Training Report

July 14, 2017 | Author: Vishnu Kamal | Category: Heat Treating, Forging, Transmission (Mechanics), Gear, Steel
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Pal Singh HOD


Roll No. 1648


INDEX  INTRODUCTION TO THE UNIT • Authorization of the unit • Contact information • Communication network

 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN GNA DURAPARTS • Forging shop (i) Forging I (ii) Forging II • Heat treatment cell • Product planning control (PPC) • Metallurgical lab SATINDER PAL SINGH

• Engineering cell • Computer network control (CNC) • Die shop  MACHINES USED IN VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS

 PRODUCTS MADE IN GNA GROUP • General description • Brief notes on production procedure of some main products


INTRODUCTION TO THE UNIT The existence of GNA came into being in 1946, in a small village called Bundala in District Jalandhar of Punjab. GNA has made its presence prominent not only in India but also across the world.

Today, more than 6000 families are proud to be associated with this giant colossal tree that bloomed from a seedling sown 59 years ago. Founded with a modest beginning by Late Mr. Amar Singh Ji and nourished by his sons Mr. Rachhpal Singh and Mr. Gursaran Singh, with the artistic creativity that was gifted to the next generation by tradition, GNA is now boosted and taken care by the third generation Mr. Jasvinder Singh, Mr. Maninder Singh, Mr. Ranbir Singh and Mr. Gurdeep Singh. Today GNA group has created an important place for itself in Indian as well as Global Automotive Industry. GNA group is on a fast moving track towards growth and globalization. The company has a large customer base covering different sectors of the automotive industry with diversified product range. Along with this the company shows steady growth profile even during the time when there is demand fluctuations in the automotive sector. GNA is an Original Equipment supplier to various Automobile Majors besides having a strong presence in the replacement market.GNA has been accredited with ISO 9002 and QS 9000 certifications for its quality systems, holds a reliable name in the world of automotive components. Quality SATINDER PAL SINGH

Management at GNA is a timeless concept wherein, changes in customer expectations is a driving force to go beyond conformance to standards. GNA’s quality assurance is equipped with the finest equipment ranging from metallurgical microscope to mobile spectrometer, ultrasonic flow detector, micro hardness testers, surface roughness testers, profile projectors and involute profile testers.GNA sincerely believes in technology up-gradation for keeping a competitive edge. Indeed, this explains the continuous replacement of conventional manufacturing equipment with modernized transfer lines resulting in increased productivity and efficiency at low cost. GNA’s core competency lies in its strong knowledge base of engineering and over 59 years of experience in manufacturing. GNA has come a long way yet journey toward excellence is never ending


Amar Singh Ji made a modest beginning with an ‘atta-chakki’ {Flour mill. Late Sardar Amar Singh established a small unit for the manufacture of axles under the name of ‘Nirankar Auto Engg. works in and bounds and established itself as a major source of vehicle paets in India as well as in world. Exports market of GNA range of products have a wide spectra of applications in heavy, medium and high commercial vehicles i.e. passenger cars, jeeps, tractors, trucks etc. GNA group is today spread over area of 3,50,000 sq.mts. employing a total man power of about 2000 personnel with a turn over of 29.78 million US $ coming from all units. GNA group basically consists of following four companies: • M/S Guru Nanak Auto Enterprises Ltd., Bundala • M/S Guru Nanak Auto Udyog Ltd., Bundala • M/S Guru Nanak Auto Duraparts, Mehtiana • M/S Guru Nanak Auto Axles Ltd., Mehtiana


As per concern my training we will concentrate on M/S Guru Nanak Auto Duraparts which was being established at Mehtiana {Dist. Hoshiarpur} which is situated 20 kms from Phagwada. This unit was set up in 1993, just beside the previously set up unit M/S Guru Nanak Auto Axle Ltd. This unit is covered in 1550 sq mts. Here in this unit all type of gears is manufactured by high quality precision imported hobbing and gear cutting machines. This unit also manufacure rear axle shafts, UJ cross, propeller shafts, steering components, PTO shafts etc.


Various departments in GNA Duraparts 1). FORGING SHOP:

Forging involves heating of a metal stock to a desired temperature; enable it to acquire sufficient plasticity followed by the operations like hammering, bending & piecering etc. to give it the desired shape. The forging process is very important and has indispensable position among the various manufacturing processes generally adopted in the workshops due to some reasons i.e. it refines the structures of metal, it renders the metal stronger by setting the direction of the grains & it effects considerable saving in time the labour and material as compaired to the production of same by cutting from a solid stock and then shaping it.

