TOYO - Piping Design Instruction.pdf

September 10, 2017 | Author: amirthraj74 | Category: Pipe (Fluid Conveyance), Valve, Stairs, Mechanical Engineering, Building Engineering
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.

PIPING DESIGN INSTRUCTION , .?

.

. TOYO ENGINEERING CORPORATION .

TOKYO

JAPAN

2. PLANNING Plant

1.

layout

8

1.1 Plant area 1.2 Safe distance 1.3 Distance 1.4 Overhead clear ante 1.5 Design of tank yard 1.6 Height of foundation 1.7 Road 2.

Installation

Installation

sf sructure

2.2 2.3

bstaliatioti

of

2.5

and ladder

ladder

Installation

of platform and ladder Staira, ladder and handrail Live load for platform

Nozzle orientation 3.1 3.2

.

stairs

2.1

2.4

3.

of platform,

top and floor

3.3

34486

8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 .13 15 16 16 17

Type and size of platform Limitation on platform installation (1) Manhole (2) Level control (3) Gauge glass (41 AP/CELL type liquid level instrument (5) Temperature instrument (6) Opening in platform

.17 1% 1% 19 19 22

(7) Installation of davit ai the top of tower Consideration on nozzle orientation 3.3,1 Nomenclature 3.3.2 Considerations required for tower nozzle orientation 3.3.3 Considerations for orientation in other vessels and heat exchangers

24 25 25 27 34

Contents

-2 -

22 23

3. PIPING 1.

2.

3.

Manuals relat ded to piping

design

1.1 1.2

design instruction

Relation between this Related manuals

Draftxing

2.3

Indication

, A

3.3

3.4 4.

38 39

(Double line)

39 39

Equation

to determine the thickness

of steel

0302)

requiring postweld heat treatment Pipe eelection criteria

i

pipe

(PWHT)

39 39

3.1.2 3.1.3 Valve 3.2.1

Pipes

Gear operated valve

41

3.2.2 3.2.3

Special valve Valve material

41 41

Pitting 3.3.1 Bend 3.3.2 Blitre bend 3.3.3 Reducer 3.3.4 Tee 3.3.5 Standard application of fitting 3.3.6 Comparison of material between JIS and ASTM Flange

Scope of Matching Uatching Matching

Contents

40 41

Scope of work for piping 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

3448G

38

of pipes

(KI3K.S

3.2

37

materials

'Pipe 3.1.1

37

38

Unit and scale Lines to be used

3.1

and other manuals

rule

2.1 2.2

Piping

37

work with with with

-3

materials

at equipment nozzle instrument vendor's piping customer's equipment and piping

-

41 41 42 43 44 45 45 45

46 46 50 50 50

5.

6.

5 .l

General

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Hot insulation Cold insulation Personnel protection Fire proofing poise protection

54

6.1

54 54

poise 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3

General Noise level limitation Sources of noise

Vibration 6.2.1 General 6.2.2 Vibration

Cathodic protection 7.1 7.2

8.

51 51 51 52 52 53

Noise and vibration

6.2

7.

51

Insulation

8.1

8.2

8.3

3448G

57 57 58

of piping and grounding for static

Cathodic protection Grounding for static

Piping

54 56

electricity

electricity

protection

protection

Piping 8.1.1

around tower and vertical Layout

8.1.2 8.1.3 Piping 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 Piping 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3

Nozzle orientation Piping around tower around heat exchanger Type of heat exchanger Considerations required for arrangement and piping Example of piping around horizontal heat exchanger Piping around reboiltr Piping around Al-heat exchanger Piping around air cooler around rotating machine Piping around pump Piping around turbine Piping around compressor

-4 -

59 61 63

design detail

Contents

59

tank

63 63 64 64 69 69 70 72 73 77 81 81 81 95 96

8.10 8.11

8.12

8.13

Drain Utility 8.11.1 8.11.2 8.11.3

and Vent piping Hose station Eye washer and shower Ejector piping

8.11.4 Cooling water piping for Sample connection and analyzer

8.15

system

Underground piping 8.14.1 Lines to be installed 8.14.2 Design 8.14.3 Cooling water piping 8.14.4 Sewer piping 8.114.5 Trench piping

underground

Firefighting piping (when regulations 0.15.1 Type of rystems 8.15.2 Water extinguishing system 8.15.3 Air-foam system 8.15.4 CO2 extinguishing system 8.15.5 Cases where WFPACODEis applied

3448G

etc.

(1) Installation criteria (2) Type of valve Tank yard piping 8.13.1 Regulations and safe distance 8.13.2 Tank yard piping i.13.3 Drains-ge -system 8.13.4 Fire~ext&guishing

8.14

pump, turbine

Contents

-6 -

in Japan are applied.)

144 146 146 148 149 149 149 149 150 150 150 150 153 153 153 153 153 155 164 178 179 179 179 184 186 186

:

4. PIPE SUPPORi 1.

General 1.1 1.2 1.3

2.

3.

Purpose Scope of application Related manuals and manuals for reference

188

Support design 2.1

Procedurcof

2.2 2.3

Standard of support design Allowable stress and safety

Supports for 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

3448G

factor

192

piping

rack

When Yarway’s gun-packed expansion joint Dissipation of heat Pressure loss

is used

191 191 191 192 195 195 196 200 200 202 202 203 203 204 204 205

around vessels

207

Limitation of load Supports for discharge pipe of safety valve Vessel clips Supporting of tank piping 4.3.1 4.3.2 Supporting of tower piping

207 208 208 209 210

Supports for piping 4.1 4.2 4.3

188 188 190

support design

Support span Pipe spacing Supports for bare pipe Supports for hot-insulated pipe Supports for cold-insulated pipe Supports for large-dia. pipe Other considerations required in design of supports Use of anti-friction agent Supporting to cope with vibration Absorption of thermal expansion 3.10.1 Model plan 3.10.2 l&en U-loops are used 3.10.3 When bellows-type expansion joints are used 3.10.4 3.10.5 3.i0.6

4.

187 187

Contents

-7 -

5.

6.

Supports for piping around compressor and turbine

211

5.1 5.2 5.3

General .Manuals for reference Piping provided with sxapnsion joint

5.4

Piping 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

211 211 211 212 212 212 213

supports to be used in general Slliding supports Spring support Thermal-expansion-direction restraining device (Directional, stopper) 5.4.4 Directional stopper of free-in-one-direction type 5.4.5 Pipe hanger 5.4.6 Vibration atopper for piping ..:: .:- ,I.. Supports for piping arc&d pump

6.1 6.2 7.

Manuals for reference Piping around pump and location

214 215 215 .219 .

of supports

219 .220

Spring hanger

230

7.1 7.2

Variable hanger Design of variable

230

7.3

Construction

7.4 7.5 7.6

Specification for placing order of variable Selection of variable hanger's type No. Supporting load of spring hanger

3448G

Contents

-8 -

hanger

and material

of

variable

hangers hangers

231 231 233 234 237

211

5.

Supports for piping

around compressor and turbine

6.

General .Manuals for reference Piping provided with exapnsion joint Piping supports to be used in general 5.4.1 Slliding supports 5.4.2 Spring support 5.4.3 Thermal-expansion-direction restraining device (Directional, stopper) 5.4.4 Directional stopper of free-in-one-direction type 5.4.5 Pipe hanger 5.4.6 Vibration stopper for piping _: .. .- .:. Supports for piping~around pump

211 211 211 212 212 212 213

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

6.1 6.2 7.

Manuals for reference Piping around pump and location

214' 215 215 -219 .

of supports

219 .220

Spring hanger

230

7.1 7.2 7.3

Variable hanger Design of variable hanger Construction and mater ial of variable

230

7.4 7.5 7.6

Specification for placing order of variable Selection of variable hanger's type No.

34486

Supporting

Contents

load of spring hanger

-8 -

hangers

hangers

231 231 233 234 237

1. GENERAL 1.1

Intent (1)

and scope Intent

This design instruction is intended to standardize vays of and piping design of the plant to be designed or constructed , economical and quick plant design. to obtain correct

layout order

(2)

Scope This

(3)

equipment by TEC, in

design

instruction

applies

to all

TEC jobs.

Notes:

a. Blanks in this instruction the time of job.

should

be filled

out

and selections

b.. If conflict, due to customer's requirements, weather arises between the requirements of this instruction, should be revised and then used so as to meet them.

made at

conditions etc., this instruction

c. Where there are conflicts between this instruction and otherj TEM or TES etc., such conflicts should be solved by assigned Job Engineers and if contact Standard Engineer and revisidn of other TEM, TES is necessary, Whenever revision of this instruction is required, Section Chief. contact Section Chief. d. Where applicable codes, customer's contradiction to this instruction, 1.2

Outline (1)

a. Main

I

etc. are in should govern.

of project

Name of client

b.

requirements the formers

Contractor

End user

: :

:

(2)

Name of project

(3)

Type of contract

: q ENGINEERING n F.0.B

D q tl iJ q 0 (4)

3402G

TURN-KEY SUPERVISING COST PLDS FEE LDMPSUM PRICE UNIT PRICE OTHERS

Scope of engineering

-l-

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM P&I PLOT PLAN

c! TEC E TEC q TEC

113CUST 0 CUST 0 CDST

0 OTHER 3 OTHER ;3 OTHER

UNDERGROUND PIPING ABOVEGROUND PIPING FIRE-FIGHTING PIPING

f3 TEC 2 TEC c! TEC

a CUST 0 CUST q CDST

C OTHER 3 OTHER 0 OTHER

CIVIL INFORMATION DETAIL CIVIL DESIGN

q TEC DTEC

0 CUST 17 CUST

3 OTHER q OTHER

1.3

Outline

of

plant

Licenser

:

Production Contract Unit

capacity money

Site

1.4

Climatic 1.4.1

3402G

-2-

:

included

in the

plant

I

I (5)

:

of plant

:

conditions Ambient

temperature

maximum

:

OC

minimum

:

OC

yearly

average

:

OC

design

max.

:

OC (for

equipment

design)

design

min.

:

'C

equipment

disign)

(for

Humidity max.

relative

humidity

:

0

min.

relative

humidity

:

0

year

average

:

%

:

% (for

design 1.4.3

relative

humidity

cold

insulation

design)

Rainfall max.

1.4.4

humidity

rainfall

:

xun/hr,

yearly

average

:

m#W

design

rainfall

:

m/hr

mm/day

Snowfall max.

snowfall

max.

snowfall

design

weight

snow load

:

mm

:

kg/m2

:

kg/m2 N

1..

1.4.5

Direction max.

and

wind

average

speed

wind

speed

direction

of prevailing

wind

:

load

conditions

1.5.1

plane level

Datum

:

m/s

:

m/s

:

m/s

wind

heignt

Topograph)tic Ground

of wind

(monthly,yearly)

design

1.5

speed

Rearing

1.5.3

Groundwater

1.5.4

Max.

1.5.5

Seismic

1.5.6

Characteristic

of soil

1.5.7

Characteristic

contour

capacity

of

freezing

kg/m2

i

m

kg/m2

-

m

kg/m2

soil

level depth

coefficient

$

m

: : :

E

t

f-B

;;

:

0 --.,

of plant of plant

1.5.2

W

.‘..

m (=EL.OI ton/m2

: : :

1.6

of Land

: (including

considerations

to design)

: (including

considerations

to design)

Applicable regulations, codes and standards A( Applicak.he regulations , codes and Etandards should be as indicated in the contract documents. Hake sure that the regulations, codes and standards applied are in what year's editions. If regulations, codes and standards other than indicated in the,contract are used, the names of such regulations, codes and standards and the reasons why they are used should be clearly stated. 1.6.1

34026

-3-

Customer’s

requirements

1.6.2

Regulations

Items

, codes.and

codes

L)LAYOOT and SAFETY

i i ; i

standards

Regulations and standaerds

] Remarks

0 Law for conditions of plant site 0 Petroleum Kombinat and Other's Hazard Prevention Law 0 Fire Service Law 0 High Pressure Gas Control Law Cl HIT1 ordinance on High Pressure Gas Control Cl MIT1 Ordinance on Liquefied Petroleum Gas Control D MIT1 Ordinance on High Pressure Gas Control: Concerning Kombinat and Others D Industrial Safety and Health Law 5 Law for mining industry Cl Law for gas industry CIOthers .

TEM: 2002 : TES: H-101 H-117 JL-101

,a OSHA WCCDPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION) ' 0 OIA (OIL INSURANCE ASSOCXATION) ; 0 NFPA i q API RPSOOA (RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR CLASSIFICATION

OF AREAS FOR ELECTRICAL PETROLEUM REFINERIES) R OTHERS

INSTALLATION

IN .I

(USSR)

3

(SNIP)

P

O=W

ll.H.l-*

" -0

(1

(GOST)-12.1.004-" " n CODE AND REGDRATION AS To SAFETY TECHNIQUE AND INDUSTRIAL SANITATION FOR FIRE ACCIDENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETRCCREHICAL PLAN ._' OTHERS (DDR)

0 ASAO U%TROCHEMICAL

LARCDR REGULATION)

: D ASA0 (GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE PROTECTION REGULATION) ! DOTHERS i !

(OTHERS)

34026

-4-

Standard building Regulation electrical. equipment installation

for for

Regulation for safety and heath Fire Service Law

1

Items

codes

CJ Codes and standareds 0 ANSI DKHK 0 JIS 1 D ASTM j z1 API j 0 JPI I Cl DIN 10 BS I 0 MSS i G OTHERS

2)PIPING

3)BUILDING STRUCTURAL DESIGN 1.6.3

..._

34026

-5

Regulations and standaerds

Z Codes and standards Cl Building Standards DOTHERS

Index

to piping

design

Remarks

as applied

in

as applied in Law of Japan

of

the

contract.

item(l)

TES:

H-101 H-103 H-106 H-107 H-109 H-110 L-101

item(l)

(in

Japanese

and English)

1.7

Battery

limit

conditions

Temperature MAX.OR MIN. NOR.

CONN SPEC. SIZE

FLUID

! I 1 T i I 1

1 2 3, 4 INCOMING ] I 7 I

i

("C) Design

I

Pressure MAX. NOR.

(KG/CM=) Design

-6-

! 1

!

1

i

! t I

i

3402G

I

i

1.8

Utility

conditions

Followings are utility lines commonly used. Be aware that Fluids each having the same name may have different specs respectively (different design conditions). When detail checking, use the design conditions given in the line schedules. -.

.'....,

..

TEMP.(V)

FLUID

SPEC.

MAX.

PRFSS.(KG/CM2G)

I

MIN.

i

MIN.

MAX.

1. SH (H.P STEAM)

I

2. SM (M.P STEAM)

! I

!

i

!

3. SD 84.P STEAM) 4. SL (L.P 5:CH

i

STEAM)

7. CL (L.P '8.

I !

*i

! !

Ii ,I

I

i i

i i I 1

i

IL

110 . NITROGEN

;

; ; 11. i i 12. i i 13. 1 !14. ! i 15. 1 :l,. t i 117.

COOLING WATER (IN)

I

1 i i 1

COOLING WATER (OUT)

1.

I

; i i

j

1

/

SEA WATER (IN) SEA

.I..

(OUT)

_. 1

.

ii I I

,..

I .f _....

..

1

1 . -f -':I i

I ‘ I t b I I

i.

3402G

-7-

i

i j..!

20. requirements

/

I

I

Customer's

iI

i

19.

1.9

! I

.i

I

18.

t

I

I !

1 9. PLANT AIR

1 ,

I

COND.)

INSTRUMENT AIR

I i 6 I

I

6. CM (M.P COND.) I

!

I

(H.P COND.)

I

I

i

2.

Plant 1.1

PLANNING

layout Plant

area

1.1.1

General 0

advance. ;ic rules

In most cases, However, the when developing

shapes and sizes of plant areas are given by following items should always be considered as a plot plan.

ers

(1)

The plant area should be small as far as safety, operation, This maintenance and construction requirements will permit. results in considerable saving in cost of piping materials and power equipment.

(2)

To layout equipment into a slender area is liable to cause difficulty in obtaining piping flexibility, which increases piping cost due to additional loops and bellows. It is recommended that a ratio 'of long side to short side of plant be 1:1~1.5:1 based on past experiences.

:. (3)

1.1.2

area

Plant areas should be prepared so as to obtain a neat layout having minimum changes in direction of main racks and roads which are backbones of the plant. Layout

of main

in

equipment

To have layout of equipment in a sequence to suit the process flow But, safety le best rule from the view points.of economy and pressure drops. rd construction requirements dictate more or less modifications of this rule. be followings are main items of such modifications.

1402G

-8-

is

(1)

Fired heaters (boilers, reformers, heaters etc.) should be located up wind from other equipment handling flammable liquids or gases, and should be grouped together in one area as far as possible to allow centralized control for safety.

(2)

Equipment such as pumps and compressor handling flammable liquids or gases, which could easily leak out of the equipment, should be located minimum 15 meters ‘away from fired heaters. (Conforming to Regulations for explosion preventions) For other equipment containing flammable gases minimum 8 meters. (Conforming to MIT1 Ordinance on Bigh Pressure Gas Control 12-3)

(3)

Vessels silencer within vessel

(4)

Towers more than 30 meters heigh I- should initially from the installation point of view and located route through which towers are moved into place.

(5)

Large electrical equipment (switch room, motor, large sized switch), if installed within hazardous area, will cause considerable cost increase due to the explosion-protected construction.

taller than the discharge point of fired heater stack discharging hot gases or steam should not be located SO meter radius of the discharge point to prevent the from exposing to hot winds. be reviewed close to the

or

(6) Control room and switch room should be located near the center of the plant and provided with exit on either one side of the room to allow easy access to and from boundary limits. Equipment or piping containing flammable substance should not be located within 15 meters from these rooms. (To keep the room outside Of hazardous areas.) MIT1 Ordinance on High Pressure Gas Control Concerning Kombinat-9 also dictates to have safe distance of 7.5 to 15 meters depending on the degree of hazard for the above case. (7)

Insides of buildings housing ccanpressors handling flammable gases are classified as a hazardous area, including areas 3 meter wide around the buildings of closed type and 15 meter wide around the buildings of open type. All electrical equipment within these areas should be of explosion-protected construction.

