Traffic Management and Accident Investigation

August 30, 2017 | Author: Anonymous u6jd2Hg1 | Category: Traffic, Traffic Light, Traffic Collision, Tire, Road
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Traffic Management and Accident Investigation Definition of Terms: Traffic – is a movement of vehicles along a route where passengers and cargoes are carried by transportation. Traffic Management – it comprises all public surfaces , facilities and agencies having responsibility for licensing, approving, maintaining and controlling the flow of traffic and the use of traffic facilities. Accident (Legal meaning) – an accident is any happening beyond the control of a person the consequences of which are not foreseeable. ( There is no criminal liability in accident provided, the following requisites or elements under the law must be satisfied; 1.) performance of a lawful act; 2.) with due care; 3.) causes injury to another by mere accident; 4.) without any fault or intention of causing it.) Fortuitous Event – an event which takes place by accident and could not have been foreseen. In other words it is an Act of God which could neither be foreseen nor resisted, such as earthquake, lightning, flood, and the like. Force Majure – is an inevitable accident or casualty, an accident produced by any physical cause which is irresistible. In other words it is an Act of Man, such robbery, fire, fault, negligence, rebellion, etc. Defensive Driving – is an act of driving while preventing accidents despite of the wrong actions of others aggravated by the existence of adverse driving conditions. Which requires knowledge, alertness, foresight, judgment and skill. Last Clear Chance - it means that the driver who is in the better position to prevent the accident shoulders the responsibility of preventing the accident. The last clear chance principle is always applied in any traffic accidental investigation in order to justify penalized the driver who was not defensive in its driving. State of Necessity – there is state of necessity even if the injury to a person results in his death, because self-preservation always makes the actor feel that his own safety is greater than that of another. Elements or requisites under the law; 1.) the evil sought to avoided actually exists ; 2.) the injury feared be greater that that done to avoid it; 3.) that there is no other practical and less harmful means of preventing it. Imprudence – indicates deficiency of action. If a person fails to take the necessary precaution to avoid injury to a person or damage to property, there is imprudence. Imprudence usually involves lack of skill. Negligence – indicates a deficiency of perception. If a person fails to pay proper attention to use due diligence in foreseeing the injury or damage impending to be caused there in negligence. Negligence usually involves lack of skill.

Motor Vehicle – shall mean any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular power using the public highways, but exempting road rollers, trolley cars, street sweepers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, cranes, vehicles which runs only on rails or tracks, tractors, trailers, and traction engine. Articulated Vehicle- shall mean any motor vehicles with a trailer having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer rest upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the trailer and of its load is born by the motor vehicle. Transfer Evidence – it is an evidence found at the accident scene that will connect to the suspected vehicle and with the crime scene. Traffic Actuated Signal – is controlled by an individual using his hands in signaling the flow of traffic wherein traffic shall proceed in accordance with the desire of the individual controlling the flow of traffic. Historical Accounts in Traffic Sources of Power In Transportation 1. Man Power 2. Animal Power 3. Water and Air Power 4. Petroleum Fuel 5. Bi-fuel, biogas, and Ethanol fuel 6. Hydrogen 7. Electric Development of Roads Stone paved streets are found in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. The Romans built roads to last. one meter in height, the road was built up in four layers: slabs embedded in mortar formed the foundation; masonry made up the second; the third, finally, the rolling surface could be simply broken stones, paving stones, or bricks depending on traffic. 1750 Trésaguet in France and Metcalfe in the UK proposed a method of construction relying on a firm well-drained foundation of large rocks topped by progressively smaller ones, forming a convex surface to make it more impervious to water. Around the end of the eighteenth century Telford in the UK proposed a similarly robust concept, perhaps too much so for traffic needs (he had been looking forward eagerly to steam-powered vehicles),

with the result that it was rather expensive due mainly to its thickness and very solid foundation, intended to compensate for unstable roadbeds. Macadam at the beginning of the 19th century to develop the far more economical approach which is still used today in adapted forms, usually with a coating of bitumen to seal it. Development of Motor vehicle One of the most important landmarks in engine design comes from Nicolaus Otto who in 1876 invented an effective gas motor engine. Nicolaus Otto built the first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine called the "Otto Cycle Engine," and when he completed his engine, he built it into a motorcycle. Gottlieb Daimler is thought to have invented the first real motorcycle in 1885. The original Benz Patent Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept In 1879, Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, which had been designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. Key Personalities in Transportation Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built the first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small scale and designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first working steam-powered vehicle ('auto-mobile') In Russia, in the 1780s, Ivan Kulibin developed a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern features such as a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings; however, it was not developed further François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fueled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen In November 1881, French inventor Gustave Trouve demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile that was powered by electricity hydrogen powered FCHV (Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle) was developed by Toyota in 2005 A compressed air car is an alternative fuel car that uses a motor powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by air, or by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with gasoline/diesel/ethanol or electric plant. This type of vehicles will be released this year 2009. Summary of the Historical Accounts of Transportation Montgolfier's Hot Air Balloons Wright Brother's Flyer Nicolas Joseph Cugnot's steam powered car