Forging department is one of the most important as every production is started from here it self. There are two types of forging sections. The categorization can be done on the base of the mechanism of the various machinery present i.e. in forging I we can say upsetting forging/closed die forging and similarly in forging II we can say it as drop forging/open die forging. These two sections consist of under mentioned machines:


Forging I: It consists of following machines: (i)

Horizontal bandsaws having capacity of working upon maximum diameter jobs of 245mm, power3HP or 2.2 KW, efficiency of 82% & RPM of 1430. The diameter of job varies from 75 to 125mm.

(ii) Forging furnace can be gas or oil fired and are widely used for heating the jobs for hammer forging. They prove quiet economical and facilitate better temperature and atmosphere control. Here in this shop oil fired is mostly used in which furnace oil is used as a fuel. There are brick arrangements provided in these furnaces Forging furnaces having working temperatures of 1123-1200 degree Celsius, mounted with 10hp powered motor & have capacity of work to be done of 1.25 ton/hr. (iii)Up set forging machine here are of two types and can be differentiated with the help of its working load capacity i.e 500 ton and

800 ton. The diameter of the job that can be worked upon

these machines are 115 and 150 mm respectively. The power used for running of these

machines is pneumatic type i.e. air

pressure. (iv)Compressors for producing air pressure for working the pneumatic machines. These are of reciprocating type. The oil used in the is of type AWS 100. he capacity of oil tank is of 10 litres. Working pressure

is of 7kg/cm2g and hydraulic test pressure is

11.55 kg/cm2g. In forging I two types of products are being made. One is axle. The total production of the axle per day is 650 to 700. similarly SATINDER PAL SINGH

the product made is shaft & the total production per day is 200 to 300. •

Forging II: There are following machines in this shop: (i)Forging furnaces are used to heat the raw material up to 1100 degree Celsius with the help of rough furnace oil, which is used as fuel. The feed of rough material are given in batch type feed and in continuous way. A pusher is provided to push the rectangular work pieces, which are brought, from the band saws. This pusher is operated by an electric motor. There is a pump to control the amount of oil to the furnace. (ii)Power hammers here are of two types are of two types


capacity wise one is of 6.5 ton and 2.5 ton. These hammers are used to hit on to the die to form several shapes of products e.g. crown etc. These machine are working on the principle of pneumatic type i.e. power used is of air pressure. Pneumatic hammer is operated by a rotary air compressor of single stage type of two in quantity. Air is compressed to pressure of 7 bars and temperature of 120 degree F. the maximum pressure can be produced up to 20 bar. A foot operated lever controls the air supply and required blows of the hammer is obtained. This hammer is used for forging of ring gear, drive gear, tail pinion, star gear and bevel gears etc. (iii)Power presses are kept in adjacent side of these power hammers so that they can be used for piercing and blanking operations just after hammering. These presses are of mechanical


type and have capacity of 400 and 200 tones. These presses work on the crank mechanism. (iv)Normalizing furnace is used to normalize the product, which is to cover the cracks produced after hammering and other machines. The normalizing temperature is kept at the constant value of 880 to 920 degree Celsius with the help of setting of thermocouple. The type of structure obtained will depend upon thickness of the cross section and rate of cooling. Thin section will give much finer grain than that of thick section. Furnace oil is used as fuel in the normalizing furnace. There are 3 heat zones while this process. For example when material is 20MnCr5 zone I is of 880 degree C, zone II is of 900 degree C & zone III is of 920 degree C. time taken for all these is only 20 minutes. The purposes of normalizing are to produce a uniform structure, grain refinement, reduce internal stresses, improve mach inability & improve hardness, strength & other mechanical properties. (v)Short blasting machine is used for removing scaling produced due to past processes. This is done by throwing small size balls on the work material in batch way. This also produces somewhat good surface finish. The common material of metal shorts is malleable iron & cast steel. (vi)Brinell hardness tester is used to know the hardness in brinell scale before sending the product to next procedure. In forging II there are also two main products i.e. crown and bull gear. The total production per shift of these two products are 250


and 300 respectively. The total number of workers in both forging I and forging II are 100. Forging Furnaces:The furnaces used in the unit are oil-fired furnaces. In these furnaces, first of all from the main tank the supply of oil is provided to the furnace. A pumping unit is provided to all the furnaces used and this pumping unit consists of a heater which heats the oil to a temperature of 90-100 degrees and then the oil is supplied to the furnace. A blower is present which moves the air into the re-cubature. Its function is to heat the air to a temperature of about 250 degrees ant then move the air into the furnace. The furnace temperature which is used for forging is 1250-1300 degrees. A regulating valve is present and it is used to regulate the supply of oil and a butterfly valve is present to regulate the supply of air. Following are its two types:1. Pusher-type furnace: - In the pusher-type a pushing system is

provided which is used to push the work-pieces into the furnace. The pusher mechanism which is used is hydraulic and it is controlled by oil pressure. The temperature inside the furnace is 95-105 degrees and the pressure is 12-15 pound per square inch (psi). 2. Batch-type furnace: - In the batch-type furnace, a batch of the work

pieces is made & that batch of work pieces is heated at the required temperature & afterwards the work pieces are moved one by one to the forging machines.