(8) Equipment handling poisonous substance should be completely enclosed by a dike to enable collection and recovery of the spillage. Related equipment should be grouped together for this purpose. i

..

(9) Equipment cknected to underground lines such as cooling water or chemical sewer should be properly grouped so as to minimize the length and direction changes of underground pipes which reduces ce with not only piping cost but also the possibility of interfer other cables and foundations. P

:..

i

1.2

1.3

1.4

Safe

distance

Safe

distances

should

conform

THM 2002

to

(Plant

Layout).

Distance 1.3.1

Between furnace

1.3.2

Plant equipment for and furnaces (except

1.3.3

Equipment

1.3.4

Indoor

(outdoor)

Passage facilities

between equipment or piping

Overhead

control

room,

switch combustible piping)

room and liquid

and equipment

15m MIN.

8m

MIN.

0.9m

MIN.

0.6m

passage and other

clearance

1.4.1

Plant roads process

and trucking

1.4.2

Normal overhead inside'battery

1.4.3

Normal

overhead

areas

for maintenance limits inside

battery

inside equipment limits

4.5m

3.5m

2.lm

(MIN. l-4.4

Above platform

and walkway

2.lm

(MIN. 1.4.5

3402G

-9-

Inside

building

1.8m)

2.lm

1.8m)

i

Design

of tank

yard : : I

1.5.1

When Japanese Conform

codes

are

to attached

. :

applied;

* . ..

1.5.2

When NFPA Conform

6

Height

of

1.6.1

Height

is appli&d;

'.

to attached

foundation

top

and floor top

of concrete

EL.+

MAX.150

of gravel

EL.+

MAX. 50 M/M

EL.+

100 M/M

EL.+

MIN.300

M/M

and other .rotating machine e. Compressor (horizontal type) f. Heat exchanger

EL.+

MIN.300

M/M

EL.+

MIN.600

M/M

g- Other equipment-tower.s, structure, h. Pipe rack, 1. Cone roof tank

EL.+

MN.200

M/M

EL.+

MIN.200

M/M

EL.+

MIN.300

N/M

EL.+

MIN.200

M/M e

EL.+

MIN.250

M/M

EL.+

600 M/M (CONTROL ROOM) 1000 M/M (SWITCH ROOM)

b.

Pavement

C.

Cable

d.

J-JF

pit

(top

Valve

k.

Pipe

sleepers

Floor

height

1.6.2

of

00Wr)

.

j.

pit

(top

of

tan&, outdoor

etc. stairway

cover)

control

room and

EL.+

c. 1.7

floor of equipment

Foundation

M/M

of building

floor of a. First gwitch rocm

D. First other

. ..I..’

"r

of foundation

a. Pavement

.:

of

compressor house

house

and

EL.+

MIN.300

M/M

: _,/ _,‘-

EL.+

structure

MAX.150

M/M

/--/

Road 1.7.1

Side

a) Access

and overhead

clearance

road 12000 I=

A z

““/““““““““’

,‘L,“,

Pavement

3402G

-lO-

\

..

:.

‘. .

:

b)Plant

road-type

1

.

Pavement

.1.7.2

c),Plant

road-type

Turning

radius

\

?

at road _.. -

junction

Gradient

2. Installation

3402G

gradient

12/100

and less

F--

I-

2.1

Fd

of platform,

Installation

stairs

and ladder

of Structure

(1)

Structures may be of concrete or steel, unless otherwize specified by customers.

(2)

Structures mounted with such as removal of heat with stairs or ladders.

-ll-

but

steel

should

be used

valves or equipment requiring maintenance exchanger channel covers, should be provided

(3)

Selection

of

a. Use stairs

stairs

in

1) When top grade.

or ladder

the following

platform

of

cases; is 10 meters

structure

2) Top platform is less than area is 50 m2 and more.

10 meters

3) Platforms mounted with instruments etc. requiring patrol by operators 4) Platforms boilers

mounted requiring

5) Platforms frequent

b. Ladder

should

such at

the grade as level

least

with critical equipment emergency operation.

mounted with equipment opening of the covers.

6) Platforms'mounted internally packed

above

such

with equi.pment material..

be used in the

above

but

gauge, a day.

once

such

as reactors

as filters

requiring

requiring

following

and more

frequent

the

platform Sampling

replace

or

Of

cases.

J 1) Platforms 2)

other

-12-

mentioned

above.

In addition to the above mentioned stairs, should be provided at closed end of more blindalley, if any.

should 3) Sub-ladder when the platform

3402G

than

be

area

an escape ladder than 15 meter long

provided on the side opposite is more than 50 m2.

to the

stairs

4) Platforms should have minimum clear width of 800 mm for but additional space is maintenance, inspection and operation, required to facilitate removal of exchanger channel covers and as shown in the drawing below. internals, A, *

Sub-ladder

5c

it.. 'J-

.

Use sub-ladder where P.F. area is more than (If ladder height exceeds 10 meters, use staggered type with intermediate platform.)

5Om2

Min.800 Min.450 Min.800

5om 2 .

sub-ladder where P.F. area is more than (If ladder height exceeds 10 meters, use staggered type with intermediate platform.)

Use

f \

5) Main for

2.2

Installation (1)

Poarforms operation

stairs and ladders operators. of

should

be located

on this

to permit

side

ready

if

no

access

ladder

Tower

a. Ladders should generally more than 10 meters.

3402G

should not be required floor is needed.

be staggered

with

each ladder's

length

-13-

‘.

not

b.

If the should

length

of

ladder

be provided.

Not

exceeds 10 meters, to be use&as far

intermediate

platform

as possible.

intermediate platform

(2)

Pipe

rack .,

.. a.

Main.pipe 'racks mounted with approximatel$ :i?very SO mtftrs

walkways should have 6% the 'i&k length.

ladders

at

-‘T’i..

b.

(3)

Pipe racks ladder. Installation

or

sub-racks of

safety

without

walkway

should

not

generally

require

cage

a. Tower

.

Ladder without cage

Caoe

3402G

-14-

Cage

b. Structure

i

Installation

of platform

under

when ample 2FL the ladder.

1

/////////////////////////////7//////////////~f

2.3

\

' provided

V

i-l,,,,

,’

Not requ.ired

4

0

and ladder

(1) Platforms should be provided for the following items, when such items are located 3.6 meters or more above the grade (2.1 meters or more for instruments at vessels) or 1.8 meters or more above other platforms. .. .. . .- a. $tems requiring surrounding platform underneath ,Qbj,ect 11 Control valves of all size$. 2)

Safety valves IS and more at towers or vertical vessels.

3) Manholes in towers or vertical

vessels. 4) Display and

type level gauges at towers tanks.

5) 8 figured

blind

b. Items which require 1) mV,

AW and

more requiring 2)

flanges. side platform

only

other valves IB and manual operation.

Safety valves 3B and smaller towers and vertical vessels.

at

3) Manholes and others in horizontal vessels or heat exchangers requiring manual operaton and inspection. .

4) Sampling equipment. 5) Valves frequently

operated.

6) Places in the proximity of BL, or places where valves are grouped together.

3402G -15-

(2)

Ladder should be provided for the following items, when such items are located 3.6 meters or more above the grade (2.1 meters and more for instruments at vessels) or 1.8 meters or more above other platforms. 1) All check tanks. 2) Valves

tanks

valves

3)

Gauge glasses. (Platforms should provided if gauge glass requires frequent inspection and maintenance.)

4)

Pressure,

5)

Inspection

6)

Bandholes. (When packed need not be replaced.)

temperature

be

instruments

at

towers

and tanks.

cocks.

material

valves.

Only a stand or portable ladder is required for manholes, valves, instruments etc. requiring manual operation, when they are located at less than 3.6 meters above the grade (less than 2.1 meters for instrument at vessels).

(41

Platforms Hozale

and ladders flanges

b. Temperature C.

Temperature instrument

a.

Spring

c.

Orifices platform).

StairS,

ladders

(2)

load

-16-

instruments

Snow

not

be required

for

the

followings.

and tanks. measuring

vessel

or pressure instrument nor block valve).

for

with

metal

temperatures.

connections

in

the

pipe

(without

a portable

ladder

or temporary

and handrail and handrails

should

conform

to TEC ST'D DWG..

platform

Unless otherwize specified, live load of 200 kg/m2. the

(3)

at towers

(when accessible

ladder

Live

should

hangers.

Stairs,

(1)

3402G

and

(3)

a.

2.5

and

3B and smaller at towers requiring manual operation.

7) Sampling

2.4

at towers

loads should above(l).

platforms

be considered

Loads by pipe supports, heat loading and other maintenance Data aside from the above(l).

should

in case exchanger works

will

be designed

of cold

district,

for

the

aside

channel covers, catalyst be given in The Loading

from

3. Nozzle

Orientation

3.1

Type and size (1)

of

Platforms

for

platform ordinary

vertical

equipment Width B of platform Not to be used as far 1) min.600 2) 800 1 as possible. To be used as a standard 3) 1000 4) 1lOON ) With 100 mm increment max.1500;

(2)

Top platform

for

towers

and tanks

a.

Top platforms standard side

b.

Vessel nozzles, which are normally extended through the top platform bolts or installing block valves.

Reinforcement required for nozzles.

for towers and tanks should clearance of 800 mm.

be of

square

type

with

in standard length, may be to facilitate tightening flange (Consult Hechanical Engineer.)

ribs =e. extended

c.

Openings should,,be made to allow tightening flange bolts spanner if the-nozzles are not extended through platforms.

d.

Platforms should not be connected regidly to neighkx$ing vessels, but should he provided with a clearance approximately 20 mm or connected with slotted bolt-holes to allow for expansion.

(3)

Platform

for

horizontal

using

-17-

a

vessel

Platforms should be provided on the top or side of horizontal vessels lDounted with manholes or instruments requiring operation, inspection etc., if they are located 2.1 meters and more above grade. (3.6 meters and more if no instrument is mounted.)

340x

the

the

Platform a.

for

Selection

of

Height

tank ladders

and stairs

(Dm)

Selection

Less than 6 meters 6 meters and more

b.

with safety stairs

In 4 termediate platforms should height 10 meters or less. Platforms

d.

Ladder Spiral

and handrails

for

cage

be installed

tank

roofs

at

should

For spiral stairs, careful study should sampling connections and other gauges, for operators to handle them.

a uniform

interval

be minimum

required.

of

be made to assure that level instruments are accessible

I

Intermediate platform

.

10m . Cone 3.2

Limitation (1)

foof

on platform

Dome roof

.

Spherical

installation

Manhole

Top manhole g s-l i r*

i

500 -loo0 (750

is

stand

1. Minimum effective side clearance of 500 should provided for passages.

‘48m . 5 4.x

be

2. Manhole davits (or hinges) should generally be designed to allow right-hand opening.

3402G

-18-

3. Menhole davits (or hinges) should be located away from down ladders (left-hand opening) unless a distance down ladder to manhole is sufficient (1,000 as a standard) to provide a passage.

--_ . .-_

(2)

Level

control

H silo00 A irk00 I--

(Provide removing

r-

4

I

I-- 1. I

clearance internal

Manually H> 1000

operated I

from

ladder.

I1

.I A-

\

H>

A distance operation

100 mm Ladder fo be provided from upper platform

=402G

(3)

Gauge glass

a.

Multiple ladder.

-19-

level

gauges

should

be arranged

to stagger

allowing manual from ladder.

on both

sides

Of

b.

I.

If two level gauges are arranged should be closer to the ladder.

on one side,

upper

level

gauge

,_

i :-..:

Max. 1000

Reading

c.

of

level

from

In'general, level gauges should not penetrate impracticable, level gauges may penetrate it liquid level.)

d. Relation

to

feed

60°

\ Install

-2O-

platform. to allow

(If for

this reading

is

nozzle LIC should

34026

ladder

LG within

this

take

Do not instrall segment unless range

precedence LG within deflector

wer this is used.

LG.

e. Level

gauge

in

low temperature

service

on of

Ins;a$on

of Handle

of Gauge Valve Drain Valve

and

Use *A* type level gauge.

when ladder

is located

on the

left

or right

Use "B"

type

when ladder

is

located

on the

left

side

Use "C"

type

when ladder

is located

on the

right

Wultiplc

level

gauges

should

I

the other Valve handle projecting into safety cage. f.

7

When baffle

plate

is

installed

be'installed

the

Be aware of liquid difference between sides of the baffle

Baffle

34026

-21-

Plate

as follows;

late with one.

in

side

I

bottom level both plate.

of of

f>

side level level

of gauge. gauge.

g.

Level

gauges

should

be

located

away from

Away

h.

Level

gauge

Level actual

gauges sizes

(4) aP/CELL

type

for

high

pressure

level

(In general,AP/CELL exceeds 2000 mm.)

type

far

as

pan as

far

as possible.

as possible

service

for high pressure and provided with liquid

seal

should be installed to suit ample space for maintenence.

their

instrument is used where

the

range

Nozzle sixes But, special require

1”.

of

measurement

are generally 3/4'. equipment may (as indicated in

P&I) Platform is required below the *nstrument.

This

pipe

should

Consider

600-1200

be horizontal.

a space

for

instrument

box.

Provide pipe of apprO~iXiately meters length to heat pipe low temperature service.

(5)

Temperature

instrument

a. Check to ascertain b.

34026

-22-

whether

liquid

or vapor

temperature.

When liquid temperature is measured, pay attention sizes and insertion length. (In general, liquid measured.)

+I 97

to downcomer tempetarure is

Or

two

in

c.

Length

of

temperature

instrument

d. Type of temperature instruments with nozzle orientation study, instrument removal.

should be determined considering clearances

All nozzle regardless thickness.

l

Clearance removal [email protected])

If

temperature

1) Install

it

for

instrument in tangential

interferes

a)Displacement

-23-

vessel

tangential

150 mm

internals;

installation,

can be removed difficulty

in platform

use

to an

arises. :.

Opening dimensions information DWG. TAG numbers should

3402G

of

In many cases, temperature instruments immediately upper or lower tray. Consult Process engineer if insertion

(6) Opening

heights are of insulation

direction.

2) If instrument interferes despite a special length instrument. (Consult Instrument Engineer) e.

with

concurrently for the

should also

type

be as shown appear

for

below

and should

instrument

openings.

b)M

appear

in the

c)Piping

(7)

Installation

a. Drop

of Davit

at The Top of

Tower

area

Davits are used for lifting vessel internals when loading. An ample space for dropping and loading vessel internals should be provided on the platforms. ::

:Pipe

Not

davit

good

Dropping

good

area

Davits

operated

fir

may be either

from upper or lower platform.

b. Side

clearance

for

lifting

Consult Process Engineer obtain extended working be determined to provide

3402G

-24-

if special sized platform is required to area. In this case, the arm length should side clearance of min. 450 mm.

3.3

Consideration 3.3.1

on nozzle

orientation

Nomenclature TRAY : Trays, a large munber of equally spaced circular are devices on which efficient vertical vessel, and liquid is performed when product separation using distillation. DECK : Deck, a part of tray, mixing is performed. WEIR : Weir is mounted on the liquid on the plate.

is a horizontal

deck

DOWNCOMER: Downcomer.is mounted between flow down'to.the deck below,

plate

to maintain

platesin mixing of'p.por is required by

on which

an even

flow

the decks allowing the while separating vapor

SEAL POT : Seal pot is a pot provided in the to effectively reduce deck-to-deck

deck underneath distances.

the lowest liquid from

DRFLRCTOR : Deflector is a baffle plate installed against prevent liquid with high velocity from entering vessel.

340x

-25-

of

liquid

the

liquid upward. the

DRAW-OFF POT : Draw off pot, used when draw off from intermediate is a pot provided in the deck underneath required, It provides sufficient depth for liquid collection installation of draw-off nozzle. SEAL PAW : Seal pan is a pan located underneath Overflowed liquid from upper deck. received by the bottom of tower.

vapor

to

downcomer

deck is the downcomer. and

downcomer to seal the seal pan is

inlet nozzle to directly into the

.

Single

Double

flow Downcomer

area

m2

\

ir to shell distance'& .e.. . aowncomer wiazn at. top 1

flow

Center

downcomer

\A

Side

area

downcomer

m2 area

m2

2 I m/m

3I I

weir

=t

Width

Outlet

of pot

weir

Downcomer Area under

downcome

1 Downcomer bottom to tray inlet in/m

Side

340X

View

-26-

.:

:;

m/m

3.3.2 (1)

Considerations

required

In case

feed

a. Locate

of top feed

nozzle

for

to feed

tower

inside

nozzle

of

inlet

weir. Approximately 150 of cross 4-P

Deflector

Single

orientation

flow D=d+one

Do not'locate nozzle here. Open end tee

Double

YInlet

flow

orientation, may be oriented

Double

3102G

-27-

size

up

Ll

weir .Internal

b. If the above feed nozzles

l/lOD or 10 to sectional area.

which is a standard, in any directions

flow

* Dimension straight

detail

is impracticable, by using internal

A does length.

not

require

c.

For

internal

piping,

the

elbow

and .&ee may be of

special

type.

2 It

ii

Min. % d. When the width of inlet weir is smaller tee, closed end pipe with slotted holes

than that of open should be used.

end

.be extended..

.

(2)

In case

a. Vapor

of

intermediate

-28-

feed.

feed

Single

3402G

stage

D In this case, pay attention to manbole posltlon.

flow

Double

flow

b. Liquid

feed Slot$ed

Single

flow

Double

c.

(3)

Draw off

Bottom

holes'

flow

. ..

:. ,:

nozzle

feed

nozzle

iDCJ

good

g&d

good

t-l I

Single

3402G

-29-

good Double

go*

good Sd

* Triple * In this case, two feed are required.

Double

nozzles

(4) a.

Manhole

..

