Typical Soil Values

May 22, 2018 | Author: shachen2014 | Category: Clay, Soil Mechanics, Sand, Soil, Soil Science
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Typical Values of the Coefficient of Volume Compressibility, mv (after Carter 1983) mv Type of clay Heavy over-consolidated boulder clays, stiff weathered rocks and hard clays Boulder clays, marls, very stiff tropical red clays Firm clays, glacial outwash clays, lake deposits, weathered marls, firm boulder clays, normally consolidated clays at depth and firm tropical red clays Normally consolidated alluvial clays such as estuarine and delta deposits, and sensitive clays Highly organic alluvial clays and peats

Description Very low compressibility Low compressibility

(x10-3m2/kN) Lower Limit Upper Limit

Average

0.05 0.05

0.1

0.075

Medium compressibility

0.1

0.3

0.2

High compressibility

0.3

1.5

0.9

Very high compressibility

1.5

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Typical Values of Compressibility Index, Cc (after Holtz and Kovacs 1981) Soil Normally consolidated medium sensitive clays Chicago silty clay (CL) Boston blue clay (CL) Vicksburg Buckshot clay (CH) Swedish medium sensitive clays (CL-CH) Canadian Leda clays (CL-CH) Mexico City clay (MH) Organic clays (OH) Peats (Pt) Organic silt and clayey silts (ML-MH) San Francisco Bay Mud (CL) San Francisco Old Bay clays (CH) Bangkok clay (CH)

Cc Lower Limit Upper Limit 0.2 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.6 1 3 1 4 7 10 4 10 15 1.5 4 0.4 1.1 0.7 0.9

Average 0.35 0.225 0.4 0.55 2 2.5 8.5 12.5 2.75 0.75 0.8 0.4

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Typical Values of the Coefficient of Consolidation, cv (after Carter and Bentley 1991) cv Lower Limit 6 0.6 2 2.7

(m2/yr) Upper Limit 18 3 2.7 2.7

Average 12 1.8 2.35 2.7

0.1 0.2 0.6 0.3

0.2 1 1.2 0.5

0.15 0.6 0.9 0.4

Soil Boston blue clay (CL) Organic silt (OH) Glacial lake clays (CL) Chicago silty clay (CL) Swedish medium sensitive clays (CL-CH) 1. laboratory 2. field San Francisco Bay Mud (CL) Mexico City clay (MH)

Reference

Ladd and Luscher, 1965 Lowe, Zaccheo, and Feldman, 1964 Wallace and Otto, 1964 Terzaghi and Peck, 1967 Holtz and Broms, 1972

Leonards and Girault, 1961

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Comparison of cv Obtained From Various Methods (after Robinson and Allam, 1996)

Soil

(kPa) Red earth

Brown soil

Black cotton soil

Illite

cv

Range of Pressure σ'

25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 400-800 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 400-800 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 400-800 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400

Logarithm-oftime method 1.46 2.03 2.31 2.57 2.55 1.20 0.95 0.90 0.66 0.41 1.60 0.97 0.63 0.36 0.18 0.52 0.42 0.69 0.99

(m2/yr) Square-root-of- Early stage log t time method method 1.72 1.93 2.52 2.84 3.15 3.60 3.44 3.96 3.78 4.04 1.40 1.71 1.19 1.20 1.07 1.11 0.70 0.86 0.46 0.43 2.07 3.07 1.16 1.51 0.79 1.09 0.50 0.64 0.20 0.25 0.71 0.79 1.00 1.05 1.00 1.15 1.45 1.62

Bentonite

Chicago clay

400-800 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 400-800 12.5-50 25-50 50-100 100-200 200-400 400-800 800-1600

1.31 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 7.92 6.34 4.32 1.00 1.44 1.91 2.24

1.84 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 14.35 7.54 5.49 1.49 1.39 2.03 2.72

2.03 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 14.51 9.93 6.37 1.57 1.55 2.34 2.87

Das, Braja M., Principles of Geotechnical Engineering , Fifth Ed., Thomas Learning, United States, 2002.

