Turismo idiomático. Evolución y desarrollo

January 29, 2019 | Author: Biblioteca de Turismo y Finanzas, Universidad de Sevilla | Category: Tourism, Spanish Language, United Kingdom, France, Madrid
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AUTOR: Mª MERCEDES VALENTÍN-GAMAZO LEVEQUE TUTOR: Mª DEL MAR TORREBLANCA LÓPEZ DEPARTAMENTO: FILOLOGÍA INGLESA ...

Description

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]Å]VCH< ]VPGTEH GMGHEÊ]GDH. FQHCVDGÔK W MFTJPPHCCH JV]HP< Eª EFPDFMFT QJCFK]ÅK-OJ Q JCFK]ÅK-OJEJ\H EJ\H CFQFZVF ]V]HP< Eª MFC EJP ][email protected] CÔ^F\ MF^JP]JEFK]H< AGCHCHOÅJ GKOCFTJ (CFKOVJ GKOCFTJ) ÊPFJ MF DHKHDGEGFK]H< AGCHCHOÅJ GKOCFTJ (CFKOVJ GKOCFTJ) G KOCFTJ) PFTVEFK< Fstf trj`jlh mfagkf y fxpcgdj fc dhkdfpth mfc turgseh mf gmghejs y su fvhcudgôk j ch cjroh mfc tgfeph. Fstf tgph mf turgseh sf fstê dhkshcgmjkmh dheh ukj kufvj tgphchoåj turåstgdj. ^rfsfktjehs uk jkêcgsgs dhepjrjtgvh fktrf fc gkocçs y fc fspjúhc mfstjdjkmh chs jspfdths eês gephrtjktfs mfc turgseh mf fsths gmghejs. Jkjcgzjehs cj djktgmjm mf dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj quf fxgstfk fk Fspjúj, tjkth pü`cgdhs dheh prgvjmhs9 jså dheh cjs ehtgvjdghkfs quf jtrjfk j chs turgstjs pjrj prjdtgdjr fstf tgph mf turgseh. Tf rfjcgzj uk pfqufúh jkêcgsgs mfc pfragc mfc turgstj y mf chs ajdthrfs pjrj cj fcfddgôk mf uk mfstgkh mfktrh mfc pjås. ^jrj agkjcgzjr sf rfjcgzj uk mhduefkth mf ukj pêogkj wf` agdtgdgj fk cj quf ukj jdjmfegj, Ejmf gk Tpjgk, hafrtj uk pcjk mf fstumghs pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mf cj cfkouj fspjúhcj. Fstf mhduefkth sf fcj`hrj mf ahrej `gcgkoóf, fk gkocçs y fk fspjúhc, lukth dhk uk ahccfth prhehdghkjc mfc dursh. ^[email protected] DCJQF< ]urgseh mf gmghejs, jprfkmgzjlf mf cfkouj, fspjúhc dhk C0k gkocçs dheh C0, dfktrhs prgvjmhs y pü`cgdhs.

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

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:. DJ^Å]VCH :< Gktrhmuddgôk y h`lftgvhs ................................................................ ....................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................... ........ :.:. Gktrhmuddgôk ..................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................ :.0. H`lftgvhs .................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ................................................................... :.4. Lustgagdjdgôk ..................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................................. ........................................................

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0. DJ^Å]VCH 0< Fvhcudgôk mfc turgseh mf gmghejs .................................................................... ................................................................................................................ ............................................ ? 0.: Fc turgseh mf gmghejs fk fc eukmh ................................................................. ......................................................................................................................... ........................................................ ? 0.:.:. Gkocçs vs fspjúhc ............................................................................................................................................................... ? 0.:.0. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs< gkocçs ...................................................................................................................... ? 0.:.4. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs< fspjúhc ............................................................................................................... 7 0.0. Mfstgkhs eês fcfogmhs .................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ............... :> 0.0.:. Hafrtj gktfrkjdghkjc< Hxahrm y Djcgahrkgj ............................................................................... :> 0.0.0 Hafrtj kjdghkjc< Ejmrgm y Tjcjejkdj ......................................................................................... :: 0.4 Hafrtj mf Dfktrhs mf Fstumgh .................................................................................................................................... :0 4. DJ^Å]VCH 4< Fc turgstj gmgheêtgdh .................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ............... :6 4.: ^fragc mfc turgstj ............................................................ .................................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................... ................................................... :6 4.0. Fcfddgôk mfc mfstgkh ................................................................................................................................................................. :? 4.4 Mjths y Fstjmåstgdjs .................................................................................................................................................................. :2 4.4.:. Efrdjmhs fegshrfs y phtfkdgjcfs mfc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs fk Fspjúj ............................................................... ...................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................. .......................................................................... .... :2 4.4.0 Ajdthrfs mf fcfddgôk mf uk mfstgkh ................................................................................................. 0> 4.4.4 Fstjdghkjcgmjm mf cj mfejkmj ................................................................................................................. 00 4.=. Dhkdcusghkfs

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=. DJ^Å]VCH =< Jdjmfegj mf jprfkmgzjlf mf fspjúhc ............................................................................................. 06 =.:. Jdjmfegj< Ejmf gk Tpjgk .............................................................................................................................................. 06 =.:.:. Ejmf gk Tpjgk< fspjúhc ............................................................. ................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................... .... 06 =.:.0. Ejmf gk Tpjgk< gkocçs ............................................................................................................................................ 0? =.0. Ahccfth prhehdghkjc .................................................................................................................................................................. 07 6. @[email protected]ÅJ ..................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................. .......................................................................... .... 4:

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

0

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

DJ^Å]VCH : GK]PHMVDDGÔK W [email protected]]GQHT :.:. GK]PHMVDDGÔK Fc afkôefkh turåstgdh, mfsmf sus gkgdghs dhk fc Orjkm ]hur bjstj bhy, bj fxpfrgefktjmh ukj sfrgf mf vjrgjdghkfs, jphrtjdghkfs y jepcgjdghkfs, ccfojkmh j dhkvfrtgrsf fk eudbhs cuojrfs mfc eukmh fk su prgkdgpjc aufktf mf gkorfshs. Mfsmf su jpjrgdgôk fk fc sgoch RGR, bfehs phmgmh h`sfrvjr dheh cjs tgphchoåjs t gphchoåjs turåstgdjs bjk gmh fk juefkth, cj efktf mfc sfr buejkh bj gmh fxpjkmgfkmh fc sfkdgcch dhkdfpth mf vgjlf j ukj gkagkgmjm mf jdtgvgmjmfs f gkmustrgjs bjstj bjdfrcjs ahrejr pjrtf mfc ogojktfsdh afkôefkh shdgjc ccjejmh ]urgseh. Fk cj fvhcudgôk quf bj fxpfrgefktjmh fc turgseh mfsmf su jpjrgdgôk bjk gmh surogfkmh kufvjs tgphchoåjs turåstgdjs. Cj prêdtgdj mf chs gmghejs fs uk ajdthr euy gephrtjktf pjrj fc turgseh, sh`rfthmh fk fc êe`gth cj`hrjc, tjkth quf cj gkmustrgj turåstgdj ch bj jmhptjmh dheh ukj ehmjcgmjm, surogfkmh jså fc turgseh gmgheêtgdh h turgseh mf gmghejs.

]rjmgdghkjcefktf fc jprfkmgzjlf h fksfújkzj mf uk gmghej sf dhksgmfrj`j dheh ukj jdtgvgmjm fmudjtgvj-ducturjc. Fk cj jdtujcgmjm, sf fkdufktrj fkejrdjmj mfktrh mfc turgseh ducturjc y fk eudbhs pjåsfs ccfvj yj júhs dhk cj mfkhegkjdgôk –]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh― fk su jdtgvgmjm. jdtgvgmjm. Fstf tgph mf turgseh bj gmh suargfkmh ukj orjk ehmgagdjdgôk j trjvçs mf cjs mgafrfktfs dcjsfs shdgjcfs. Jktgoujefktf sôch cjs dcjsfs eês jctjs frjk cjs prgvgcfogjmjs pjrj cj prêdtgdj mf uk gmghej mgafrfktf jc kjtgvh. Dhk fc pjsh mf chs júhs fsth auf dje`gjkmh, dhkvgrtgçkmhsf fc jprfkmfr uk gmghej fk ukj kfdfsgmjm. Mfsmf bjdf ukhs júhs bjstj jbhrj, j cj kfdfsgmjm mf vgjljr, sf cf jújmf fc jprfkmgzjlf mf uk sfoukmh gmghej. Fs phr fsh quf surofk jcoukjs mumjs< ¸quç fs fc turgseh gmgheêtgdh h turgseh mf gmghejs8, ¸fk quç dhksgstf fxjdtjefktf8, y ¸quç rfcjdgôk tgfkf dhk cj gkmustrgj turåstgdj8 ^hmråjehs mfdgr quf fc turgseh gmgheêtgdh sf fkdufktrj mfktrh mf cj tgphchoåj mf ]urgseh Ducturjc9 jså pufs mfagkgråjehs fc turgseh mf gmghejs dheh ukj ehmjcgmjm mf turgseh quf tgfkf dheh h`lftgvh h ehtgvjdgôk prgkdgpjc fc jprfkmgzjlf h pfrafddghkjegfkth pfrafddghkjegfkth mf uk gmghej mgafrfktf jc kjtgvh fk htrh pjås. Cj HE] ch mfagkf dheh –cjs jdtgvgmjmfs quf rfjcgzjk pfrshkjs murjktf sus vgjlfs y fstjkdgjs fk cuojrfs mgstgkths jc mf su fkthrkh kjturjc phr uk pfrghmh mf tgfeph dhksfdutgvh gkafrghr j uk júh, dhk fc agk mf bjdfr ukj gkefrsgôk cgkoóåstgdj fk uk gmghej mgstgkth jc mf su fkthrkh kjturjc―. (HE] :77:) 4