Top manhole But, width

Pay attention to downcomer areas. when the downcomer any direction, 300 mm or smaller.

manhole may be located in radial direction is

in

c300

good T

t fB Single

In

Double

1n case, width of downcomer is 300mm or smaller.

In case, width of downcomen is 3OOmn or larger. b.

Manhole

in

1) Single

the

interm6diate

:. stage

flow

_ 2) Double

Manhole downamer

may be located is 3OOmm of

Not god

Not good -3O-

heke when smaller.

flow Two manholes

3402G

any direction

Two nkhdles

are

required,

when

Not good

N 9

Not good One manhble

2) When baffle

plate

is provided.

~~d~~~~~o~d

Single (5) a.

Types

of

tray

Reduction

to reduce

Double the

size

of large

flow tower

of height

c/:.

L

flow

.:

.: .‘..

1 t1 P b.

r-I I1

Reduction

of diameter

-

3402G

-32-

\

Increasing bubbling area by reducing downcomer area.

c.

Reduction

of

both

height

and

diameter

a) and b) are combined.

Note

: Check carefully for interference of downcomer determining feed nozzle and manhole orientation.

Care

should

internal .

(6) Relation a.

Arrangement

be taken

when *

not

pipe in contact

pot which sometimes ENG'G DNG.

is

to have with the iot shown in

to rcboiler reboiler

of

1)

Single Best

arrangement

flow

Double~flow An altern&v~

arrangement

.

CProvided with 34026 -33-'

baffle

impingement

2) When the amount of liquid is small , arrangement as shown below may be used. In this case, attention should be paid to the location of reboiler return nozzle. Center line of reboiler return pipe should have same elevation with the top of baffle.

(7)

Others

a. Nozzle heads.

should

not

be located

b. Valves

should

not

be installed

nozzles

should

c. 3.3.3

In general, of 50. Considerations exchangers

(1)

Eorizontal

for

portion

skirt

as far

in the be oriented

orientation

with

in other

and instrument to feed nozzles.

nozzles

Vapor #

Feed 4

Do not

Compressor

knuckle

vessel

as possible.

an angular

vessels

suction

locate

outlet

should

increment

and heat

be located

on

out

nozzle

here.

drum

a. Special consideration should be paid for instrument nozzle. (Improper orientation compressor. For detail. see ; 1

3402G

of

vessel

Outlet nozzles opposite side

(2)

on the

orientation may cause

of level shutdown

of

-34-

,”

‘..,,

.: 1”.

/t 9 :

b. Two or more feed nozzles direction, if not, mist

should be oriented will be blown up.

Vertical

type

a. Orientation

heat

same

t

I

\

t

@

...

sood

Not good

(3)

in the

exchanger

is effected

by the

number

of baffles,

._;. Even nuder

Odd number

when total condensation But, consult Process Engineer, (Usually, outlet and inlet temperatures are is used. the same.) b.

inlet nozzles In case of two passes, should be in the same direction.

(4) Access a. There b. Access

hole

and vent

is no special

hole limitation

of shell

side

in skirt on vent

hole.

should be ready to access, and grouped in each area

2) Two or more access holes in one skirt symmetrically to the center of skirt.

being oriented-in as far as possible. should

Three -3%

side

hole

1) Access holes same direction

340x

and tube

be located

the

\rer t. \?essel Ill

.- ,

ALEX.

gene;:2 1

.

3. PIPING 1. Manuals 1.1 ‘. .

related

to piping

Realation

‘.

existing manuals.

between

design this

design

instruction

and other

This design instruction is intended manuals and also to cover drafting

to cover the requirements

The followings

which

are

existing

manuals

is necessary

to utilize

are

manuals.

important items of not included in such

registered

with

Technical

Department. with

this 1.2

Of course, instruction. Related TEM-1005

3402G

-37-

it

such

existing

manuals

together

manuals General

drafting

rules

-2001

Specifications

of transportation

-2002

Plant

-3001

Abbreviations

-3002

Drafting

-3004

Prefabrication

-3006

Types

-3007

Piping

-3015

Underground

-3017

Piping

Vibration

-3025

Weight

of piping

-3036

Rack piping

-3037

Tower

-3038

Maximum

allowable

-3039

Standards

for

-3047

Checking

of

-3048

Checking

of planning

-3063

How to

use piping

-3069

Design

standards

-3074

Pump piping

-3082

How to

-3101

equipment

layout in piping methods

for

piping

drawings

of

sampling

spacing piping

materials

piping span for

piping

design

information

drawings and piping

materials for

piping

maintain

Drafting

methods

for

-3102

Matching

drawings

-3104

Drafting

of key plan

-3105

Drafting

of

steam

tracing

-3106

Drafting

of piping

notes

-3107

Drafting

of special

piping

-3108

Drafting

of hook-up

drawings

-3109

Drafting

of

-3112

Assign

-3113

Drafting

methods

-3114

Design

of quencher

isometric

of drawing

around

piping plot

for

drawings

compressor

design

piping

at

battery

.parts

details

drawings

planning

control

plan

munbers of

,=

lists

and

use

pipes

drawing

(or desuperheater)

limit

and turbine

sheet

2. Drafting 2.1

rule

Unit

and scale

(1) mm should be used as a unit. (2) In general,

comma(,) should not be used in the indication

(3) Nominal pipe diameters

of length.

should conform to job P&I and UFD.

(4) Standard scales are as follows; 430,

l/40,

450,

480,

l/l00

NOTE : Scale column in the drawing made up of piping details should be entered with 'none', and scale column in the drawing made up of piping sections and details , should be entered with the scale of sections. 2.2

Lines to be used Lines 0.9

Application BATTERYLIMIT HWJ.'CH LINE

mm Full

0.8

line Pipes and flanges ZB up to l2B (single line), section of steel structure, ZB and larger in isometric drawing.

mm

Full line .....

Full

I

I I

line

l.l/ZB and under I (single line), pipes and flanges I 14B and larger (double line), ! l.l/ZB and under in isometric drawing, indication of valve handle.!

line

Outline of equipment, structure and building, parts of piping such as valve, strainer etc., hatching of sectional area, dimension line, indication of platform floor and pipe insulation.

Pipes

0.5 mm Full

'

and flanges

0.1 Centerline

of equipmemt and pipe.

; i f i

i f I 1

m--

0.2 mm

One dotted chain line j em--

Two dotted chain line

w-m-----

Dotted line

34026 -38-

Future area and piping outside of TEC battery

or others limit.

I !

Dnobserved portions of equipment structure, building and piping. Size of line should be consistent with respective full line.

1 I ;

2.3

Indication

of

pipes

(Double

line)

Scales

for

piping

l/40

I/30

drawing

1150

l/80

lilO0

L g

-qg3

HE0 3. Piping

E[ti

- -2

14B

z 16~

materials Pipe

3.1

3.1.1

Equation

to determine

the

(1) When Do/t26

or P(1006~)/2.6

(2) When Do/t1006n/2.6

lOO$J-P 1006n+p

I+ c

t = Xinimum required thickness of pipe (mm) P - Design internal pressure (kg/cm2) Do= Outside diameter of pipe (mm) 6= Allowable stress of material (kg/cm2) D= Coefficient of pipe's longitudinal seam, usually 0.85, for SMLS 1.0 C = Corrosion allowance (mm) and dimensional tolerance 12.5 8 3.1.2

Pipes

requiring

Typical Steel grade

Carbon

JIS

Steel

Cr-MO

3.1/2

Ni

-39-

are

shown

heat

treatment

in the

table

ANSI

(PWHT) below. Remark

Thickness

STPG38,42 STPT38,42 STPL39 -. STS38,42 STPY41 SM41B

A53GrA,B A106GrA,B A333Gr6 A524Gr1,II A139GrA A139GrB,C,D

219 219 2_ 19 219 Al9 219

STPA12 STPA22 STPA23 STPA24 STPA25 STPA26

A335GrPl A335GrP12 A335GrPll A335GrP22 A335GrP5 A335GrP6

216 mm 212.7 mm 212.7 mm r: 12.7 mm 2 12.7 mm 212.7 mm

c-1/2Mo lCr-1/2Mo l.l/4Cr-1/2Mo Z.l/ZCr -lMo

STPL46

A333Gr3

219

3.1/2Ni

* It is,advisable point of view. 3402G

pipes

postweld

to have

minimum

welded

joints

mm mm mm mm mm mm

SCr-1/2Mo

SCr-1Mo

mm from

cost

reduction

3.1.3

Pipe

selection

*.

criteria

! Pipes Selection Criteria'. ethylene-aromatic-plant Selection

of

pipe

MAT'L

STEEL

TEMP.(OC)

GRADE L

should be ected by using the attached sheet i! The following tables are actual data for in China. i

1

I

PIPE AND FITTING LARGE DIA. ST'D PIPE PIPE FITING FITTING 1 (PLATE) SDS316 & HIGHER

f SDS316 & i HIGHER i

FLANGE, VALVE, FORGING

i -

I

I i

I

420

i

-

i SFHVlZB 2 . SF45 or i S25C,S28C 350

! AL-KILLED

i

j SPV24 j SM41B or j SS41/STPY41

; SF50 or ; c3oc ; : SS41

1 STPL39 I

i SLA33A or i SLA33B

; ASTM i A350Gr.LF2

-46 '3.5 -102

Ni

I 18Cr-8Ni I

3402G

STPL46

i ! ASTM i: A203Gr.D

SUS304TP

i i SDS304 i

!

-4O-

I

CASTING

BOLT/NUT

SDS316 & HIGHER

!

I

480

-10

BOLTING

I SDS F316 61 SCS14 & I HIGHER I1 HIGHER

i SFHV.22B iSFHV.23B ,

; STPG38 or : SGP.

FITTING

I

i

1

560

'Pipe

material

18Cr-12Ni -MO & HIGHER

600

1.

I

I

i

I -,

or;SCPH21 :

; SCPHll

; SCPH2 i FcMB35 j PCD40 I FC20 I

i SCPLl i

i j SNB16 or j A193Gr.Bl6 / ; A194Gr.4 !* ! SNB7 or jA193Gr.B7 / 'S45C or : Al84Gr.2H. ; S35C/S25C ss41/ss41

SDSF304

j SCPL31 i

j ,

j scs13

I ' sus304 Scls304 I

I

: ' i

:

I A320Gr.L7 * A194Gr.4

i ASTM A350Gr.LF3

!

I j I 1 i

3.2

Valve 3.2.1

Gear operated valve

Pressure rating 150 300 600 900 1500 2500 3.2.2

I I

GATE 18B 148 l2B 8B 6B 6B

and and and and and and

Special

Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger

GLOBE 128 and 1OB and 8B and 6B and 4B and 4B and

Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger Larger

valve

(1) Valve provided with extension stem (2) Valve provided with lock (3) Valve provided with drain nozzle 3.2.3

Valve materiai Standard

of

..'.

valve material

T Kinds of steel Carbon steel

(Body, bonnet and

main parts)

other

VAL\ Borg1ed Steel JIS S28C (1) c3oc (1)

I

Cast

Steel

JIS SCPH2

ASTM A216Gr.WCB

I <

: i

SF45A(2)

:: .

SF50A(2) Carbon steel (Al killed) Low alloy steel C-Mo-Cr-Mo

A350Gr.LF2 t

SFHV12B SFHV22B SFBV23B SFHV24B SFHV25

SFHV26B Low alloy steel 35Ni Stainless steel

Gray cast iron Spheroidal graphite cast iron Black heat---cast iron 3.3

Fitting

3.3.1

Bend

SCPLl

A182Gr.Fl A182Gr .F12

A182Gr.Fll A182Gr.F22 A182Gr .F2 A182Gr.F9 A350Gr .L+F3

FCMBs35

a. Lines which are subject fluid.

3402G -II-

SCPL31

SDSF304 A182Gr.F304 SCS13A SUSF316 A182Gr .F3 16 SCS14A Gas, iron JJS ASTM A126CL.B Fc20 FCDS40 A395 A47Gr.32510

(1) Bend should be used in the following

b.

SCPHll SCPH21 SCPH21 SCPH32 SCPHCl

A352Gr.ICB ---I A217Gr.WCl A217Gr.UC6 A217Gr .W6 A217Gr.WC9 A217Gr.C5 A217Gr.Cl.2 A352Gr .LC3

cases.

to erosion due to abrasive

solids

Downstream of pressure reducing valve which is liable vibration due to high fluid velocity.

in the

to cause

Lines which are frequently

inside-cleaned.

BP 3ding radius Bending radius should be SD (D is pipe outside diameter). Allowance of 7% or more should be provided in thickness to compensate for the reduction of thickness due to bending. 1) High frequency -induction

bending

Because high frequency induction limitation, consult fabricator. ,2

Mitre

bending machine has dimensional

:

,:. .:

. ...

bend

Mitre bends may be used for lines 16B and larger operated at f 7 kg/cm 2 and below and temperatures of 260°C and below or for ind larger operated at 10 kg/cm 2 and below and 200°C and below, but the followings. (1) One-weld mitre

bend

::. _, One-weld aitre bends should,& used for air compressor suction line operated at atmospheric Pressure, and vent line which is open to atmosphere.

One weld mitre

(2) Two-weld mitre

.

.:. ._ :. :..,.I. . .:.:.. . .........,:. _,: .\.. ..,._1.'. .Z..'._ -. .. ".:::: ..'.... _..:,.c .: ,.I

bend

bend

Two-weld mitre bends should be used for low pressure process lines. lines 248 and larger, a nd for all utility

Two weld mitre bend

..: ;.;:

1402G -42-

. . .:

..:..-.,.

(3)

Four

weld

mitre

bend

Four weld mitre liquid containing to 24B.

'

bends should be used for lined and for all abrasive solids,

Four

l

(4)

3.3.3

between

The angle of intersection not exceed 22.S". Mitre

bend

for

Refer

to 8.14

weld

.underground

piping

'Dnderground

piping'

mitre

pipes for gas and process lines 16B

bend

segments

of mitre

bend

should

(C.W.) in

this

design

instruction.

Reducer (1)

Special

reducers

a. When reduced b. Lines c.

(2)

should

to three

168 and larger

When process

fluid

or more for

for

vibration

2) Special

design

for

Lines

of

l.l/ZB

in the

line

which

sizes

standard

following

cases.

down. reducer

is not

available.

requires.

1) Diffuser

Examples

be used

prevention. high

pressure.

installation and smaller ,coN.(No

ECC is

available)

~lC100 m/m and ldger When beam-to-beam span is 1000 mm or larger, top elevations of of pipe deflection resulting the beams may be the same, because from small diameter.

34026

-43-

Piping

with

Verticefl

shoes

line

I

CON.

‘,.;.. . .

I ....

.-~

Branched

connection

-ECC.

(In case of CON, drain accumulate.1

* But, CON may be used for not hydraulic-tested. Section 3.3.4

gas

will

lines

_

drawing

Tee (1) Wonrightangle

branch

connection

is made by pipe-to-pi& welding, the When branch connection amount of reinforcement should be determined, considering not and pressures of piping but also external only temperatures forces which will be applied to it. The angle of intersection between the branch and the run should not be less than IS".

Reinforcemnt rovided, if

Welded

340x

-II-

pipe

to pipe

connection

pad should required.

be

._ . . .. _‘.

"(2)

Welded

branch

Tees 16B and larger should not be shop possible, but should be field fabricated amount of reinforcement. 3.3.5

Standard Application 'Standard

3.3.6

Comparison

application of fitting application of material

Attached sheet ASTM-material'

fabricated as far after determining

as the

of fitting should conform of fitting'. between

to attached

sheet

2

JIS and ASTM

3 'Ccmparison table should be used.

c

of JIS-material

and

Flange (1)

The use of flanges flanged equipment

, in pi&g should be limited and valves, except special

to connections at cases such as :

a. Where dismantling of piping is required. Dismantling at the time of construction. Dismantling for cleaning of piping. (2)

(3)

bended portions in the piping requiring frequent cleaning (at least once a week) should be provided with flanged connections or provided with the bend whose bending radius is SD min. (D : nominal pipe diameter). Flange-to-flange length should be up to 24 meters when pipe'is cleaned from its one end. Sufficient flanges should also be provided for piping requiring occasional cleaning. All

Sheet gaskets should be used for use vortex type. (Check P&I for

aluminum heat piping spec.)

(4) When M and F or T and G facing is used, equipment instrument flanges should generally be female(m). .__-._ (5)

34026

-45-

: I '..-_: ,~. -_ ..:..;. ::

When W and F or T and G facing is used, piping as to allow easy dismantling for maintenance.

exchanger. flanges

should

j

Do not

or

be designed

so

:

pe

.af

work

for piping materials

. Scope of work at equipment nozzle (1) When standard flange connections

(coverid

in

H-103)

are

used.

a. Connection between unit equipment and piping

Mating flange, bolts by Piping Engineer Unit

by 'Piping

5 (Pipe,

equipment

-

and nuts

and gasket,

-

Engineer)

(men though there is a spec. break in P&I, they axe by Piping Engineer, provided

that

mating

flange

is

covered

by H-103.) Valve, by Piping Engineer

5 (Pipe, by Piping

Bolts and nuts and gasket, by Piping Engineer

340X

-46-

-_ Engineer)

b.

Connection

between

unit

equipment

and instrument

by Piping

Engineer

piping

.

Bolts and nuts and gasket) by Instrument Engineer ;. :.

: ._: .:_.. _-.

unit equipment

(Instrument,by

Valve,. bolts and nuts by Piping Engineer

Mating flanges, by Pipina EnUineer

h

Valvr,

by Piping

Instrument

and gasket,

Engineer

A /

by Piping

340x

-47-

Engineer)

Level instrument, by Instrument Engineer

Hanifold (For manifolds, information of main dimensions etc. should be provided by Instrumen t Engineer, and detail design and procurement by Piping Engineer.

nuts and gasket, Engineer

I

(2)

a.

When nonstandard flange connections between unit be as follows : In cases,

only

bolts

connections

(not covered in H-103) and piping or instrument

equipment

and nuts

Unit equipment

are

e

nonstandard.