3500 BC Fixed wheels on carts are invented - the first wheeled vehicles in history. Other early wheeled vehicles include the chariot. 3500 BC River boats are invented - ships with oars 2000 BC Horses are domesticated and used for transportation. 181-234 The wheelbarrow is invented. 770 Iron horseshoes improve transportation by horse 1492 Leonardo da Vinci first to seriously theorize about flying machines - with over 100 drawings that illustrated his theories on flight 1620 Cornelis Drebbel invented the first submarine - an human oared submersible 1662 Blaise Pascal invents the first public bus - horse-drawn, regular route, schedule, and fare system 1740 Jacques de Vaucanson demonstrates his clockwork powered carriage 1783 First practical steamboat demonstrated by Marquis Claude Francois de Jouffroy d'Abbans - a paddle wheel steamboat 1783 The Montgolfier brothers invent the first hot air balloons 1787 Steamboat invented 1769 First self-propelled road vehicle invented by Nicolas Joseph Cugnot 1790 Modern bicycles invented 1801 Richard Trevithick invented the first steam powered locomotive (designed for roads) 1807 Isaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered vehicle - first with internal combustion power however, very unsuccessful design 1807 First steamboat with regular passenger service - inventor Robert Fulton's Clermont 1814 George Stephenson invents the first practical steam powered railroad locomotive 1862 Jean Lenoir makes a gasoline engine automobile 1867 First motorcycle invented 1868 George Westinghouse invents the compressed air locomotive brake - enabled trains to be stopped with fail-safe accuracy 1871 First cable car invented

1885 Karl Benz builds the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal combustion engine 1899 Ferdinand von Zeppelin invents the first successful dirigible - the Zeppelin 1903 The Wright Brothers invent and fly the first engined airplane 1907 Very first helicopter - unsuccessful design 1908 Henry Ford improves the assembly line for automobile manufacturing 1908 Hydrofoil boats co-invented by Alexander Graham Bell & Casey Baldwin - boats that skimmed water 1926 First liquid propelled rocket launched 1940 Modern helicopters invented 1947 First supersonic jet flight 1956 Hovercraft invented 1964 Bullet train transportation invented 1969 First manned mission (Apollo) to the Moon 1970 First jumbo jet 1981 Space shuttle launched Development of Traffic Signs On 10 December 1868, the first traffic lights were installed outside the British Houses of Parliament in London, by the railway engineer J. P. Knight.They resembled railway signals of the time, with semaphore arms and red and green gas lamps for night use. The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic. Unfortunately, it exploded on 2 January 1869, injuring the policeman who was operating it The modern electric traffic light is an American invention. As early as 1912 in Salt Lake City, Utah, policeman Lester Wire invented the first red-green electric traffic lights. On 5 August 1914, the American Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio.It had two colours, red and green, and a buzzer, based on the design of James Hoge, to provide a warning for colour changes. Pedestrian Crossing

The pedestrian crossing were instituted in Britain in 1934. The roads were marked by dotted lines. On the pavement there were striped Belisha beacon light poles named after Britain's Minister of Transport L. Hore-Belisha. The Zebra crossing with black and white stripes was developed after the second world war. First Box Junction Box junctions, marked with yellow cross-hatching, were introduced in London during 1964. The aim was to prevent traffic blocking junctions when it could not proceed and this was successful. First Traffic Police Woman Police women were used for traffic control duties for the first time in Paris in 1964. In Delhi we introduced women traffic police in 1989. The Motor Car Act The Motor Car Act of Britain came into force on 1st January 1904. It required that all cars be registered and carry a number plate, and all motorists to have a driving licence. But there was no driving test to pass and the licence was obtained by filing up a form and paying the fee at a post office. The act made dangerous driving an indictable offence. Origin of our Traffic Laws CONVENTION ON ROAD TRAFFIC Geneva, 19 September 1949 Components of Traffic Management Traffic Education– comprises all means for public information and the safety education of both drivers and pedestrians as to traffic laws and the use of traffic facilities and an adequate training programs in traffic control throughout the police unit. Traffic Engineering– that phase of engineering which deals with the planning and geometric design of streets, highways and abutting lands, and with traffic operation thereon, as their use is related to the safe, convenient and economic transportation of persons and goods. Traffic Law Enforcement – comprises al police activities in connection with the direction of traffic, regulation and education of drivers, determine potential offenders, constant patrol, giving of assistance in the prosecution of offenders, investigation of accidents, follow-up complaints, requesting police action, warning, summoning or arrest of violators, reporting of road hazards and obstruction. Environment Enactment of Traffic Laws