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

:.0. [email protected]]GQHT Cj fcfddgôk mf fstf tfej pjrj fc ]rj`jlh mf Agk mf Orjmh fs mf`gmj jc juof quf fstê tfkgfkmh fk chs üctgehs júhs fstj ehmjcgmjm mf turgseh, ukgmh j cj fsdjsfz mf trj`jlhs y fstumghs quf bjy sh`rf fc egseh fk kufstrh pjås. Chs gmghejs djmj vfz shk eês gephrtjktfs pjrj fc êe`gth cj`hrjc y jdjmçegdh, jktgoujefktf fk Fspjúj kh sf cf mj`j tjktj gephrtjkdgj j fsth, pfrh cj fvhcudgôk eukmgjc y cjs kufvjs ofkfrjdghkfs bjdfk quf cj prêdtgdj mf chs gmghejs sfj djmj vfz eês gephrtjktf y kfdfsjrgj pjrj dujcqugfr êe`gth mf kufstrj vgmj. Dhk cj fcj`hrjdgôk mf fstf trj`jlh tr j`jlh ef pcjktfh chs sgougfktfs h`lftgvhs< - H`tfkfr ejyhr gkahrejdgôk sh`rf fc turgseh turgseh mf mf fstumghs. fstumghs. - Mfagkgr y prhaukmgzjr fk fstf tgph mf turgseh. - H`tfkfr mjths sh`rf fc turgseh mf gmghejs fk Pfgkh Vkgmh y Fspjúj. - Pfjcgzjr cj sgeucjdgôk mf uk dursh mf fstumghs mf ukj feprfsj prgvjmj. - Fcj`hrjr uk ahccfth prhehdghkjc prhehdghkjc mfc dursh mf gmghejs. gmghejs. :.4. LVT]GAGDJDGÔK Cj fcfddgôk mfc tfej mfc ]rj`jlh mf Agk mf Orjmh vj cgojmj j cj gephrtjkdgj quf jdtujcefktf sf cf mj j cj prêdtgdj mf uk gmghej mgafrfktf jc kjtgvh. Fk chs üctgehs tgfephs bj tfkgmh eudbh eês juof f gkdcush j måj mf bhy sf bj dhkvfrtgmh fk uk rfqugsgth gkmgspfksj`cf pjrj gkgdgjrtf fk fc eukmh cj`hrjc. Fspjúj kh fs pghkfrj fk cj prêdtgdj mf fstf tgph mf turgseh9 Arjkdgj, Jcfejkgj h Pfgkh Vkgmh ccfvjk júhs gkdcuyfkmh fstj ehmjcgmjm fktrf su hafrtj turåstgdj. Dj`f mfdgr quf Fspjúj lufoj dhk cj vfktjlj mf sfr fc ükgdh pjås mf bj`cj djstfccjkj quf bjy fk Furhpj, fsth fs uk tçregkh mf fxdcusgvgmjm j`shcuth j`shcuth yj quf chs bj`gtjktfs mfc rfsth mf Furhpj, fk su orjk ejyhråj, jdumgrêk j Fspjúj pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mf fstf gmghej. Dj`f mfstjdjr quf j kgvfc eukmgjc, Fspjúj dhepgtf dhk chs pjåsfs mf bj`cj bgspjkj quf phsffk ukj eflhr hafrtj, dheh fs fc djsh mf Jrofktgkj, Eçxgdh h Dbgcf. Fk chs üctgehs júhs bj gkdrfefktjmh fstj jdtgvgmjm turåstgdj sgfkmh fstumgjktfs mf mgvfrsjs kjdghkjcgmjmfs chs quf bjk jdumgmh pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mfc fspjúhc dheh cfkouj fxtrjklfrj9 sus prhdfmfkdgjs shk prgkdgpjcefktf Fstjmhs Vkgmhs, @rjsgc, Jcfejkgj, Arjkdgj f Gtjcgj. ^hr htrh cjmh, fc djstfccjkh fs cj sfoukmj cfkouj mf dheukgdjdgôk gktfrkjdghkjc y cj tfrdfrj eês bj`cjmj mfc eukmh (jcrfmfmhr mf =>> egcchkfs mf pfrshkjs), jmfeês fs

ukj mf cjs sfgs cfkoujs hagdgjcfs mf cj HKV lukth dhk fc gkocçs, dbgkh, êrj`f, arjkdçs y rush9 phr ch quf su gkacufkdgj shdgjc tgfkf `jstjktf pfsh. Fsth bj ccfvjmh j quf cj =

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

mfejkmj mfc jprfkmgzjlf mfc fspjúhc bjyj juefktjmh dhksgmfrj`cfefktf fk cj üctgej mçdjmj, sgfkmh Jcfejkgj y Arjkdgj chs pjåsfs fk chs quf eês jdfptjdgôk fstê tfkgfkmh fstf tgph turgseh.

6

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

1

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

DJ^Å]VCH 0 FQHCVDGÔK MFC ]VPGTEH MF GMGHEJT 0.:. ]VPGTEH MF GMGHEJT FK FC EVKMH Fk chs üctgehs júhs chs gmghejs sf bjk dhkvfrtgmh fk jcoh kfdfsjrgh pjrj djsg thmjs cjs pfrshkjs, yj `gfk sfj phr dufstghkfs cj`hrjcfs, jdjmçegdjs h pfrshkjcfs. Fk fstf jpjrtjmh sf rfjcgzj ukj mgstgkdgôk fktrf fc gkocçs y fc fspjúhc, cjs djrjdtfråstgdjs mf djmj ukh y cjs pruf`js mf kgvfc quf sf mf`fk rfjcgzjr pjrj fc `ufk dhkhdgegfkth mfc gmghej. 0.:.: Gkocçs G kocçs vs Fspjúhc Jktfrghrefktf sf bj mfstjdjmh fc phtfkdgjc mf cj cfkouj fspjúhcj dheh cj tfrdfrj eês bj`cjmj. Dj`f mfstjdjr quf fc gkocçs fs fc gmghej eês bj`cjmh dheh sfoukmj cfkouj yj quf sf bj gktfrkjdghkjcgzjmh gktfrkjdghkjcgzjmh y fstj`cfdgmh dheh gmghej pjrj cj dheukgdjdgôk fktrf chs pjåsfs dhk mgafrfktfs cfkoujs. ^hmfehs mfdgr quf q uf sf bj dhkvfrtgmh fk uk rfqugsgth aukmjefktjc pjrj dujcqugfr êe`gth rfcjdghkjmh dhk fc eukmh jdjmçegdh h cj`hrjc. J pjrtgr mf mjths fxtrjåmhs mfc ^cjk mf ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh fk Jkmjcudåj, bfehs phmgmh rfjcgzjr ukj dhepjrjtgvj fktrf je`js cfkoujs, fc fspjúhc  fs   fs cfkouj kjtgvj mf =>> egcchkfs mf pfrshkjs, egfktrjs quf fc gkocçs  fs   fs mf 46> egcchkfs mf pfrshkjs, fc fspjúhc   fs ukj cfkouj hagdgjc h dhhagdgjc mf 00 pjåsfs arfktf j chs :: mfc gkocçs, 06 egcchkfs mf pfrshkjs usjk fc fspjúhc dheh sfoukmj cfkouj, fk fstj hdjsgôk fs j cj gkvfrsj, fc gkocçs fs bj`cjmh dheh sfoukmj cfkouj phr =>> egcchkfs mf pfrshkjs9 fsth gepcgdj cjs ojkjkdgjs quf ofkfrjk fc fspjúhc y fc gkocçs  jkujcefktf,  jkujcefktf, 01> egcchkfs mf furhs y 2>>> egcchkfs mf furhs rfspfdtgvjefktf. ]j`cj :< gkocçs QT fspjúhc. Fspjúhc

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Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j trjvçs mf mjths mfc ^cjk ]urgseh gmgheêtgdh fk Jkmjcudåj. 0.:.0 ]urgseh mf gmghejs< gkocçs Mfsmf prgkdgpghs mfc sgoch RR, fc gkocçs fs ukj mf cjs cfkoujs eês bj`cjmjs j kgvfc eukmgjc9 sf bj dhkvfrtgmh fk uk rfqugsgth djsg gkmgspfksj`cf tjkth pjrj cj ahrejdgôk jdjmçegdj dheh pjrj cj h`tfkdgôk mf uk pufsth mf trj`jlh.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Dheh sf bj mfsdrgth jktfrghrefktf, fc turgseh gmgheêtgdh surof j trjvçs mf cj kfdfsgmjm mfc jprfkmgzjlf mf chs gmghejs. Fsj kfdfsgmjm bjdf quf jpjrfzdjk kuefrhsjs jdjmfegjs y Vkgvfrsgmjmfs quf gepjrtfk durshs pjrj jprfkmfr fc gmghej. Bhy fk måj fs aukmjefktjc dfrtgagdjr uk mftfregkjmh mf gmghej pjrj cj h`tfkdgôk mf uk tåtuch ukgvfrsgtjrgh. J kgvfc eukmgjc, ukj mf cjs prgkdgpjcfs fktgmjmfs quf jdrfmgtjk fstf tgph mf tåtuchs fs Dje`rgmof Fkocgsb , quf ahrej pjrtf mf cj Vkgvfrsgmjm mf Dje`rgmof. Fstj hrojkgzjdgôk harfdf ukj sfrgf mf tåtuchs cåmfrfs fk fc eukmh tjkth pjrj fstumgjktfs dheh pjrj prhafshrfs mf gkocçs. Fc kgvfc quf phmåj tfkfr ukj pfrshkj mf uk mftfregkjmh gmghej ch jdrfmgtj`jk dfktrhs tjk rfdhkhdgmhs y tåtuchs tjk khe`rjmhs dheh Dje`rgmof, ]rgkgty h ]hfac. ^jrj fstj`cfdfr ukj sfrgf mf pjrêeftrhs quf sgrvgfrjk dheh rfafrfkdgj fk thmj Furhpj, fk fc júh 0>>0 sf drfô fc Ejrdh Dheük Furhpfh mf Pfafrfkdgj (EDFP). Fs euy gephrtjktf mftfregkjr chs mgafrfktfs kgvfcfs mf gkocçs quf pufmfs h`tfkfr j ch cjroh mfc jprfkmgzjlf mf fstj cfkouj. Fc Ejrdh Dheük Furhpfh mf Pfafrfkdgj pjrj cjs cfkoujs (EDFP) fs qugfk mfagkf dheh efmgmj fstêkmjr cj dhepftfkdgj cgkoóåstgdj fk thmj cj Vkgôk Furhpfj ]j`cj 0< Fxêefkfs pjrj dfrtgagdjr fc kgvfc mfc gmghej mf gkocçs. ^hr mf`jlh mfc kgvfc J:

