquiring new citizenship in other countries.

Chapter 2: Social, Political, and Cultural Behavior and Phenomena

Social behavior and phenomena are broad and complicated sociological concepts. These involve every event between at least two individuals and include all knowledge and experiences a person acquires in the entirety of his lifetime. Social phenomena are the individual, external, and social constructions that influence a person’s life and development. Political Behavior and Phenomena In sociology, political behavior and phenomena include events through which authority, governance, and public opinion are put into practice. A political behavior of a person or a group may be influenced by their political views, ideology, and levels of political participation. An obvious example of an act of political behavior is the act of voting. Political phenomena are not only limited to public office as this also include how institutions like school, a church, or companies are ran and governed.

17

Cultural Behavior and Phenomena Also known as bandwagon effect, a cultural behavior is that event when certain individuals behave a certain way merely because other persons do as well. Cultural phenomena happen when something or someone gains widespread popularity. However, it is noteworthy that it is not the subject that is the cultural phenomena but rather a process of becoming famous.

Interactions within Society The social, political, and cultural behavior and phenomena in the society are results of the interaction within society. People talk and share stories. People share ways of living among other things. People do things together and work for the attainment of the common good and social order. These behaviors, be they usual or not, are but a natural response to changes, and ideologies developing within society as a result of constant interactions between members of society. Key Points 

Social phenomena are the individual, external, and social constructions that influence a person’s life and development.



Political behavior and phenomena include events through which authority, governance, and public opinion are put into practice.

18



Cultural behavior is the event when certain individuals behave a certain way merely because other individuals do as well.

Social, Political, and Cultural Change Social change is the transformation of social institutions over time. Cultural change, on the other hand, is the transformation of culture or the way people live. 

Communication is a vital human process. Through communication, people exchange information and thoughts.



Unlike in the older times, communication is made easier.



Nowadays, people can share information in just a click. New media – social networking, texting (text messaging), through e-mail, and the likes – have defied time and distance.



While it makes the world as if borderless, this form of communication may produce individuals who lack the basic understanding of direct and personal connection.

Transnational Families 

A transnational family is where one parent, or in some cases both parents, lives and works in another country while the children remain in their country of origin.



While these families remain secured financially, its members are also exposed to its setbacks.



Children who become overly unsupervised find themselves meeting up with peer pressure, over independence, and lack of family orientation. These may result in alcohol or drug abuse, unwanted pregnancy, mood swings, or early marriage.

Political change happens when the rulers of a country lose power or when the type of governance in the country changes. Governance is the kind of system or ideology used to express authority in a country. It may be a democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, and others. Local public services are provided by the government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services. Youth Volunteerism Volunteerism is the use or involvement of a volunteer or free labor in community services. Mechanisms of Changes There are different mechanisms or tools of social and cultural changes. Diffusion is the process through which the cultural traits of one society are borrowed, transmitted, and adopted by another one and considered as its own. Examples: 

Migration



Globalization

19

Invention is the process whereby new cultural elements are created to solve social and cultural problems. Example: Internet Discovery is the process whereby we recognize or gain a better understanding of already existing elements present in the environment. Example: Scientific Research Changes within Society Change is said to be constant. It is inevitable. It is expected to happen. No one can stop it. But the big question is what makes it happen. Of course, there are many factors—social, political, or cultural. Along with time, people, environment, and ideologies change. People move in and move out. People live and die. People's stories and experiences change. People make discoveries and innovations. Environment change as well—nature, water, earth, minerals, climate, seasons, sources of raw materials, and energy. New knowledge replaces the old ones. Slavery has been banned. Civil rights are granted to those who were once deprived of it. Same-sex marriage is in its worldwide recognition. Everything changes. Nothing is permanent but change, so they say. And all these contribute significantly to changes people experience socially, politically, and culturally. Key Points 

Social change is the transformation of social institutions over time.



Cultural change is the transformation of culture or the way people live.



Political change happens when the rulers of a country lose power or when the type of governance in the country changes.



Diffusion is the process through which the cultural traits of one society are borrowed, transmitted, and adopted by another one and considered as its own.



An invention is a process whereby new cultural elements are created to solve social and cultural problems.



Discovery is the process whereby we recognise or gain a better understanding of already existing elements present in the environment.



Changes are inevitable, and therefore, all of these, be it socially, politically, and culturally must be for the benefits of all. The Study of Culture, Society, and Politics

The Study on Culture, Society, and Politics Culture is the subject of Anthropology, society is for sociology, while politics is for political science. These are disciplines of the social sciences.

20

The very goal of these disciplines is to prepare people for active and responsible civic engagement through the development of critical thought. Exposure to these areas of discipline necessarily expose its learners to the following: 

social diversity and inequality,



self-reflective knowledge and practice,



appreciation of complexity, and



advocacy for social change and order.

Anthropology is the study of humans and their society in the past and present. Dealing with what makes us human, anthropology delves in objects and materials we have created, our interconnectedness and adaptability with environment, our lifestyle, our modes of communication, and our understanding of the world around us. Goals of Anthropology 

describe and analyze the biological evolution of mankind



describe and assess the cultural development of our species



describe, explain, and analyze the present-day human cultural similarities and differences



describe and explain human biological diversity today

Political science is a social science discipline that deals with systems of government, and the analysis of political activities and political behavior. Primarily, it helps people gain an understanding on “who gets what, when they get it, and how they get it.” Political science helps us understand politics, political institutions and behavior, public policy, and philosophical concepts, such as justice, equality, fairness, and liberty; and on how the said subject matters affect economy, public and private life, law, and public services. Goals of Political Science 

be immersed in current affairs



build an understanding on the local, national, and international politics



learn how political activities are organized in and out of our country



provide substantially critical and scientific contribution to government and society

Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions. This social sciences discipline mainly focuses on society—its functions, its members, and its diversity. Specifically, sociology tackles the basic unit of the society—the family; the functionality and relevance of state as an important human institution; social issues on religion, crime, race, social class; and the stability and instability of societies. Specifically, sociology tackles the basic unit of the society—the family; the functionality and relevance of state as an important human institution; social issues on religion, crime, race, social class; and the stability and instability of societies.

21

Goals of Sociology 

understand ourselves better



build a better understanding of mankind



help with decision-making, both our own and that of larger organizations



gather systematic information from which to make a decision, provide insights into what is going on in a situation, and present alternatives

Key Points 

The study on culture, society, and politics will prepare people for active and responsible civic engagement through the development of critical thought.



Learning the areas of anthropology, sociology, and political science expose its learners to social diversity and inequality, self-reflective knowledge and practice, appreciation of complexity, and advocacy for social change and order.



Anthropology is a social science discipline that study humans and their society in the past and present.



Political science is a social science discipline that deals with systems of government, and the analysis of political activity and political behavior.



Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions.