Working procedure in forging shop: Material cutting: - This is the first step which is involved in


forging. After the material is received & inspected it is sent for the material cutting. In material cutting operation the material is cut in accordance with the required dimensions. The material cutting is done on band saw machines which are fully automatic in operation. After the material cutting is done the material is sent into the forging shop. 2. Heating: - This is the second step which is involved. In this step the

material is heated to the forging temperature in the furnace. The forging temperature is 1250-1300 degrees. The furnaces which are used are oil-fired furnaces & they can be either pusher type or batch type. After the material is heated it is sent to the forging machines. The process of heating the stock can be divided into two stages: First stage (Preheating zone): - In this stage the temperature to which the stock is heated is 500-700 degrees. Second stage (Full heating zone): - In this stage the temperature is 1260-1300 degrees. 3. Forging: - In this step the material is forged on either a drop hammer

or a forging press or on the up-setter. The type of the machine which is to be used depends upon the shape & size of the component to be forged. 4. Trimming: - In this operation the excess & unwanted material is

removed from the forged component. After forging operation is done then the forged component is passed to the trimming press for the material removal.


5. Heat treatment: - After the trimming operation is done then the

forged component is ready for heat treatment. In this operation the forged components are placed in trays made of mild steel & are placed in the furnace for a suitable period of time. The heat treatment processes which are done at GNAU are normalizing, hardening & tempering. The type of the heat treatment process which is to be done depends upon the type of the steel. After heating, quenching of the heated components is done in a quenching bath for a suitable period of time. The heat treatment process is done to improve the mechanical properties of steel & to relieve the internal stresses which are set up due to forging. 6. Shot-blasting: - This process is done to remove the scales &

impurities which are caused during heat treatment. After the heat treatment the components are put in the shot-blasting machine & thus the scales are removed & the components are polished. 7. Grinding: - This is the final step involved. In this step the unwanted

material is removed from the components to provide them a smooth surface finish. The grinding process is done on the grinding machines which comprises of the grinding wheel. After the grinding process is completed the hardness checking of the components is done & afterwards these forged components are sent to the machine shop for further machining. Measuring instruments used in forging shop: The measuring instruments which are used in the forging shop are: 1. Vernier caliper 2. Measuring scale


3. Measuring tape 4. External & internal calipers

Temperature measurement instruments used in forging shop: 1. Thermocouple 2. Optical pyrometer

The thermocouples are located at suitable heating zones inside the furnace & they measure the temperature of the heating zone & this temperature is represented on the digital temperature indicator to the operator. Furnace oil used in forging shop: The furnace oil which is used in the furnaces is the residual furnace oil (RFO). Fuel consumption in the furnaces is 100 liters.

4). HEAT TREATMENT: Heat treatment is defined as an operation involving heating and cooling of a metal or alloy in a solid state to obtain desirable conditions. There are many causes of the heat treatment to be done to the product to be done. It is done to cause relief of internal stresses developed during cold working processes. It is done to harden and strengthen materials, improve machine ability, change grain size, improve ductility and toughness, increase heat wear and corrosion resistance of materials & to homogenize the structure.


As the name refers it is the shop in which heat treatment is given to the

product to give it required hardness. This is done with the help of following mentioned processes & various machines: I.

Carburizing: Carburizing is a method of introducing carbon into solid iron-base alloys in order to produce a hard case. Carburizing may be pack carburizing, gas carburizing and liquid carburizing. But here only gas carburizing is being done. In this process components are heated at 920 degree Celsius for four hours in an atmosphere of gases of [CO+H2+N2]. The main motive of this process is to diffuse into the outer surface of the components. It is the process by which the increasing of percentage of carbon

is being done to gain good surface


hardness. This can be only possible with the help of following apparatus: (i)EOT crane is used to carry the fixtures on which batches of items are carried. This crane has capacity to load 2 ton. (ii)Washing bay is filled with casting soda in which is the products which are covered with layer of oil & coolants are being washed. This process is being done for 10 to 15 minutes. (iii)Carburizing furnace is the apparatus used for carburizing process. In this apparatus the temperature is maintained at 920 degree Celsius. In this after washing the crane lifts the fixture of the products and put into this apparatus. This process is carried for long period of 15 to 16 hours. The fluid used in this process is carburizing fluid 440. (iv)Super quenching apparatus is the area where the fixture from the last process is put into. In this process the super quenching oil is the quenching medium. There is heat exchanger arrangement which does not allow the temperature of oil to raise more than 75 degree Celsius. II.

