Types of Text - Speech vs Writing
WHAT IS A TEXT? DEFINITION A text is a sequence of paragraphs that represents an extended unit of speech. It conveys one main idea and it is cohesive (it has unity) and coherent (easy to understand, clear). TYPES Here are some different kinds of text genres:
What is a narrative text?
A narrative text is an account of events.
What is a procedural text?
A procedural text is a text which gives instructions on how to do something.
What is persuasive text?
Persuasive text is a text which represents an attempt on the part of the speaker to get the addressee to do something or to act in a certain way.
What is expository text?
Expository text is a text which explains something.
What is a descriptive text?
A descriptive text is a text which lists the characteristics of something.
SPEAKING VERSUS WRITING SPEECH
The worst part about it was I had a friend Sitting up here and she’s saying “ha ha”… And I was saying “Go get the police… go Get someone”…I later learned that there are Some people who do that in the face of disaster…I mean they just start cracking up as opposed to crying.
My helpful friend, perhaps not realizing that I was serious, began laughing. Sue roared all the harder as my situation became more difficult. She claimed I looked funny, clinging there screaming. I realized that she was laughing Because she was incapable of acting: the situation must have been greatly disturbing to her, and so she treated it as if it were another situation.
DIFFERENCES There are many differences between the processes of speaking and writing. Writing is not simply speech written down on paper. Learning to write is not a natural extension of learning to speak. Unlike speech, writing requires systematic instruction and practice. Here are some of the differences between speaking and writing that may clarify things for you and help you in your efforts as a writer and speaker. SPEECH
Universal, everybody acquires it
Not everyone learns to read and write
Spoken language has dialect variations that represent a region
Written language is more restricted and generally follows a standardised form of grammar, structure, organization, and vocabulary
Speakers use their voices (pitch, rhythm, stress) and their bodies to communicate their message
Writers rely on the words on the page to express meaning and their ideas
Speakers use pauses and intonation
Writers use punctuation
Speaking is often spontaneous and unplanned.
Most writing is planned and can be changed through editing and revision before an audience reads it
Speakers have immediate audiences who nod, interrupt, question and comment
Writers have a delayed response from audiences or none at all and have only one opportunity to convey their message, be interesting, informative, accurate and hold their reader’s attention
Speech is usually informal and repetitive
Writing on the other hand is more formal and compact. It progresses more logically With fewer explanations and digressions.
Speakers use simpler sentences connected by lots of ands and buts.
Writers use more complex sentences With connecting words like however, Who, although, and in addition.
Speakers draw on their listeners reactions to know
Writers are often solitary in their process
how or whether to continue Speakers can gauge the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of their audience by their verbal and nonverbal reactions
Writers must consider what and how much their audience needs to know about a given topic
Consider the fact that virtually nobody speaks Standard Written English. This is the dialect of English that is appropriate for professional, business, and academic writing. For example, no one always speaks in complete sentences or pronounces the final letter of every word. However, many people learn to translate their spoken dialect into Standard Written English when they write. Both spoken and written dialects are linked to the social background, age, race, and gender of the writer, speaker and audience. Depending upon whom we are addressing, and what we are discussing, we can switch between formal and informal ways of communicating. Source: http://www2.wmin.ac.uk/eic/learning-skills/literacy/sp_vs_writ_dif.shtml