Anthropology and Sociology Humans are interesting subjects for a study. The human story has a lot to say from their way of living to the associations they form. The two interrelated scientific studies of society and colloquially known as the twin social sciences are anthropology and sociology. Anthropology 

Anthropology is the study of people throughout the world, their evolutionary history, how they behave, adapt to different environments, communicate, and socialize with one another.



Anthropology provides us with a big picture of what it means to be human.



The study of anthropology is concerned with the biological features that make us human (such as physiology, genetic makeup, nutritional history, and evolution) and with social aspects (such as language, culture, politics, family. and religion).

Sociology 

Sociology is the study of human institutions and their relationships. This social sciences discipline examines how human actions in modern societies are shaped by social groups and by wider social, economic and political pressures.



Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies

22

Anthropological and Sociological Perspective on Culture and Society In sociology, society is the leading concept while culture is subordinate. In anthropology, on the other hand, culture comes first as a subject matter followed only by society. Let us put the two concepts this way.



When talking about culture, we are talking about things that are tangible, almost like objects. They are our language, our technology, and our institutions - things like our churches, our schools, or even our houses.



However, culture is also intangible; it is our values and our behaviors. Our culture includes our norms, the standards or rules of acceptable behavior.



Culture is what makes society "them." It gives a community the form, shape, or identity.



Society, sociologically speaking, is the people living and interacting with one another to create a culture. Its population bonded together by their shared beliefs, attitudes, languages, and institutions; in other words, by their culture

Society and Culture as a Complex Whole Edward B. Tylor defined culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, belief, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." 

With this premise, it can be said that culture is a result of society, which these two come together and dependent on each other.



Culture just like every person which comprise society is susceptible to change or even death.



The society is not constant. Its members change from time to time. As a result, culture change along. New trends exist. Technology innovates, and new forms of communications and thus interaction have been created.



People evolve over time as a result of their exposure to renewed or changed laws, values, and standards of society.

Key Points 

Anthropology is the study of people in the world, their evolutionary history, how they behave, adjust to different environments, communicate, and socialize with one another.



Sociology is the study of human institutions and their relationships.

23



A culture is a way of life of a group of people. Its subjects include people's symbols, language, values, and norms.



Society is a community or group joined because of sustained bond and interaction. CHAPTER 2: Defining Culture and Society Lesson 1: Society and Culture

Culture and Society Culture and society are two different concepts. Each has its own meaning and function. Culture 

Culture is "that complex whole which encompasses beliefs, practices, values, attitudes, laws, norms, artifacts, symbols, knowledge, and everything that a person learns and shares as a member of society" (E.B. Tylor 1920 [1871]).



Culture encompasses almost all social aspects including our "language, customs, values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and institutions of family, education, religion, etc."



Our culture defines who we are.



Whatever it is that we do, it is part of our culture. Society



Society can be defined as the interaction among people where they can share a common culture.



Society can also refer to people from a particular place that shares the same culture.



A common location may not just develop a common culture; it can also be formed by gender, shared beliefs, values, norms, or activities.

For example, people from Bicol love spicy food while people from Iloilo are known to be sweet and caring. Can you identify a common cultural practice in your society? The Relationship of Culture and Society Culture and society are two closely interrelated concepts. For culture to exist and to be developed, it needs human interaction; it needs people to interact with one another, and it needs people to practice it continuously. Without a society practicing their common culture, the culture may cease to exist. Culture is also essential to society because, without culture, society will be dull and will not continue to thrive. A society without culture is like a body without a soul and vice versa. Culture and society need each other so they can both develop and prosper. Lesson 2: Aspects of Culture Aspects of Culture: Dynamic, Flexible, and Adaptive

24

There are different aspects of culture as art, music, language, food, daily life, clothing, and religion to name a few. These aspects of culture show us that culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. Culture constantly changes and adapts to the current state of the society. It continuously restores itself whenever customs are not fit in the current situation anymore. It does not remain stagnant. Examples: 

In the aspect of music, we can see that music may change from time to time. The traditional music during the 1920s was mostly jazz, ragtime, and broadway musical while the popular music during the 1970s was disco music.



Because we are now more inclined in using computers and tablets especially when playing games, some children were not able to play street games anymore. This pushed some game developers to introduce Filipino street games as video games.



When it comes to language, we can also see how culture adapts to changing times. We have already developed new words related to the internet like memes, netizens, vines, and others.

Aspects of Culture: Shared and Contested Culture is learned and acquired through different interactions with people. Culture is a shared learning experience. Because culture constantly changes, we get to share the learning process with other people.

If culture is learned and shared, it is also contested in various ways and situations. Because of diversity, culture is subjected to debate and analysis.

25

Tips 

Our society needs to preserve our indigenous culture as well as try to develop it further and spread it further so that we can still maintain our identity as a nation.



Our culture changes and adapts to our current society but that doesn't mean that our traditional culture should be forgotten.



Different cultures exist in the world but there is no culture greater than the other. We should learn to accept our differences and help other culture learn ours as well as we should also try to learn theirs.



We should also not judge the customs, norms, and beliefs of others because it is their unique culture.

Key Points 

Culture is a set of behaviors that we have absorbed and a set of characteristics that help us relate and bond with other people.



Society is a group of individuals coming from the same place which shares the same culture.



It is crucial to preserve and spread our culture and our traditional ways if we want to keep it alive. We are facing lots of changes, developments and technological advances today and we tend to forget to look back on our old culture and traditions.



Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. It changes based on the current situation of our society. Culture continuously restores itself so it will remain relevant.



Culture is best learned when it is shared. There are a lot of cultures that exists in our world and to get to know the culture of others as wells as to spread ours; we need to share it with them.



If culture is learned and shared, it is also contested. Because of diversity, culture is subjected to debate and analysis.

Aspects of Culture: Socialization and Enculturation Society is different from culture. Within a society are many diverse cultures. While the members of society share many of the same expectations and experiences, the cultural groups create ones that differentiate them from others in the community. Socialization is the process through which people learn to understand the societal norms or expectations and societal values as a member of the society. Enculturation is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of the culture in which a person is immersed. Agents of Socialization There are different agents of socialization: family, community, mass media, and religion. Family 

The family is the first social group that we all have. It is considered as the most important social group that a person has. It is also considered as the principal agent of socialization.

26



We first start learning things with the help of our parents and our whole family. They are the main source of our traits, behaviors, the values, norms and rules that we follow, and the ideas we initially believe in.

Community 

Outside our homes, we get to interact with people and institutions from our community. One is the school. In schools, we expose to ideas, values, norms, and behavior that may be different from what we learned in our family.



We also get to interact with other people from our community who become our peers. Since children and teenager spend most of their time with their peers, researches show that peer groups can create their sub-culture (Mondal, 2015).