Tempering: Tempering involves heating hardening components below the lower critical temperature i.e. at 180 degree Celsius. In this process this temperature is being hold for about 2 to 2 ½ hours and the cooling is being done open air. At this temperature a hexagonal lose packed carbide begin to form and with the rejection of carbon the crystal structure of martensite changes from tetragonal to body centered cubic characteristic of ferrite. This process is being carried with the help of following apparatus: SATINDER PAL SINGH

(i)Tempering furnace is used for this process in which temperature is being maintained between 200 & 250 degree Celsius. In this furnace the walls inside are winded with the element which is being heated and there is a motor attached to fan to spread the hot air on the fixture on which the products are being arranged. Scaling removing: It is being done with the help of short blasting


machine. This process is used to clean the components after heat treatment. The metal slides are thrown on the surface e of the components. The material used as the short balls are malleable iron, cast iron or cast steel. Hardness checking: It is being done with the help of Rockwell


hardness testing machine. The harness is kept between 58 & 61 Rockwell hardness. Purpose of Heat treatment: 1. To relieve the internal stresses set-up in the material after hot or

cold working in order to improve the machinability. 2. To improve the mechanical properties like tensile strength,

hardness, ductility, shock resistance etc. 3. To modify the structure of steel. 4. To increase the corrosion & wear resistance.

Furnace specifications: •

Type of furnace – Oil fired

Fuel used – Residual Furnace Oil (RFO)

Maximum loading capacity of trays - 150-200 kg at a time

Capacity of hardening furnace – 15 ton

Maximum loading capacity of furnace – 12 trays at a time SATINDER PAL SINGH

Capacity of tempering furnace – 15 ton

Fuel consumption – Approximately 100 liters per day

Measuring instruments used in heat treatment: 1. To check heat treatment furnace temperature, Temperature

controller / Indicator thermocouple are used. 2. To check hardness, BHN Testing Machine / Micro-measure are

used. 3. To quench oil temperature checking, temperature indicator is

used. Heat treatment of machined components: The first stage of the heat treatment was concerned with the heat treatment of the components after forging. Now in the second stage comes the heat treatment of the components after machining. These heat treatment processes mainly comprises of the case hardening techniques of heat treatment. The case hardening processes which are used in GNAU are: 1. Induction hardening: - The Induction hardening is a surface

hardening process in which the surface layers of the metal are hardened but a relatively soft core is maintained. The induction hardening is achieved by passing a high frequency alternating current through the work-piece which is placed in an inductor coil. The alternating current generates a magnetic field of equal intensity but of reverse polarity. Thus, the current penetrates & the surface of the piece is hardened but a soft core remains. 2. Carburizing: - Carburizing is the process of saturating the surface

layer of steel with carbon. The main purpose of carburizing is to SATINDER PAL SINGH

obtain a hard & wear-resistant surface on machine parts by the enrichment of the surface layer with carbon. The various machined parts are directly carburized after getting machined & after carburization they are sent for final grinding. There are various techniques of carburizing like – pack carburizing, gas carburizing & liquid carburizing. At GNAU gas carburizing in the electrical carburizing furnace is done.

Heat treatment equipments: 1. Induction hardening machine (medium – frequency) 2. Carburizing furnace (electrical) 3. Tempering furnace (electrical) 4. Magnetic particle tester (MPT) 5. Hardness Testing machine 6. Grinding machine 7. Gas welding machine

Procedure for Induction hardening: 1. Machining – After forging the components are sent to the machine

shop for the subsequent machining which is to be done & after machining the components are ready for the case hardening. 2.

Induction hardening – After the subsequent machining is done in the machine shop the components are ready to be induction hardened & the induction hardening is done on the induction hardening machines which are of medium & low frequency. The main tooling of these machines is the induction coil.


3. Hardness testing – After the Induction hardening is completed the

hardness testing of the hardened pieces is done. The hardness tester is used for testing the hardness. 4. Checking case hardness – After hardness testing is done the

checking of the case hardness of the components is done to find the depth of the hardened layer. The micro-measure is used for checking the case hardness. 5.