Economy Driver Professional Driver – shall mean every and any driver hired or paid for driving or operating a motor vehicle, whether for private use or for public. Categories of Drivers 1. Tourist 2. International Driver 3. Government 4. Professional 5. Non-professional 6. Student Permit Classification of Road 1. National Road 2. Provincial Road 3. City Road 4. Municipal Road 5. Barangay Road 6. Private Road Traffic Control Devices Traffic Islands– are areas within the roadway constructed in a manner to establish physical channels through which vehicular traffic is guided, that will segregate pedestrian. Kinds of Traffic Islands 1. Divisional and or Pedestrian Barrier 2. Channelizing Island 3. Refuge Island 4. Rotary Island

Traffic Signs – a device mounted on a fixed or portable means of words or symbols, officially created and installed for the purpose of regulating, warning and guiding traffic. Types of Traffic Signs 1. Regulatory Signs - are intended to inform road-users of special obligations, instructions or prohibitions which must comply. A round shape is used for regulatory signs with exception of stop and yield signs. 2. Warning Signs - are intended to warn road-users of danger on the road and to inform them of its nature. These signs have an equilateral triangular shape with one side horizontal. 3. Guide or Informative Signs - are intended to guide road-users while they are traveling or to provide them with other useful information. Types of guide signs 1. Route markings – is usually found on highways composed of several lanes which are going into different direction. 2. Destination and distance signs – is usually erected on highway informing the motorist as to the number of kilometers and at which way to take going to its place of destination. 3. Information signs – is usually erected on highway which informs the motorist of the establishments in the era, such hospitals, restaurants, restrooms, hotels, and other establishments which provide services to motorist. TRAFFIC SIGNAL LIGHTS Traffic Light Signals – is a power operated traffic control device by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific actions. Traffic Actuated Signal – is controlled by an individual using his hands in signaling the flow of traffic wherein traffic shall proceed in accordance with the desire of the individual controlling the flow of traffic. LIGHT: FLASHING RED 1. This is the same as STOP SIGN. 2. STOP at the designated line. 3. Vehicles will be crossing from the “other side” 4. Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrian lane. 5. PROCEED WHEN CLEAR.

LIGHT: FLASHING YELLOW 1. This is the same as a YIELD SIGN. 2. Proceed through the intersection with caution. 3. You have the right of way over a flashing RED light. 4. Vehicles on the other side will proceed to a FULL STOP. LIGHT: STEADY GREEN AND STEADY LEFT/RIGHT ARROW 1. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the left lane can make a left turn. 2. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the right lane can make a right turn. 3. The RIGHT GREEN signal might or might NOT have a road sign disallowing a right turn while the RED lights is ON. Most traffic jams are caused when traffic lights are inoperative either due to brownouts or when they are out of order. Whenever you approach a traffic signal light with all its lights OFF, and there are no traffic enforcers directing traffic, IT IS SAFER TO SLOW DOWN OR COME TO A COMPLETE STOP and make certain what the flow of traffic is. Too many accidents have happened with drivers on both side is SUPPOSED TO BE GREEN. PAVEMENT MARKINGS Pavement Markings – are markings on the roads and surfaces whereby a message is conveyed by means of words or symbols, officially reflected for the purpose of regulating, warning and guiding traffic. TYPES OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS 1. Curve markings – are used to show where parking is legally prohibited or not allowed, such Bus Stop, or in front of a fire hydrant, drive way. 2. Object Markings – are painted on fixed poles, and on vertical ends of bridges and ports to avoid accidents. 3. Reflectorized Markings – are used to mark hazardous areas and also used as delineators or road limits, these delineators are aids especially during night driving, particularly when the alignment of a road changes and might confused the operator of the vehicle. 4. Striped Curb Markings – are markings used in traffic islands in order to warn the driver of the traffic island on the road and aids the motorist to its traffic lane.

5. Painted Crosswalk – are placed at intersections and other places where there is considerable pedestrians traffic to provide pedestrians with safety zones when crossing. 6. Broken White Lines – is used to define or separate traffic lanes. It permits crossing from one lane to another if there is ample passing distance, and if the opposing lane is clear of traffic. 7. Solid White Line – is used to separate opposing streams of traffic. Crossing is unlawful except where ample distance exists and where the opposing traffic lane is clear of traffic. 8. Solid Yellow Line – is your driving lane prohibits you from passing other vehicles. 9. Double Yellow Line – indicates two way traffic; were crossing of pedestrian and motorist is not allowed. It separates the opposing flow of traffic. 10. Broken Yellow Lines – is a two way/highway which means no overtaking or passing is permitted only when the road ahead is clear. 11. Stop Line – it indicates where stop should be made. Traffic Enforcement Action Enforcement action is usual limited to: 1.) verbal or written warning; 2.) summon or citation requiring the offender to appear in court; 3.) arresting traffic violators for traffic violations not attended 4.) suspension or revocation of license; 5.) payment of fines or civil damages, and; 6.) prosecution of criminal offenses in relation to traffic. Functions of Traffic Engineering 1.) Fact finding surveys and recommendation of traffic rules and regulations. 2.) Supervision and maintenance to the application of traffic control devices. 3.) Planning of traffic regulations. Objectives of traffic Engineering 1,) To achieve efficient, safe, free and rapid flow of traffic. 2.) To prevent traffic accidents and casualties.