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Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mf Dje`rgmof Fkocgsb Cjkoujof Jssfssefkt. 2

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

0.:.4 ]urgseh mf gmghejs< fspjúhc Fc jprfkmgzjlf mfc fspjúhc fstê tfkgfkmh su juof fk chs üctgehs júhs. Chs turgstjs fxtrjklfrhs hptjk phr jprfkmfr fstj cfkouj y fcgofk Fspjúj dheh uk prgkdgpjc mfstgkh9 chs prgkdgpjcfs dhepftgmhrfs shk Eçxgdh sfougmh mf Jrofktgkj. Fstumgjr fspjúhc dheh ukh mf chs prgkdgpjcfs fcfefkths ehtgvjmhrfs mfc turgseh fk Fspjúj rfsuctj euy prheftfmhr dheh rfdursh fdhkôegdh pjrj fc pjås. Fs ukj cfkouj bj`cjmj phr =>> egcchkfs mf pfrshkjs fk fc eukmh, y tjk sôch fk :2 pjåsfs9 tje`gçk dj`f mfstjdjr quf fs fc sfoukmh gmghej (mfspuçs mfc gkocçs) eês bj`cjmh dheh sfoukmj cfkouj fk fc eukmh. Jdtujcefktf fxgstf fk Fspjúj ukj orjk hafrtj mf dfktrhs pjrj fstumgjr fspjúhc9 sfoük uk fstumgh mf ]urfspjúj , fxgstfk 10? dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj mf cj cfkouj. Cj ejyhråj dhrrfsphkmfk jc êe`gth prgvjmh (20.1%). Cj hafrtj mf dfktrhs mf Fspjúhc dheh Cfkouj Fxtrjklfrj, FCF (harfdfk ojrjktåj pjrj dhepftgr fk fc êe`gth mfc turgseh gmgheêtgdh), mgsphkf mf :14 dfktrhs rfpjrtgmhs phr thmj Fspjúj mf cj sgougfktf ejkfrj< Orêagdh :< Mgstrg`udgôk mf Dfktrhs FCF. Mgstrg`udgôk mf dfktrhs FCF

Qjcfkdgj &., !k"jcud)j *+, Ej"rg" $&,

Djstgccj y Cf-k $$,

Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mf ]hurfspjúj. Fc gkstgtuth Dfrvjktfs, drfjmh fk :77:, fs cj gkstgtudgôk pü`cgdj fspjúhcj fkdjrojmj mf cj prhehdgôk y fksfújkzj mfc fspjúhc, jså dheh mf mgaukmgr cj ducturj fspjúhcj f bgspjkhjefrgdjkj fk fc fxtrjklfrh. ]gfkf uk thtjc mf =6 dfktrhs mgstrg`ugmhs fk 4> pjåsfs. 7

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Jc goujc quf fk gkocçs, fxgstfk mgafrfktfs kgvfcfs pjrj jdrfmgtjr fc kgvfc fspjúhc. Fc gkstgtuth Dfrvjktfs tje`gçk hafrtj ukj sfrgf mf fxêefkfs mfkhegkjmhs Mgpchejs mf Fspjúhc dheh Cfkouj Fxtrjklfrj (MFCF). ]j`cj 4< Fxêefkfs pjrj dfrtgagdjr fc kgvfc mf gmghej mf fspjúhc. Mgpchej mf fspjúhc MFCF

Mfkhegkjdgôk

Kgvfc J:

Jddfsh

Kgvfc J0

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Ve`rjc

Kgvfc @0

Jvjkzjmh

Kgvfc D:

Mhegkgh Hpfrjtgvh Fagdjz

Kgvfc D0

Ejfstråj

Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mf mjths mfc Gkstgtuth Dfrvjktfs.

0.0 MFT]GKHT EÊT FCFOGMHT Fk fc sgougfktf jpjrtjmh sf vj j rfjcgzjr uk `rfvf fstumgh mf cjs dgumjmfs eês fcfogmjs mfc eukmh pjrj fstumgjr tjkth fc gkocçs dheh fc fspjúhc. ^hmfehs h`sfrvjr quf j kgvfc gktfrkjdghkjc pjrj cj prêdtgdj mfc gkocçs chs prgkdgpjcfs mfstgkhs shk Hxahrm y Djcgahrkgj9 sgk fe`jroh pjrj fc fstumgh mfc fspjúhc, chs fxtrjklfrhs fcgofk Ejmrgm y Tjcjejkdj.

0.0.: Hafrtj gktfrkjdghkjc< Hxahrm y Djcgahrkgj Fk thrkh jc =4% mf chs turgstjs gmgheêtgdhs quf fsdhofk fc gkocçs dheh gmghej mf jprfkmgzjlf fcgofk dheh mfstgkh Orjk @rftjúj pjrj cj prêdtgdj mfc gmghej, su prgkdgpjc kgvfc mf jtrjddgôk fs mf`gmh jc orjk prfstgogh y cj orjk o rjk hafrtj mf fksfújkzj jdjmçegdj quf harfdf fc pjås. Vkj mf cjs dgumjmfs, quf dufktj dhk uk fcfvjmh küefrh mf ukgvfrsgmjmfs (fktrf fccjs cj eês jktgouj mfc eukmh), quf eês trjksdfkmfkdgj tgfkf pjrj fstf tgph mf turgseh fs Hxahrm . Fc rfdhkhdgegfkth quf tgfkf dheh dgumjm mf dhkhdgegfkth, fksfújkzj f gkvfstgojdgôk shk ajdthrfs quf jtrjfk j fstf tgph mf turgstj. J su vfz cj dgumjm dufktj dhk ukj orjk rgqufzj bgstôrgdj y dhk ukhs rfdurshs turåstgdhs quf bjdfk quf sfj eudbh eês jtrjdtgvj. Fk fc sgougfktf orêagdh sf eufstrj fc phrdfktjlf mf cjs ehtgvjdghkfs mf chs turgstjs quf vgsgtjk cj dgumjm mf Hxahrm9

:>

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh 0< Ehtgvjdghkfs mfc turgstj quf vgsgtj Hxahrm.

Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mfc ^cjk mf ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh fk Jkmjcudåj. Jukquf fc =% kh pjrfzdj uk phrdfktjlf euy jcth, fc turgseh mf gmghejs tgfkf orjk trjksdfkmfkdgj fk fstj dgumjm, phr fcch sus juthrgmjmfs gktfktjk rfjcgzjr uk `ufk pcjk mf prhehdgôk y ejriftgko pjrj jså jtrjfr j eês turgstjs mf fstj tgphchoåj y phmfr j`jrdjr ukj mfejkmj jük ejyhr mf cj quf yj du`rf. Tjcgfkmh mfc ejrdh furhpfh, htrj zhkj quf dhkdfktrj ukj mfejkmj jctj mf fstf tgph mf turgseh fs Djcgahrkgj.   Tfoük fc ^cjk mf ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh Jkmjcudåj, fk fc júh 0>>7, Djcgahrkgj rfdg`gô =.? egcchkfs mf turgstjs gktfrkjdghkjcfs, sgfkmh chs prgkdgpjcfs pjåsfs fegshrfs Ljpôk, Pfgkh Vkgmh, ]jgwjk, Gkmgj, Dhrfj mfc Tur, Jcfejkgj, Gtjcgj y Justrjcgj. Dfktrêkmhkhs fk chs turgstjs quf vgjljk phr ehtgvhs mf jprfkmgzjlf, cjs dgarjs j kgvfc kjdghkjc quf ajdgcgtj fc Gkstgtuth Gktfrkjdghkjc mf Fmudjdgôk, sfújcjk quf =.>>> fstumgjktfs rfjcgzjrhk su vgjlf pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mf cj Cfkouj y Cgtfrjturj Gkocfsj, y fk thrkh j ukhs 01.>>> sf mfspcjzjrhk pjrj cj rfjcgzjdgôk mf uk dursh gktfksgvh mf gkocçs. Chs prgkdgpjcfs ajdthrfs phr chs quf chs turgstjs fcgofk fstf mfstgkh shk su `ufkj tfepfrjturj j ch cjroh mfc júh, dhe`gkjmh dhk cj orjk hafrtj mf hdgh y ducturjc mf mfstgkhs yj dhkshcgmjmhs dheh Chs Êkofcfs, Cjs Qfojs h Tjk Arjkdgsdh.

0.0.0 Hafrtj kjdghkjc< Ejmrgm y Tjcjejkdj Ejmrgm, dheh djpgtjc mf Fspjúj, fs uk mfstgkh quf fcgofk `jstjktf chs turgstjs quf vgfkfk j Fspjúj. Eudbj mf fstj orjk jacufkdgj mf turgstjs shk fxtrjklfrhs, chs prgkdgpjcfs pjåsfs fegshrfs aufrhk Fstjmhs Vkgmhs, Pfgkh Vkgmh, Jcfejkgj, Gtjcgj, Ljpôk y ^hrtuojc. Ejmrgm fs ukj mf cjs Dheukgmjmfs Jutôkhejs (phr mftrês mf Jkmjcudåj), quf dhkdfktrj uk ejyhr küefrh mf dfktrhs mfmgdjmhs j cj fksfújkzj mfc fspjúhc pjrj fxtrjklfrhs.