Our peers can also influence us with different norms, values, and behavior that they got from their families, and vice versa.

Mass Media 

One of the biggest influences in our culture is mass media. Mass media comes in the form of television, movies, books, magazines, and now even social networking sites. Mass media proved to play a major role in shaping the culture and behavior of an individual (Mondal, 2015).



Unfortunately, we can learn both good and bad behaviors through mass media that is why it is very important that we are supervised when we are accessing all forms of media.

Religion 

Another agent is our religion. Through our family, we are immediately exposed to the teachings of our religion. It helps shape us as individuals and equips us with the attitude and behavior our religion deems right.

Aspects of Culture II We have learned that culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. It is also shared and contested in various ways and situations. Aside from these characteristics, there are also other aspects of culture as discussed below: Learned through Socialization or Enculturation Socialization is an ongoing process of learning language, behaviors, customs, values, norms, and others to acquire a personal identity. It helps us learn the culture. Socialization also teaches us how to interact with other people and helps us develop the behaviors that we think are inborn or part of human nature. It is an essential part of building our character and preserving, spreading, and strengthening our culture. Another way of learning other cultures is called enculturation. For example, your friend migrated to America with her family. You noticed on her Facebook that after three months of being in America, she started to act and look differently and she is using some slang words you only hear Americans say. This is the process of enculturation. Your friend is slowly starting to adapt to the American culture because it is necessary so she would fit in.

27

Transmitted through Socialization or Enculturation Culture can also be transmitted from one person to another, and even from one society to another. One good example of this is the transmission of a culture of the Spanish to the Filipinos during the Spanish colonization. The transfer of Spanish culture to the Filipinos is done through both socialization and enculturation. We learned their culture by socializing with them, through the church and the schools they established. Tips 

The people or groups we socialize will greatly affect our behavior because we learn most of it through them.



Socialization begins during our childhood, even just right after we were born. The first group that teaches us socialization is our family.



Throughout our lives, we will get to interact with a lot of different people from different cultures. We will learn different behaviors, norms, or values from them. It is up to us to identify what we will keep/practice and what we will reject.



Not all behaviors that we acquire can help us. There are some behaviors we learn that can be destructive in the long run.

Key Points 

Enculturation is the process by which an individual adopts the behavior patterns of the culture in which a person is immersed.



Socialization is an ongoing process of learning language, behaviors, customs, values, norms, etc. to acquire a personal identity.



There are different agents of socialization that help us acquire and learn the culture. These are ourfamily, school, peer groups, mass media, and religion, to name a few.



Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. It is also shared and contested in various ways and situations.



Culture is learned and transmitted through socialization/enculturation.

Aspects of Culture III: Patterned Social Interaction Patterned Social Interaction Socialization helps us acquire both good and bad parts of our culture. How do we identify the good and the bad?

28

There are five patterns of social interaction: exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict, and coercion. Exchange It is the most basic pattern of socialization. Exchange or social exchange is our expectation that whenever we do something good, we will receive something good in return (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: You help your mother wash the dishes so that she will let you play outside with your friends. Cooperation is when people or groups of people work together to achieve a common goal. Cooperation is considered to be essential for human survival because, without cooperation, social life would be unmanageable (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: The cooperation between the husband and wife in raising their children. Without their cooperation, their child would not grow up the way they want him/her to be. There are also negative social interactions that are necessary for us to develop and sharpen our behavior and culture. Competition may be viewed as the opposite of cooperation because instead of working together towards a common goal, competing individuals or groups battle to achieve the target that only one can have (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: You badly want to win the spelling bee competition because you want your parents to be proud of you. You studied and practiced hard and eventually won. Whether or not you win, at least you got to enhance your spelling skills. Conflict arises when people disobey rules, control a person by force, or hurt other people just to achieve their goals. But conflict isn't always considered as bad. The existence of a conflict can strengthen the unity within a group because they are threatened by an external factor (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: You and your sibling fight over the TV almost every night, but when conflict arises between you and your parents, you and your sibling team up. Coercion happens when a person uses threats or force to persuade another person (Dictionary.com). People usually coerce others when they cannot achieve their goals on their own. Example: You force your brother to do your chores by threatening him that you’ll tell your mother that he failed his exam.

29

Aspect of Culture: Requires Language for Social Interaction In every interaction that we do, language is the most important tool that we always use. 

Language is considered as the transporter of a large part of our culture because some parts of our culture are passed on through our mouths, there are no written records (Young, 1930).



We can perform the patterns of social interaction through the use of language.



Language is not only restricted to verbal language, but we also use non-verbal language or body language when we interact with others. Our first interaction with a stranger is usually a smile. This shows that language, whether verbal or non-verbal, can help us learn and acquire culture. Aspect of Culture:Integrated and at Times Unstable

The patterns of social interaction are connected with each other and may change from time to time. Our social interaction may change from being cooperative to having competition or conflict. A simple social exchange may lead to cooperation. A small competition may result in a big conflict. Example: You and your sibling fight over little things almost every day. When you came to school the next day, you saw your sibling being bullied by his classmates. You immediately came to his aid and you cooperated with each other to stop the bullies. This scenario shows that even if you and your sibling fight almost every day, you will still tend to unite in times of need. Tips 

Social exchange as a pattern of social interaction is not always active. Sometimes when we do harm to others, we already anticipate that they will do something wrong to us in return because of this concept.



Competition is not always negative as well. There are also good games that push us to do our best to win and in the process enhance our skills.



Conflict may result in hostility between the conflicting parties, but may lead to unity and cooperation among the members of the same group.



Our social interactions are integrated so it varies depending on the situation. We may be friendly and cooperative towards one person today, but this might change when we feel threatened.

Key Points 

Social interaction is the mutual influence of two or more people on each other’s behavior.



There are five patterns of social interaction: exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict,and coercion.



Exchange or social exchange is our expectation that whenever we do something good, we will receive something good in return.



Cooperation is when people or groups of people work together to achieve a common goal.



Competition is when individuals or groups battle to achieve the goal that only one can have.

30



Conflict arises when people disobey rules, control a person by force, or hurt other people just to achieve their goals.



Coercion happens when a person uses threats or force to persuade another person.



Language is an essential part of social interaction. Without language, we will find it difficult to interact with other people.



Some parts of the patterns of our social interaction are integrated. This connection affects our behavior towards other people.



Our social interactions are also unstable; it may change depending on the situation we are in. We may be in conflict with one person today but may become friendly with him or her in other situations.



Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive; shared and contested in various ways and situations; learned and transmitted through socialization or enculturation; patterned social interactions, integrated and at times unstable, and requires language for social interactions.