3.) To present the role of traffic engineering in reducing the needs for police action and simplifying police performance. 4.) To show that good police action and performance makes engineering plans effective. Elements of street and highway traffic 1.) The road user 2.) The vehicle and its load 3.) The road. Police officers main functions in Traffic 1.) Police traffic directions 2.) Police traffic law enforcement 3.) Police traffic accident investigation. Elements of traffic accident are; 1.) the vehicle involved 2.) the highway 3.) the road user. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION The primary function of police in traffic is the protection of life and property, and accident investigation is very essential in trying to recover the cost of damage in an accident. Its purpose are: 1.) securing facts upon which to base an accident prevention program; 2.) determining responsibility or accident when possible. Ascertaining the facts of accident so that those involved can properly exercise claims under our civil law. The technique of investigating accident is to go back in reconstructing the accident as far as possible from the position of final rest of the traffic unit involved and determine the multiple causes and circumstances of the accident. R.A. 4136 Conduction Stickers – Issued under AO No. AO-DIR-001 shall be used exclusively for the transfer, road test, and demonstration of stocks by manufacturers and dealers including delivery of the unit to the

customer by a professional driver employed by manufacturer, assembler, importer or dealer so authorized in writing, NOT by the owner or his driver. The Conduction Sticker’s validity ceases when the unit is delivered to the owner It is NOT A PERMIT to operate an UNREGISTERED vehicle for seven (7) days in violation of Sec. 5 of RA 4136 which is punishable with a penalty of P450 for the driver and P90 for the owner under DOTC Order No. 93-693 and impoundment until the vehicle is registered and penalties paid accordingly. Registration Classification of Vehicles 1. Private 2. For Hire 3. Government 4. Diplomatic Tourists bringing their own motor vehicles to the Philippines are, however, without registering such motor vehicles, use the same during but not after ninety (90) days of their sojourn: Provided, That the motor vehicle displays the number plates for the current year of some other country or state, and said number plates as well as the name and address (permanent and temporary) of the owner thereof are registered in the Land Transportation Office prior to the operation of the motor vehicle. If such tourist remain in the Philippines longer than ninety (90) days, the motor vehicle shall not operated unless registered in accordance with this Act and the corresponding registration fees paid. (As amended by PD No. 1057,and by BP Blg. 74, approved June 11, 1980.) 1. No motor vehicle operating as a single unit shall exceed the following dimensions: 2. Overall width - 2 and five-tenths meters 3. Overall height- 11 meters 4. Overall length: Freight vehicles - with two axles - 10 meters Passenger vehicles - with two axles - 11 meters Vehicles with - three or more axles – 14 meters

No motor vehicle and/or trailer combination shall exceed eighteen meters in overall projected length, including any load carried on such vehicle and trailer. No articulated vehicle shall be allowed to draw or pull a trailer and no vehicle already drawing a trailer shall draw another. Registration Certificates, Records, Number Plates Use and authority of certificate of registration.-(a)The said certificate shall be preserved and carried in the car by the owner as evidence of the registration of the motor vehicle described therein, and shall be presented with subsequent applications for registration, transfer of ownership, or recording of encumbrances: Provided, That in lieu of the certificate of registration a true copy or Photostat thereof may be carried in the motor vehicle. Suspension of registration certificate Any motor vehicle is found to be unsightly, unsafe, overloaded, improperly marked or equipped, or otherwise unfit to be operated, or capable of causing excessive damage to the highways, or not conforming to minimum standards and specifications, the Commissioner may refuse to register the said motor vehicle, or if already registered, may require the number plates thereof to be surrendered to him, and upon seventy-two hours notice to the owner of the motor vehicle, suspend such, registration until the defects of the vehicle are corrected and/or the minimum standards and specifications fully complied with. Whenever it shall appear from the records of the Commission that during any twelve-month period more than three warnings for violation of this Act have been given to the owner of a motor vehicle, or that the said owner has been convicted by a competent court more than once for violation of such laws, the Commissioner may, in his discretion, suspend the certificate of registration for a period not exceeding ninety days and, thereupon, shall require the immediate surrender of the number plates. Use of Number plates At all times, every motor vehicle shall display in conspicuous places, one in front and one in the rear thereof, the said number plates. The number plates shall kept clean and cared for, and shall be firmly affixed to the motor vehicle in such a manner as will make it entirely visible and always legible. Except in the case of dealer’s number plates which may be used successively on various motor vehicles in stock, no person shall transfer, number plates from one motor vehicle to another. No dealer’s number plate shall be used on any motor vehicle after said vehicle has been sold and delivered to a purchaser, and no dealer shall allow such dealer’s number plates to be used on any motor vehicle after its sale and delivery to a purchaser.