::

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Vkj mf cjs prgkdgpjcfs jdtujdghkfs mf Ejmrgm mgrgogmj j cj phtfkdgjdgôk mf fstf tgph mf turgseh fs gktfktjr quf fc turgstj, jpjrtf mf mfmgdjrsf j cj prêdtgdj y jprfkmgzjlf mfc gmghej, rfdufrmf Ejmrgm dhk cj rfjcgzjdgôk mf jdtgvgmjmfs shdghducturjcfs. ^hr htrh cjmh, mf`fehs bj`cjr mf cj dgumjm mf Tjcjejkdj. Fstj dgumjm, gkdcush sgfkmh mf gktfrghr, fstê tfkgfkmh ukj orjk djktgmjm mf jacufkdgj mf turgstjs. Tf dhksgmfrj ukj dgumjm dhk uk aufrtf kgvfc mf dhepftfkdgj y jmfeês phsff uk rgquåsgeh ^jtrgehkgh, fk :722 auf mfdcjrjmj ^jtrgehkgh mf cj Buejkgmjm phr cj VKFTDH. Fc bfdbh mf phsffr ukj mf cjs Vkgvfrsgmjmfs eês jktgoujs mf Furhpj, aukmjmj fk fc júh :0:2, jtrjf mgjrgjefktf j euctgtum mf fstumgjktfs f gkvfstgojmhrfs. Jså pufs, pufmfk jprhvfdbjr fstf rfdursh pjrj jtrjfr j eês turgstjs mf fstumghs y cj pufmfk dhkvfrtgr fk ukh mf chs ehthrfs mf su mfsjrrhcch. Tfoük mjths mf ]urfspjúj, Tjcjejkdj phsff cj egtjm mfc thtjc mf dfktrhs mf fspjúhc quf phsff cj dheukgmjm mf Djstgccj y Cfôk, y jcrfmfmhr mfc 1% mfc thtjc kjdghkjc. Mf`gmh j fsth, cj DDJJ bj mfdgmgmh phkfr fk ejrdbj ukj sfrgf mf jdtujdghkfs pjrj su dhrrfdtj prhehdgôk y jså jtrjfr y agmfcgzjr jc ejyhr küefrh mf turgstjs quf mfsffk ccfvjr j dj`h fc jprfkmgzjlf mfc djstfccjkh. Vkj mf cjs jdtujdghkfs mf prhehdgôk quf fstê ccfvjkmh j dj`h fc Jyuktjegfkth mf Tjcjejkdj lukth dhk cj Hagdgkj mf ]urgseh mf Tjcjejkdj fs cj drfjdgôk mf cj ejrdj –Tjcjejkdj, dgumjm mfc Fspjúhc―. Tu gktfkdgôk fs `usdjr hphrtukgmjmfs fk uk efrdjmh djmj vfz eês och`jc y dhepftgtgvh9 jså dheh dhktjr dhk uk prhyfdth mf auturh quf ukj j cj dgumjm dhk fc gmghej, rfsjctjkmh cj gephrtjkdgj mfc fspjúhc fk Tjcjejkdj, dhkvgrtgçkmhch fk uk vjchr jújmgmh j thmh fc pjtrgehkgh mf cj dgumjm. Cjs mhs Vkgvfrsgmjmfs, cj Dêejrj mf Dhefrdgh y chs dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj tje`gçk ahrejk pjrtf mf fstf prhyfdth. 0.4 HAFP]J MF DFK]PHT MF FT]VMGH Cj kfdfsgmjm phr fc jprfkmgzjlf mf chs gmghejs tjkth j kgvfc jdjmçegdh dheh cj`hrjc h gkdcush pfrshkjc bgzh quf sf drfjrjk cjs jdjmfegjs mf fksfújkzj mf gmghejs. Fs mfdgr, prgefrh sf drfô cj kfdfsgmjm phr pjrtf mf cj shdgfmjm y chs dfktrhs mf jprfkmgzjlf jprhvfdbjrhk fstj hdjsgôk dheh ukj hphrtukgmjm fk fc efrdjmh. Mf`gmh j su prhehdgôk y su gktfrçs phr qufrfr gepjrtgr cj mhdfkdgj mfc fspjúhc j kuefrhshs fstumgjktfs sf bj ccfojmh j dhkshcgmjr ukj kufvj tgphchoåj turåstgdj. Fk Fspjúj mf`fehs bjdfr ukj mgstgkdgôk fk mhs orjkmfs oruphs mf chs dfktrhs quf harfdfk durshs mf fspjúhc9 phr uk cjmh tfkfehs chs dfktrhs pü`cgdhs quf mgstgkougehs fktrf ukgvfrsgmjmfs pü`cgdjs y fsdufcjs hagdgjcfs mf gmghejs9 y phr htrh cjmh fkdhktrjehs cj jepcgj hafrtj mf dfktrhs prgvjmhs fk chs quf bjy quf mgstgkougr cjs ukgvfrsgmjmfs prgvjmjs y chs dfktrhs prgvjmhs mf gmghejs. Fs gephrtjktf mfstjdjr quf cj hafrtj fk dfktrhs prgvjmjs fs `jstjktf eês jepcgj quf cj pü`cgdj, sgfkmh cj prhphrdgôk mf 26% y :6% rfspfdtgvjefktf. Cj hafrtj fk cjs mgafrfktfs Dheukgmjmfs Jutôkhejs sf dhkdfktrj prgkdgpjcefktf fk mhs, Jkmjcudåj y Ejmrgm, rfprfsfktjkmh fc 1:% mfc thtjc t htjc mf cj hafrtj. Bjy quf tfkfr fk dufktj quf cj hafrtj mf Ejmrgm jc sfr ukj dheukgmjm ukg-prhvgkdgjc tgfkf ejyhr pfsh, yj quf rfprfsfktj fc 0:% mfc thtjc. Fk fc djsh mf Jkmjcudåj cjs prhvgkdgjs quf ejyhr hafrtj dhkdfktrjk shk Eêcjoj, Tfvgccj, Orjkjmj y Dêmgz9 fk su dhklukth rfprfsfktjk fc 7=% mf cj hafrtj jkmjcuzj.

:0

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Fc 47% rfstjktf pfrtfkfdf j Djstgccj Cfôk, y Qjcfkdgj. Fk fc djsh mf Djstgccj y Cfôk fs Tjcjejkdj cj quf ejyhr hafrtj dhkdfktrj mf thmjs cjs dgumjmfs mf cj DDJJ9 fsth fs mf`gmh j su orjk jacufkdgj mf fstumgjktfs phr phsffr ukj mf cjs ukgvfrsgmjmfs eês prfstgoghsjs mfc pjås. ^hr üctgeh, shk Qjcfkdgj y Jcgdjktf cjs quf sf rfpjrtfk cj hafrtj fk cj Dheukgmjm Qjcfkdgjkj. Tfoük uk fstumgh mf ]urfspjúj bjk chdjcgzjmh 10? dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj mf fspjúhc fk fc pjås, chs dujcfs sf mgvgmfk fk Vkgvfrsgmjmfs (pü`cgdjs y prgvjmjs), Fsdufcjs mf Gmghejs (FHG) y Dfktrhs prgvjmhs mf fspjúhc (jdjmfegjs). (jdjmfegjs). Fk fc sgougfktf orêagdh phmfehs vfr rfacfljmh fc pfsh mf djmj dfktrh9 Orêagdh 4< dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj mf fspjúhc fk Fspjúj 'kgvfrsg"j"fs /,

F>( :,

Dfktrhs ^rgvj"hs :0,

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j trjvçs mf ]urfspjúj Dheh phmfehs h`sfrvjr, fc 24% mfc thtjc mf dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj shk dfktrhs prgvjmhs phr ch quf vjehs j rfjcgzjr uk `rfvf fstumgh mf su ahrejth y sus prfdghs. Tfoük mjths mfc ^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh fk Fspjúj, fxgstfk uk thtjc mf 6:2 dfktrhs prgvjmhs mf chs dujcfs :4? dfktrhs sf fkdufktrjk fk Jkmjcudåj, cj dujc sf phsgdghkj fk dj`fzj dhk uk 01.=% mfc thtjc, sfougmjs mf Ejmrgm y @jrdfchkj dhk uk :=% y :0% rfspfdtgvjefktf. rfspfdtgvjefktf. Fk chs dfktrhs prgvjmhs phmfehs mgstgkougr fktrf mhs tgphs mf ahrejth j cj bhrj mf gepjrtgr cjs dcjsfs, pufmfk sfr gktfksgvh   fk chs dujcfs cj djroj cfdtgvj mgjrgj fs euy gktfksj, fktrf = y 1 bhrjs jc måj murjktf thmj cj sfejkj9 h `gfk, pufmfk sfr fxtfksgvh duyj djroj cfdtgvj fs eudbh efkhs, sufcfk gepjrtgrsf chs durshs fktf : y 4 bhrjs jc måj murjktf thmj cj sfejkj. Jmfeês mf cj murjdgôk murjktf cj sfejkj, phmfehs mgstgkougr mgafrfktfs tgphs sfoük cj aukdgôk mf djmj ukh9

:4

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

]j`cj =< tgphchoåjs mf durshs fk dfktrhs prgvjmhs Durshs Fspfdgjcgzjmhs

Tf hrojkgzjk tfkgfkmh fk dufktj chs mgafrfktfs kgvfcfs mfc Ejrdh Dheük Furhpfh mf rfafrfkdgj. Tf rfjcgzj ukj pruf`j mf kgvfc pjrj dheprh`jr quf sf mf`f rfjcgzjr.

Durshs pjrj prhafshrfs

Tf fxgof uk eåkgeh mf dhkhdgegfkth, y chs efsfs dhk eês jacufkdgj ja cufkdgj shk mf lukgh j sfptgfe`rf.

Durshs mf prfpjrjdgôk pjrj fc fxjefk Tufcfk murjr fktrf 4 y :1 sfejkjs. mf Mfcf Durshs mf fstumghs bgspêkgdhs bg spêkgdhs

Dhe`gkjk fc fstumgh mf cj cfkouj dhk cj ducturj.

Htrhs durshs

Dcjsfs gkmgvgmujcfs, djsjs mf gktfrdje`gh, pjrj oruphs dhk kfdfsgmjmfs fspfdåagdjs y sf hrojkgzjk chs durshs j efmgmj.