Aspects of Culture I There are different aspects of culture as art, music, language, food, daily life, clothing, and religion to name a few. These aspects of culture show us that culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. Dynamic, Flexible, and Adaptive Culture constantly changes and adapts to the current state of the society. It continuously restores itself whenever customs are not fit in the current situation anymore. It does not remain stagnant. Shared and Contested Culture is learned and acquired through different interactions with people. Culture is a shared learning experience. Because culture constantly changes, we get to share the learning process with other people. If culture is learned and shared, it is also contested in different ways and situations. Because of diversity, culture is subjected to debate and analysis. Aspect of Culture II Culture is learned and transmitted through socialization or enculturation. Learned through Socialization or Enculturation Socialization is an ongoing process of learning language, behaviors, customs, values, norms, and others to acquire a personal identity. It helps us learn the culture. Socialization also teaches us how to interact with other people and helps us develop the behaviors that we think are inborn or part of human nature. Transmitted through Socialization or Enculturation Culture can also be transmitted from one person to another and even one society to another. One good example of this is the transmission of a culture of the Spaniards/Spanish to the Filipinos during the Spanish colonization. The transfer of Spanish culture to the Filipinos is done through both socialization and enculturation.

31

Aspects of Culture III We have learned that culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive; shared and contested in various ways and situations; and learned and transmitted through socialization or enculturation. Let us continue identifying some aspects of culture. Patterned Social Interaction Socialization helps us acquire both good and bad parts of our culture. How do we identify the good and the bad?

There are five patterns of social interaction: exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict, and coercion. Exchange It is the most basic pattern of socialization. Exchange or social exchange is our expectation that whenever we do something good, we will receive something good in return (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: You help your mother wash the dishes so that she will let you play outside with your friends. Cooperation Cooperation is when people or groups of people work together to achieve a common goal. Cooperation is considered to be essential for human survival because, without cooperation, social life would be unmanageable (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: The cooperation between the husband and wife in raising their children. Without their cooperation, their child would not grow up the way they want him/her to be. There are also negative social interactions that are necessary for us to develop and sharpen our behavior and culture. Competition Competition may be viewed as the opposite of cooperation because instead of working together towards a common goal, competing individuals or groups battle to achieve the target that only one can have (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: You badly want to win the spelling bee competition because you want your parents to be proud of you. You studied and practiced hard and eventually won. Whether or not you win, at least you got to enhance your spelling skills.

32

Conflict Conflict arises when people disobey rules, control a person by force, or hurt other people just to achieve their goals. But conflict isn't always considered as bad. The existence of a conflict can strengthen the unity within a group because they are threatened by an external factor (Thompson and Hickey, 2005, p.129). Example: You and your sibling fight over the TV almost every night, but when conflict arises between you and your parents, you and your sibling team up. Coercion Coercion happens when a person uses threats or force to persuade another person (Dictionary.com). People usually coerce others when they cannot achieve their goals on their own. Example: You force your brother to do your chores by threatening him that you’ll tell your mother that he failed his exam. Requires Language for Social Interaction In every interaction that we do, language is the most important tool that we always use. 

Language is considered as the transporter of a large part of our culture because some parts of our culture are passed on through our mouths, there are no written records (Young, 1930).



We can perform the patterns of social interaction through the use of language.



Language is not only restricted to verbal language, but we also use non-verbal language or body language when we interact with others. Our first interaction with a stranger is usually a smile. This shows that language, whether verbal or non-verbal, can help us learn and acquire culture.

 

Integrated and at Times Unstable The patterns of social interaction are connected with each other and may change from time to time. Our social interaction may change from being cooperative to having competition or conflict. A simple social exchange may lead to cooperation. A small competition may result in a big conflict. Example: You and your sibling fight over little things almost every day. When you came to school the next day, you saw your sibling being bullied by his classmates. You immediately came to his aid and you cooperated with each other to stop the bullies. This scenario shows that even if you and your sibling fight almost every day, you will still tend to unite in times of need.



Tips 

Social exchange as a pattern of social interaction is not always active. Sometimes when we do harm to others, we already anticipate that they will do something wrong to us in return because of this concept.



Competition is not always negative as well. There are also good games that push us to do our best to win and in the process enhance our skills.



Conflict may result in hostility between the conflicting parties, but may lead to unity and cooperation among the members of the same group.



Our social interactions are integrated so it varies depending on the situation. We may be friendly and cooperative towards one person today, but this might change when we feel threatened.

Key Points

33



Social interaction is the mutual influence of two or more people on each other’s behavior.



There are five patterns of social interaction: exchange, cooperation, competition, conflict,and coercion.



Exchange or social exchange is our expectation that whenever we do something good, we will receive something good in return.



Cooperation is when people or groups of people work together to achieve a common goal.



Competition is when individuals or groups battle to achieve the goal that only one can have.



Conflict arises when people disobey rules, control a person by force, or hurt other people just to achieve their goals.



Coercion happens when a person uses threats or force to persuade another person.



Language is an essential part of social interaction. Without language, we will find it difficult to interact with other people.



Some parts of the patterns of our social interaction are integrated. This connection affects our behavior towards other people.



Our social interactions are also unstable; it may change depending on the situation we are in. We may be in conflict with one person today but may become friendly with him or her in other situations.



Culture is dynamic, flexible, and adaptive; shared and contested in various ways and situations; learned and transmitted through socialization or enculturation; patterned social interactions, integrated and at times unstable, and requires language for social interactions. Lesson 3: Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism

Ethnocentrism People have a tendency to judge or evaluate other culture in the context of their own culture. Language, behavior, customs, or religion, which are understandably unique for every culture are the common subjects of these judgments. Sociologically speaking, this ideology or tendency is known as ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the idea that one’s own culture is above or superior to all others. It is also the belief that one's own culture is the main or normal standard by which other cultures may be measured or understood. Ethnocentrism is failing or refusing to see the world and its aspects in a wider or encompassing perspectives. It may cause people to practice bias and intolerance. Seeing the belief and behavior of others, which are different from yours, as brute, confusing, or dirty is an ethnocentric thought or behavior. The tendency to be avoidant, doubting, or questioning towards members of another culture is also a manifestation of ethnocentrism. Cultural Relativism Not all people are ethnocentric. There are those who use wider perspectives in associating their culture from another’s. There are people who accept and respect the evident differences from members of the