Sa y valve, by %I strument

-

used, should

are

Engineer

. Bolts

and nuts,

by Instrument \

Gasket; by Piping

Stud bolts

Engineer

by Mechanical

(Pipe

Engineer

and nuts, Engineer

or instrument)

flange and gasket, by Piping Engineer

Mating

b.

In cases,

only

gasket

is nonstandard.

Mating

by Piping

3402G

-48-

flange and bolts Engineer

and nuts,

c.

In cases,

only

connecting

flange

/

d.

In cases rules.

(3)

Blind

of

flange

combination

of

attached

directly

Engineer

(Pipe

instrument)

a.b.c.,

Blind

or

bolts

to be consistent

to the flange,

by Mechanical

(4) Notes

and nuts

Mating flange, by Mechanical

$5

Unit equipment

is nonstandard.

nozzle

of

bolts

unit

and gasket,

with

the

above

equipment.

and nuts

and gasket,

Engineer

:

a. Though above mentioned scope of work is a standard practice, cofirmation of the scope should always be made by Piping Engineer. b.

In cases of rotating equipment or aluminum carefully for flanges which art officially in R-103 or flanges having larger thickness or strength requirements.

c.

When welded

heat exchanger etc., check standard but not covered because of manufacturing

joints are used, attention should be paid to the dimensions of inside and outside diameter of pipes, their tolerances and end preparation etc.

d. When nozzle-to-nozzle check to ascertain

connection of two pieces of equipment who is the originator of bolts and nuts

is made, and

gasket.

t.

3402G

-49-

When special piping equipment, consult

design is required for reformer the originator of such equipment

and other without fail.

Cng with of work in 'Split ng with

instrument between instrument of work for piping vendor's

engineer and piping materialsg, which

engineer is agreed

should be by them .

.I'..-. : ;,_

. :.

:

,.

piping

general, matching joints art made by welding. Attention should paid to the dimension of inside and outside diameter of pipes, ir tolerances and end preparation etc. Mction or confirmation should be made without fail ts, support points, displacement etc. in relation ss. I with

customer'6

equipment

neral, matching of pipes are id to the dimension of inside tolerances and end preparation ed where required.

of anchor to thermal

and piping made by welding. Attention should and outside diameter of pipes etc. Special fittings shduli be : _.I,

: .:.I ,I: - _ .:. ,. -- .. :.,g:-. ,__ .. ., ,.,..:.. :.: ::'. : I :.:.. .:. :. ..- . ... .. ..:.

?r Supply equipment, when connected with TEC's piping should >fully checked for flanges and pipes not covered in Hll.03. ges not covered in R-103 are used, Buyer should be request& Ly their mating flanges. The confirmation of the above !d should be made without fail. :

:...-.

.: :.....'

...

2.1

Cel\?ral

:

InS1AlatiOn mwn herctunder. Z

Hot

de::ign

shoulc’

be in accordance

with

L-101.

The outlil\?

will

:.,lsulation

5.2.1

Scope

of

,rpplicat

ic+l

(1)

;tfot. insul,\tion shou.‘.lj be appllc!d for equipment/piping of nigher terclberature, exlcuding chere heat ‘loss is fzjrorable.

800{: or

(2)

lh->t insulat .iOn should be appliec’ for lr*ter temperature, whtzn necessai*,y.

800~ or

equil,ment/pipil\T

of

.-

..,.

(3)

Equipment

an:’

its

part:,

shown

below

should

ilot

-.

be inntllated.

.. _; ‘\

a. Boti’\?r, b.

Compretsor.

Expl,?sion mechanical

joir ‘:( rotatic equipment.

:. Excha r\ger ‘s charnel

joint,

9; & :

valve

1 ad

othel-

similar

cover.

Desigr Design

I:ri ter ia

Should

A)E?in accol*lgance

luid

te,\perature

general, :ign

.fx

operati.?g

tem\h?rature,

witL

the

case

calculi\

tion

of

t1x.\ckness

of

tht!

temperaLure hvhen heat-,:

rotec

‘.‘300 h/y

ot JIS

A 95111.

fluid.

ted.

Irated ti\por tempel’ature cortesponding al temperature is unknown.

to the

prcb;sure,

whc\l

in Of appl i cat ion rsulatici\ should bc’ applied t’or equipm’?nt/piping emperatXlre, exclut’ling where .Yeat absori)tion

is

c,f Sac or f tvorable.

ulation should be applied for equipmel\t/piping ai: 50~ or !mperatr\re but unc’ttr ambient temperatul,e, in ordr?r to :ondensat:ion of moisture on the surfact? when : \sation

\rould

caust’

electric

sation

\+Duld caustl

damage

danger. tcl the

equicllent.

:ection If application nt/PiPin9 of 65°C or higher temperature, liable to be rd by operators during their work, should be hot-insulated iolated by protective means, in order to prevent ~1’s burn , when the equipment/piping is located: 800 mm above 00 mm from

grade the

edges

or

.: -.-:: . . . :.:

; I .,: :.r.-

.“.

; ...;.:_.: :- .’ . . ; .::: .y: -: ,. ‘: : :: .: .:. : ::. .: .:. ..;_‘:..::. .F’.

floor. of

platform

or

walkway.

application

rack fed.

columns within hazardous area should The extent should be up to the first

al or ed.

intermediate

transverse

beams -should .'.

be

transverse not

be

ure ures should be fire-proofed, where the structures are .L. of a process unit handing flammable liquid, or Elapse of the structure can cause severe damage to Init. The fire-proofing should be for columns only, ting from foundation to 2nd floor. :” .

‘.

: : _.

..

.,’

:-.

.-

Support

structure

for

furnaces

furnaces should be fire-proofed, unless Support structure d s for the furnace handles-only non-combustible fluid or there is only hydrocarbon vapor in the tubes. Even when the furnace handles only non-combustible fluid or there is only hydrocarbon gas in the tubes, the support structure should be fire-proofed, if the structure is within 6 m from a. furnace whose structure is fire-proofed. The fire-proofing should be for columns only, the extent being from the foundation to bottom of the furnace. Horizontal beams should not be fire-proofed.

.2

:

:..

.: : ;. :

:-.

Design

. . .’

:, .’

. .

..,

:

Fire-proofing Structural

and

should

Configuration

:.

.’

,.

_:’

skirts for with concrete

,

which fire-proofing is of min. 50 mm thickness.

3

.

50

oise

protection

i.6.1

Scope

of

(1)

Insulation discharge reducing

(2)

Specifically, the stage

application for noise protection should be applied pipk,ng of compressors or other similar valve and its downstream piping).

-53-

:,

the of

job.

scope

of

.. .

._. :.:

material

vessel’s be covered

steel

necessary (2)

lining

..

:.. _.

(1)

:.

application

should

be

especially on piping (pressure

decided

on at

. .- . :. .

.

:

.‘_ ,.

I’

Design

5.6.2

(1)

6. Noise 6.1

Noise

protection

material

Glass

wool,

rock

wool,

of

noise

*. hard

cement,

etc.

and vibration Noise 6.1.1

General (1)

Purpose Noise

control

a. workmen's b. plant c. (2)

For

be made for

the

purpose

of:

health

preventing

stage

should

in preventing

safety,

Noise

control

public

distraction

nuisance

protection

of operator's

attention.

to noise.

design

prevention of noise, considerations of design, as follows. equipment/apparatus

Layout should be such that equipment/apparatus producing large noise is located away from areas where regulative restriction severe, or located behind a building. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to:

2) wrap

up the

3) provide

6.1.2

Noise (1)

level

source

sound

4) enclose the equipment.

the of

protection

source

of

source

noise wall noise

of

with

noise. sound

absorption the

source

shielding

of

around

with

noise.

material. of

-54-

noise.

building

and

limitation

When customer's observing the

specification exists, specified values.

design

should

be

l L

3402G

the

b.

to

lesser

at

Select

a muffler

produces

be paid

a.

1) attach

which

should

done,

iS

(2)

When customer's

done,

specification the followings

observing

is non-existent, as a rule in

design general.

visited is done

occasionally, occasionally.

and Area

where

Inside of B.L.

Walkway, and Area where maintenance done frequently during operation Operation maintenence operation. Control

Outside of B.LOn the boundary line of complex

34026

-55-

1 (In

view

work

work area, and Area where work is done constantly

be

Exposure to noise

Max. noise level

1 Zh/day or lOh/week I

' 1QOdBA iI

Location Area work

should

is

during

4h/day or 20h/week

i

95dBA

Bh/day or 4Oh/week

1 9OdBA

I

! room,

and Office

of only

the

plant

(In view of all plants within whole complex altogether)

1 55dBA concerned) the

whole

..

1 ,

-

1 60dBA j 65dBA II

6.1.3 noise control

sources of noise Kinds of major sources of noise are as follows. Specifically, measures should be decided on, at the stage of job. Kinds of source

of noise I

Classification

Source of noise

I

1.

Rotating machine and chemical machine

Machine proper

-

Putml

r 2.

Canpre ssor

A 1.

Piping system

7.

others

Driving

1.

F=t

2.

Exhaust to

1.

Steam turbine/Governor Motor/Gear box Vent/Silencer

2.

steam

G-8.

3.

Safety valve Control valve, pressure reducing valve

PipiqJ

2.

parts

c 3. 4. 5. 1. 2.

I

3.

Combustion

4.

Note

3402~

-56-

3ther s : (*l)

medium I1 arae medium I medium low large medium medium large hiqh mediumme-urn high lame I 1 high large high small high medium mediumhigh large high large low

tnwar c”“s*

Air-fin cooler Vibrating mill

Piping -

i n”

6.

5.

1. 2.

PM1 “uw&a.raJ

trap

(*2)

Butterfly valva 1+3) Restriction orifice (*2)(*3) Ejector . Steam desuperheater Noise from rotating machine Noise from piping parts

High speed flow friction noise 1. Furnace 2. Boiler 3. Flare stack I 1: Transformer 2. Vessel 3. Air compressor suction port 3.

--;I4

hxqh high

Blower ,

-

LIX?diUIp-

,l. 3.

Noise (*l: enerw medium large

I Cycle(*l)

-

high

"

large

medyy x large mediurpmedium xrh high I large high large med umhigh i arae high large hign medium iOge-aum I med=s low--‘ medium I medium low large low small high small high large

Values of cycle and noise energy shown in the table apply only in general. They are subject to change according to the size of equipment, etc. (*2) Noise is produced when shock wave emerges. (*3) Noise is produced when cavitation occurs.

6.2

Vibration 6.2.1

General (1)

Purpose

of

Vibration

-5-f-

countermeasures

countermeasures

a.

preventing

excessive

b.

preventing vibration.

deterioration

c.

establishing without any

d.

preventing

public

(2)

Vibration

prevention

For the supports

34026

vibration

stress of

nuisance

of vibration be designed

Isn’t

b.

and also Isn’t it

source

c.

replace it Isn’t there

d.

Isn’t

e.

Isn’t the piping Is the location

liable to of supports

f.

Is

of

g.

Isn’t it possible thermal stress is

h. . i.

Isn’t

there

Isn’t

the

of start-up) possible to

there

to

which

due

to

performance operators

strength

any piping

purpose

of:

can

due

to

run

the

plant

vibration.

prevention, piping under consideration

of

vibration?

remove

the

(in

source

case of

by one with lesser vibration any need to provide straight any

the

vibration.

operating in

for

design

a.

the

any

be provided

due

circumstances anxiety.

purpose should there

should

need

to

increase

suffer from appropriate? sufficient?

to utilize severe?

shock

liable

of

of

normal

vibration,

or

force

to

producing force? run length?

any vibration?

absorber,

in

the

case

resonance? to

operation

thickness?

supports

fear

route and piping of the followings.

any

equipment

to

vibrate?

where

6.2.2

Vibration (1)

Fluid

I

of piping

Piping which Major sources consideration vibration are Furthermore, for vibration

requires consideration of vibration countermeasures of vibration which should be taken into in the piping design and the causes of such as shown below. refer to '6. Loading Condition and Allowable Stress' load.

Source

Cause of

of vibration rg pump

Liquid ,^ a-. (Gas/llq mixture)

Gas, Steam

natural ; phenomennon I

I

Lntrifugal pump Restriction orifice -Butterfly valve, Gate valve Centrifugal pump Gas/liquid mixed flow Others Reciprocating compressor Roots type blower Centrifugal compressor Blower Restriction orifice Pressure reducing valve Safety valve Steam line IOthers Wind

Pressure ! Surging

vibration i

pulsation

! ! I 1

(*3)

Cavitation

(*4)

! Two-phase I

flow

Pressure

pulsation

(*5)

! ,f I t

Surging Shock wave 1 1 I 1 1 1 I

(*6)

Discharge counterforce Water-hammer

jL 1

i

Wind pressure, Karman vortex, Vibration of fixing point Vibration of fixing point

Note: (*3) (*I) (*5) (*6)

34026

For pumps which are liable to surge at start-up, vibration prevention measures should be planned in advance. This is liable at high speed liquid flow. Two-phase flow lines are indicated specifically by Process Engineer. Shock wave emerges when downstream pressure is lower than l/2 of upstream pressure.

-58: .

(2)

Pipings

which

require

attention

with

regard

to resonance

Major sources of vibration which should be taken into account the piping design in order to prevent resonance and conditions for occurrence to such resonance are as shown below. Fluid

Source

of Vibration

Reciprocating Roots

type

I

pump pump

Liquid Roots type meter Thermowell

flow

f

i’

Roots

type

blower

I Thermowell

I

I

(3)

resonance

Vibration

of equipment

caused

' Causes

Centrifugal compressor Turbine 7. Cathodic 7.1

protection

Cathodic

Ascertain accordance ascertain

for

; i

I( and, I1

if

piping is not considerations

in

at equipment

f Misalignment i Cavitation

of

shaft

coupling

static

to Eng'g

-59-

Major Spec.

points H-119.

required

Misalignment

of

shaft

coupling

Misalignment

of

shaft

coupling

1 Unbalanced

rotating

electricity

protection

shaft

in design

of consideration

Detail design should be made, specific resistivity of soil, obtained by site survey, etc.

should based pH of

be

as

; I

1

protection

Consideratins

(1)

3402G

1 Causes

and grounding

and 1

7.1.1 Object of its application and related laws and regulations whether cathodic protection should be adopted or not, by ITB or in with the customer's requirements. When it is to be adopted, about any related laws and regulations. 7.1.2

refer

at piping

Excessive nozzle cunterforce Mixing-in of air Insufficiency of EPSH (incl. unbalanced flow) Excessive nozzle counterforce Excessive nozzle counterforce Mixing-in of drain

Centrifugal Pump

tI

piping

by

Equipment shown below is liable to vibrate designed properly. This requires particular the piping design.

Equipment

]

1. Coincidence of frequency of pressure / pulsation and natural frequency of liquid column--pipeline (liquid column resonance) 2. Coincidence of frequency of pressure pulsation and natural frequency of piping system

steam

I

for

1. Coincidence of frequency of Karman vortex i natural frequency of thermowell 1. Coincidence of frequency of pressure pulsation and natural frequency of gas column--pipeline (gas column resonance) 2. Coincidence of frequency of pressure pulsation and natural frequency of piping I system Il. Coincidence of frequency of Karman vortex natural frequency of thermowell * I

Reciprocating compressor Gas,

Conditions

in

follows.

on accurate soil, etc.

values

which

For

details,

of are to be

I 1 I

(2)

It should be decided on in early stage, which of the impressed current system and galvanic anode system is to be adopted.

(3) Application (4) Ascertain 7.1.3

extent about

Comparison system See

the

of cathodic any place

between table

of

impressed

protection electrical current

should

be

shown clearly.

discontinuity. system

and galvanic

anode

shown below.

A COMPARISON OF GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEM AND IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEM IMPRESSED CURElNT SYSTEM

OUTLINE SYSTEM

OF

In this system, the negative pole of the external D.C power source is connected to the structure to be protected and the positSve pole to the electrode immersed in the electrolyte

In this system, anode metal of lower potential than that of structure to be protected, is connected directly or with lead-wire to the structure

1. Can be applied to a wide range of structures including, if necessary, large, uncoated structure. 2. Use is less restricted by the resistivity of the soil or water.

1. They are independent source of electric

i ! !

3. Requires relatively simple controls and can be made automatic to maintain potentials within close limits despite wide variations of conditions. 4. Requires generally a small total number of anode and long life.

MERITS

1. Requires a main supply other source of electric power. 2. requires structures DEMERITS

groundbed

structures

3402G

-6O-

GALVANIC ANODE SYSTEM

the effects that are

to

on other near the

of protected

to be assessed.

of any power.

2. Their usefullness is generally restricted to the provision of local protection. 3. They are less likely to affect any nearby structures because the output at any one point is low. 4. They are relatively to install.

1

simple

1. Their use may be impracticable except with soils or waters with low resistivity. 2. Their output can not be controlled but there is a tendency for their current to be selfadjusting. 3. They maybe required at a large number of positions. Their life varies with conditions so that fill up the anode may be required.

; * I f

.

7.2

Grounding (1)

static

for

Grounding

of

electricity

piping

protection

(standard

All piping containing grounded as follows:

practice

flammable

of

installation)

gas or liquid

a. If

any flange connection of the made of insulating material, with bonding wire (conductor).. like

piping all

should

and

is connected by bolts or the flanges should be provided .

b. When bolts are not made of insulating material, for each 30 m length pipe and grounding should of the bonding.

bonding should be made be made at the place

c.

Bonding flanges.

d.

If length of piping connected to equipment is 30 m or shorter, such piping should be deemed as a part of the equipment and, therefore, bonding and grounding are not required.

(For a.

wires should be connected to lug plates They are not to be connected to bolts.

Dangerous electricity.

fluid

which Class

2) Ether, Formic

Class Carbon esters,

are

liable

1 (Crude oil, Light oil, 2 (Kerosene, 3 (Fuel oil,

Class

disulfide, Pyridine,

b. Notes - Safe

about flow

electric velocity

to cause Gasoline, etc.) Light oil, Lube oil,

Collodion, Chlor-bensol,

3) Powder which can cause disaster non-conductive powder (systhetic contained in pneumatic conveyor

-61-

which

are

welded

to

reference)

1) Petroleum products

340X

be wired

disaster

due to static

Solvent

naphtha,

Diesel Creosote

oil, oil,

Tar,

Xylol, etc.)

etc.)