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j trjvçs mfc ^cjk Fstrjtçogdh Fstrjtçogdh mf ]urgseh. ]urgseh. ^hr rfocj ofkfrjc, chs dfktrhs prgvjmhs kh pufmfk harfdfr tåtuchs hagdgjcefktf rfdhkhdgmhs, çsths hthrojk j chs fstumgjktfs dfrtgagdjmhs mf jsgstfkdgj. Fsths dfktrhs tgfkfk vjrgjs hafrtjs9 pjquftfs gmgheêtgdhs, fc dursh y ukj sfrgf mf jdtgvgmjmfs dhepcfefktjrgjs dheh phr flfepch cj ejkutfkdgôk y jchljegfkth h jdtgvgmjmfs ducturjcfs y mfphrtgvjs, y phr üctgeh tje`gçk pufmfk harfdfr ükgdjefktf fc dursh. Fk cj sgougfktf tj`cj sf eufstrj fc prfdgh efmgh mf chs mgafrfktfs durshs sfoük su pfrghmh mf murjdgôk, ]j`cj 6< ^rfdghs mf chs durshs sfoük su murjdgôk Murjdgôk mf chs Dursh

^rfdgh (Efmgj mfc thtjc)

: TFEJKJ

:?2₣

0 TFEJKJT

4:2₣

: EFT

6?1₣

^PF^JPJDGÔK MFCF

=7:₣

Aufktf, fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mfc ^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh G mgheêtgdh

:=

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

DJ^Å]VCH 4 FC ]VPGT]J GMGHEÊ]GDH 4.: ^FPAGC MFC ]VPGT]J Mfktrh mf cj jdtgvgmjm turåstgdj fkdhktrjehs ukj mgvfrsgmjm euy jepcgj mf tgphs mf turgseh, djmj ukj mf fstjs tgphchoåjs j`jrdj mgafrfktfs rjsohs y djrjdtfråstgdjs, fk aukdgôk j fsth y j cjs pfrshkjs quf ch prjdtgdjk sf pufmf drfjr fc pfragc mfc turgstj. Khrejcefktf mfktrh mfc pfragc mfc turgstj vfehs rfacfljmj cj fmjm, fc sfxh, cj ehtgvjdgôk, fc pfrghmh efmgh mf fstjkdgj… ^jrj phmfr drfjr uk pfragc jmfdujmh sf rfjcgzjk ukj sfrgf mf fstumghs `jsjmhs mf fkdufstjs y fstjmåstgdjs mf chs quf sf pufmfk fxtrjfr thmhs chs mjths kfdfsjrghs pjrj drfjr mgdbh pfragc. Pfdhpgcjkmh gkahrejdgôk mf mgstgktjs aufktfs phmfehs mfagkgr fc pfragc mfc turgstj gmgheêtgdh fk aukdgôk j chs sgougfktfs djrjdtfrfs< :. Tfxh.- Fk aukdgôk aukdgôk mf çstf, mhs mhs mf djmj trfs turgstjs shk eulfrfs. eulfrfs. ^hr tjkth phmfehs jagrejr quf shk cjs eulfrfs cjs quf mfsfepfújk uk pjpfc eês jdtgvh fk fc turgseh mf gmghejs, yj quf chs bhe`rfs jpfkjs jcdjkzjk fc 07%. 0. Fmjm.- Fk su orjk ejyhråj, ejyhråj, fc rjkoh mf fmjm fmjm quf ejyhr trjksdfkmfkdgj trjksdfkmfkdgj tgfkf fk fstf tgph mf turgseh j`jrdj fktrf chs 0> y 07 júhs dhk uk 6=%. ^hr htrh cjmh, jcrfmfmhr mfc 06% tgfkfk efkhs mf 0> júhs. Fk dhkdcusgôk, phmfehs jagrejr quf fs fc turgstj lhvfk qugçk rfjcgzj fstf tgph mf turgseh dhk ejyhr jsgmugmjm. jsgmugmjm. 4. Ehtgvjdgôk.Ehtgvjdgôk.- Fstj djrjdtfråstgdj gmfktgagdj gmfktgagdj mgafrfktfs mgafrfktfs rjzhkfs prgkdgpjcfs prgkdgpjcfs quf ehtgvjk j chs vgjlfrhs j rfjcgzjr fstf turgseh9 cjs eês trjksdfkmfktfs shk, pfrshkjc, jdjmçegdj y cj`hrjc. Djsg fc 2>% mf chs turgstjs gmgheêtgdhs sf vfk ehtgvjmhs j rfjcgzjrch phr rjzhkfs pfrshkjcfs9 khrejcefktf vgfkf cgojmj j chs h`lftgvhs pfrshkjcfs quf djmj pfrshkj mfagkf fk su vgmj. Vk :?% mgdf quf shk rjzhkfs jdjmçegdjs cjs quf cfs jcgfktj j fcch. Bhy fk måj fs euy gephrtjktf fc dhkhdgegfkth y prêdtgdj mf uk gmghej mgafrfktf jc kjtgvh y cj orjk ejyhråj prfagfrfk ccfvjr j dj`h fc jprfkmgzjlf fk fc pjås mf hrgofk mfc egseh. ^hr üctgeh, tjk shch uk 6% sf vf h`cgojmh j ccfvjrch j dj`h phr ehtgvhs cj`hrjcfs, yj sfj `gfk pjrj mfsjrrhccjr su djrrfrj prhafsghkjc h `gfk pjrj dhksfougr uk pufsth mf trj`jlh quf fxgof uk kgvfc mftfregkjmh mf gmghejs.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

=. ^frejkfkdgj.^frejkfkdgj.- Fk cj orjk ejyhråj ejyhråj mf chs djshs djshs cj pfrejkfkdgj pfrejkfkdgj efmgj mfc turgstj fs mf trfs j dujtrh sfejkjs. ^hmråjehs mfagkgr quf fk thrkh jc :2 phr dgfkth pfrejkfdfk fk fc mfstgkh fktrf ukj y mhs sfejkjs, uk 41 phr dgfkth fktrf 4 y 2 sfejkjs y fk üctgeh cuojr uk :6 phr dgfkth mfdgmfk rfjcgzjr ukj fstjkdgj supfrghr j 4 efsfs. ^hr rfocj ofkfrjc cj murjdgôk mf cj fstjkdgj fstê cgojmj jc pfrghmh mf murjdgôk quf tfkoj fc dursh pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mfc gmghej quf vjk j rfjcgzjr. Fs prfdgsh rfsjctjr quf fc tgfeph mf pfrejkfkdgj mf fstf tgph mf turgstj fs ejyhr jc mf htrjs tgphchoåjs, phr ch quf fc ojsth efmgh quf rfjcgzj fk cj dgumjm mhkmf sf jchlj fs `jstjktf ejyhr. Fk `jsf j fstjs ehtgvjdghkfs phmfehs vfr rfacfljmh fk fc sgougfktf orêagdh fc pfragc mfc turgstj mfc turgseh mf gmghejs9 Orêagdh =< ^fragc mfc turgstj.

Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j trjvçs mf mjths mfc ^cjk mf ]urgseh gmgheêtgdh Jkmjcudåj.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

4.0 FCFDDGÔK MFC MFT]GKH ^jrj cj fcfddgôk mfc mfstgkh, chs fstumgjktfs fk ofkfrjc mfagkfk ukj sfrgf mf drgtfrghs sh`rf ch quf `jsjr su mfdgsgôk j cj bhrj mf fsdhofr ukj dgumjm mf Fspjúj pjrj cj prêdtgdj mfc turgseh mf gmghejs. Fk prgefr cuojr tgfkfk fk dufktj cj u`gdjdgôk mfc dfktrh mhkmf vjk j rfjcgzjr fc dursh pjrj jprfkmfr fc gmghej, sfougmh mfc dhstf mfc egseh. ]je`gçk fs gephrtjktf pjrj chs vgjlfrhs fc prfstgogh quf tgfkf fc dfktrh mhkmf rfjcgzjrêk fc dursh9 fk üctgeh cuojr, tgfkfk fk dufktj cj hafrtj dhepcfefktjrgj quf harfdf cj dgumjm mhkmf vjk j rfsgmgr. Fk dujkth j cj ahrej mf dhktrjtjr fc vgjlf, sfoük mjths mfc ^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh fk Fspjúj, fc 22% dhktrjtjk fc dursh mfsmf fc pjås mf hrgofk, mfc egseh ehmh ch bjdf uk ?1% dhk fc jchljegfkth. Wj quf jså pufmfk dhkdrftjr dhk jktfrghrgmjm jc vgjlf cjs jdtgvgmjmfs quf vjk j rfjcgzjr fk fc mfstgkh. Fc eçthmh mf trjksphrtf eês utgcgzjmh fs fc jvgôk, cj orjk ejyhråj ch dhktrjtjk j trjvçs mf jfrhcåkfjs mf `jlh dhstf. Dheh sf bj efkdghkjmh jktfrghrefktf, fc tgfeph efmgh mf fstjkdgj fs mf = sfejkjs, dj`f mfstjdjr quf cj murjdgôk fs ejyhr sg sf trjtj mf vgjlfrhs mf prhdfmfkdgj jsgêtgdj, çsths tgfkmfk j jcjrojr cj fstjkdgj phrquf fc dhstf mfc vgjlf fs ejyhr. Fk dujkth jc tgph mf jchljegfkth fcfogmh pjrj cj fstjkdgj mfstjdjk cjs djsjs mf ajegcgjs fspjúhcjs, sfougmh mf jpjrtjefkths mf jcqugcfr y rfsgmfkdgjs mf fstumgjktfs. Chs jchljegfkths bhtfcfrhs kh sufcfk sfr fcfogmhs phr chs fstumgjktfs pjrj rfjcgzjr su fstjkdgj.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh 6< Jchljegfkths fcfogmhs phr chs turgstjs

Aufktf< fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j trjvçs mf AFMFCF

4.4 MJ]HT W FT]JMÅT]GDJT Fk fc sgougfktf jpjrtjmh sf rfdhpgcjk ukj sfrgf mf mjths quf shk mf orjk gktfrçs pjrj prhaukmgzjr jük eês fk fc turgseh mf gmghejs. 4.4.: Efrdjmhs Fegshrfs y ^htfkdgjcfs mfc ]urgseh mf Gmghejs fk Fspjúj •