34

society. When people recognize that each culture is naturally different from others, that is cultural relativism. Cultural relativism does not mean that we should immediately accept and tolerate cultural differences. Instead, it requires understanding the culture of other people in their own cultural context free from another’s biases. Cultural relativism is the idea that all norms, beliefs, and values are dependent on their cultural context, and should be treated as such. Introduced by Franz Boas in 1887, according to him,"...civilization is not something absolute, but ... is relative, and ... our ideas and conceptions are true only so far as our civilization goes." With cultural relativism, it is suggested that the way people live should be evaluated not based on your own cultural context but on the social community the people themselves inhabit. Cultural relativism means respect and tolerance. In conducting their sociological studies, social scientists are recommended to practice or to show cultural relativism. There should be no reservations and blind opinions while they are immersed in a community of their subject. One may also practice this concept by learning and recognizing that there are reasons or cultural significance why people of a certain community act and talk the way they do. How Cultural Relativism Mitigates Ethnocentrism It is believed that each person, in one way or another, possess an ethnocentric attitude or behavior. There is nothing wrong with that because not all people are equipped with sufficient knowledge and exposure to cultures across the globe, unlike social scientists or anthropologists. Thus the hardship in understanding and tolerating other’s acts and values. But we also have to recognize that ethnocentric behavior if not controlled may cause trouble to oneself, especially in this modern times when everyone calls for social or cultural inclusion. Historically, colonialism was justified by ethnocentrism. When Europeans reached the areas populated by the natives whom they consider savage and uncivilized, they saw the promise to civilize and tame the people they conquered through religion (Christianity) and colonialism. Despite its advantages, we can say that the Age of Exploration changed the course of world history in a way which deprived the conquered. It is widely believed in the field of sociology that ethnocentric behavior may be mitigated through the recognition and application of cultural relativism. A person can practice cultural relativism by recognizing that our culture shapes what we consider to be beautiful, ugly, appealing, disgusting, virtuous, funny, and abhorrent and that this should not be the basis for evaluating other culture. Cultural relativism shapes our understanding of different issues in the society as to why certain religion believe in this and other not, or how come this group eat this type of dish, wear this weird clothing, sing and dance along music while others prefer not to. What we need is an open heart and unbiased and critical mind, exposure, education, and involvement in activities, programs supporting and recognizing the uniqueness and beauty of every culture for us to truly grasp what cultural relativism means. Key Points 

Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own culture is the main standard by which other cultures may be measured. It is also the tendency to think of one’s culture as superior to other cultures.



Cultural Relativism is the idea that all norms, beliefs, and values are dependent on their cultural context, and should be treated as such. It calls for an unbiased evaluation and understanding of other cultures.



Recognizing and applying cultural relativism mitigates ethnocentrism.

35

Lesson 4: Cultural Forms and Threats Cultural Heritage Legacy is what remains after one’s time. Handed down from one generation to another, legacy magnifies one’s life and living. It is said that legacy is what cultural heritage is. According to John Feather, cultural heritage is a human creation intended to inform. 

architectures such as buildings, houses, and structures



artifacts like books, documents, objects, images, clothing, accessories, and jars



things that made people who they are like oral stories, values, laws, norms, rituals, and traditions

Cultural heritage helps historians and archaeologists understand and decipher the way of living people of yesterday had. Through these objects, we are presented with facts and figures which help us draw the landscape of the world once was. Tangible and Intangible Heritage Cultural heritage is a representation of the ways of living established by society or group and passed on from generation to generation. Cultural heritage can be categorized as either tangible or intangible. Tangible Heritage Tangible means perceptible, touchable, concrete, or physical. A tangible heritage is a physical artifact or objects significant to the archaeology, architecture, science, or technology of a specific culture. Objects that can be stored are included in this category: 

traditional clothing,



utensils (such as bead work, water vessels),



vehicles (such as the ox wagon),



documents (codes, laws, land titles, literature), and



public works and architecture built and constructed by a cultural group (buildings, historical places, monuments, temples, graves, roads, and bridges fall into this category as well).

Intangible Heritage Intangible is the opposite of tangible. Unlike tangible heritage, an intangible heritage is not a physical or concrete item. Intangible heritage is that which exists intellectually in the culture. Intangible heritage includes: 

songs,



myths,



beliefs,

36



superstitions,



oral poetry,



stories, and



various forms of traditional knowledge such as ethnobotanical knowledge.

Threats to Tangible and Intangible Heritage There was a time in contemporary history when museums were in constant search and hurry to look for historical materials to display. Due to the ascent of demand for cultural materials, opportunists saw this as an avenue for them to earn money. They invented materials and claim that these were excavated or unearthed and once owned by a cultural group. 

Documents whose authenticity are yet to be determined include Hitler diaries, crystal skulls of Mesoamerica (tangible), and the status/story of Saint Nicholas' companion Black Peter (intangible).



Authenticity or truthfulness of origin, attributes, and intentions of cultural heritage are one of the issues concerning sources of our culture.



Aside from authenticity issues, preservation or the act of making a cultural heritage lasting and existing is also a primary concern.

Threats to Tangible and Intangible Heritage There was a time in contemporary history when museums were in constant search and hurry to look for historical materials to display. Due to the ascent of demand for cultural materials, opportunists saw this as an avenue for them to earn money. They invented materials and claim that these were excavated or unearthed and once owned by a cultural group. 

Documents whose authenticity are yet to be determined include Hitler diaries, crystal skulls of Mesoamerica (tangible), and the status/story of Saint Nicholas' companion Black Peter (intangible).



Authenticity or truthfulness of origin, attributes, and intentions of cultural heritage are one of the issues concerning sources of our culture.



Aside from authenticity issues, preservation or the act of making a cultural heritage lasting and existing is also a primary concern.

Key Points 

Cultural heritage is a representation of the ways of living established by society or group and passed on from generation to generation.



Tangible heritage is a physical artefact or objects significant in the archaeology, architecture, science or technology of a particular culture. It includes buildings and historic places, monuments, artifacts, etc.



Intangible heritage is that which exists intellectually in the culture. It includes oral traditions, social practices, performing arts, rituals, festive events, etc.



Authenticity is the truthfulness of origin, attributes, and intentions of cultural heritage.

37



Preservation or the act of making a cultural heritage lasting and existing should be on the top list of the government.

CHAPTER 3:Human Biocultural Social Evolution Lesson 1: Macroevolution and the Formation of New Species Biological Evolution of Man The current biological makeup of humans has had long and complex origins. Biological evolution of man refers to the long evolutionary history of the human species from primates. It is not an overnight phenomenon. Millions of years have been involved in the process of reaching the biological traits of humanity that are occurring at present. In this lesson, the origin, factors, and developments involved in this evolutionary process will be discussed. The Meaning and Significance of Human Evolution Evolution is the process of developing the physical and biological change in a species over a period of time. Natural changes and events forced species to adapt to the environment while some faced extinction for being unable to do so. In this case, modern humans, belonging to the genus Homo, are seen as byproducts of events and processes that occurred in the past. Human evolution, however, must not be seen as a linear process. Scientists argued that human evolution developed much like the branches of a tree wherein each branch extends into smaller, more specific stems. It just so happened that among all stems, only one evolutionary profile—the current human being—was able to adapt and further develop. The Transition from Early to Modern Humans The biological transition of humans from its earliest state to its current physical and biological makeup took millions of years to complete. Despite this, scientists, through the help of archaeological pieces of evidence and modern technology, were able to identify and distinguish distinct transitional stages of human evolution. These stages are described below. The Significance of Artefactual Evidences in Understanding Evolution Artefactual evidences are the only source of knowledge in understanding the lifestyle and the developments that occurred in each transitional stage of human evolution. Early human species were discovered through fossils which are remains hardened in rock. Scientists study the structure, shape, and development of skeletal properties including head shape and teeth to determine biological differences across early to modern species. Artefactual evidences can also include tools that are used for hunting and gathering or symbolic writing found in caves. As mentioned previously, these were used by the Homo erectus, though scientists are still hoping to find further evolutionary data on other species. Below are some authentic examples of artefactual evidences that greatly contributed in understanding human evolution: 

An antelope leg bone with cut marks was recently discovered in Africa. This prehistoric tool served as evidence for early hunting practices and carnivorous diet among early stone-tool making humans, the Oldowan hominin.