Acetone, Acetic esters, Animal/vegetable oils,

due to staticelectricity, resin, wheat flour, pipe.

etc. incl.

etc.)

charge is 1 m/s or lower,

- For a given is larger.

flow

velocity,

- For a given larger.

pipe

dia.,

electric electric

for charge

charge

is

petroleum

products

is larger larger

when pipe

when velocity

(API) dia. is

(2)

Standard

a.

Bonding

practice between

Lug for

of

installing

pipes Luge to be fabricated instailed by piping fabricator.

bonding _._ -.

b.

Bonding

between

lugs

valve

and

and pipe

SW terminal

I V8mm2

Lugs' to installed c.

be

fabricated

by piping

Rack piping should be connected to grounding main, length of pipe. Rack columns should be treated in the piping.

for the

and fabricator. each same

30 m way as

c

IV14mm2

External damage protection pii= Not required when there is no fear of external damage.

Grounding

34026

-62-

main

-

d. Dimension/material

of lug and terminal

1) Dimensions For insulated

pipe(L=30+thickness

of insUlation)

To fit

to tolt

size

SUS terminal

Dimension of Lug 2) -Material When pipe material is alloyed be the same as ipe material. P design details

8. Piping 8.1

Piping

around tower and vertical

8.1.1

Layout

(1) Typical

Location

t?

steel

or SDS, lug material..should

tank

arrangement around tower

Of: manhole f---l

,.L \-

P 'iping

to

(Conde

b

3402G

-63-

Area for piping

' to eqti

.:

(2)

Considerations

required

a. Replacement b. Maintenance c. Lifting/dropping For all (3)

Installation

to maintenance

area

are:

accessories

should

can be affected

(using

be provided

pipe

davitl

on grade.

by:

pump

Head for

for

reboiler

spontaneous

d. Combination e. Pressure handling f.

enough

height

b. Thermosiphon c.

regard

of filling work for reboiler of valve and tower

of above,

a. NPSH of

with

with

flow-down

reboiler

loss occurring liquid which

(gravity

of other

flow

line)

neighboring

tower

in the line up to the control is at near its boiling point

valve,

when

Others

8.1.2

Nozzle For

8.1.3 (1)

orientation

nozzle

orientation,

Piping

around

Height

of

refer

to

'Par.

3 Nozzle

Orientation'

tower

nozzles

at the

of

bottom

tower

Elevations of bottom draw-off nozzle (X17) and drain nozzle (131) They are rather affected by the cannot be fixed uniformly. But, as far height of skirt, NPSH of pump and other conditions. the followings should be observed in order to have as possible, uniformity in each plant area.

In (*)

of

a. Suction shortest b. No pocket

3402G

-64-

of

leg

To be decided on case by case, where considerations are required for NPSH of pump, headroom for operators (min.2100), and height of the destination point to which the piping is connected.

In design

C.

case

bottom

draw-off

line

line of pump should length. should.be

to pump, have least

made in the

number

of bends

and

piping.

Location of supports and shape of the piping should be given careful attention, so that any undue force caused by expansion the piping will not be effected to the pump.

of

Installation

(2,

of valves

In principle, valves should be installed directly, so that drain cannot accumulate is shut. Drain here.

tit

(3)

Flexibility

Cal-l

against 'there

the nozzles when the valve

accumulate

Qood

g-a

'. : ..

of piping

Attention.should be paid to the thermal expansion of piping When 'the piping is such that the feed positi& can be alterid changeover operation of valves which are connected respectively. -some number ,sf. Feed nozzles located at different elevations.

Loop

* G 4:5-

be avoided

as far as possible.

.

Support

Any control valve or anchor directly underneath vertical

to

Supports and piping route should be planned with attention to any difference of expansion between the tower and the _piping, . caused by temperature gradient within the tower or dissimilar materials used for the tower and me piping.

f

\

should

by

. support piping.

should

not

be placed

.

Piping connected to equipment should be of them due to wind etc., the procedure

11. Displacement due to force 1 extermal (wind pressure, / earthquake) ! :2. Displacement ; due to heat I

each of neighboring checked with regard pressure, earthquake, being as follows.

i

!

(2

2. Guided cantilever method ODT

(Note)

3402G

-66-

Use of bellows

\1

/Any problem to be i discussed in consulltation with Process Engineer I

alculation 1. Process requirements b. Support 3 . Esthetic appearance A

towers or other fixed to sway and displacement thermal expansion,

OUT

Iplanning

\1

should

be avoided

i

I Use

‘i

(4)

Clearance

Attention not have contact.

. (5)

Roundabout

to

Attention not with reinforcing

contact

of piping

In general, rising piping should pass vertical But, nozzle to which the piping is connected. the piping may be as follows:

Kin 4z

to have ring.

Min.

center line of when inevitable,

the

Min.

Flexibility

(Use guide if H is short) -

BV should be provided at a place near to the nozzle possible. This applies even when there is &&&out piping. Supports should be provided in the vertical piping. (6)

as far as of the part of the

Reboiler

a. Outlet piping of reboiler should have least number of bends and shortest length, because pressure drop is critical in there. Furthermore, in case of thermosiphon type reboiler, attention is required because there are some restrictions with regard to the position of nozzle and the installation height of the equipment, in order to have proper circulation of the liquid. b. Because the piping around reboiler is generally of large diameter, careful attention is required to the thermal stress and the load effected to nozzle. Especially in case where there is stand-by equipment, spring supports may be used to support the reboiler, in order to cope with temperature difference between the operating equipment and spring support should not the stand-by equipment. (In general, be used, however.) 3402G

-67-

(7)

Sampling

piping

Sampling nozzles should preferably be located adjacent to the platform. If sample nozzles are inevitably located at a higher level, the sample piping should be extended downward to the platform or grade, as shown in the Fig. shown below.

-

Sample

connection

Platform Example (8) 'Hose a.

b.

station

of

sampling

and other

Pipings for hose station, etc. should be extended so that tower possible,

small

piping dia.

piping

methanol injection, upwardly altogether clips can be planned

Hose station should be located at the does not interfere with manhole.

PDI, fire-fighting, in a group as far accordingly.

end of

platform

20 that

C. In case of especially tall tower, attention is required temperature difference between the tower and the piping, provide flexibility of the piping accordingly. d.

3402G

-68-

Attention is tower top.

required

to possible

movement

of pipe

davit

as it

to any and to

at

the

8.2

Piping

around

8.2.1

Type of Shell letters

alphabetical

heat

exchanger

heat

exchanger

and tube type heat exchangers as shown in the table below.

Front end station head types

Steel

are

expressed

by three

Rear end head types

types

'4 e? pbe sheet k&'A stationary One pass

shell

Channel and remo+Sble--c&er Fixed Lii"B"

-------

tube sheet stqtiontiy

Wo pass shell #ith longitudinal saffle F$xe$ sube sheet Fe2 C stationary Bonnet (integral cover)

T ------1

Split

flow

Outside floatinu

packed head

Floating head with backing devic Double

Channel integral with tube sheet and reiuovable cofef

split

flow

Pull through floatins head

T 1 Divided

flow U-tube

*I ! LL; &ecial pressure 3402G

-69-

hi

h cP osure

II UJCI Kettle reboiler

type

bundle

Packed floatin tube sheet WIxi! lantern ring

8.2.2

Considerations

required

for

arrangement

and piping

(1)

Arrangement should operation on valves

(2)

Where heat exchangers are installed side by side, coolant pipings and valve-operation positions should be placed at the same side of the heat exchanger.

(3)

Space should be provided so that removal cover and tube bundle can be made easily.

(4)

In case of heat exchagers installed within a building structure where trolley beam or the like is provided, be avoided to have any piping running just above the of the heat exchanger.

(5)

Piping should be as short as possible, unnecessary loop or pocket.

(6)

Piping, when connected with a nozzle located far from the should be arranged under' fixed-side saddle of heat exchanger, movement due to thermal consideration of the heat ex de #ger*e expansion. Usually, the saddle at the channel side is fixed. .' t ..

!

Fixed

be such that enough space and instruments, and for

side

Sliding

valves,

is provided for walkway, as well.

of channel

without

having

In principle, the nozzles.

(8)

Consideration is required to have the shape of the which no excessive force is effected to the nozzle weight or thermal expansion of the piping, together consideration to have supports accordingly.

(9)

Alteration

flow

blinds,

etc.

should

be installed

be done process nozzle, made by

3402G

-7O-

any

against

piping caused with

in by the

from the view points of piping requirement, etc., to alter flow for which etc. of a heat exchanger Process Engineer.

However, such alteration should be made only after close cooperation with Process Engineer, since the affect the rating of the heat exchanger. directions

or a it should center line

direction

When necessary, it can design, maintenance or direction, position of rating design has been

Flow

shell

side

(7)

of

cover,

should

be in principle

such

that:

a study alteration

in can

. . . ..

a.

Low temperature fluid fluid flows downwardly.

flows

b.

Preferably, high temperature in counterflow relationship.

d.

(10)

and low

high

temperature

temperature

fluid

if the fluids passing through the heat exchanger are liquid non-condensable gas, and [email protected] is of multi-pass configuration, inlet and outlet' can be exchanged each other, shell side and also at tube side. If tube side is of single pass configuration, can be exchanged each other, provided that at both of shell side and tube side. Alteration

Floor sxc

a.

In general,

b.

When pipe installation installation This

of nozzle

are

t Y&c

(A) (A)-type

occurs

at

inlet and outlet exchange is made

h

or paving

dia.

this

Or

type

should

(B)

be used.

it may require that heat exchanger’s is iarge, If there is any restriction height be increased. height, (B)-type should be used.

for

installation

height

same as the

- When heat exchanger is to be installed underneath and any increase in the heat excha%er's installation would require unnecessarily high structure. - When heat

exchanger

- When heat

exchangers

is mounted are

on a horizontal

the

structure height

vessel.

to be stacked.

When (B)-type is used, this should be informed So this should be decided Mechanical Engineer. stage of piping study.

to vendor through on at the early

- Dimension

Engineer.

‘a’

of

example:

- When it is desired to have other heat exchanger.

c.

flows

‘I .,

However,

c.

whereas

upwardly,

should

be decided

on by Piping

- Dimension 'h' should be checked in accordance with the table of 'Drain piping dimensions for each type', which is included in 'Par. 9.14 Drain, vent'.

34026

-71-

8.2.3

Example

(Example

of piping

:.. No p&icular

* In case

of W.N.

(Example No particular required .for

horizontal

type

'heat

consideratio ration

flange,.

this

s-hould

be make-up

-72-

size.

2) consideration operation

Piping to be removable (determined case by case)

/7

34026

exchanger

1)

.

..

around

These lines valve

to be symmetric when there is i~o in the lines

- Supply general,

lines for two units symmetrical lines.

- No particular cooling water (Example

operated

consideration vent valve.

is

in parallel

required

for

should

operation

be,

in

of

3)

Cavitation is likely to happen due to pressure reduction in the neighborhood of the valve outlet. Low insta we ferred

(Example

llati

.on level

is

4) Flanges required maintenance* (determined case Long

for

. by case)

elbow

Support should be removable (If not, inconvenience is incountered when putting blind or removing pipe) To allow of drain

8.2.4 (1)

installation valve

- If necessary, considered. the type of

flanges In this support.

Piping

rehoiler

around

Determination

a. .Where

there

of

for the purpose case, attention

reboiler's

is no stand-by

leg

(i.e. pipe

-73-

no changeover

forces

. 3402G

should be also for

length

reboiler This

of maintenance should be paid

reboiler

Piping should flexibility

operation) to

slide

have

1) Determine the height AL1 is equal to that

of of

legs, so that elongation reboilerAL2 +AL3.

2) When reboiler is slidable, designed with consideration by the reboiler.

of

vessel

supporting structure should be for friction counterforce exerted

31 Reboiler should be slidable in such a way that ‘it can move sufficiently by the expansion force exerted onto the nozzle. We Teflon sliding plate.) ' 4) Check should - When r&oiler piping.

be done

for

strength

is made slidable

of the

nozzle.

to absorb

the

elongation

U,se sliding Direction

of

plates of

sliding

Bolt holes &o be slotted in the direction of sliding

Bolt

hole de

1: Length for allowing d: Bolt hole dia. for

.-.

displacement the bolt used

Clearance of sliding - When there is no need to make reboiler need to have bolt holes slotted).

required for provi+n pad and liner (2omj slidable

Thermal expansion by piping flexibility

Clearance 3402G

-74-

of

liner

required (2Oumd

(There

is no

absorbed

for

provision L

it should be avoided thermal stress.

In general, alleviating

to have

bellows

for

Bellows (riot to be used far as possible

b.

When there operation).

is stand-by

1) Determine the reboiler AL2 and check the produced when

reboiler

(i.e.

there

is changeover

height of leg, so that the elongation of +AL3 is equal to that of vessel ALl, stresses of piping and nozzle neck which the reboiler is shut down.

are

2) If the result of this check is 'out', increase the flexibility of the piping by altering the size or type of the reboiler after a study in cooperation with Mechanical Engineer, and recheck the stresses. the reboiler should be supported by If this is not possible, springs. In this case, check of the stress produced by load change (due to deflection) of the spring is required. (In general, spring should not be used, however.)

When reboiler is to be slidable, direction of its movement llh0uia be like this

3) Arrangement symmetrical.

of

reboilers

and pipings

in

parallel

4) Route of the piping should be simple as far After that there will occur only small AP. been fixed, AP should be checked by Process 34026

-75-

should

be

as possible, so the route has Engineer.

(2)

Considerations

a. Removal

required

of

rehoiler

in view

of maintenance

head

Provide

Here,

space

lifting

for

flanges

up

are needed

Reboiler Heat exchanger welded nozzle b.

with

In case where one reboiler 'is put out of operation for maintenance while the other reboiler is under operation, consideration should be given for positions of valves and flanges (to enable removal of rehoiler's cover).

Area

for

removal

Position *Provision

(3) a.

Check

of

thermal

Calculation

of

1) Temperature 2)

Calculate

at max. nozzles,

3402G

-76-

stresses the

elongation

when installed

around of

of

cover

bf valve of flanges

reboiler reboiler

= -5°C

(however,

if

for

cold,

the difference of elongations of vessel and operating. temperature, and check the stresses. see Par.b)

55Oc) reboiler (For

a. This is a kind of heat exchanger composed of a combination of elements, each being made up of two aluminum sheets and a wave-shaped fin brazed to the sheets ,. so that each fluid passes through respective space along the wave-shaped fin, and heat exchange accurs through the fin and the sheet.

b.

Merits

1) Compared with,shell and tube type heat exchabger, several to about 10 times larger heat transfer area can be obtained with the volume being the same. Therefore, it is very compact and of light weight. 2) Efficiency

of heat

exchange

is good .and loss .,’

is

small.

A^---

3) It

is

because

4) Various

inexpensive when used for of its use of aluminum. flow

patterns

5) When shape of heat transfer c.

2) Material

-78-

service,

can be obtained.

fin is appropriate, it is possible performance even when flow velocity

to keep high is small.

Demerits 1) Cleaning is free of dirt nearby.

34026

low-temperature

not easy. or fluid

of construction

Therefore, it is used only for fluid purified by use of filter etc. installed is almost

limited

to aluminum.

d.

Some number of heat exchangers in combination are housed and The space between the cold-insulated within a box (shelter). heat exchabngers and the box wall is filled with pearlite etc. for the cold-insulation and N2-purged constantly to remove moisture in there.

N2 inlet'

(2)

Planning/fixing

of nozzle

orientation

:..i..

ai

In general, be placed

all nozzles, excluding at the rack side

those

for

instruments,

Access

should

area

Rack piping

1) If any equipment to which the heat exchanger is connected is consideration is required to installed in the neighborhood, have some nozzles at the side opposite to the rack, in view of thermal stress and allowable load of nozzles.

2) Because the appropriate consulted.

direction manifold

of

within

nozzle the

can be altered by provision the vendor should be

of

box,

.~Rack piping b.

_..-. ::

In general, platform and side. However, platform also so as to facilitate nozzles and retightening

.43). Considerations

i

required

ladder should be installed at access should be installed at the rack side access to strainers installed at inlet of nozzle flanges. for

piping

.-

a.

Because the allowable load of nozzle is generally very small, this load should be ascertained by reply from the vendor and consideration is required for arrangement of supports, accordingly.

b.

In addition to the above, because thermal expansion is unexpectedly differs from one heat exchanger to also be ascertained by reply from

C.

Because any welding avoid trouble, clips prior to shipment.

d. Attention aluminum e. Because washers f.

on the box should not be done in order to for support should be provided by vendor

should be paid with steel. aluminum flange for protection

Because aluminum be used.

displacement of nozzles due to large, and the fixing point another, these matters should the vendor.

flange

to galvanic

is of

soft, bolts the flange.

is generally

corrosion

due

should thick,

be accompanied special

Flange gaskets should be sheet'gasket, so that the flanges. (Check them against H-103.) h. Because, in many cases, filters consideration is required for

3402G

-8O-

to contact

they

bolts will

of

by should

not

are installed at inlet nozzles, easy removal of the elements.

mar

8.2.6

Piping (1)

around

Considerations

air

cooler

required

for

When designing arrangement considerations are required particularly important."\-,

8.3

piping of piping for the

around air cooler, followings which are

a.

In many cases, several number of air coolers are combined In this case, consideration become one item as equipmant. required for uniform distribution of fluid flow.

b.

In the above case, header becomes very long and, inevitably, problem of thermal expansion becomes more apparent, requiring careful study in this respect.

c.