Duty to have license Operation of motor vehicles by tourists. – Bona fide tourists and similar transients who are duly licensed to operate motor vehicles in their respective countries may be allowed to operate motor vehicles during but no after, ninety days of their sojourn in the Philippines. If any accident involving such tourist or transient occurs, which upon investigation by the Commissioner or his deputies operate motor vehicles, the Commissioner shall immediately inform the said tourist or transient in writing that he shall no longer be permitted to operate a motor vehicle. After ninety days, any tourist or transient desiring to operate motor vehicles shall pay fees and obtain and carry a license as hereinafter provided. That no person shall be issued a professional driver’s license who is suffering from contagious diseases, such as tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases and epilepsy or who is an alcohol or drug addict or dependent. For a professional driver’s license, is at least eighteen years of age, possesses a valid student-driver’s permit and has undergone instruction in the operation of motor vehicles for at least five months under a qualified instructor: For a non-professional driver’s license, is at least seventeen years of age, possesses a valid studentdriver’s permit and has undergone instruction in the operation of motor vehicles for at least a month. Student-driver’s permit. –Director or his deputies may issue student-driver’s permits, valid for one year to persons not under sixteen years of age, who desire to learn to operate motor vehicles. A student-driver who fails in the examination on a professional or non-professional license shall continue as a student-driver and shall not be allowed to take another examination at least one month thereafter. No student-driver shall operate a motor vehicle, unless possessed of a valid student-driver’s permit and accompanied by a duly licensed driver. It shall be unlawful for any duly licensed driver to transfer, lend or otherwise allow any person to operate to use his license for the purpose of enabling such person to operate a motor vehicle. No owner of a motor vehicle shall engage, employ, or hire any person to operate such motor vehicle, unless the person sought to be employed is a duly licensed professional driver. (As amended by BP Blg. 398, May 18, 1983. Confiscation of driver’s license Law enforcement and peace officers of other agencies duly deputized by the Director shall, in apprehending a driver for any violation of this Act or of any regulations issued pursuant thereto, or of local traffic rules and regulations not contrary to any provisions of this Act or of any regulations not contrary to any provisions of this Act confiscate the license of the driver concerned and issue a receipt prescribed and issued by the Bureau

therefore which shall authorize the driver to operate a motor vehicle for a period not exceeding seventy-two hours from the time and date of issue of said receipt. The period so fixed in the receipt shall not be extended, and shall become invalid thereafter. Failure of the driver to settle his case within fifteen (15) days from the date of apprehension will be a ground for the suspension and/or revocation of his license. The rates of speed hereinabove prescribed shall not apply to the following 1. A physician or his driver when the former responds to emergency calls; 2. The driver of a hospital ambulance on the way to and from the place of accident or other emergency; 3. Any driver bringing a wounded or sick person for emergency treatment to a hospital, clinic, or any other similar place; 4. The driver of a motor vehicle belonging to the Armed Forces while in use for official purposes in times of riot, insurrection of invasion; 5. The driver of a vehicle, when he or his passengers are in pursuit of a criminal; 6. A law enforcement officer who is trying to overtake a violator of traffic laws; and 7. The driver officially operating a motor vehicle of any fire department provided that exemption shall not be construed to allow useless or unnecessary fast driving of drivers aforementioned. Overtaking a vehicle – The driver of any motor vehicle overtaking another vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass at a safe distance to the left thereof, and shall not again drive to the right side of the highway until safely clear of such overtaken vehicle except that on a highway, within a business or residential district, having two or more lanes for the movement of traffic in one direction, the driver overtaking and passing upon the right, another vehicle which is making or about to make a left turn. Right of Way. – (a) When two vehicles approach or enter and intersection at approximately the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right of way to the vehicle on the right, except as otherwise herein after provided. The driver of any vehicle traveling at any unlawful speed shall forfeit any right of way which he might otherwise have hereunder. The driver of a vehicle approaching but not having entered an intersection, shall yield the right of way to a vehicle within such intersection or turning therein to the left across the line of travel of such firstmentioned vehicle, provided the driver of the vehicle turning left has given a plainly visible signal of intention to turn as required in this Act. Parking prohibited in specified places 1. Within an intersection 2. On a crosswalk