A cave discovered in South Africa filled with carbonized leaves and grasses made archaeologists believe that cooking food was already practiced among early humans.

Appreciating the Past through the Present It is important for modern humans to learn about their origins and developments. Nowadays, technological advances has made delving into the past more accessible. Interactive and national museums, for example, make a great venue for learning more about the prehistoric past. The great

38

biological evolution that the human species has been through is complex and developmental. As human beings, we are called to understand and appreciate these advances. Tips 

Human evolution is always forward. It is not likely that humans will regress in terms of physical and biological makeup in the coming centuries.



Note that before the existence of the genus Homo, the Australopithecines first emerged. They are the earlier part of human evolutionary transition.

Key Points 

Evolution is the process of developing physical and biological change in a species over a period of time.



Human evolution must not be seen as a linear process, but rather as branches wherein each branch extends into smaller, more specific stems.



The transition from early to modern humans included the Homo habilis, Homo erectus, andHomo sapiens from the genus Homo.



Fossils are artefactual remains that hardened in rock. Lesson 2: Cultural and Sociopolitical Evolution

Sociopolitical evolution of man:Neolitihic revolution Mobile phones are already part of our everyday lives. In a way, it represents technological advancements due to the constant changes in the key features of smartphones and tablets. This evolution and development of mobile phones only show how culture changes through time. From the early writings of the cuneiform up to the present features of the different units of smartphones and tablets, we can say that the way of life of the people constantly changes and this concept is called cultural evolution. What is Cultural Evolution? Cultural evolution explains the changes in the beliefs, knowledge, customs, skills, attitudes, languages, etc. of the humans over time. It believes that as humans transform themselves, their culture becomes progressively complex due to social, environmental, and biological factors. The cultural evolution of early humans can be traced to the beginning of Stone Age when they started creating and using tools made out of stones. This is the earliest known period of human culture which started roughly 2-3 million years ago and ended around 6000 and 3000 BCE (Before the Common Era). This period is also known as the pre-historic period because writing was not yet invented during this time. It is divided into three separate periods: 

Old Stone Age (Paleolithic),



Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic), and



New Stone Age (Neolithic).

Paleolithic period is the first phase of the Stone Age. This period started the creation and use of crude stone tools which is the most primitive among the three periods. The word "paleolithic" is derived from the Greek words palaios (old) and lithos (stone) meaning "old stone age."

39

The early humans who existed during this period showed their skills with fire and stones that changed their diet and food consumption. Hunting and fishing were the primary activities of the early humans during the Paleolithic period. They also had their religious rituals based on nature and developed their own language based on sounds and hand signals. Mesolithic period is the second phase of the Stone Age. It was considered as the transition period between Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. The word "mesolithic" is derived from the Greek wordsmesos (middle) and lithos (stone) meaning "middle stone age." Early humans during this period gradually domesticated plants and animals. They also started to form their own settlements and communities. Hunting, fishing, and food gathering were the primary activities of the early humans. They also started to use "microliths" or smaller and more delicate stone tools. Neolithic Period The word "neolithic" is derived from the Ancient Greek words neos (new) and lithos (stone) meaning "new stone age." Neolithic period started during the last phase of the Stone Age and at this point, modern humans started to exist. From being food gatherers, they became food producers and introduced the concept of farming. They also became herders from being hunters during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. They crafted better stone tools and invented the axe. Pots and jars were evident during this period which served as their food containers and storage. Modern humans also formed their permanent homes and started to have their own tribes and villages. Key Points 

Cultural evolution is the idea that the human culture such as beliefs, knowledge, customs, skills, attitudes, languages, etc. constantly change.



Stone Age was the earliest period in the evolution of human culture when it started the use of weapons and tools made out of stones.



Paleolithic period is the first stage of the Stone Age and it started the use of fire and stone tools of the early humans. Hunting, fishing, and other practices such as religious rituals based on nature and language based on sounds and hand signals also emerged during this period.



Mesolithic period is the transition period between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. It witnessed the gradual transformation of human culture such as domestication of plants and animals, formation of settlements and communities, and food gathering.



Neolithic period was the last stage of stone age when modern humans started to exist. Modern humans introduced farming, started herding animals, and formed their permanent homes and settlements.

Nature has greatly influenced primal lifestyle. As such, developments in human life also occurred at the importance of the natural environment. In this lesson, a significant era of sociopolitical evolution will be tackled—the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic Revolution Paleolithic period involved humans as hunter-gatherers in society. They are nomadic people who can easily transfer from one area to another to hunt animals or gather plants for consumption and survival. This had been the practice until around 12,000 B.C. E. (Before Common Era) where humans started to domesticate animals and crops. This era of a newfound lifestyle is called the Neolithic Revolution.

40

From hunter-gatherers or nomads, people became farmers through domestication, the process of increasing human control in breeding animals or plants to regulate certain traits that will make them useful for other human needs. The domestication of animals and plants implied that humans stay in a particular area to enable their resources to grow and expand. Some plants and animals utilized for domestication include wheat, barley, corn, nuts, cattle, goats, and sheep. One of the first Neolithic societies recorded in existence was Mesopotamia, which is at present, the country of Iraq. It was believed that it concurrently existed with other Neolithic societies in China, the Americas, and Africa. Implications of the Neolithic Revolution to the Evolutionary Process The Neolithic revolution has facilitated an economic and societal shift that paved the way for further developments in early human lifestyle. As such, advances in different aspects of human life started during this era. Below are the implications of the Neolithic Revolution in sociopolitical, economic, and human development. A. Sociopolitical 

The Neolithic revolution paved the way for the creation of civilization through permanent settlements dictated by reliable food supply.



Development in domestication techniques and practices allow for a more complex society and the possibility for urbanization.



With the emergence of towns and cities came the birth of trade and marketplaces. This led to the economy and a hierarchical society with public leaders and castes.



A form of social stratification was developed – created idea of inequality and ideas of social power and influence.