Magnetic particle testing (MPT) – In this step the components are checked for any cracks which might have been developed during the induction hardening. First of all the components are sprayed with kerosene oil & then they are viewed under the ultrasonic light for finding any crack. If any crack might be present it would be illuminated with green light.

6. Tempering – Tempering is done to remove the brittleness which

might have been developed during heat treatment & thus it restores the ductility of the hardened component. The tempering is done in the tempering furnace which is electrical in its operation. 7. Grinding – Grinding is the final step which is involved. In this step

any unwanted material which is present at the edges is removed & a smooth finish is provided. Procedure for carburizing: 1. Carburizing – After the machining of the components is done then

they are sent for carburization. The carburizing is done in the carburizing furnace which is electrical in operation. The gas carburizing is done in which the work-pieces are placed in a medium of oxygen & a carbon containing gas & at high temperature the oxygen decomposes the carbon present in the other gas to evolve free carbon which then enters the surface SATINDER PAL SINGH

layers of the components. Thermocouples are used for the temperature indication during the carburizing process. 2. Quenching – After the carburization is done the components are

quenched inside a quenching tank which can be either a water quenching or an oil quenching tank. 3. Hardness & case-depth checking – After the quenching process is

complete the hardness & the case depth checking of the components is done by using a hardness tester & a micro-measure. 4. Tempering – In this step the tempering of the case hardened

components is done to remove the brittleness. The tempering is done the tempering furnace. 5.

Grinding – This is the final step involved in which the unwanted material is removed from the edges of the components on the grinding machine.


5). PRODUCT PLANNING CONTROL {PPC} : PPC includes the investigation, co-ordination and it ensures timely production of products through efficient and optimum use of facilities like man, machine, material evaluation of manufacturing capabilities and requirements and money. PPC’s function serves as the brain of the organization. Its objective is to provide a physical system together with a set of operational guidelines to efficiently convert materials, human skills and other inputs into finished products. The highest efficiency in production is obtained by manufacturing the required quality, at the required time by the best and cheapest method. Management employs production planning and control {PPC} to coordinate all manufacturing activities. Products are manufactured by the transformation of raw materials. Planning looks ahead, anticipates possible difficulties and decide that in advance as how to production and how it can be carried out in best way. A production planning control system has main function to perform some before arrival of raw material and tools and other while the raw material process undergoes processing. The main function of this section is to plan about production of the product. This includes many things such as raw material ordering, processing time management etc. This department calculates the total production time of each product and thinks it advance process working period. The main motive of this department is to reduce the inventory of raw material. So there fore the planning is done such that the total amount of steel kept in unit is under control. Following mentioned are step by step calculations which are planned for raw material planning by PPC department: 1)

Number of components in


(i). Cutting section (ii). Forging (iii). Forging vendor department (iv). Vendor (v). Machine shop




Target of the month(say February)


Steel stock


Peaces that can be made from stock


Due steel


Pieces that can be made from the due steel




Balance for next month(say march)


Weight of piece


Net steel required

From above all steps we can see that the main motive of PPC department in raw material planning is that overhaul process will start 2 months before the need so that forging takes place in 1st month and rest work in last month. Thus by all this planning the department decides the need of net steel as raw material.


Objectives of PPC: 1. To maintain adequate but not excessive stocks of raw materials, work

in process and of finished goods to meet production requirements and delivery schedules. 2. To coordinate the production activities of different departments. 3. To ensure effective utilization of production facilities. 4. To prepare production schedules advertisements to meet delivery

schedules. 5. To operate the plant at optimum level of efficiency. 6. To ensure production of right product in right quality at the right


Importance of PPC: 1. PPC acts as factory’s nervous system as it regulates all plant

operations just as nervous system regulates muscular movements. 2. PPC acts as an effective instrument for cost control. 3. PPC is helpful in accelerating industrial productivity. 4. PPC rationalizes plant operations. 5. PPC benefits the society.

Functions of PPC:

Following are the main functions of PPC:-


1. Planning: It is necessary to plan things properly for getting best

results. Similarly for production planning in advance, it is very necessary that how planning should be done and controlled. It is the department which decides about each element of the job, what should be done, where, how & when? Functions of Planning: •

To investigate about the complete details and requirements of the product to be manufactured.

Predetermination of future achievements.

Planning about quality and quantity of material.

Planning the design of the product to be manufactured.

Planning about the sequence of the operations.

Planning about interval transportation.