3. Within six meters of the intersection of curb lines. 4. Within four meters of the driveways entrance to any fire station. 5. Within four meters of a fire hydrant. 6. In front of a private driveway 7. On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the curb or edge of the highway. 8. At any place where official signs have been erected prohibiting parking. M.C NO. 94-188ISSUANCE OF DRIVER’S LICENSE TO DISABLED PERSONS Applicant must be a holder of a student permit and must have undergone apprenticeship for at least thirty days 1. He/she must be at least seventeen years old 2. He/she must submit a medical certificate indicating the physical and mental state of the applicant from an accredited LTO Physician or government physician. 3. He/she must pass the written and practical examination. All physically handicapped persons who passed the qualification requirements shall be issued a nonprofessional driver’s license only. Only the following disabled persons are entitled to secure the above-mentioned driver’s license, to wit: 1. Orthopedically impaired - person with amputated left or right leg, amputated left or right arm, postpolio victims with one paralyzed leg either left or right. 2. Partially blind – person with no left eye but good right eye sight or no right eye but with good left eye sight. 3. Speech and hearing impaired – person unable to speak but can hear or partially Hear. Orthopedically impaired applicant should only drive the customized vehicle duly inspected and registered at LTO Office and duly indicated in the driver’s license. Driving is limited to daytime, which is from 6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT ACTION 1. Detection 2. Apprehension 3. Prosecution

4. Adjudication 5. Penalization TRAFFIC PATROL Traffic Patrol – May be conducted on area or line bases which refer to the territory covered. It includes, for enforcement purposes, stationary observation to detect driver’s behavior as well as moving about to detect violators. Traffic patrol reefers to the observation of road conditions, the behavior of the drivers and other users of vehicles for the purpose of traffic supervision and law enforcement and providing authorized traffic-connected services to the public. Line Patrol – Conducts observation either in moving or stationary observation at a certain route or point of a major street in a city. Area Patrol – Conduct observation either by moving patrol or stationary observation in a certain area, which included a number of streets roads or sections of a highway. Stationary Observation – Observation of traffic conditions of a selected place, usually one with unfavorable accident experiences for traffic law supervision. Stationary observation may be conspicuous, visible or concealed, depending upon the location of the patrol unit in relation to the street under observation. Conspicuous Observation – Stationary observation in which the observer remains in full review of traffic conditions. Visible Observation – Stationary observation in which observer is full view but so located, for example, at Side Street, so as to require effort on the part of traffic users to discover the observer. Concealed Observation – Stationary observation in which the observer is not visible to persons using ordinary power of observation form the roadway being observed. Purpose of Traffic Patrol 1. Deterrent to violations and dangerous driving. 2. Detecting and apprehending violators. 3. Observing and reporting traffic conditions. 4. Observing and reporting road conditions, including view obstruction, which needs attention. 5. Providing certain services to the public. Handling emergencies as they arise and keeping traffic flow smoothly. Road Intelligence – Unusual points of serious congestion must be noted. You may observe an unusual amount of delay at a certain intersection each morning and when you learn that it is due to loading or

unloading of passengers on a “No Loading Zone”, be sure to report the situation at once to your superior officer. Report congestion that ties up traffic for a block or more. Also report unnecessary delay at stop signs or signals which are installed when traffic is heavier. Include in your report all road and bridge conditions. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS 1) condition of the motor vehicles involved in the accident; (2) condition of the drivers at the time of the accident; (3) load of the vehicle; (4) weather condition; (5) characteristics of the road, which involves the design condition, and inhabitants of the place of accident; (6) presence or absence of traffic sign and its condition. All these factors must considered in order to fully uncover the reasons of the accident, and thereby provide a factual bases in coming-up with a traffic prevention program and traffic plans and programs. TRAFFIC INVESTIGATION (1) securing facts upon which to base an accident prevention program; (2) determining whether or not laws have been violated, gathering evidence which will reveal the road user responsible for the accident, and taking on-the-scene police action; and (3) ascertaining the facts so that those involved in accidents can properly exercise claims under our Civil Law. The determining factors of the time and place in Key Events Key Event – means the one which characterizes the manner of the occurrence of the traffic accident. It determines the time, place, and type of accident. Point of Possible Perception – is the place and time at which the unusual or unexpected movement or condition could have been perceive by a normal person. Delay in Perception or Perception Time – it is the time between the point of possible perception and actual perception. Prompt Perception – is the perception of hazard which is actually nearly the possible accident. Maximum Delayed Perception – occurred when the traffic unit does not sense a hazard until he hits another vehicle.