B. Economic 

Because of the domestication of crops and animals, an abundant supply of food and resources were maintained.



An introduction to a selective breeding process of plants and animals that would allow for the development of new species.

C. Biological 

Increase in lifespan and human population across civilizations.



People learned to play different social roles apart from being farmers (e.g. craftsman, priests, leader).

Evidence for the Existence of the Neolithic Revolution Some artifactual pieces of evidence prove the existence and success of the Neolithic revolution in influencing sociopolitical development. Here are some of the actual shreds of evidence found to support the existence of this era.

41



Morphological changes among Neolithic people, including brain size and mandible, simply dietary changes from solely eating plants to consumption of meat.



A subterranean structure in Abu-Hureyra, Syria was found to be built during the Neolithic revolution and served as a communal storage facility.



Palaeolithic people have fairly healthy teeth, but in the Neolithic, there is an increased caries rate. Neolithic teeth are also more worn down and pitted owing to hard inclusions from poorly ground-up flour.



Molleson (1n9b94) has proved that there are changes in the bones of women that are taskrelated and associated with cereal grinding.

Tips 

The shift from a hunting-gathering society to the Neolithic revolution occurred gradually. It took thousands of years for this change to happen.



If you looked at a map of early civilizations under the Neolithic period, you would notice that all civilizations are near a body of water. This is strategically done by early humans because bodies of water may also function as a source of food and other resources.

Key Points 

The Neolithic Revolution is a period where agriculture and farming became prominent through plant and animal domestication.



Domestication is the process of increasing human control in breeding animals or plants to regulate certain traits that will make them useful for other human needs.



One of the first Neolithic societies recorded in existence was Mesopotamia, which is at present, the country of Iraq.



The Neolithic Revolution has sociopolitical, economic, and human implications to evolutionary process.



A form of social stratification was developed – created idea of inequality and ideas of social power and influence.



Many artefactual pieces of evidence prove the existence and success of the Neolithic revolution in influencing sociopolitical development. A subterranean structure in Abu-Hureyra, Syria was found to be built during the Neolithic revolution and served as a communal storage facility.

Lesson 3: SOCIOPOLITICAL EVOLUTION OF MAN: EARLY CIVILIZATIONS AND THE RIGHTS OF THE STATES From a hunting-gathering lifestyle to a Neolithic society, major changes took place in terms socioeconomic factors of early human life. Despite this already drastic movement, human lifestyle continued to develop into more organized socio-economic and political systems.  What factors contributed to these changes? 

How did these developments influence future socio-political movements and policies?

The Neolithic revolution, through the domestication of plants and animals, paved the way for the beginnings of early civilizations like Mesopotamia. In this lesson, the development and implications of these civilizations will be discussed and explained.

42

The Rise of Civilizations Civilizations began to develop during the Neolithic period where the early humans learned to settle in just one area to domesticate plants and animals for survival. The first civilizations were found mostly in Asia, particularly in China and Mesopotamia, now Iraq. The latter was part of the Fertile Crescent, an area in the ancient Middle East that is believed to be “cradle of civilization” and the birthplace of agriculture, urbanization, writing, trade, and science due to its fertile land area. This area housed two bodies of water, the river Tigris and the Euphrates, which also became valuable resources for the early civilizations. During these periods, civilizations were mainly agrarian societies that treated both genders equally as the first labor only involved farming, domestication, and harvesting. Though this may be the case, social roles began to emerge with some members of the community becoming priests or priestesses, laborers, and farmers. The Development of States In Mesopotamia, in the region of Sumer in 4, 000 BCE, two significant developments took place that influenced the flow of the socio-political process of the early civilizations. These are: 

the rise of states, and



the invention of writing.

Historians believe that these developments occurred because of trades between different regions. The early civilizations would have had some form of writing to document or record traces of their products and deals. During the Copper Age (5,900-3,200 BCE), the system of commerce grew with prosperity leading to the development of cities and changes in socio-political positions with some civilizations promoting a kingship to replace priestly rule to be able to foresee the flow of trade and negotiations with other regions. This era gave rise to numerous developments such as the invention of the wheel and the transition from the use of stone tools to copper tools. In 3,000-2,119 BCE, during the early Bronze Age, copper instruments were replaced with bronze tools. Along with this, the rise of city-states continued to flourish, thereby laying out a foundation for economic and political stability. As a result, more empires, civilizations, and states began to rise and develop. Implications of the Rise of Civilizations and States The rise of civilizations and states led to urbanization, economic focus, political power, and material development. These changes allowed both positive and negative implications that directly affected future developments in the sociopolitical evolution of men. Below are some implications of the rise of civilizations and states: 

Warfare: Conflict and wars emerged among states as tension grew among them. Soon, professional armies and weaponry began to make their appearance.



Metalwork: A huge development in metalwork occurred along with the rise of civilizations and states. During this time, people began to discover various raw materials, such as iron, copper, and bronze for making tools and weapons.

43



Political system: Because of economic factors such as trading, the leadership among citystates began to be more organized and developed. With the kingship system replacing the priestly leaders, each state had its executive branch that centralized decisions and communications with other states.

Evidence for the Existence of Civilizations and States Artefactual evidence prove the existence and occurrences of early civilizations and states. Here are some of the actual evidence found to support the existence of this era. 

In 1922, archaeologist Sir Leonard Wooley discovered the remains of two four-wheeled wagons that dated back to the time of Mesopotamian.



Excavations in the 1840s revealed human settlements in Mesopotamia during 10, 000 BCE.

Tips 

Mesopotamia, in Greek, translates to “between two rivers”. This translation refers to the river Tigris and the Euphrates that surrounds the land.



The Mesopotamian civilization existed even before Egyptian civilizations. After the Middle Eastern civilization began, Egyptian civilization soon developed along the Nile River.

Key Points 

The first civilizations were found mostly in Asia, particularly in China and Mesopotamia, now Iraq.



The Fertile Crescent is an area in the ancient Middle East that is believed to be “cradle of civilization” and the birthplace of agriculture, urbanization, writing, trade, and science due to its fertile land area.



In Mesopotamia, in the region of Sumer in 4, 000 BCE, two important developments took place that influenced the flow of the sociopolitical process of the early civilizations. These are the rise of states and the invention of writing.