Arrangement of piping should be designed in such a way that no excessive force or moment will be effected to the nozzles of air cooler. This is because, if excessive force or moment is effected, tube bundle would tend to warp, to cause trouble such The allowable force or as leak at the tube-to-tube sheet joints. moment is limited to very low value and these values are presented by vendor of the air cooler. Therefore, arrangement of piping should be designed, based upon so that requirements given calculations of thermal stress, etc., by vendor are sufficiently met.

d.

Vendor/purchaser should be clearly

Piping

around

rotating

8.3.1

Piping

around

(1)

B.L. conditions, defined.

together

with

scope

of

to is

the

supply,

machine pump

General The followings are intended to supplement or revise the customer's requirements regarding pump piping and the manual TM-3074 (pump piping), and also to stipulate about the items ear-marked in the manual to be defined at the job stage. Therefore, matters other than the folllowings should be in accordance with TEM-3074.

t

a. Arrangement of pumps should discharge nozzles.)

f402G

-al-

be as shown below.

(See line-up

of

b. Height In case

of pump's

foundation

of pumps for

general

use

:’ ...

.:

C.

Height case.

of special

Piping

around

1) Piping For discharge ‘pay attention thermal stress vibration i

,.’

pump's

EL.300

as a standard

foundation

should

be

defined

for

each

pump

around

pump should

be

shown below.

as

piping, Suction line to have large dia. short length. {If small dia. long length, cavitation can occur.)

an

Not to use chain valve, in general. Valve to be at 1.8m or less from operating floor. (If higher than 1.8, Operation stage is needed.) PG to be seen fran the place of vlave Operation

w ,

Provision of space for removal of 'rotor Adjustable

Spare for removal of rotor. No spare required depending on pump model

support

This foundation, if uneven settlement is likely, to be onebody with pump's foundation as far as possible

v

2) Suction piping can be removed

should without

be designed

shifting

\ Provision of space removal of strainer

in such a way that of pump proper.

for

impeller

Provision of space for removal of impeller. No space required depending on

34026

-82-

(2)

Fundamental

arrangement of pump's suction

and discharge

pipings

a. End-top type 1). Arrangement with discharge valves in vertical when discharge pipe size is 2-6B).

'general, use T-type strainer,. .Temporarily, also cone type strainer.

run (in general,

in

:

Y-type

strainer

At pump's main line, height of valve handle should [email protected] 1800 mm If it is higher than 1880 am, operation stage should or less. be provided. 2) Arrangement with discharge valves in horizontal run (in general, when discharge pipe size is 8B or larger). Increase this length when thermal stress is severe.

Increase this length when thermal stress is

. . .._.

severe. e

P

Use T-type strainer, in general.

3402G

-%4-

T-type strainer

d.

Considerations

required

for

suction

1) When suction line is long, the pump should be provided.

2)

Good used when pipe

Reducer, top-flat

dia.

piping

c_L\qqd

rising

slope

of l/50

Air

can stay

here.

Not good changes, should

~~uicel) - l/200

toward

be installed

in

posture.

Air

can stay

tit

here.

Air

can stay

good

Not

here.

good

good 3)

Large-sized horizontal Air

gate stem

can stay

Not good

34026

-87-

‘I

valve

should

preferably

be installed

in

its

posture.

here.

Large-sized Dia. (12B 1501: as a standard). Provide support so that no bending moment is effected to the valve body.

FJood

4) Relative position is vertical.

with regard to suction

(a) Approaching velocity Vm,, 50.3 m/s . fb) Pit width should be B2 &2D k) Distance

3402G -813-

between pumps should be B3 &2D

pit when suction

pipe

Nominal

dia.

and various (for vertical

- --___

I

1 I I

17nf-l 1150 1020 92 - I,1[

600 550 500

200

I

L-3" 300 350

1 JIurrr*Lu 420 -470 I 650 I1 720 n3n

1

--700 600 500 BOO 900 1000

/ I

10 1

200 220 250 300 350 350 400

I 320-370

AnI7 Ae;ll --..

I

4

*.a””

1 I

1Arif-l - _.v"

(1100)

1 I!

1650

1

1700

1

vocel

I

1 I

Item Bellomouth dia Pit floor clearance Immersion depth Back wall clearance Pit width Distance between pumps

(Note)

-89-

500 550 600 700 800 850 900

i ! I !

1300 1200 1000

;I I I ! I I

750 700 800 900 1000

suction

_- _.._.__ 300 350 400 500 550 600 650

i 1 ! i I I i

Ii : 1 1 i !

1600 1500 1800 2100 2300 2400 1100 i --~. 1200 2600 1300 i 2800 j 1950 1400 3000 2100 1 I on the pit floor is anticipated, be added to the dimension of pit

I ;

Ratio

to nominal

1.43 - 1.33d 1.5 - l.Od 21.5d sl.5d __.-I II z3d z3d I Where two figures are shown for the ratio, to small dia. and the rigth to large dia.'

When inclined

D C s Bl B2 B3

. _ -----I

i

1800 1 2000 1 .220 0 I 1 2400 I I 2600 1 2800 .. . - - 1 mm aeposltlon of sludge to cope with this should clearance.

1200 1350 1500 1650 1 1800 2000 .\--L_. --a i !

3402G

standard dimensions shaft pump)

bellmouth

is

provided.

dia.

i allowal floor

d

I f I f i

the

left

I corresponds

ace

When suction

pipe is horizontal. -v

c SZZ3d b

I, (1

I4 \

C2 ll.Sd

D-1.43-1.33d

(3) Suction

strainer

t

for pump

Because there are two kinds of strainers - one necessary in view of process (permanent) and one necessary when the plant is not under normal operation (temporary) - the kind of strainer should be ascertained by reply from Process Engineer. a. Permanent :. 1) !&eof-.such strainer is shown on P&I dia. '- .. ; .. 2) When' size is 3B or smaller, Y-type should be used, and when 4B or larger, T-type. b. Temporary When size is IB or smaller, 6B or larger, T-type. P&I

-

‘Type

desianation .

-b

P

TR

34026 -9O-

conical

‘-

.

type should be used, and when Example of use

(4) Method

In case

of

attaching

of one pump

pressure

In case

gauge

of two pumps

a. The above-shown arrangement uniform view-direction.

in order

should

gauges

position s1.1/2B

Check valves 3/4B flange

of

discharge

be located valve

of 4B or larger nozzle connection.

within

operation 2B--3B

size

should

the

right

range

and also

be

specified

side

of

pumps

to have

If pressure gauge contacts with any above-located piping, direction of PG take-out boss should be turned 45O toward valve operation side {so that the pressure gauge is still visible). Pressure

the

three

c.

be

at

of

In general, pressure gauges should viewing front face of the pump.

the

-91-

be adopted

case

b.

d.

3402G

should

In

when the the .'

vision

from

from switch hIoIL

to have

.,:

(5) Cooling

water

and drain

Use flange connection, although vendor's standard is usually screwed connection

pipings

for

pump When to be recovered

/

Pump-bed drain (Material by Piping Dep’t)

Casing

drain

Drip

funnel

I When to be discharged to outside - Base drain should be led to oily dictated by the kind of fluid. - Casing liquid

34026

-92-

drain drain

sewer

or chemical

sewer,

should be led to oily sewer, chemical line (as indicated in P&I dia.).

sewer

as

or

(6)

Examples

a-

piping

for

of piping

around

pump

BEW

(for

referance)

pump

Bmass line Minimum flow

I

It

Suction

III

Ylkintenance

bmass

Line

Maintenance area (Vehicles Permitted to enter.1

area

(Vehicles Permitted to enter.)

rl-

.

h

Discharge (Vibration occur. 1 \ /I\

at

--

line can occu r .I

- Eiinimu m flow bp uypa(Pav attention to vibration, 1, especially.)

trt! gic

easily Maintenance

accessib . t

area

cl-’

b.

Piping

fo r turbine-driven

Turbin

BEW pump

(for

reference)

H

:

i

Steam exhaus t Pipe

Oil rkf When 8OOmm or more, provide 'stage

34026

-94-

piping

c. Oil piping

Drip

BFWpump (for reference)

for

.J$pQy

funnel

'

(Notes) 1. FQ~ high pressure pump, oil cooling unit as shown above is provided. i. When the pump is turbine-driven, gland condenser is provided in addition. 3. In such-cases as this, although many small dia. pipings are attached, maintenance or operation work ehould not be inconvenienced by these pipings. Consideration is required in this respect. 4. Oil piping belongs to the scope of vendor's supply as a unit piping. Because, in most cases , the vendor's piping drawing is made without consideration for actual condition of gurroundings, check the vendor’s drawing and ask revision, if necessary, in order to allow convenient operation and maintenance.

:

8.3.2 a.

Piping

around turbine

Piping

around steam

turbine

for

driving

pump (for reference)

Exhaust pipe /

k f%ee to five drain pipes \ (3/4B or the like) come from turbine. w

large quantity

(During -

warming

UP,

0:.

steam' is

exhausted.) \

c ~'U~yqTiJ \

I

PUMP

\)

L

1 ,fl';-.xr+taln

‘2G

-95-

Spring./-support

Trap

valve

Safety Valve (should be p 11 .aced away from turb in e as far as WSd.ble.)

b.

Procedure

of

designing

1) Ascertain 2) Plan

the

the

piping

possible

piping

around

turbine

displacement

route

of

If the counterforce carry out design

for

6) Plan

and cooling

drain

steam

material

8) Make piping

effected to turbine, (for both of cold and

and moment are within the allowable springs and place order of them.

5) Make information foundat ion.

7) Piping

design

of

support

water

structure

limit,

and

pipings.

take-off.

drawing

9) Make support 8.3.3

of

nozzle.

and supports.

3) Determine the counterforce and moment through calculation of thermal stress hot). 4)

turbine’s

and material

take-off.

drawing.

Piping around .compressor :: .Design standard for piping around compressor is as shown in iiere, matters not coverd in TEM-3069 will be explained. TEM-3069. (1)

Considerations

required

for

piping

design

a.

On the suction line, position of pressure downstream side of suction strainer.

b.

On the suction side of suction

c.

If drain fail.

d.

Piping above the compressor floor should preferably be once brought to under the floor, so that operation and maintenance flange connection should be works are facilitated. In this case, provided in the piping, ao that compressor casing can be removed easily.

e.

In the space under the compressor floor, the process piping, oil piping, trace piping etc. are to be placed, tending to become congested. It is recommended to design routing of the whole piping by allocating.different elevations to different kind of piping respectively.

f.

It should be avoided to have oil or other high temperature line. occur. )

g.

Vent

pocket

line, position strainer.

of

can be produced,

therasowell

provide

line /If

instrument

should

drain

should

be at

valves,

upstream

without

in parallel above any steam there is, fire accident can

line of oil system should be free from pocket, and should have configuration such that gas cannot be vented due to piping weight or thermal expansion. When this is feared, the support span should be shortened or, if it is convenient, the line should be provided with slope.

not

h.

3402G

-96-

be at

It should compressor

be avoided room.

to have

exhaust

from

trap

etc.

in

the

i.

8.4

(2)

Considerations

a.

Floor of compressor room and maintenance platform compressor should be separated, or rubber cushion employed, so that any vibration of the compressor transferred to the floor.

b.

Maintenance platform should removable. When penetrated into two or three parts.

c.

In order that maintenance work on large valves located below the floor can be done by use of overhead crane of the compressor room, provision of hole with removable cover in the floor should be made.

Piping

around

8.4.1

Considerations

for

making

civil

information around the etc. should be will not be

be of such construction that it is by piping etc., it should be split

furnace required

in general

It should be avoided to have any obstructing piping neighborhoods of walkway and peep holes, which are operating the furnace.

(2)

Enough

(3)

Piping around the furnace should be planned for its relation with heater tubes.

a.

Relation

between

outlet/inlet

b.

Relation removed.

between (Space

heater tubes and the piping when for removal should be provided.)

c.

Influences effected other's fixing.

d.

Method of connection Transfer

(1)

-97-

required

(1)

8.4.2

34026

Selection of material and study of strength for the strainer should be done so that it has sufficient durability for 100% load. Furthermore, the strainer composed of perforated plate and wire mesh screen should be installed in such manner that the perforated plate comes to downstream side in view of gas flow. The wire mesh screen should be of 8 - 10 mesh as a standard.

space

should

be provided

between

connection between or welding.

for

port

heater heater

removal

of

heater

tubes tubes

of

in the used when

burners.

under

consideratin

tube

and the

and the piping. the

former

piping,

and piping

--

is

by each flange

line

Outlet piping of heater is, in most cases, made of alloyed steel because of its high temperature, this requiring that the length be short as far as possible. Consideration is required for flexibility of the piping and also for proper supporting of it.

(2) Arrangement

of

transfer

line

(for

reference)

Determine considering

spring hanger ranges furnace elengation.

Spring hanger Transfer line

8.4.3

Fuel (1) Fuel a.

piping gas piping

Branching the feed

of fuel gas feed piping so that uniform header,

b. Example of header arragnement type heater (for reference).

should be made at the top of distribution can be obtained.

in

ad&

fuel

gas piping

for

iso-flow

drain

fixed to Header is installed at outside of heater , on brackets valves to be operated at the heater's legs. In this arrangement, the time of ignition are not in the range of operator's vision. But, good flow condition can be obtained and construction is inexpensive. Because the valves operated at the time of ignition not used for the purpose of control, but are are, in general, used in either full open or full shut condition, it is not so much of problem, even though they are not within the operator's vision.

34026

-98-

Control

valve

drain

Gas manifold

.

A header box, which is used as drain pot at the same time, is installed at underneath heater , and each piping from there is connected with burner. In this arrangement, because the header box is at the center area, enough space is left in around the heater. This is advantageous because of its ease of operation. On the other hand, however, in this arrangement, operator must stay for a long duration of time beneath the heater at the time of ignition or shut-down.

Gas heater pitch to drain Control

valve

der

drain

A header is installed around the heater at a height just above peepholes and each branch piping goes down vertically in the vicinity of the peephole, to be connected with burner. This arrangement is especially advantageous, because these valves can be operated well within the reach of operator's vision. However, this arrangement is expensive in view of construction material and work required. * Header drain should in order to prevent

34026

-99-

(2)

Fuel

oil

a.

Heavy fuel oil supply into a closed system, constantly.

not fire

be opened hazard.

in

the

vicinity

of

the

heater,

piping piping coming if necessary,

from the tank should be made so that excess oil circulates

b.

Example

of

fuel

oil

piping

Atomizing

around

burner

(for

reference).

steam

Fuel Peep ho le

Regulation valves for fuel oil and atomizing installed at places where operator can oprate valves while looking at peephole. (3)

Installation

of block

valves

and regulation

steam should be each of these valves

a. Block valves on the main fuel oil and fuel gas piping leading the furnace should be located at a place 15 m away from the furnace so that rapid operation can be done in an emergency. (except where EmV is provided) b. Regulatioh valves for piping leading to the below.

fuel oil, fuel furnace should

gas and atomizing steam be installed at places shown

- In case of wall burner type furnace, where peephole is conveniently seen. - In case of floor burner type furnace,

8.4.4

Snuffing

steam

in

(2) Arrangement at a place

of valves away from

(3) Example

snuffing

1

should be such the furnace. steam

vicinity

of burner, of

burner.

for combustion chamber space of furnace arch.

that

these

can be operated

piping.

1 II7 Snuffinq 11 -I

line

!/ BottomJ snuffing

-lOO-

the

vicinity

piping

.I .I

3402G

the

in

(1) Snuffing steam piping should be provided of furnace, for header box and for upper

of

to

\

Steam trap

8.5

include

Rack piping 8.5.1

General

the

In general, followings. a. Lines apart

lines

c.

Incoming

d.

Blow-down

3426G

-lOl-

of

lines

raw material (Flare

of

side

by side

equipment

on the

located

g. Lines

for

h. Lines water

for boiler and cooling

i.

Lines

for

j.

Walkways,

k.

In general, possible.

if

rack

6 meters unit

or more

plants

feeds. Cable duct

ducts.

plant

air

and instrument

feed water, city water, water other than those oil

pipe

Instrument duct

lines.

N2 gas,

fuel

or other

lines).

ducts/Cable

Steam or codensate

Height

run

going out to storage tanks or other heat exchangers, pumps etc..

lines

e. Instrument

8.5.2

are

connecting two pieces from each other.

b. Product lines from vessels,

f.

which

and gases,

One meter air.apart* process water, underground.

or more

pure

and others.

required. tank-yard

of pipe

piping

should

be run on sleepers,

whenever

rack

(1)

When heat exchangers are installed underneath the below, the height of the rack should be determined heighest portion of exchangers and their connected

(2)

When double-rack is used, the distance racks should be 2000 mm, as a standard.

(3)

In general, racks and plant-north-south heights determined

in

between

the

rack as shown based on the piping.

tops

of

the

each unit, which are run in plant-east-west directions should have their respective with a combination of 4n/6d8m and 5m/7m/9m.

8.5.3

Location

of pipes

Location

of

pipes

should

be as follows:

(1)

Large-sized pipes (14B and larger) the sides of the rack as possible the rack beams.

(2)

In

(3)

case located sides.

of single-rack, in the middle

of

should be located to reduce bendi$ng

utility piping should the rack and process

utility piping In case of double-rack, located on the upper rack and process But, large-sized pipes may be located of space.

a. Example

of

location

Large sized ,dia.

generally be piping on both

should generally be piping on the lower rack. on the upper rack in view

on single-rack

Process Utilities I I

I

Process

Large SiFd . I

c x/dc

----I

Instrument

,b.

Example

Instrument

of

location

34266

-

on double-rack

d

Lower

rack---

as close to moments of

m-generally

for

u&it

generally

for

proces

piping

c: i. Ping

-?(4)

Further details table below.

of

the

pipe's

location

should

Upper

be as shown

rack

in

Lower

the

rack

Piping Side Blow-down

(Flare)

lines

Incoming

feed

lines

12B and larger

Incoming

feed

lines

10B and smaller

product

lines

128 and larger

Outgoing

procuct

lines

10B and smaller

of tower and drum, to high position

0

1

l

i

I

l

Side

0

I

1

1 ,

0

I

I

I

I 0

:01 :I

and lines

Middle I

1 0

Outgoing

Overheads connected

Middle

0

I

!

jo , I ,

0

Overheads of tower and drum connected to pump or heat exchanger Delivery Lines

lines

of

subject

Lines

subject

Steam

lines

Boiler

for

(water,

oil

-

E

34266

I

!1

0

lo

i" 0

!