Point of No Escape – is the place and time after or beyond which the accident cannot be prevented by the traffic unit under consideration. Point of Impact – is used to mean as the point of initial contact, sometimes it is considered the point of maximum engagement or center of force. Final Position – is the place and time when the object involved in the accident finally come to rest without application of power. Chain of Events – is the making up of accident or the link which explains the occurrence of the accident and its components are present in every accident. Perception of hazard – is the point of sensory warning at which the operator sensed the approaching hazard. The driver may not comprehend or recognized the hazard in all of its implications at this point of perception, but there was a warning. The normal routine is perception, realization, or recognition, decision, and action. Possible perception - is a link in the accident chain dealing with the reaction of a normal person. Prompt perception occurs when possible and actual perception are very close. Maximum delayed perception occurs when actual perception is delayed until impact shock alerts the driver.. Encroachment – is the movement of a vehicle into the path assigned to the other traffic unit. Evasive Action – is the first action taken by a traffic unit to escape from a collision course or otherwise avoid the hazard. Point of no escape – is that location and that time after or beyond which an accident cannot be prevented by the driver or pedestrian. Initial Contact – it is the first accidental touching of an object collided with by a traffic unit in motion. Maximum Engagement – is the greatest collapse or overlap in a collision. Disengagement – is the separation of a traffic unit in motion from an object with which it has collided. Final Rest of Stopping – it usually stabilizes the accident situation where both vehicles in a collision has ceases its force, and stopping may occur with or without control by the driver or pedestrian Skidmarks – are marks on the road left by tires that are not fee to rotate usually because brakes are applied strongly to lock wheels. Nine (9) Kinds of skidmarks 1. Pavement Grinding – is the collection of many fine scratches and some larger one form by particles of gritty materials such as stone, gravel, glass and sometimes bit of metal embedding itself in the rubber of the tire or in the thread pattern and being ground or scored against the road surface.

2. Tire Grinding – is the collection of particles of rubber ground from the tire surface by gritty paving, especially before the tire gets hot enough smear. It occur on hard, dry, granular surfaces, particularly weathered or new but not traffic-polished cement. 3. Erasing – is a clean light area where a sliding tire had erased or removed dirt from the pavement. Erasing is most likely to be found on traffic-polished concrete road. 4. Squeeze Mark – are areas where a sliding tie rubs moisture of the surface in its path. It occurs on some kind of surface as erasing except that the surface is wet. 5. Smear of Soft Material – materials such as snow, mud, or debris usually wet smooth or spread by a sliding tire. It occurs on road covered with snow, or mud. 6. Smear of Bituminous Material – is excess asphalt or tar, usually warm which spread by a sliding tire this occurs in pavement patches and joints in very warm weather and else where when there is an excess of tar or asphalt bleeding to the surface. 7. Tire Smear – is a rubber melted from the tire rather than material melted from the road by a sliding tire. 8. Scrub of Tire during Collision – collision of cars usually cause the wheel to jam and prevents it from turning. If the vehicles are moving there will be a heavy scrubbing action between tire and road surface. 9. Furrow – is a ploughed depression made by a sliding tire with material piled-up on each sides and usually at the end. If the soil is smooth and sticky, there may be soft material smear in the bottom of the rut. Types of Ending Skidmarks 1. Overlapping Skidmark – occurs when the rear wheels track on top of the front wheel marks in sliding. 2. Front Wheel Marks – are in long skids on hard pavement with bituminous binders. Front wheels skidmarks in which most of the mark is at edge of the tire. 3. Rear Tire Marks – are relatively faint because of lesser weight on the tire in slowing. They may show thread grooves when the front tire marks do not. 4. Flat Tire Scuffs – will leave marks by a scrubbing action even without application of brakes due to overload. 5. Gaps in Skidmarks – are interruptions in skidmarks made by release of brake pressure and its reapplication. 6. Skip Skid – are skidmarks that are broken or interrupted without brakes being release. 7. Curb in Skidmarks – are usually gentle slides toward the edge of the road which is simply downhill.

Scuff Marks – are signs left on the road by tires that are sliding or scrubbing while the wheel is still turning. Types of Scuff Marks 1. Decelerating Scuff – are left while the vehicle is slowing by braking effort and tires are both sliding and rolling. 2. Accelerating Scuff – are left by a wheel driven by the engine and spinning on the ground. 3. Side Scuff – are scuff marks left by a tire that is free to rotate without braking or power the sliding sidewise, these are usually left by a vehicle steering around a curb and also in collision. 4. Combination Scuff – are combination of slide with either decelerating or accelerating scuffs. 5. Flat Tire Scuff – are marks lefts on the road by the edges of under-inflated or greatly overloaded tires. They are usually smear of rubber, a flat tire rolls it become a very hot specially at the edges where the pressure is greatest. 6. Scrub of Tire – during collision it is much the same when the wheel is rotating as when it is locked. 7. Furrows – by a rotating and sliding wheel are little different than one with a locked wheel. CAUSES OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT 1. Direct Causes – the direct causes of an accident are observable by witness and participants, or may be constructed from physical evidence found at the scene. Since a direct cause relates to the action of the human part of the traffic unit concerned it is a behavior cause. Usually only four direct causes are considered in accident investigation; a. Initial Behavior - Any movement, position, or failure to signal intent to make a traffic maneuver that creates a dangerous situation and is either hazardous, illegal, improper, or unusual may be initial behavior of a nature justly term a direct cause of an accident. b. Speed – Too fast for conditions is the direct cause of many accidents. c. Delayed Perception – Is inattention to the major task of operating a motor vehicle, and occurs when the driver is distracted by conversation with other occupants of the car, lighting a cigarette or cigar, looking at a roadway or the scenery, or glancing at occupants of nearby vehicles. d. Faulty Evasive Action –Faulty evasive action always occurs after perception and is the reaction of a driver or pedestrian to a hazardous situation on the highway. 2. Mediate and Early Causes – These mediate and early causes of an accident are also termed condition causes in formalized accident investigation procedure.