The implications of the rise of civilizations and states include warfare, developments inmetalwork, and changes in political systems. Lesson 4: SOCIOPOLITICAL EVOLUTION OF MAN: DEMOCRATIZATION

The early civilizations created new environments, called city-states, which introduced new developments in various aspects of life. What outcomes have led to these continuous progress and ventures? The rise of civilizations and city-states paved the way for the introduction of new developments during the Copper and Bronze Age. Now, we look at how those impacted the following periods and developments. Democracy and Democratization Democratization refers to the spread or expansion of democracy. Democracy means rule by the people. The term comes from the Greek words demos, which means "people," and kratos, which means "rule." While democracy is often traced to the Greeks, particularly

44

the Athenian democracy during 5th century BCE, a form of primitive democracy is said to must have existed during the hunting and gathering period in independent tribes. The form of democracy during 500 BCE in city-states is said to be a form of direct democracy, where citizens participate directly in decision-making. On the other hand, the evolved form of democracy or the representative democracy that became widespread in nation-states is where officials are elected to represent a group of people. Historical Path to a Democratic City-State Agricultural developments in Asia and Africa eventually spread to the nearby civilizations of Greece and Rome. Both Greeks and Romans adapted to the farming culture developed by the Mesopotamians, even following the latter’s socio-political structure of kingship. Eventually, they were able to engage in trade as their resources highly develop and impacted socio-economic growth. Greece 

Societal status and groups began to develop: o

the king (bearing the highest position in all Greek city-states),

o

the aristocracies and noblemen, then

o

the farmers.



Wars were already occurring between city-states, and tension grew between social classes.



Greek kings have growing ambitions to transform themselves into palace-laden rulers just like their predecessors from the Bronze Age.



The need for power was not feasible as the primarily abundant metal during the period was iron, a relatively cheaper metal compared to bronze. If the king seeks greater power, he cannot easily do so easily as the weaponry and machinery, primarily made of iron, were much cheaper, and can be afforded by practically anyone within the city-state.

In 750 BC, with high tensions and alarm over the intentions of the kings, the noblemen collectively acted on ousting them, leading to a successful establishment of the first republics. The Beginnings of Democratization The developments in the Greek city-states led to the birth of democracy and the rise of democratization in societies. Oligarchy 

Greek Kings were thrown off by the noblemen.



City-states began to change the form of leadership into oligarchy, where rulers were made up of aristocracies.



Because of inexpensive and accessible weaponry and the ongoing wars between city-states, even ordinary people like the farmers learned to arm themselves and rebel against drastic changes.



The oligarchic government ruled in favor of the noblemen and aristocracies, so ordinary people also used their collective power against an abusive government.

45

Tyranny 

Since there are a few noble people in the government, city-states ,in effect, were now ruled by a tyrant, a positive term for a Greek leader that means “boss.”



Tyrants became effective in ensuring fair treatment for both land owners and farmers.



For some time, peace and equality emerged among social classes.



In the second generation of tyrant rule, however, the son of a tyrant made some wrong and abusive decisions that lead to another revolution ousting the tyrant rule.

Birth of Democracy 

Because of the tyrant's abuse of power, intelligent leaders of Greek city-states proposed that power must account for the common people.



This led to the creation of a more broad-based constitution, eventually developing the city-states into a democratic setting.



In 594 BCE, Solon gave Athens a new constitution. This event was considered as the rise of democracy in Greece.

It should be noted, though, that not all Greek city-states followed this ruling, especially the poorer, more backward areas. Still, the political change in Greece has also soon led Rome to follow a democratic ruling thereafter. Also, keep in mind that citizen participation in democratic decision-making during this time is limited to males and therefore, not the total population. Significance and Implications of Democratization The development of democracy led to changes that greatly impacted the ordinary people by reducing inequality and promoting fair treatment for all. The beginnings of democratization in Greece laid out a foundation for modern-day democracy. Also, the establishment of a democratic government promoted more cultural and artistic implications that eventually distinguished Greek and Roman civilizations from any other ancient civilization. Below are some artefactual evidences of the artistic and cultural implications of democratization: 

Greek literature began to arise as poet Homer created his epics, Iliad and Odyssey.



Stone temples that appeared as early as 600 BC were improved through classical Greek structures upon the rise of democratization.

Key Points 

In Greece, societal status and groups began to develop with the King bearing the highest position in all Greek city-states, followed by the aristocracies and noblemen then the farmers.



In 750 BCE, with high tensions and alarm over the intentions of the Kings, the noblemen collectively acted on ousting him, leading to a successful establishment of the first republics.



It was in 594 BCE when Solon gave Athens a new constitution. This event was considered as the rise of democracy in Greece.



The establishment of a democratic government promoted more cultural and artistic implications.

46



Wars and tension across Greece and between city-states were one of the primary influences in the rise of democracy.

Importance of Artifacts in Interpreting Social, Cultural, Political, and Economic Processes Artifacts Archaeologists have discovered artifactual pieces of evidence even dating back to the beginnings of human evolution. As a result, present-day social and biological scientists were able to open a window to what life was in the past. In this lesson, the significance and value of artifacts in several aspects will be described and discussed. Artifacts are objects made or modified by humans in the past. They are recovered after a long time through archaeological endeavor or by chance. Apart from serving as windows to the past, artifacts are also deemed significant because they are tangible, authentic proof that a certain period in history actually occurred. The Significance of Artifacts Artifacts have significant contributions in interpreting social, cultural, political, and economic processes that occurred in the past. Their existence proves and describes these aspects thoroughly. The discovery of artifacts and the understanding of various processes has provided a stable foundation for the socioeconomic, political, and cultural growth that humans have come to recognize today. Importance of Artifact Preservation There are various reasons why artifacts must be preserved and taken care of. Some of which are the following: 

*Artifacts are irreplaceable. * Artifacts, being made hundreds, even thousands of years ago, are very delicate objects that cannot be replaced by any available material in the present time.



Artifacts are key to understanding the past. Practices that occurred in the past would not have been known if not for the discovery of artifacts.



*Artifacts give people a sense of identity. *Artifacts greatly describe culture and society. It provides people with an opportunity to further understand their identities and heritage, as well as some collective qualities that their culture may have.



The past is yet to be fully discovered. Despite the seemingly great successes archaeologists have significantly made in recent years, there is still more to discover about history. Treating artifacts like pieces of puzzles will eventually provide a general picture of the past.

Present-day “Artifacts” for the Future Many advances have already been made and discovered within this century. It is logical to treat these discoveries as significant elements that can help shape the future. As such, the technologies and developments that the world has today must also be well-preserved. These must be treated with certainty that one day, these “artifacts” will be discovered and put to understanding by the future generations. Tips 

Artifacts may consist of any tangible object that was originally part of the distant past but recently discovered. They may include bones, fossils, tools, and a lot more.

47



Archaeologists are responsible for digging out artifacts. Anthropologists study an area’s culture. Together, they work to create a holistic picture and identity of a certain group.

Key Points 

Artifacts are objects made or modified by humans in the past. They are recovered after a long time through archaeological endeavor or by chance.



Artifacts have implications in the understanding of social, cultural, economic, and political processes.



It is important to preserve artifacts because they are irreplaceable, help understand the past, and give people a sense of identity.



Present-day discoveries and technologies will one day be artifacts for the future generation.

Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics Source: Quipper

48

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.