I 1

!

10;

1

0

I

; ;

I I

lines

N2 etc.)

of

pump cooling

water

and gas lines air

lines

i

0

I

i

0

i

I I1

to

j

!O i I I

IO

ducts

I

When loop

-103-

o

lines

Instrument

l

0

I

water

Instrument

u u a”

or low pressure

f I

o

I

hose-station

Plant-air

Fuel

and

to vibration

air,

Headers

equipment

lines

feed

Lines

between grade

of high

Condensate

1

to corrosion

Lines connencting equipment on the

i

ispecial A i I i i I i i t

pump

is required

on the

(5)

Lines containing corrosive or cable ducts. instrument,

(6)

Delivery valves, located vibration

line fluids

should

not

lines of reciprocating compressors, large-sized return water lines etc., should be given special on the rack, prevention.

be located

above

pressure reducing if inevitably consideration for

(7) The location on matching consultation (8)

A stage requiring

(9)

In general, except that be capped. flushing.

(10)

of pipes and the position and type of anchor lines at B.L, should be clearly defined by with parties concerned.

should be provided frequent operation

for

the valve located and maintenance.

rack

the ends of utility headers should be blind-flanged, large-sized pipes (14B or larger, as a guide) should But, use of dead ends should be minimum, considering

When a loop is provided in condensate line it should be bent horizontally to prevent waterhammer. If it is impracticable bend horizontally, bend it as shown in the drawings below. (Example

1)

(Example

2)

8.:

(11)

on the

points

Loops other than for condensate lines for good appearance as shown below.

to

Slope is max.30" for each .

should

be grouped

together

Lines should be laid on the rack in a sequence so that larger sized pipe or pipe having larger expansion and contraction comes closer to the side of the rack. (12)

34266

-104-

Piping should

which is long have horizontal

in length, loops.

such

as yard

piping

or pipe

line,

(13)

Dimensions

of

down-pipes insulation Be careful not to attach a shoe close to the weld line.

(In

general)

-Pot insulation a.

In general, the location of down-pipes is indicated by the dimension of beam-center-to-pipe-center. But, the dimension be beam-center-to-pipe-surface, if required to facilitate supporting the pipes. I

b.

In general, the beam-center-to-pipe-center dimension is 500 mm, except for large-sized pipes in which the distance between outside surface of the insulation and the beam flange could be less than 100 mm or the weld line would come on the rack beam.

8.5.4 shoe,

Elevation

cradle,

of

pipes

Elevation of saddle etc..

pipes

Pipes

Insulation Th'k (mm)

Cold-insulated pipe

25- 50 55-100 105-150 155-200

50 100 150 200

(1)

pipe

lines lines

in view

of pipe

strength.

Attention

should

be given

to the

following.

Vacuum of

such

Piping (2)

100

Critical

around

Thermal

a. Piping

shock around

b. Condensate

line

line

as:

surface

condencer.

in

lines

such

steam

considering

Height of shoe, cradlt;nmgaddle 100 150 200 250

Critical

-105-

be determined

25- 75 80-'125 130-175 180-225

8.6.1

34266

should

Hot-insulated pipe

Bare

8.6

may

as:

desuperheater

the

height

of

Remarks Do not use shoe etc., for pipes with personnel protection insulation.

Only for special design such as lines exceeding allowable span in Pipe List, or lines requiring vibration prevention.

(3) Vibration

due to shock

waves

in such

The line downstream of pressure flow bypass line of compressor. (4) Erosion

of such lines

Decoking

reducing

erosion

Two-phase

flow

of

such

line

-106-

the

minimum

orifice pump.

in

the minimum

flow

as: Engineer.

or earthquake

from TLX of heaters

lines

in view

in such to the

lines

as:

header.

Others Critical

should

of process

be given

to the

following.

(1)

Pump NPSH

(2)

Thermosiphon

(3)

Lines

(4)

Gravity

(5)

Lines

which

(6)

Lines

subject

(7)

Lines

for

(8)

Lines

requiring

(9)

Lines subject to special design conditions in the pressure or temperature , or repetition

(10)

in

as:

lines

Attention

34266

line

by Process

due to wind

Effluent

8.6.2

in such

indicated

(7) Vibration

(8)

valve

as:

The line downstream of restriction bypass line of boiler feed water

Line

as:

lines

(5) Cavitation

(6)

line

of reboiler

requiring

water

flow

Lines for selection

or AL-heat head.

or sloped

lines

are critical

urea

to clogging etc.

exchanger.

which

in view

of

pressure

with

powder

will

solidify.

drop.

or slurry

etc.

witerizing. such as quick change of such changes.

for which the piping material caustic soda wr the like, is strictly dependent on its operating temperature.

(11)

Lines

in which

a. Examples 1) Branch

2) Heat

of

no uneven

such

lines

exchanger

flow

is allowed.

valves.

(Fuel

lines. without

piping

without

feed

valves.

Flow

is

ow is

3) Piping

around

three

heat

exchangers

* For three or more heat exchangers is impracticable, consult Process

3426G

-107-

line)

not

regulated

regulated

without

for which Engineer.

with

with

valves

valves.

symmetrical

piping

4) Piping

around

reboiler

5) Turbine suction line (Main steam line ---

usually

by vendor)

Turbine

Main

3426~

-108-

stop

valve

b. Branch

Type

lines

in which

uneven

flow

is prevented.

Type

‘A’

'B'

.More than 20 times or mere of pipe inside dia.

Type

3

Large-sized

'D'

I

(t

\

‘E’

Critical (1)

Type

I 3 Type

8.6.3

'C'

Type

lines

in view

‘F’

of cost.

piping

(2) Piping which is high in cost, such as for high temperature and pressure service, SUS pipes and pipes of special specification. Cost comparison of higher cost

34266

-109-

should be made for should have priority

these pipings and the in piping arrangement.

piping

8.7

Piping

around

8.7.1

General

safety

valve

Safety valves act automatically so as to prevent a predetermined thus internal pressure is maintained and pressure pressure being exceeded, vessel is protected. Safety valves are classified depending on fluids to which they are applied. (1)

Safety For

(2)

(3)

8.7.2 (1)

valve

gases

and vapors

Relief

valve

Mainly

for

including

air

liquids.

Safety-relief

valve

For both gases, In the following, above mentioned

vapors and liquids. the term 'safety valves.

Inlet

safety

piping

and steam.

of

valve'

is used

Safety

I 34266

-llO-

of

the

should be installed in the piping close safety valves connected to the flare close to the rack as shown below.

to

Application safety valve Boiler General services

all

valve

safety valves In general, to the top of tower, but system should be installed

of

for

rack

valve

Pressure drops between equipment and safety valve 0.6 kg/c& or less 3 % or less of safety valve set-pressure

1

.

(2) The size of larger than

inlet line to safety valve should be equal to of the size of inlet flange of the safety vlave.

For long inlet pressure drops. If the pressure shown below.

(3)

Safety valves maintenance.

a. Ample body.

space

lines, drop

should should

consult

Process

is larger

than

be installed be provided

the

allowable

so that

they

for

b. Space should be provided to allow spring-adjusting-cap or operation

Engineer

dismantling

34266

-ill-

limit,

are of

try

accessible safety

as

for

valve

for

adjusting

bolts

c. When difficult to have access, used. But the platform is not pipe rack, which are accessible. (4)

for

dismantling of of the handle.

I+- Clearance

Lock

to check

ladder or platform should be required for places such as on the

Safety valves should not be installed turbulent flow or vortex is expected.

at

a place

where

a

(5)

valves should not have Inlet lines to safety off them, except when the branch line is for

(6)

Inlet lines the header effects of

to safety valves should be taken off the as colse to the anchor point as possible, vibration or thermal, movement is small.

Support

(6)

taken

portion where

Of

point

To be tinimum (7) When installing the connected

branch line bypassing.

length

safety valve, supports for piping should be considered.

Welded pipe-to-pipe connections between valves and main lines should be provided after determining the pad, if required, discharge.

the valve

body

and for

inlet lines of safety with a reinforcement reaction force of

(9) TEM-3058 should be referred to for checking the inlet piping reaction stresses at the header nozzle portion and the safety valve portion.

3426G

-112-

for

8.7.3

Discharge

line

of

safety

valve

(1) General a. The size or larger b.

Elbows

of discharge lines of safety valves should than that of the valve outlet flanges. to be used

(2) Discharging

into

in the

the

discharge

line

should

be

be

of

equal

long

to

radius.

atmosphere

a. Safety valves, which discharge poisonous fluids (including N2) or flammable gases to the atmosphere through vent piping, should have the pipe extended at least 3 meters above any platform or roof within a 12 meter radius of the point of discharge. Safety valves, which discharge steam to the atmosphere, should have the pipe extended at least 3 meters above any platform within a 7.5 meter radius of the point of discharge. 12oC0, 7500

,

Top of platform

b.

Relief valves, which discharge poisonous liquids directly atmosphere, should have discharge piping provided with a protective device in order not to drop the liquids directly the ground.

c. Cut angle

of discharge

pipe

In general,

this

type

should

be used.

To be used only when the direction of Because the discharge is limited. direction of reaction force changes, the nozzle and support to be carefully Not to be used checked for strength. high pressure of 100 kg/cm2 or higher, in general.

3426G

-1l3-

for

to the on

two or more discharge lines of safety d. In general, not be joined to the header close to each other. But, if required, they may be joined as shown in

valves the

should

drawing

below.

Cross-sectional area of the header should nat be less than the sun-of cross-sectional area of the pipes to be joined.

(3) a.

Plare

system

all In general, to have pockets,

piping in flare system and should be drained

should be routed into the headers.

so as not

WF(Wet flare) DF (Dry flare)

b.

If pockets, which contain discharge line connected traced. (Consult Process

moisture, to WE', the Engineer)

exist in the safety valve pockets should be steam

Vert.

c.

34266

-114-

Discharge lines of safety valves should be connected header at the point as close to its anchor points as If this is impracticable, the discharge lines should sufficient flexibility to absorb the movement of the

to the possible. have header.

d.

Discharge lines should be connected to the header as follows: Liquid or drain lines are on the top of the header. The angles of intersection are 45O for 2B and larger and 90' for l.l/2B and smaller. All branched connections on the top or side of the header should have provision for flexibility.

1.1/2B-and

PLan 8.1.4

Examples (1)

of

piping

around

safety

smaller

valve

Steam piping Discharge I Support (To be supportedseparateiy from the valve body)

Safety

l

pipe 3m or more above workng area

valve

w el bow (Only

1 20K steam.

T' Y

Notes:

3426G

-115-

1. The pan should be separated from the discharge pipe. 2. Material of the pan should be equal to that of safety valve outlet pipe. 3. When the piping between safety valve and pipe support such type as shown below may has sufficient flexibity, be used instead of the above type.

I

Table

A

of dimensions

B (PIPE)

h/m)

I

C(PIPE)

D

48

10B

200

38

48

1OB

220

48

6B

12B

250

540 1

350 1 210

5B

88

148

300

580

400

250

6B

88

148

350

610

400

280

420

. 690

500

360

I 500 I 580

640

560

440

2.1/2B

188

1 10B

460 4

I~1OB I 128

I 12B

520 q5 610 8

' 1 14B

Method

of

720

1

650 1 520

supporting

.er

than

To be slidable

(2)

Piping

for

other

than

steam

Do not cut (perpendicular

out

of

po=g,“i,o ‘h discharging

3m or more above working area

rll

4'

' I0

Reaction force of discharging Check far

'. (Internal pressure with temperature

nozzle

nttenath\

II)

($)..;

34266

-116-

L

5) Detail8

of

Manhole

d.

manhole

the

(Cooling

Drain nozzle Installation

should criteria

are

as

follows: c . \

water)

be

installed for are as follows:

draining

mud in

the

pipes.

1) Where main size is 24B or larger and there is a pocket. (When the pipe dia. is reduced the pocket is produced, the reducer being top flat.) 2) Other

places

3) Details Dr&n

of

where the

(Cooling

accumulation

drain

nozzle

are

of

mud is

as

follows:

expected.

water) I

(2)

Piping

materials

(Fittings)

a. For jobs where JIS G3451 (Coated steel pipes for city water) is applicable, 90° bend class-l, 45' bend class-l, and tee class-l from among JIS 3451 (see attached tables below) may be used. However, these piping materials should be ANSI base, if, in a particular job, the thickness of the pipe is different from that of attached and the quantity of such materials is small, which would result in high cost.

34266

-156-

In case of ANSI base

b.

1) In

general,

miter

90’

bend

miter

(short)

2) Tees should . reinforcement,

with

bend (short) With single segment,

generally be welded if necessary)

two segments, and 450 should be used.

pipe-to-pipe

type.

(with

:’ _.

n

n ww

UU

!D

D*

R

I-_

3

I

L 1

350 400 450 500 550 600 650

I

700 750 800 850 900 ,nnn 1100 1200 1350 1 1500 A”“”

34266

-157-

i

1I / ! I I 1 1 I 1 ,

14

I

16 18 20 22 24 26

1 1 1 1 i 1

355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 558.8 609.6 660.4

28 30 32 34 36 Ah 44 48 54 60

i1 ! t i I i 1 1 \

711.2 762.0 812.8 663.6 914.4 lnlc n 1117.6 1219.2 1371.6 1524.0

1”

.L”.L”.”

533.4 609.6 685.8 762.0 838.2 914.4 990.6 11 i 1 1

---

.-

ln66-a 1 i:;;:: 1295.4 1371.6

i 1524.0 1

1 1 1 (

r-r a 1010.4 182^:o .o.-. 2057.4 2286.0 .I.

: i 406.4 ' 457.2 : 508.0 1 558.8 1 609.6 1 660.4 I

I

! / .! I 1 I 'i 1 1

.-a.-

a

i i

762.0 -7 8.12'.8 -i 963.6 T914.4 1016.0 ' .-mm - 1 1111.6 ---J.4J.Y.I 1371.6 1524.0 I 7119

JIS

G3451 Coated 90’

steel

piIJes

for

city

water

Bend Class-l

Unit: RtsideThicl -nes: Dia. D2 rit

Nomihal

Dia. (A)

5.8

267.0 273. I

123.2 123.2 123.2 134.0 166.2

267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2

6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0

254.2 304.7 343.6 394.4 445.2.

360 410 460 510 530

286.5 299.9 263.3 276.7 312.0

193.0 219.8 246.6 273.4 284.0

508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8

6.0 6.0 6.0

496.0 597.6 699.2 798.6 898.6

5Go 660 790 790 860

290.1

998.6 1097.0

910

t:

139.8 165.2

4.5 5.0

200

216.3

914.4

7.1 7.9

1000 1100 1200 1350 1500

1016.0 1117.6 1219.2 1371.6 1524.0

8.7 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7

1600 1800

1628.0 14.0 1832.0 16.0 203G.o 18.0

910 1197.0 970 1347.8 1020 1498.6 1070

1200

*1

L 170 170 170 200

190

400 ii: 450 500

140 140 170

550 600 600 650 700

t:

-X58-

709.6 709.6 709.6

6.24

802.0

lE6 15.9

878.6

26.5

959.01039.4 1019.8 1100.2

1192.0

40.7 55.1 52.8 65.0 79.6

iii:: 423.4 423.4 460.8

140 190 160 160 190

700 850 950 950 1050

1180.6 1440.8 1590.2 1590.2 1762.4

87.7 128 165 224 312

433.8

487.6 487.6 519.8 546.6 573.4

19O 190 180 180 180

1100 1100 1150 1200 1250

1842.8 1842.8 1919.4 2080.2

398 518 635 798 984

569.5 616.3 643.1

150

1.50

1250 1300 1350

20G8.4 2148.8 2229.2

433.8 439.9 453.3 466.7

471.5

150

*l 3426G

Weight (kg)

366.8 371.7 371.7 420.4

1coo.o 1100 444.7 1800.0 1150 458.1 2000.0

1

Reference

J12

231.6 231.6 231.6

4.2 4.5

2000

R 230 230 230 250 310

89.1 114.3

:: 800 900

Dimensions

60.7 105.3 130.8 155.2 204.7

1:

500

Inside Dia.

mm

1999.8

Pipe center length

1150 1540 2000 line

4S" Bend Class-l

Unit lomina. Dia. (A)

-I-

OutsideThic Dia. D2

1 Inside.. nys Dia.

-

R

T

Dimensions

Izl

P3

L

mm

Reference Weight *1

1

(kg)

ii:

89.1 114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3

4.2 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.8

80.7 105.3 130.8 155.2 204.7

370 270.3 370 270.3 370 270.3 430 357.4 430 344.5

147.2 147.2 147.2 171.o 195.0

196.7 196.7 196.7 271.9 247.0

350 350 350 450 450

687.8 687.8 687.8 885.8 884.0

6.05 8.39 10.3 17.5 26.6

250 300 350 , 400 450

267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2

6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0

254.2 304.7 343.6 394.4 445.2

550 331.6 610 318.6 680 3S3.6 740 340.7 800 327.7

218.8 242.6 270.6 294.4 318.2

222.2 197.3 218.3 193.5 168.6

450 450 500 500 500

882.0 879.8 977.8 975.8 973.6

37.4 46.6 50.6 57.8 65.0

508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 .914.4

6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9

496.0 8Go 314.9 597.6 980 539.0 639.2 1170 438.1 798.6 1170 748.0 898.6 1290 722.4

342.2 389.8 465.4 465.4 513.2

143.8 : 500 344.1 750 265.4 750 515.4 1000 465.7 1000

972.0 1467.8 1461.6 1961.6 1357.8

7i.2 131 152 277 347

537.0 537.0 560.8 564.8 608.6

440.8 440.8 416.0 391.1 366.3

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1955.6 1955.6 1953.6 1951.8 1943.8

422 550 647 779 922

304.1 1000 304.1 1000 254.4 1000

1944.9 1944.9 1941.1

1080 1390 1740

1: 125

1000 1100 1200 1350 1500 1600 1800 2000

1016.0 8.7 1117.6 10.3 1219.2 11.1 1371.6 11.9

998.6 1097.0 1197.0 1347.8

1350 1350 1410 1470

709.3 709.3 6’96.4 683.5 670.6

638.3 668.3 638.3 668.3 612.5 716.1

*lPipe center length

34266

-159-

line

.:....:

:

04ominal

Dia.