Efrdjmhs fegshrfs.- Thk chs chs pjåsfs pjåsfs quf quf fkvåjk fkvåjk fstumgjktfs pjrj jprfkmfr fspjúhc. Tfoük ukjs fkdufstjs rfjcgzjmjs phr fc fqugph mfc ^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh fk Fspjúj sf bj fstj`cfdgmh uk rjkigko quf phmfehs vfr fk fc sgougfktf orêagdh hrmfkjmh mf ejyhr j efkhr sfoük fc vhcuefk mf fstumgjktfs quf vgjljk j Fspjúj.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh 1< Efrdjmhs fegshrfs. Efrdjmhs Fegshrfs &$ &+ : 4 * $ +

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mfc pcjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh G mgheêtgdh fk Fspjúj. Dheh phmfehs h`sfrvjr, fc pjås quf sf fkdufktrj fk prgefrj phsgdgôk fs Jcfejkgj, sfougmh mf Pfgkh Vkgmh, y fk tfrdfr cuojr khs fkdhktrjehs fc efrdjmh gtjcgjkh. ^hmfehs dheprh`jr quf Fstjmhs Vkgmhs hdupj fc dujrth cuojr9 sgfkmh fc prgefr efrdjmh fegshr kh furhpfh. Fk cjs trfs üctgejs phsgdghkfs fkdhktrjehs j Pusgj, @rjsgc y Tugzj, dhepcftjkmh jså fc rjkigko mf chs mgfz prgkdgpjcfs efrdjmhs fegshrfs mf turgseh gmgheêtgdh bjdgj kufstrh pjås. •

Efrdjmhs phtfkdgjcfs.- ^hr htrh cjmh, fstf fstf tgph mf mf efrdjmhs efrdjmhs shk chs chs quf tgfkfk eês phsg`gcgmjmfs mf mfsjrrhccjrsf y dhkvfrtgrsf fk efrdjmhs fegshrfs mf turgseh mf gmghejs fk kufstrh pjås. Tfoük chs dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj mf fspjúhc pjrj fxtrjklfrhs, Dbgkj fs fc pjås quf dhktgfkf ejyhrfs pfrspfdtgvjs mf drfdgegfkth pjrj fkvgjr j fstumgjktfs j Fspjúj pjrj jprfkmfr fc djstfccjkh. FFVV tje`gçk lufoj uk pjpfc gephrtjktf dheh phsg`cf efrdjmh phtfkdgjc. ^hr üctgeh, cjs trfs üctgejs phsgdghkfs cjs hdupjk @ucojrgj, Arjkdgj y cj Gkmgj.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh ?< Efrdjmhs phtfkdgjcfs.

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj dhk mjths mfc ^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc turgseh Gmgheêtgdh mf Fspjúj. 4.4.0 Ajdthrfs mf fcfddgôk mf uk mfstgkh Chs vgjlfrhs sf `jsjk fk ukj sfrgf mf drgtfrghs pjrj fcfogr cj dgumjm mhkmf qugfrfk rfjcgzjr su fstjkdgj pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mfc fspjúhc. J dhktgkujdgôk vjehs j ehstrjr fk uk orêagdh cj gephrtjkdgj quf sf cf mj j fsths drgtfrghs fk aukdgôk mf trfs rfoghkfs, Furhpj, Jeçrgdj y Jsgj.

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh 2< Fcfddgôk mf uk mfstgkh phr rfoghkfs

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Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j pjrtgr mf mjths mf ]urfspjúj. Tfoük fc orêagdh phmfehs h`sfrvjr quf fc prfstgogh mf chs dfktrhs fs ukh mf chs ajdthrfs eês gephrtjktfs j cj bhrj mf fcfogr uk mfstgkh9 fstf ajdthr cfs gephrtj eês j cj ph`cjdgôk jsgêtgdj sfougmj mf cj furhpfj y fk üctgeh cuojr cj jefrgdjkj. Fc jtrjdtgvh mfc pjås y cj hafrtj ducturjc hdupjk fc sfoukmh y tfrdfr pufsth mfc rjkigko, pjrj chs furhpfhs fc jtrjdtgvh mfc pjås fs `jstjktf gephrtjktf, sgk fe`jroh cj hafrtj ducturjc cfs gephrtj eês j chs jsgêtgdhs. Cjs trfs üctgejs phsgdghkfs cjs hdupjk fc dhstf mfc dursh, fc dcgej y fc dhstf mfc vgjlf, sgfkmh Jsgj qugfk egrj eês phr fstjs trfs dufstghkfs. ]rjs bj`fr rfjcgzjmh uk rjkigko dhk chs ajdthrfs quf eês sf tgfkfk fk dufktj j cj bhrj mf fcfogr uk mfstgkh pjrj prjdtgdjr uk gmghej j kgvfc eukmgjc, khs dfktrjehs fk fc djsh mf Fspjúj. ¸Zuç ajdthrfs dhkmgdghkjk j cj bhrj mf fcfogr kufstrh pjås dheh mfstgkh pjrj fstumgjr8

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh 7< ajdthrfs mf fcfddgôk mf Fspjúj dheh mfstgkh pjrj turgseh mf gmghej

V`gdjdgôk mfc dfktrh

Dhstf mfc dursh

Dheh phmfehs h`sfrvjr, fsf fs fc rjkigko quf sufcfk jpcgdjr chs fxtrjklfrhs j cj bhrj mf fcfogr Fspjúj dheh mfstgkh pjrj fc jprfkmgzjlf mf cj cfkouj. Fc ajdthr eês gephrtjktf fs cj u`gdjdgôk mfc dfktrh, sfougmh mfc dhstf quf cfs dhkccfvj rfjcgzjr thmh fc dursh. Fc prfstgogh y cj hafrtj dhepcfefktjrgj hdupjk fc tfrdfr y dujrth cuojr, jukquf kh phr fsh shk efkhs gephrtjktfs yj quf pjrj harfdfr uk `ufk prhmudth çstf tgfkf quf ccfvjr cgojmh ukj `ufkj hafrtj dhepcfefktjrgj.

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Hafrtj dhepcfefktjrgj

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj dhk mjths mfc ^cjk fstrjtçogdh mf ]urgseh Gmgheêtgdh

4.4.4 Fstjdghkjcgmjm mf cj mfejkmj Dheh bfehs vgsth jktfrghrefktf, fc turgstj quf sufcf rfjcgzjr fstf tgph mf turgseh dheprfkmf fktrf 0>-4> júhs, phr ch quf cj orjk ejyhråj fstêk rfjcgzjkmh sus fstumghs. Fs phr fstf ehtgvh, phr ch quf cj fstjdghkjcgmjm mf cj mfejkmj sf mgstrg`uyf mf cj sgougfktf ejkfrj<

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]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh :>< Fstjdghkjcgmjm mf cj Mfejkmj

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj j trjvçs mf ]hurfspjúj Dheh phmfehs h`sfrvjr fk fc orêagdh :> , cj tfephrjmj t fephrjmj eês jctj fs fk vfrjkh, fsth fs mf`gmh (dheh sf bj efkdghkjmh jktfrghrefktf) j quf cj orjk ejyhråj mf chs turgstjs quf prjdtgdjk fstf tgph mf turgseh shk fstumgjktfs y murjktf fc vfrjkh kh bjy pfrghmh fsdhcjr phr ch tjkth eudbhs mf fcchs jprhvfdbjk fsths efsfs pjrj phmfr jprfkmfr fc gmghej mf cj eflhr ahrej phsg`cf. Fk fc cjmh hpufsth fkdhktrjehs fc Gkvgfrkh dhk tjk sôch uk :6% mf mfejkmj, vgjljr j htrh pjås fk fsj afdbj murjktf uk tgfeph mftfregkjmh shch pjrj cj rfjcgzjdgôk mf uk dursh mf dhrtj murjdgôk fs eês dhepcgdjmh. Fk sfoukmh y tfrdfr cuojr sf fkdufktrj cj prgejvfrj (01%) y fc hthúh (0>%), rfspfdtgvjefktf. Fs prfdgsh mfstjdjr quf fk dgumjmfs mhkmf fxgstf orjk jacufkdgj mf fstumgjktfs, sh`rfthmh kjdghkjcfs, j ch cjroh mfc pfrghmh jdjmçegdh dheh shk Tjcjejkdj h Orjkjmj dhk fstf tgph mf turgseh hptgegzjk mf ejkfrj fagdgfktf sus rfdurshs yj quf chs dfktrhs mf fksfújkzj mf gmghejs shk jehrtgzjmhs phr fstumgjktfs fxtrjklfrhs quf vgjljk j cjs dgumjmfs pjrj cj prêdtgdj mfc gmghej. 4.= DHKDCVTGHKFT Djmj vfz fs eês gephrtjktf fc kgvfc mf gmghejs mfktrh mf ukj shdgfmjm, fk êe`gths dheh fc cj`hrjc h fc jdjmçegdh fxgstfk yj kuefrhsjs fxgofkdgjs sh`rf cj h`tfkdgôk mf jcoukhs tåtuchs pjrj phmfr sfougr jvjkzjkmh. Cj och`jcgzjdgôk eukmgjc gkdrfefktj cj gephrtjkdgj mf chs gmghejs pjrj phmfr fstj`cfdfr rfcjdghkfs gktfrkjdghkjcfs dhk egfe`rhs mf htrhs pjåsfs. ^jrj jprfkmfr uk gmghej kh fxgstf eflhr ahrej quf vgjljr jc pjås mf hrgofk pjrj phmfr prjdtgdjrch9 mf fstj ejkfrj surof ukj kufvj tgphchoåj turåstgdj, fc turgseh gmgheêtgdh. 04