2. Routing: Routing may be defined as the selection of path, which each

part of the product will follow being transferred from raw material to finished products. Path of the product will also give sequence of the operations to be adopted. In other words routing means determination of most advantageous path to be followed from department to department and machine to machine till raw material gets its final shape. Routing in industry depends upon the nature and the type of industry: •

Continuous industry – As such these industries are also automatic. Therefore the problem of routing in these industries is very simple. Once the route is decided in the beginning, generally no further control over the route is needed.








components to be assembled at a particular time therefore it is necessary that no component should fail to reach at proper time and proper place in the required quantity otherwise whole of production line will be upheld resulting in wastage of time and production delay. (ii)

Scheduling:- Scheduling determines the program for the operations. In scheduling, order of sequence of each operation and their starting time and finishing time is decided so that the required materials, machines may be kept ready as schedule. Thus, it may be defined as a fixation of time and the date for each operation as well as determines the sequence of operations to be followed. This program is prepared by the planning department and assigns things for various operations.

Types of schedules:•

Master schedule – It shows the dates on which important production items are to be completed. It is a monthly or a weekly break of the production requirements of each product.

Shop schedule – After preparing master schedule, shop schedules are prepared. It assigns a definite period of time to a particular shop for manufacturing products in the required quantity. (iii)

Dispatching;- It is concerned with starting the processes. It gives necessary authority to start a


particular work, which has already been planned under routing and scheduling.

Functions of dispatching;•

The materials are removed from stores to machines.

To distribute machine loading and schedule charts, route sheets and other necessary instructions and forms.

To issue inspection orders clearly stating the type of inspection required at various stages.

To order tool sections for issuing proper tools, jigs and fixtures and other essential articles. (iv)

Follow-up:- After dispatching production orders to various shops, it is necessary to regulate the process of job through various processes. For this purpose follow-up section is formed.

Functions of follow-up:•

It assures that material should reach the shop in required time so that work should progress in a smooth way.

It observes that particular product is passing through all its operations from raw material to its final shape as per schedule.

We can divide PPC department in following mentioned 3 phases: I.

Planning phase: •

Forecasting : It includes type of estimation, quality and quality of future work


Order writing : It provides authority to one or more persons to undertake a particular job.

Product design : It is done for collection of information regarding specifications bill of material and drawings.

Process planning : It is to find out the most economical process of doing the work and deciding how and where the work will be done.

Tool control : It determines the requirements and control of the tool used in manufacturing processes.

Material control: It determines the requirements and control of the material for the production of the product.

Loading : It is the assignment of the work to manpower, machinery etc.

Scheduling : It is time phase of loading and determines when and in what sequences the work will be carried out.


Action phase: •

Dispatching : It is the transition from planning to action phase. In this workers are ordered to start work.


Control phase: The control of production is necessary to be sure that the production schedules are being met and job will be delivered as per the predefined plans, a production control group. •

Receives work progress report

Compare them with scheduled plans

Removes causes of delays in production

Modifies the schedules or plant capacities

Expedites the work

Advantages of PPC:•

Better service to customer in promised delivery dates. SATINDER PAL SINGH

Fewer risk orders in plant and less overtime.

Lower inventory work in progress.

Less finished stock required to give the same service to customer.

Better control of raw material.

More effective use of equipment.

PPC department act as a bridge between the production section and management. It gets manufacturing order from marketing department, raw material and other equipments from purchase department, specifications from engg. department and then makes plan accordingly. The PPC department gets the manufacturing order 3 months before the product issuing date because it has to make planning’s for production and get material for 20 days before start of production. 10% extra material is supplied to the production section because some pieces may be rejected while inspection. If the work is more or the machines are not free due to some other work then work has to be given to vendors. If there is any problem comes whether in small or large way the PPC department have to answer for it. So there fore the perfect planning is to be made so that there is negligible amount of mistakes. 6). METALLURGICAL LAB: This lab’s main purpose is of do inspection f raw material do acceptance or rejection of the material. This also helps to now various contents of material in the made specimen after forging processes. So there fore this department is an essential part of the industry. This lab performs the following functions:



Macro Etch test in which HCl is being used to clean structure of given metal.


Jominy hardenabily test is performed in which we do heating and then end quenching and then check the hardness of the specimen.


Step down test is the test in which magnaflux on step down sample is being done.


Cracks detection is the test in which magnaflux powder and kerosene mixture is used to clean the surface and the checking of cracks is done in microscope.


Grain size checking test is a test in which the grain size is being checked with the help of microscope.