Reference

and Luscher, 1965 , Zaccheo, and Feldman, 1964 ce and Otto, 1964 ghi and Peck, 1967 and Broms, 1972

ards and Girault, 1961

Reference

Taylor, 1948

Typical Values of Cα/Cc (after Carter and Bentley 1991) Soil

Organic silts Amorphous and fibrous peat Canadian muskeg Leda clay (Canada) Post-glacial Swedish clay Soft blue clay (Victoria, B.C.) Organic clays and silts Sensitive clay, Portland, ME San Francisco Bay Mud New Liskeard (Canada) varved clay Mexico City clay Hudson River silt New Haven organic clay silt

Cα/Cc Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

0.035 0.035 0.09 0.03 0.05 0.026 0.04 0.025 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04

0.06 0.085 0.1 0.06 0.07 0.026 0.06 0.055 0.06 0.06 0.035 0.06 0.075

0.0475 0.06 0.095 0.045 0.06 0.026 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.045 0.0325 0.045 0.0575

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties , Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Typical Values of Unit Weights (γsat and γdry) (after Carter and Bentley 1991)

Soil Sands and gravels very loose loose medium dense dense very dense Poorly-graded sands Well-graded sands well-graded sand/gravel mixtures Clays unconsolidated muds soft, open-structured typical, normally consolidated boulder clays (overconsolidated) Red tropical soils

γsat

γdry

Lower Limit

(kN/m3) Upper Limit

16.67 17.65 18.63 19.61 21.57 16.67 17.65 18.63 15.69 16.67 17.65 19.61 16.67

Average

Lower Limit

(kN/m3) Upper Limit

17.65 18.63 20.59 21.57 22.56 18.63 22.56 22.56

17.16 18.14 19.61 20.59 22.06 17.65 20.10 20.59

12.75 13.73 14.71 16.67 19.61 12.75 13.73 14.71

13.73 14.71 17.65 19.61 21.57 14.71 21.57 21.57

13.24 14.22 16.18 18.14 20.59 13.73 17.65 18.14

16.67 18.63 21.57 23.54 20.59

16.18 17.65 19.61 21.57 18.63

8.83 10.79 12.75 16.67 12.75

10.79 13.73 18.63 21.57 17.65

9.81 12.26 15.69 19.12 15.20

Carter, M and Bentley, S. P., Correlations of Soil Properties, Pentech Press, London, 1991.

Average

Representative Values of Modulus of Elasticity of Soil, Es (Das, 2002) Es Soil

Soft clay Hard clay Loose sand Dense sand

(kPa) Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

1800 6000 10000 35000

3500 14000 28000 70000

2650 10000 19000 52500

Range of Values: Modulus of Elasticity, E (McCarthy, 1998) Es Soil

Sand, loose Sand, dense Sand, silty Sand and gravel, loose Sand and gravel, dense Silt Loess Clay, soft Clay, medium Clay, firm Clay, sandy

(kPa) Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

9000 45000 7000 45000 90000 2400 15000 500 4000 7000 25000

25000 80000 21000 145000 180000 20000 50000 5000 10000 20000 40000

17000 62500 14000 95000 135000 11200 32500 2750 7000 13500 32500

Representative Values of Poisson's Ration, ν (Das, 2002) Soil

Loose sand MediumSand Dense sand Silty sand Soft clay Medium clay

ν Lower Limit

Upper Limit

Average

0.2 0.25 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.2

0.4 0.4 0.45 0.4 0.25 0.5

0.3 0.325 0.375 0.3 0.2 0.35

Lower Limit

ν Upper Limit

Average

0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2

0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4

0.2 0.35 0.35 0.3 0.45 0.35 0.3

Range of Values: Poisson's Ratio, ν (McCarthy, 1998) Soil

Sand, loose Sand, dense Silt Loess Clay, saturated Clay, partially saturated Clay, with sand and silt

Typical Values of Undrained Shear Strength, cu (after Day, 2006)

Clay Lower Limit Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very stiff Hard

12 25 50 100 200

cu (kPa) Upper Limit 12 25 50 100 200

Average 18.5 37.5 75 150

Day, Robert W., Foundation Engineering Handbook , McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.

Typical Values of Void Ratio, e (after Lambe and Whitman, 1969) Soil

Lower Limit Compacted caliche 0.227 Silty sand 0.242 Sandy clay 0.379 Beach sand 0.636 Compacted Boston blue clay 0.485 Vicksburg buckshot clay 0.576 Ottawa sand 0.591 Sand-Franklin Falls 0.75 Sand-Scituate 0.485 Sand-Plum Island 0.652 Sand-Fort Peck 0.561 Silt-Boston 0.742 Loess 0.652 Lean clay 0.394 Sand-Union Falls 0.439 Silt-North Carolina 0.636 Sand from dike 0.652 Sodium-Boston blue clay 0.47 Calcium kaolinite 1.212 Sodium montmorillonite 2.333 Sand (dam filter) 0.455

e Upper Limit 0.667 0.333 1.303 0.833 0.652 0.985 0.636 0.848 0.621 0.697 0.606 3.97 0.764 0.53 0.645 0.879 1.152 2.697 1.682 3.97 0.773

Average 0.447 0.2875 0.841 0.7345 0.5685 0.7805 0.6135 0.799 0.553 0.6745 0.5835 2.356 0.708 0.462 0.542 0.7575 0.902 1.5835 1.447 3.1515 0.614

Day, Robert W., Foundation Engineering Handbook , McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.