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Fk dujkth jc jkêcgsgs rfjcgzjmh jktfrghrefktf sh`rf fc pfragc mfc turgstj mf fstf tgph mf turgseh bfehs phmgmh dheprh`jr quf fk su ejyhråj sf trjtj mf fstumgjktfs  lôvfkfs quf prfsfktjk uk orjk phtfkdgjc pjrj su rforfsh jc pjås fk uk auturh, jså dheh cj rfdhefkmjdgôk mfc egseh j su dårduch eês dfrdjkh mf pfrshkjs. Jc trjtjrsf mf ukj pfrshkj duyj ehtgvjdgôk prgkdgpjc fs fc jprfkmgzjlf mf cj cfkouj, fstf tgph mf turgstj pfrejkfdf eês tgfeph fk fc pjås phr ch quf pufmf dhkhdfr eês j ahkmh jspfdths dheh cj ducturj y cj ojstrhkheåj, rfjcgzjkmh ukj orjk gkefrsgôk fk cjs trjmgdghkfs prhpgjs mfc pjås. Chs gktfrdje`ghs mf ajegcgj j tfeprjkj fmjm, cjs vjdjdghkfs mf vfrjkh fk ukj jdjmfegj pjrj jprfkmfr fc gmghej h fc vgjljr j uk pjås pjrj fc fstumgh mf cj cfkouj fs djmj vfz eês arfdufktf a rfdufktf fktrf thmhs chs fstumgjktfs. Fstf fs uk kgdbh turåstgdh quf prfsfktj orjkmfs djrjdtfråstgdjs prhpgjs, su jchljegfkth kh sufcf sfr fk bhtfcfs dheh fk cj ejyhråj mf cjs tgphchoåjs turåstgdjs, sgkh quf hptjk phr rfsgmfkdgjs h gkdcush djsjs mf ajegcgjs. Fs gephrtjktf mfstjdjr fc orjk küefrh mf dfktrhs FCF quf fxgstfk fk Fspjúj. Mf`gmh j su orjk fxtfksgôk, Jkmjcudåj fs cj Dheukgmjm Jutôkhej quf ejyhr küefrh mf dfktrhs phsff. Fk eg hpgkgôk, fstf bfdbh fs `fkfagdghsh pjrj cj DDJJ yj quf mf fstj ejkfrj phmråj mgvfrsgagdjr su hafrtj mf shc y pcjyj dhk htrjs tgphchoåjs turåstgdjs. Pfjcgzjkmh cj gkvfstgojdgôk sh`rf fstf tgph mf turgseh, bf phmgmh dheprh`jr quf jpfkjs fxgstfk mjths pu`cgdjmhs mf chs üctgehs júhs quf sf pufmjk dhktrjstjr dhk chs mf júhs jktfrghrfs. Fs ukj tgphchoåj turåstgdj mf cj quf kh bjy eudbj gkahrejdgôk. ^jrj agkjcgzjr, rfsjctjehs quf fs uk kgdbh turåstgdh dhk uk orjk phtfkdgjc y quf fk eudbjs dgumjmfs dheh fs fc djsh mf Tjcjejkdj, efkdghkjmj jktfrghrefktf, fstêk ccfvjkmh j dj`h ukj sfrgf mf jddghkfs pjrj mfsjrrhccjr jük eês fstj tgphchoåj turåstgdj fk cj dgumjm. Dheh pjrtf agkjc y jdtgvgmjm prêdtgdj, fk fc Djpåtuch = sf rfjcgzj uk pcjk mf fstumghs (fk vfrsgôk `gcgkoóf) mf ukj jdjmfegj agdtgdgj prhehdghkjkmh ukj sfrgf mf durshs dhk ukjs mftfregkjmjs djrjdtfråstgdjs pjrj chs fstumgjktfs quf mfsffk jprfkmfr fc fspjúhc fk Tfvgccj9 lukth dhk uk ahccfth prhehdghkjc mfc egseh.

0=

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

DJ^Å]VCH = JDJMFEGJ MF J^PFKMG\JLF MF FT^JÚHC =.: JDJMFEGJ< EJMF GK T^JGK Fk fc sgougfktf jpjrtjmh phmfehs vfr rfacfljmh uk prhorjej agdtgdgh fk ukj pêogkj wf` mf ukj jdjmfegj pjrj fstumgjr fspjúhc. Cj jdjmfegj hafrtj uk dursh j efmgmj pjrj quf fc fstumgjktf pufmj fcfogr fktrf cjs mgafrfktfs hpdghkfs quf sf cf harfdfk y jså phmfr jmjptjrch j su ousth. Mf`gmh j cj fcj`hrjdgôk mf fstf ]rj`jlh mf Agk mf Orjmh fk fc mfpjrtjefkth mf agchchoåj gkocfsj, fs hphrtukh rfjcgzjr cj pjrtf mgmêdtgdj mfc prhyfdth mf ejkfrj `gcgkoóf, prgefrh fk fspjúhc y eês jmfcjktf su trjmuddgôk jc gkocçs. =.:.:. Ejmf gk Tpjgk. Fspjúhc Tg qugfrfs jprfkmfr fspjúhc mf cj eflhr ejkfrj, bjs vfkgmh jc cuojr dhrrfdth. Kh bjy eflhr ahrej mf jprfkmfr fspjúhc quf fk Fspjúj… Kufstrj fsdufcj mf fspjúhc sf fkdufktrj jc sur mf Fspjúj, fk Tfvgccj, Jkmjcudåj. Fs uk ejokåagdh pjcjdftf sgtujmh fk pcfkh dfktrh y dhrjzôk mf cj dgumjm. Tgtujmh lukth j cj pcjzj mf thrhs mf Cj Ejfstrjkzj, fk ukj zhkj fk cj quf pufmfs fkdhktrjr euctgtum mf tgfkmjs y rfstjurjktfs tåpgdhs jkmjcudfs. Mgsphkf mf 6 jucjs dhk jgrf jdhkmgdghkjmh, ukj sjcj dheük mhkmf phmrês rfcjljrtf y dhkhdfr eês fstumgjktfs. Mfsmf quf fktrfs fk cj fsdufcj fktfkmfrê fc sgokgagdjmh mf cj pjcj`rj Fspjúj. Khshtrhs bfehs mfdgmgmh quf tü egseh bjojs tu prhpgh eçthmh mf fstumgh fcgogfkmh fktrf cjs mgafrfktfs hpdghkfs quf prhphkfehs. Fktfkmfehs quf j djmj jcuekh sf cf pufmf jlustjr uk tgph mf prhorjej fk aukdgôk j sus gktfrfsfs, su kgvfc mf gmghej y fc tgph t gph mf jchljegfkth quf qugfrf fcfogr. Cjs hpdghkfs j fcfogr quf tgfkf fc fstumgjktf shk<  Bhrjrgh mf dcjsf Afdbjs mfc mfc dursh   Murjdgôk  ]gph mf Jchljegfkth

• • • •

Fc fstumgjktf mf`frê mf rfjcgzjr ukj pruf`j mf kgvfc jktfs mf jddfmfr j dujcqugfr dursh pjrj jså phmfr hrgfktjr su jprfkmgzjlf mf ukj ahrej fagdgfktf. Cjs djrjdtfråstgdjs mf chs durshs shk< Kfdfsjrgj cj ejyhråj mf fmjm (;:2 júhs) ^rfpjrjdgôk ^rfpjrjdg ôk pjrj thmhs chs kgvfcfs mf Fspjúhc Dcjsfs sfejkjcfs y ejtfrgjc kfdfsjrgh pjrj fc dursh  Dfrtgagdjmh agkjc J pjrtgr mf mhs sfejkjs, sfejkjs, afdbjs acfxg`cfs acfxg`cfs Jchljegfkth< ajegcgj, ajegcgj, jpjrtjefkth h pgsh dhepjrtgmh, dhepjrtgmh, rfsgmfkdgj Tfourh sjkgtjrgh y trjscjmhs jc jfrhpufrth

• • • • • • •

06

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch



= hpdghkfs mf gktfksgmjm<   Ofkfrjc   Gktfksgvh  Thch ejújkjs  Thch tjrmfs 

Chs prfdghs jprhxgejmhs pjrj fstj tfephrjmj shk chs sgougfktfs< ]j`cj 1< ^rfdghs mf Dursh j Efmgmj DCJTFT ^JP]GDVCJPFT Dcjsfs phr Tfejkj

0/6 Fstumgjktfs

6/2 Fstumgjktfs

2/:0 Fstumgjktfs

:

:?₣

:=₣

::₣

6

?6₣

=1₣

=>₣

:>

:42₣

::2₣

::>₣

0>

0?6₣

066₣

0=6₣

+0>

:=₣ phr dcjsf

:>₣ phr dcjsf

7₣ dcjsf

phr

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj ]j`cj ?< Djrjdtfråstgdjs mfc Dursh j Efmgmj Murjdgôk

Acfxg`cf

Arfdufkdgj

Fc küefrh mf dcjsfs quf fc jcuekh drfj quf kfdfsgtj h cj dhktrjtjdgôk mf uk pjquftf mftfregkjmh

Dcjsfs

Eêxgeh :0 jcuekhs

Afdbj mf dhegfkzh

]hmhs chs cukfs mfc júh

Kgvfc

]hmhs chs kgvfcfs

Fmjm

Eåkgeh :2 júhs

Egkuths phr dcjsf

66 egk

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj

01

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

]j`cj 2< Durshs prfpjrjdgôk M.F.C.F. ^PF^JPJDGÔK MFCF Kgvfc

J:/J0

@:/@0

D:/D0

0 sfejkjs

46>₣

46>₣

=>>₣

= sfejkjs

?>>₣

?>>₣

2>>₣

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj ]j`cj 7< Djrjdtfråstgdjs Djrjdtfråstgdjs M.F.C.F. Murjdgôk

0 h = sfejkjs

Arfdufkdgj

0> dcjsfs phr sfejkj+ 0 bhrjs mf prfpjrjdgôk mfc M.F.C.F.