Microstructure checkup up is being done after normalizing, tempering, hardening, carburizing etc. The main frequently performed work in this lab is estimation of

percentage of carbon in the specimen in between the production processes. In this the chips of the material is being produced using the drilling machine. Then their chips are heated in the furnace with cupric oxide (CuO) in presence of dry oxygen free from carbon dioxide. The reaction took place is as below: C + 2CuO = CO2 + 2Cu Other gases and carbon dioxide are absorved in U tubes containing anhydrous (CaCl2) and solution of K(OH) respectively. The volumes of containers are noted before and after the combustion. These volumes are compaired with the charts and thus percentage of carbon is estimated.


Similarly there are some equipments and apparatus required for performing various tests which are mentioned as in following:


Treatment or experimental zone: (i)

Combustion table furnace


Control unit for carbon apparatus {used to know about carbon content and working temperature kept is 1200 degree Celsius}


Strohlein apparatus {used to know carbon content in steel}


Weight balancing machine


Barometer {used to know the atmospheric pressure}


Volumetric section {used to check % of Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, molebedinum,sulphur, phosphorus &vanadium}


Fume chamber


Distillation plant




Drilling machine


Phosphating tank


Surface grinder


Muffle furnace{temperature ranges from 0 to 1200 degree Celsius}



Jominy apparatus for quenching test

Sample preparation zone: (v)

Polishing machine


Belt grinder


Abrasive machine {used for sample cutting} SATINDER PAL SINGH


Muffle furnace {used for tempering, normalizing etc.}


Quenching tank


7). ENGINEERING CELL: In this department the main purpose is to make a file/report on the product to be manufactured. First of all the customer send the intimation of the product to the purchase department in which there are many things such as bill of material to be used for manufacturing the product, drawing of the product, tolerances, mechanical properties of the product etc. This file is being brought to the engineering department. The engineering department consists of designers, engineers and drafts men who helps in performing their work in this department. The engineering department first of draws the product lay out. Then the flowchart of the manufacturing processes are being made. Then in the same serial order the list of costs incurred for manufacturing of the product is being made. This quotation may contain various kind of costs such as cost for raw material, machining, labour, die arrangements etc. So there fore the main function of the engineering department is of preparation of details of manufacturing information of the product to be made. This all work of engineering department is done for the requirements of good production which are mentioned as following: 1). To ring customer satisfaction that the product will work properly and the price is reasonable. 2). Adequate profit that it should be easy to manufacture with in the available resources and should call for minimum number of operations. According to this department the main part is the drawings of the part. A designer communicates his ideas to the manufacturing section through the medium of drawing. Drawing shows the exact size and shape of he product. SATINDER PAL SINGH

An engineering drawing should contain following information for the manufacturer: 1. Component part number and part description. 2. Dimensions from a common datum face to facilitate setting and

ganging. 3. Tolerances and limits allowable. 4. Material details or the specifications. 5. Finishing description.

8). COMPUTER NETWORK CONTROL (CNC): CNC shop is equipped with various costly machines, which may be automatic, and computer controlled type. The labour used in this shop is highly skilled type. The list of various machines used in this shop is as following: •

Gear hobber made by Churchill Company in England. This machine is of mechanical type and have maximum full load current 15 amps.

Gear hobber made by Lorenz Company having maximum hammering load capacity of 1.5 kg.

Gear hobber made by Lorenz Company having maximum hammering load capacity of 1000 kg.

CNC – 03 made by Frontor 1856 weisser. It is assembled with a monitor of simens. This machine is used for rough turning & facing functions.

CNC – 03 made by Frontor 1856 weisser. It is assembled with a monitor of simens. But this machine is used for final turning, boring, step facing etc.


Horizontal machining center made by Rolland, which is a universal machine. The coolant used is biostable coolant. The machining capacity is 500 L.

Grinder with a tapered wheel made by Fortuna Werke AG.

CNC Turning machine made by Frontor 1856 Weisser.

Vertical CNC machining center made by Hart Ford. The various functions that can be performed are drilling, milling, boring, reaming & tapping. This machine can be worked at higher RPM i.e. 8000 RPM.

Surface broaching machine, which works vertically and is made by Varinelli.

CNC machine used for turning operation and is made by Duplo Standard. The control panel is of sinumerilic.

Then there are 5 CNC machines in line. These all are made by Itala.

CNC drilling machine made by Leadwell.

CNC robodrill made by Hanuc.

Multiple spindle-drilling machine made by Eifco.

Radial machine.

8 spindle drilling machine made by Wavis.

CNC turning machine made by Maho Grazino.

Shaft gear hobbing machine made by Churchill.

Lathe machine made by Lotus high cut.

Cylindrical grinder.

Rockwell hardness testing machine.