A mediate cause of an accident occurs between the early and the direct causes in the time span leading to the accident, but it has a closer relationship to the direct cause than to the early causes. A mediate cause should not be listed unless it explains the direct cause of an accident. A mediate cause of an accident is an irregular or unusual condition of a vehicle, the road, the weather, or of a road user (driver or pedestrian) that explains on of the four direct causes of an accident: initial behavior, speed, delayed perception and faulty evasive action. 3. Early Causes - An early cause of an accident results from the act of any individual, or the failure to act by any person, which creates conditions leading to the chain of events making up an accident. An early cause of an accident has been defined as an act or negligence on the part of an individual or an organization which causes or permits a mediate cause to exist. HIT AND RUNINVESTIGATION Characteristics of Hit-and Run Drivers The hit-and-run accident is entirely and premeditated, of course, and the driver usually feels remorse at having done harm to someone. 1. After living the scene, he dreads or frighten of being caught. 2. He may have left the accident scene because he was shocked, injured, or intoxicated. 3. He may have been too confused to know he was doing. 4. He may have a long record of violations or accidents and therefore a terrible fear of getting further involve with the law. 5. More often, he fears financial loss specially if he does not have liability insurance. 6. Hit-and run drivers do not have a establish method of operation unlike with criminals. CARNAPPING REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6539 - AN ACT PREVENTING AND PENALIZING CARNAPPING "Carnapping" is the taking, with intent to gain, of a motor vehicle belonging to another without the latter's consent, or by means of violence against or intimidation of persons, or by using force upon things. "Motor vehicle" is any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular power using the public highways, but excepting road rollers, trolley cars, street-sweepers, sprinklers, lawn mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used on public highways, vehicles, which run only on rails or tracks, and tractors, trailers and traction engines of all kinds used exclusively for agricultural

purposes. Trailers having any number of wheels, when propelled or intended to be propelled by attachment to a motor vehicle, shall be classified as separate motor vehicle with no power rating. P.D. NO. 1911 "Sec. 12-A.All carnapped or stolen motor vehicle, recovered and impound by law enforcement agencies which after a period of three (3) months from the date of its seizure/recovery have remained unclaimed or whose real owners could no longer be determined or established because the original numbers of the motor engine or chassis numbers could no longer be determined and restored, are considered as abandoned motor vehicles and shall be sold and disposed of by the Chief of Constabulary of his authorized representative in a public auction; Provided, That, in all cases before any public auction is effected, there shall be published once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines or in the place where it was recovered or found, a description of the motor vehicles intended to be auctioned with a notice that after the lapse of one month from the date of the last publication, should no person file a claim for the recovery of the same, said motor vehicles will be sold at public auction; Provided, Finally that the date and place of the public auction to be conducted by the Chief of Constabulary or his authorized representative shall already be fixed in the last publication aforementioned. PD. 1612 "Fencing" is the act of any person who, with intent to gain for himself or for another, shall buy, receive, possess, keep, acquire, conceal, sell or dispose of, or shall buy and sell, or in any other manner deal in any article, item, object or anything of value which he knows, or should be known to him, to have been derived from the proceeds of the crime of robbery or theft. "Fence" includes any person, firm, association corporation or partnership or other organization who/which commits the act of fencing. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 96 1. That it shall be unlawful for the owner or possessor of any motor vehicle to use or attach to his vehicle any siren, bell, horn, whistle, or other similar gadgets that produce exceptionally loud or startling sound, including dome lights, blinkers and other similar signaling or flashing devices. 2. The gadgets or devices mentioned above may be attached to and use only on motor vehicles designated for official use by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, National Bureau of Investigation, Land Transportation Commission, Police Departments, Fire Departments, and hospital ambulances. Any device or gadget installed or mounted on any motor vehicle or otherwise used in violation of this decree shall be subject to immediate confiscation and, in cases of a second and subsequent offenses, the offender shall be prosecuted for violation of this Decree before the military tribunal and, upon conviction thereof, shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment for six months and/or a fine of 600 pesos. In

addition, the certificate of registration of the motor vehicle on which the unauthorized gadget or device herein mentioned is installed, mounted or used shall be cancelled or revoked.

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