Dcjsfs

Eåkgeh = jcuekhs, eêxgeh :0 jcuekhs

Afdbj mf dhegfkzh

0 sfejkjs< 1 J`rgc, :: Ejyh, 1 Lucgh, 6 Hdtu`rf, 7 Khvgfe`rf = sfejkjs< 04 Ejrzh, 0? J`rgc, 00 Lukgh, 0: Tfptgfe`rf, 01 Hdtu`rf

Kgvfc

Mf`fs tfkfr jc efkhs fc egseh kgvfc mf fspjúhc quf sf fksfúj fk dcjsf

Fmjm

Eåkgeh :2 júhs

Egkuths phr dcjsf

66 egk

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj =.:.0 Ejmf gk Tpjgk. Gkocçs Ga yhu wjkt th cfjrk Tpjkgsb tbf `fst phssg`cf wjy, yhu jrf gk tbf rgobt pcjdf. ]bfrf gs kh `fttfr wjy ha cfjrkgko Tpjkgsb tbjk gk Tpjgk… ]bgs Tpjkgsb Tdbhhc gs chdjtfm gk tbf shutb ha Tpjgk, gk Tfvgccf, Jkmjcusgj. Gt gs gk j ejokgagdfkt `ugcmgko tbjt gts chdjtfs gk tbf dfktfr. Kfjr tbf `uccrgko ha Cj Ejfstrjkzj, gk jk jrfj wgtb chts ha sbhps jkm typgdjc Jkmjcusgjk rfstjurjkts. ]bf Tdbhhc bjs 6 dcjssrhhes wgtb jgr dhkmgtghkgko, j dheehk rhhe wbfrf yhu wgcc `f j`cf th rfcjx jkm efft ehrf stumfkts. Arhe tbf ehefkt yhu fktfr tbf sdbhhc yhu‗cc ukmfrstjkm tbf efjkgko ha tbf whrm –Tpjgk―. Mfsgok yhur hwk dhursf wgtb tbf mgaafrfkt hptghks tbjt wf prhphsf. _f ukmfrstjkm tbjt fvfry pupgc wjkts th dbhhsf j typf ha prhorje jddhrmgko th bgs/bfr gktfrfsts, bgs/bfr cfvfc ha cjkoujof jkm tbf typf ha jddheehmjtghk tbjt bf/sbf wjkts th dbhhsf. Dbhhsf<  Dcjss sdbfmucf Mjtfs ha tbf dhursf   Murjtghk ]ypf ha Jddheehmjtghk Jddheehmjtghk

• • • •

0?

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

]bf stumfkt eust tjif jk fktry tfst `fahrf rfogstrjtghk ]bf dbjrjdtfrgstgds ha tbf dhursfs jrf< Jof, :2 hr ehrf ^rfpjrjtghk ahr jcc cfvfcs cfvfcs _fficy dcjssfs jkm kfdfssjry kfdfssjry ejtfrgjc ahr tbf dhursf  Agkjc dfrtgagdjtf Arhe twh wffis hk, hk, acfxg`cf mjtfs mjtfs Jddheehmjtghk< ajegcy, jpjrtefkt, rfsgmfkdf rfsgmfkdf Bfjctb gksurjkdf jkm trjksafrs th tbf jgrphrt jgrphrt = gktfksgty gktfksgty hptghks< hptghks<   Ofkfrjc   Gktfksgvf   Ehrkgko   Jatfrkhhk

• • • • • • • •

]bf prgdfs ahr tbgs pfrghm jrf< ]j`cf :>< ^rgdf ha Pfoucjr Dhursf

^JP]GDVCJP DCJTT Dcjssfs ahr _ffi : 6 :> 0> +0>

0/6 Ttumfkts :?₣ ?6₣ :42₣ 0?6₣ :=₣/dcjss

6/2 Ttumfkts :=₣ =1₣ ::2₣ 066₣ :>₣ /dcjss

2/:0 Ttumfkts ::₣ =>₣ ::>₣ 0=6₣ 7₣/dcjss

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj ]j`cf ::< Dbjrjdtfrgstgds ha Pfoucjr Dhursf Murjtghk

Acfxg`cf

Arfqufkdy

]bf kue`fr ha dcjssfs tbjt tbf pupgc `fcgfvfs tbjt bf kffms

Dcjss

Ejx ha :0 stumfkts

Ttjrt Mjtf

Fvfry Ehkmjy ha tbf yfjr

Cfvfc

Fvfry Cfvfc

Jof

:2 jkm j`hvf

Egkutfs ha Dcjss

66 egk

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj 02

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

]j`cf :0< Dhursf ahr prfpjrjtghk M.F.C.F.

M.F.C.F. Cfvfc 0 wffis = wffis

J:/J0 46>₣ ?>>₣

@:/@0 46>₣ ?>>₣

D:/D0 =>>₣ 2>>₣

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj

]j`cf 7< Dbjrjdtfrgstgds Dbjrjdtfrgstgds ahr prfpjrjtghk M.F.C.F. Murjtghk

0 hr = wffis

Arfqufkdy

0> dcjssfs pfr wffi + 0 bhurs ha M.F.C.F. prfpjrjtghk

Dcjss

Egk = stumfkts, ejx :0 stumfkts

Ttjrt Mjtf

0 wffis< 1 Jprgc, :: Ejy, 1 Lucy, 6 Hdth`fr, 7 Khvfe`fr K hvfe`fr = wffis< 04 Ejrdb, 0? Jprgc, 00 Lukf, 0: Tfptfe`fr, 01 Hdth`fr

Cfvfc

Whu eust bjvf jt cfjst tbf sjef cfvfc tbjt gs tjuobt gk dcjss

Jof

Jt cfjst :2 yfjrs hcm

Egkutfs ha Dcjss

66 egk

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj

=.0 AHCCF]H ^PHEHDGHKJC ^PHEHDGHKJC ^jrj agkjcgzjr cj hafrtj mf cj fsdufcj mf gmghejs – Ejmf gk Tpjgk―, sf bj rfjcgzjmh uk ahccfth prhehdghkjc dhk cj gmfj mf mjr j dhkhdfr fc dursh j thmhs chs fstumgjktfs quf mfsffk jprfkmfr fc fspjúhc lukth dhk ukj fxpfrgfkdgj ükgdj f gkhcvgmj`cf. Fstf ahccfth sf rfpjrtgrê jc ejyhr küefrh mf fstumgjktfs Frjseus mf cj Vkgvfrsgmjm mf Tfvgccj, jmfeês mf prhehdghkjrch y mgaukmgrch j trjvçs mf rfmfs shdgjcfs dhk rfdhkhdgegfkth eukmgjc pjrj mjr j dhkhdfr cj feprfsj y jså `rgkmjr cj hphrtukgmjm j jqufcchs fstumgjktfs quf mfsffk vgvgr cj fxpfrgfkdgj.

07

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

Orêagdh ::< Ahccfth prhehdghkjc – Ejmf gk Tpjgk―

Aufktf9 fcj`hrjdgôk prhpgj.

4>

]AO-]VP. Fc ]urgseh mf gmghejs. Fvhcudgôk y mfsjrrhcch

@g`cghorjaåj

Pfafrfkdgjs `g`cghorêagdjs

Djrchs L. ^jrmh J`jm (0>::)< –Fc ]urgseh gmgheêtgdh fk Fspjúj dheh phtfkdgjmhr ducturjc fk Dgumjmfs ^jtrgehkgjcfs< fc djsh mf Tjcjejkdj y Jcdjcê mf Bfkjrfs―, Dujmfrkhs mf ]urgseh , 0?, ?>:-?04 Oh`gfrkh mf Fspjúj9 AFMFCF (0>:>)< –^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc turgseh gmgheêtgdh fk Fspjúj―, J.F.G. AFMFCF. Egkgstfrgh mf Gkmustrgj, ]urgseh y Dhefrdgh. Luktj mf Jkmjcudåj (0>>?)< –^cjk Ofkfrjc mf ]urgseh Thstfkg`cf―. Luktj mf Jkmjcudåj9 Dhkafmfrjdgôk mf Feprfsjrghs mf Jkmjcudåj (0>:>)< –^cjk Fstrjtçogdh mfc ]urgseh gmgheêtgdh< Fc Fspjúhc dheh rfdursh turåstgdh―. (00/>4/:6) Ehrjc Dujmrj, Tjcvjmhr9 Hrojz Joófrj, Arjkdgsth (0>:4)< Cjs kufvjs tgphchoåjs mfc turgseh fk Fspjúj< fc djsh mf Jkmjcudåj―. Aukmjdgôk ukgvfrsgtjrgj Jkmjcuzj Gkdj Ojrdgcjsh.

Pfafrfkdgjs fcfdtrôkgdjs

www.turgseh.`ufkhsjgrfs.oh`.jr www.dje`rgmoffkocgsb.hro/fs/fxj www.dje`rgmoffkoc gsb.hro/fs/fxjes-jkm-qujcg es-jkm-qujcgagdjtghks/  agdjtghks/  www.mgpchejs.dfrvjktfs.fs/jprfkmfrXf www.mgpchejs.dfrvjk tfs.fs/jprfkmfrXfspjkhc/kgv spjkhc/kgvfcfsXmfcf.btec fcfsXmfcf.btec www.cgkoujsdbhhcs.dhe/cfjrk-spjkg www.cgkoujsdbhhc s.dhe/cfjrk-spjkgsb-gk-spjgk sb-gk-spjgk/spjkgsb-gk-spj /spjkgsb-gk-spjgk.pbp8gm50 gk.pbp8gm50 www.mhkquglhtf.hro/fs/cfjrk-spjkgs www.mhkquglhtf.hro/f s/cfjrk-spjkgsb-gk-spjgk/sf b-gk-spjgk/sfvgccf vgccf dvd.dfrvjktfs.fs/fksfkjkzj/`g dvd.dfrvjktfs.fs/fk sfkjkzj/`g`cghtfdjXfcf `cghtfdjXfcf/ejrdh/dvdXefr.pma /ejrdh/dvdXefr.pma www.sjcjejkdj.fs/fs/prhpufstjs-fspf www.sjcjejkdj.fs/fs /prhpufstjs-fspfdgjcfs/sjcjej dgjcfs/sjcjejkdj-dgumjm kdj-dgumjm-mfc-fspjkhc -mfc-fspjkhc bttp
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