Die is a cavity in which the hot piece is placed in forging & by the application of force the hot metal is given the required shape. So the die is the exact shape of the original component. Dies are of two types: 1. Rough blocker: - Blocker is the die which has the larger dimensions so that more metal flow is incorporated in first blows. 2. Finisher: - Finisher is the die which has the exact dimensions including tolerances used to give the product during forging whole of metal not flows in the cavity. Some of it comes out to counter it a hollow portion is incorporated around die & this portion is called gutter. Die is the most important tool for closed die forging. Making a die as per design specifications is most essential work in automobile industry. Die manufacturing is a completely sequential process, due to this there is a separate die manufacturing section is provided in the factory. Die making machines: The machines which are involved are as under: 1. Lathe machine 2. Milling machine 3. Power hacksaw 4. Grinding machine 5. Drilling machine 6. Electric discharge machining (EDM) machine 7. CNC wire cut (for rimming dies) 8. Shaper 9. Electric arc welding set-up Die material: SATINDER PAL SINGH

Composition of the die materials used is as under:1. DIN 2713 Carbon – 0.55 Silicon – 0.30 Manganese – 0.66 Phosphorus & sulphur – 0.035 Chromium – 0.70 Molybdenum – 0.30 Nickel – 1.70 Vanadium – 0.10 2. DIN 2714 Carbon – 0.56 Silicon – 0.30 Phosphorus & sulphur – 0.035 Molybdenum – 0.50 Nickel – 1.72 Vanadium – 0.10 Die making procedures:• Block selection: - Here we have to select the size of the die block. For this we have to check the number of cavities. Approximately 20 mm of gutter is provided around a cavity of size 100 – 125 mm. next thing is to check the thickness of the block for general pieces 70 mm thickness & half the clearances. • Block preparation: - Automatic hand raw cutters are used to cut the blocks. - Both sides are given reference - Dove tail marking & machining is done. - No tool mark should be there. SATINDER PAL SINGH

- Impression marking & marking of other location is done by choosing one machined surface as datum surface. • Primary machining: - Facing is done on lathe machine - Impression turning is done on milling machine - A hole is machined on both sides which are known as tong hole. Tong bars are put into these holes & die can be easily lifted. - Then marking is done. Marking means drawing up the marks where machining is done. It is done with the help of height gauge & surface plate. - The cavity can be made by either machining on a milling machine or by the help of an electrode on the EDM machine. • Pressing & polishing: - By using a hand grinder the grinding is done. Also the tool marks are removed. Carbide cutter is used. Polishing is done with iron stone to have better surface finish & also easy withdrawal. • Final inspection: - Dove-tail parallelity check - Dove-tail alignment check - Top surface level check - Dove-tail reference check




2). Shafts

Power Take off Shafts

Hollow Hydraulic Lift Shafts


Live Power Take Off Shafts


Tie Rod



(i)Power Take off Shafts for Transmitting power from tractor to implements. Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

(ii)Hollow Shafts for transmitting power in the tractor and off highway vehicles. Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

(iii)Hydraulic Lift Shafts for transmitting power to lift arms.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


3). Spur and Helical Gears

Bull Gears

Bull Pinion Shafts

Gears for Gear Boxes

(i) Bull Gears for torque transmission in off highway and tractors.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

Bull Pinion Shafts

(ii) Bull Pinion Shafts for transmitting torque in off highway vehicles.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


(iii) Gears for Gear Boxes Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

4). Epicyclic Reduction Gears

Ring Gears

Spur Satellite Gears (x)


Ring Gears for Epicyclic Reduction in off highway vehicles and tractors.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


Spur Satellite Gears

(ii) Spur Satellite Gears for Epicyclic Reduction.

Utility Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

Applicable -


(iii) Flanges for off highway transmission.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

4). Epicyclic Reduction Gears


5). Hypoid and Bevel Gears Crown Wheel &

Crown Wheel & Pinion for Crown Wheel & Pinion for

Pinion for Trucks

Off Highway

Cars and SUV

(i) Crown Wheel & Pinion for Trucks

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

(ii) Crown Wheel & Pinion for Off Highway Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


(iii) Crown Wheel & Pinion for Cars and SUV Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

6).Right Angle Drive Gear Boxes Right Angle Drives with 1 & 2 outputs in different gear ratio for various agriculture and other implements. Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


7). Propeller Shaft Assy & Components

Propeller Shaft Assy. (xi)

Various components

Propeller Shaft Assy. Of various sizes suitable for Cars, SUV’s, LCV and heavy trucks upto 20 tonnes.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery

Various components


Various components like U.J. Cross, Splined yokes etc.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


8). Steering Column Assy.

Steering Column Assemblies for LCV’s, HCV’s. Also available for various tractors.

Utility Applicable Automobile Off Highway Agri Machinery


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