Typical Values of Permeability, k (after Lambe and Whitman, 1969)

Soil Compacted caliche Silty sand Sandy clay Beach sand Compacted Boston blue clay Vicksburg buckshot clay Ottawa sand Sand-Franklin Falls Sand-Scituate Sand-Plum Island Sand-Fort Peck Silt-Boston Loess Lean clay Sand-Union Falls Silt-North Carolina Sand from dike Sodium-Boston blue clay Calcium kaolinite Sodium montmorillonite Sand (dam filter)

Lower Limit 5.0E-09 7.0E-09 2.5E-10 8.0E-02 3.5E-09 3.0E-10 6.0E-10 9.0E-04 4.0E-03 1.8E-02 1.8E-03 1.0E-08 4.0E-09 2.0E-09 4.3E-02 5.7E-07 1.4E-04 1.7E-10 2.1E-06 1.8E-08 1.6E-03

k (cm/s) Upper Limit 1.0E-07 3.0E-08 2.8E-04 2.0E-01 3.2E-08 1.2E-09 7.0E-10 1.2E-03 9.5E-03 2.8E-02 2.8E-03 2.0E-06 5.2E-09 2.8E-08 1.0E-01 8.0E-05 1.7E-03 1.0E-07 1.2E-05 1.8E-08 1.0E-01

Average 5.3E-08 1.9E-08 1.4E-04 1.4E-01 1.8E-08 7.5E-10 6.5E-10 1.1E-03 6.8E-03 2.3E-02 2.3E-03 1.0E-06 4.6E-09 1.5E-08 7.2E-02 4.0E-05 9.2E-04 5.0E-08 7.1E-06 1.8E-08 5.1E-02

Day, Robert W., Foundation Engineering Handbook , McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006. Typical Values of Permeability, k

Soil Clean gravel Gravel, clean coarse sand Graded sand, fine sand Silty sand, silt Dense silt, clayey silt Clay, silty clay

Lower Limit 1.0E+00 1.0E-01 1.0E-03 1.0E-05 1.0E-07

k (cm/s) Upper Limit 1.0E+00 1.0E-01 1.0E-03 1.0E-05 1.0E-07

Average 1.0E+00 5.5E-01 5.1E-02 5.1E-04 5.1E-06 1.0E-07

3.2E-02

Spangler, Merlin G. and R.L. Handy, Soil Engineering , Fourth Edition, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1982.

Typical Values of Permeability, k

Lower Limit

k (cm/s) Upper Limit

Average

2.00E-02 2.00E-02 2.00E-02

4.00E-01 1.60E-01 2.00E-01 1.20E-01

9.00E-02 1.10E-01 7.00E-02

Soil River deposits Rhone at Genissiat Small streams, eastern Alps Missouri Mississippi Glacial deposits Outwash plains Esker, Westfiels, Mass. Delta, Chicopee, Mass. Till Wind deposits Dune sand Loess Loess loam Lacustrine and marine offshore deposits Very fine uniform sand Bull's liver, Sixth Ave. N.Y. Bull's liver, Brooklyn Clay

5.00E-02 1.00E-02 1.00E-04

2.00E+00 1.30E-01 1.50E-02 1.00E-04

1.03E+00 7.00E-02 7.55E-03

1.00E-01

3.00E-01

2.00E-01 1.00E-03 1.00E-04

1.00E-04 1.00E-04 1.00E-05

6.40E-03 5.00E-03 1.00E-04 1.00E-07

3.25E-03 2.55E-03 5.50E-05

Lambe, T. William, and Whitman, Robert V., Soil Mechanics, SI version , Wiley, New York, 1969. Typical Values of Permeability, k

Lower Limit 1.0E+00

k (cm/s) Upper Limit 1.0E+01

Average 5.5E+00

1.0E-03

1.0E+00

5.0E-01

1.0E-05

1.0E-03

5.1E-04

1.0E-07

1.0E-04

5.0E-05

Soil Clean gravel Clean sand, sand and gravel mixtures Fine sands, silts Sand-silt-clay mistures, glacial tills Homogeneous clays

1.0E-07

McCarthy, David F., Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations: Basic Geotechnics , Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998.

hers, New York, 1982.

, Prentice Hall, 1998.

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