600X600A

and smaller)

:__::. -..: : ..

I (Nominal Note:

Dia.

Allowances

7OOX25OA and larger) ,for

R are

f Sam.

.: ..

34266

-160-

Nominal Dia. (A)

Outside

Dia

02

d2

a0 x‘ 80

139.8 139.8 139.8

89.1 114.3 139.8

150 X 80 150 x 100

165.2 165.2 165.2 165.2

89.1 114.3 139.8 165.2

216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3

114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3

250 x loo 267.4 250 x 125 267.4 250 x 150 267.4 250X200 267.4

114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3

250 x 250

267.4

267.4

300 x 100 300 x 125 300 x 150 300x 200 300x 250 300X300

318.5 318.5 316.5 318.5 318.5 318.5

114.3 139.8 165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5

950x 150 355.6 550X200 355.6 150x 250 355.6 so x 300 355.6

165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6

150 X 125 200 200 200 200

x 100 x 125 x 150 x 200

4.2

89.1 114.3

125x 80 125 X 100 125 X 125

HIx350

355.6

Kxl x 150 rc?ox 200 loo x 250

406.4 406.4 406.4

tixz

Reference Weight

4.2

100 X 80 100 x 100

150 x 150

Thickness

2so

250

6.38

250 250

7.63 8.75

250 250 250

a.92 9.46 10.7 13.6 14.2 14.7 16.9

6.6' 6.6 i:t 6.6

4.5 2: 5.8 6.6 4.5

36.7 37.3 ii:: 47.8 44.8 45.3

;:i ::: iit 6.9 6:O 6.0 86:: 6.0

55:: :-ii

6:0

Zi:o" ii:;

63.7 66.8 72.5

165.2 216.3

64.2

200X400

:Ei 40614

267.4 318.5 355.6 406.5

R f 72.7. 71.6:. 82.2.

150 x 350 x 150 X 150 x 250 x 150x 150 x

150 200 250 300 350 400 450

457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2 457.2

165.2 216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2

X200 X 250 X 300 X 350 X 400 X 4SO X 500

508.0 508.0 506.0 503.0 508.0 508.0 508.0

216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0

500 500 500 NO 500 500 500

(kg)

ii:8 ii:: ii:8

6.0 ii:8 6.0 2 6:o 6.0

E:i i:; 6.0 6.0 6.0

71.2 73.5 76.4 78.7 77.6 79.0

91.7 80.3 82.7

84.8 83.7 84.8 85.9

101

::

.I_ . . . .

..:.

Nominal Dia. (A)

.

outside

D2

Thickness

Reinforcement

Length

d2

T

t

t1

8

Ii

Reference

I

Height

600 X 200 600 X 250 600 X 300 600 X 350 600 X 400 600 X 450 600 X 500 600 X 600

609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6 609.6

216.3 267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6

6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

5.8 6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

-

-

750 750 750 750 z!

500 500 500 500 to”

750 750

500 500

700 X 250 700 X 300 700 X 350 700 X 400 700 X 450 700 X 500 700 X 600 700 X 700

711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2 711.2

267.4 318.5 355.6 406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 711.2

6.0 6.0 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

6.6 6.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

6G::

;i

3:

i::

;i

s:

i::

70 70 3:

750 750 750 750

600 600 600 600 600 600 ii:

168 171 170 171 173 174 177 203

800 X 300 BOOX 350

812.8 812.8

318.5 355.6

7.1 7.1

6.9 6iO

2

70 70

1000 1000

700 700

298 297

800 X 450 400 800 X 500 800 X 600 800 X 700 800 X 800

812.8 812.8 812.8 812.8 812.8

451.2 406.4 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8

7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1

6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1

t :: X:8

1000 1000 1000 1000 1oOO

;ii zii

6.0 6.0

70 70 70 70 70

ii 301 304 306 355

900 X 350 300

914.4

355.6 318.5

7.9

6.0 6.9

ii:8

70

1000

;ii

if:

400 900 X 450

914.4

406.4 457.2

7.9

6.0

t :t

70

1000 loo0

700

i:

900 X 600 500

914.4

609.6 508.0

7.9

6.0

6.0

70

1000

700

iii

900 X 800 700 900 X 900

914.4 914.4

711.2 812.8 814.4

7.9 7.9

7.1 6.0 7.9

t.8 6:0

70 70

1000 loo0 1000

z 700

;!t 438

1000X350 1000X400 1000X450 1000X500 1000X600 1000X700 1000X800 1000X900

1016.0 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0. 1016.0 1016.0 1016.0

355.6 8.7 406.4 8.7 457.2 8.7 508.0 8.7 609.6 8.7 711..2 : 8.7 812.8 8.7 914.4 8.7

6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9

70 70 70 70 ‘70 70 70 70

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

451.2 406.4 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0

6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 a.7

70 70 70 70 70 70 70

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1100X450 400. 1117.6 1100X500 1117.6 1100X600 1117.6 1100X700 1117.6 1100X800 1117.6 1100X900 1117.6 1100X1000 1117.6

34266

Dia.

-162-

10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3

i::

28 X:i ,. 6.0 El 6.0 28 ii:8 2: 6.0 6.0

;t

ii: 800 800 !K ~~ iii ~~ :i 80 800

138 140 142 141 141 142 142 164

446 447 zi 449 449 4sT 465 E 572 570 568 572 575 530

‘(kg)

Nominal Dia. (A)

Outside

Dia.

t1

11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1

::i 6.0 ii::

::: 66:;

7.1

11.1 11.1

a

7

1219.2 1219.2 1219.2 1219.2 1219.2 1219.2

406.4 457.2 508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8

1200x 1200X1000 900 1219.2 1016.0 914.4

1200x 400

1200X11001219.2 1117.6 1350X 450 1350X 500

1371.6 1371.6

1350X 900 1350X1000

1371.6 1371.6

457.2 508.0

If

1000 1000

900

66::

70 70 70 70 70 70

1000 1000 1000 1000

900 900 900 900

7.9 8.7 10.3

E 6.0

70 70

1000 1000

900 900

2:

70 70 70 70 70

1250 12.50 1250 1250 1250

11.9

6.0

6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1

11.9

7.9

1350X11001371.6 1117.6 1350X12001371.6. 1219,2

11.9 11.9 11.9

8.7 10.3 11.I

6.0 2

1500X500 1524.0 1500X600 1524.0 1500X700 1524.0 1500X~8001524.0 1500X900 1524.0 1500X10001524.0 1500X11001524.0 1500X12001524.0 1500X13501524.0

508.0 609.6 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 1117.6 1219.2 1.371.6

12.7 12.7 12.7 -12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7

6.0 6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 8.7 10.3 11.1 11.9

;:i

1600X600 1628.0 1600X700 1623.0 1600X800 1628.0 1600X900 1628.0 1600X10001628.0 1600X11001628.0

609.6 711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0 1117.6

14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0

711.2 812.8 914.4 1016.0

16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0

1800X 700 1800X 800 1800X 900 1800X1000

1832.0 1832.0 1832.0 1832.0

914.4 1016.0

66::

1010 1010 1010 1000 1010

12.0

1190 1190 1190 1190 1190 1190 1200 1220 . 1230

6.0 6.0 7.1 7.9 8.7 10.3

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

155 1500’ 150 1500 150 1500 150 ‘1500 150 1500 150 1500

Ei 1200 1200 1200 1200

1710 1710 1720 1730 1730 1750

6.0 7.1 7.9 8.7

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

150

1500

1400

2190

150 150 150

1500 i 1500 1500

1400 1400 1400

2200 2210 2220 2240 2250

;:: 9.0 9.0 1f:i

10.3 : 12.0 : 15d.F 1500 11.1. 12.0 150 1500

!OOOX800 !OOOX900

2036.0 2036.0

812.8 914.4

18.0 18.0

7.1 7.9

12.0 12.0

18.0 18.0

8.7 10.3 11.1 11.9

12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0

-163-

700

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

t6.0:.

18.0

ii;

1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 12!% 1250 KEO

16.0

18.0

1000 1000

66133 673 672 669 673

100 100 100 100 100 100 loo 100 100

1219.2

1219.2

900

1250 1250 1250 1250

1832.0

!OOOX13.50 2036.0 1371.6

Weight

100 100 100 100

i::

1800X1200

!OOOX1200 2036.0

f

1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

1800X11001832.0. 1117.6

!OOOXlOOO 2036.0 1016.0 !OOOX11002036.0 1117.6

Reference

B

11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9

1350X600 1371.6 609.6 1350X700 1371.6 711.2 1350X800 1371.6 812.8

Length

Reinforcement

t

02

1200X450 1200X500 1200X600 1200X700 1200X800

34266

Thickness

200 200 200 200 200 200

1409 1400

1500

1500

lSO0

1500

1500 1500 1500

1500

1500

1500

1500 1500

1020

1020 1040 lOS0

2750 2750 2760 2780 2790 2800

(kg)

8.14.4

Sewer piping

(1) Type Applications

Oily

1. Drainage from equipment handling oil. 2. Drainage of rain water from oily paving areas. 3. Waste water produced by decoking of cracking furnace etc. 4. Drainage from the inside of oil dike. 5. Others indicated in P&I.

sewer

Chemical

sewer

Non-oily sewer (Storm sewer)

1. Drainage from equipment handling chemicals. 2. Drainage of rain water from chemical paving areas. 3. Chemical drainage from control room, laboratory and analyzers. 4. Others indicated in PSI. 1. Drainage equipment. 2. Drainage oily or 3. Drainage

other

than

those

from

oily

1

or chemical

of rain water other than those chemical paving areas. of drinking water from buildings. 4, Drainage of firefighting water. 5. Neutralized waste water from neutralization tank.

i

from

I I l

I

I

(2) "Material Material

Type

Oily

34266

-164-

sewer

(In

Remark

general)

1. Carbon steel pipe with outside anticorrosion tapes. 2. Concrete pipe should be used for and larger when long distance. Consult Civil Engineer.

16B

Chemical

sewer

1. Carbon steel pipe with-outside anticorrosion tapes; (Careful study should be made on possible corrosion of steel due to acid and alkali.) 2. Cast-iron pipe 3. Ceramic pipe 4. PVC pipe

Non-oily

sewer

1. Carbon

steel

pipe

_ .. . .: ..-: ,I’ .;...

(3) Design

of oily

and chemical

sewers

oily and chemical sewers and should be of gravity

a. In general, underground,

should be installed flow type.

In general, oily and chemical sewers within planned with a slope of l/300, and finally, between each catch basin or manhole should and civil Engineers.

the plant should be flow velocities in be checked by Process

:

I b. Design

fiow

quantity

Flow quantity should be based on rain water plus process water. me quantity should be determined by Civil Engineer based on process data, amount of rainfall, area of pavements, coefficient of discharge etc. c.

Design

flow

velocity

Design

flow

velocity

d. Sizing

of main

should

sewer

be 0.3-2.1

m/s.

line

1) The'sizes should be determined by Civil Engineer, design flow quantity and design flow velocity. (For other than main line, by Piping Engineer.) 2) Minimum

size

e. Shape and size 1) Catch their-

of main of catch

should

basin

area

basin areas should be paved periphery spill-walled. -.

2) One catch

basin

should

3) One catch

basin

area

4) A slope

lines

of

l/150

5) Dimensions of each part below, as a standard.

should

Max.22.5m k

with for

concrete

etc.,

each catch

be a maximum of

or more should

basin

400 m2.

be as shown

Max.22.sn i-

in

the

drawing

100 I It" EL 0

Catch

-165-

and

be provided.

EL-150

34266

on

be 6B.

be provided should

based

bash.

area.

..

f.

Determination

of

paving

area

After receiving the information of equipment requiring paving from Process Engineer, Piping Engineer should determine the dimensions of paving area in cosideration of equipment maintenance, dismantling of piping, limitations of catch basin area etc.. g. The catch basin, sump box and manhole pit should generally installed in the main lines at intervals of 25 to 30 m. Type of oily sewers should be such that water seal can be provided for prevention of spreading of the fire. h.

Drip

funnel

Drip funnels should be equipement and piping, basin or sump box. The below, depending on the

Drip

funnel

located to-permit direct discharge from and connected to the main line, catch size of drip funnel should be as shown size and number of discharge lines.

(Type 11

Perforated plate (MAT'L:SUS304) (4.99

' Yltt 'Top

,

Drip funnels inside of buildings paved, should be as follows: Drip

funnel.

(Typ6

EL 150,

when

non-pving

WP. EL.(SEE DwG.1

,'

_:

be

or

trenches,

where

floor

is

2:) te 1

34266

-166-

i.

Cleanout A sub-header

should be provided for two OK more drip funnels. should be provided with a cleanout at its end. (Each drip funnel serves as a cleanout, because its perforated plate is removable.)

(Type

nChekered

I

1)'

Clean

It

plate

out

~o~~ X6 St Checkered (M&T'L SS4u

Detail

plate

ELO)

Polyethylene used when

"J"

caps, shipping,

which were may be used.

plate

Clean

out 'X6

Detail

34266

-167-

"G"

j.

k.

For catch basins or sump boxes which flammable gases, water sealed covers gases should be discharged to a safe Type

and purpose

1) Catch

basin

(A) Typical

of ---

are 1 iable to produce should be provided, and place through 2B pipes.

pit This

is

a pit

for

catch

basin

area.

types

Gratincf

Type

"A"

Type

“B”

Gratins

Type (Seal

34266

-168-

YzH type)

Type (Seal

“D” type)

the

(B)Sleeve Connections of pipes to pits which vary depending on construction method or time schedule, should be determined after consulting with Civil Engineer, and the scope of works should be made clear. sleeves are shown in the Here, dimensions for flanged following.

a I?

7

Pipe Size

L

a($ 4 6 8 10 12 14 18

300 300 300 300 300 300 300

d(B) D(B) 2 100 t 4 i 180

Id(B) 112 ii 14

i

D(ld) 420 . 480 1

2) Sump box Sump box is the intermediate pit which is installed intervals between catch basins or between a catch manhole pit exceed 25-30 m. (A)Typical

when the basin and a

types ..:: .:

* When non-paving,' the height of 50 mm fr& paving should be revised to read EL 150.

34266

-169-

each (where

GL=EM)

I Type

(Seal

“G” type) EL.3000

Type ,II" (-Seal type) ,

:

3426G

-170-

(B)For

sleeves,

(Seal refer

to those

for

catch

type)

basin.

3) Manhole

pit

Manhole pits and inspection seal effected Manhole pits the boundary

l

I.

are installed for the purpose of cleaning of long main lines , and provided with water by internal partition wall. should therefore be located adjacently to B.L Or of unit or area.

When non-paving, revised to read

the above dimension EL 150. (where GL=ELO)

(B)Por

sleeves,

refer

pit

cover

Details

of

Type

“A*

Type

"Bm

T_vDe "C"

, 34266

-171-

to those

for

"SO"

catch

should'be

basin.

.. .: Detail

"B"

,ed late 4-I-F FB 50x6

FB 50x6

/

L 90x56x6

Detail

"C"

S't Checkered'plate

t----hi I w u5Ox5Ox6

Detail Type

34266

-172-

"D"

Type

"F"

Type

"G"

Type

"H"

71"

MAT'L

SS41)

St Checkered (MAT'L SS41) Ml6

Dla I/4 /+I&-

Nut

' y+

r100 50 I

Ml6

Detail

"F"

Detail

"G"

D&tail

I _.

1

I

I

A I I

34266

-173-

1 L 90x56x6

Tvoe

Type

"H"

"I"

“El”

m. Drainage

from

inside

the oil

(liquid)

dike

Tank

- Drainage should separately. An example

be

provided

for

both

oily

and non-oily

is shown below. To non-oily

* For storage tanks of ethylene vaporize, only the valve for

and propylene etc., which non-oily should be provided.

n. For catch basins located in the area of heaters is used, provisions should be made to keep the to allow accumulation of water in the pits.

will

etc., where fire pits dry, and not

o. When structures or two or more story buildings require flocr drainage, the floor drainage pipes should be provided and connected to the main sewer line. funnels In this case, the drip should generally be in the scope of Civil Engineer. (Consult Civil Engineer.) p. Sump Boxes should be provided at the corners of main lines. Inlet and outlet pipes of pits should be installed at right to the pit wall. 34266

-174-

angle

q. The angle of intersection ot 415. should be used for branch lines except for the start points of drip funnels. The branch lines should be buried as close to the ground surface as possible.

r.

\

Sub-header elevations, dimensional

Symbols to be used in piping and should have identification

drawings number

--cz \ Y cc

and main line are in different and they constitute threep.tpFng. should be as shown below, for each area.

Manhole

(Oily

sewer)

sump box

(Oily

sewer)

Catch

(Oily

sewer)

basin

Manhole

(Chemical

sewer)

sump Dox

(Chemical

sewer)

ditch

basin

(Chemical

sewer)

Drip

funnel

(Oily

Drip

fu~el

(Chemical

Clean

out

(Oily

Clean

out

(Chemical

Size

of

of General

It is recommended to information such as cover details of the valves at oil dikes number. (The General Drawing plants having large 34266

-175-

sewer)

sewer) sewer)

indication

Manhole 800X1600 800 Sump box Catch basin 800 Drip funnel 2.54 Clean out 2.5Q 8. Preparation

sewer)

(To sc'ale) (To scale) (To scale)

Drawing make

types, pits, etc., should number

General Drawing, which includes the sizes elevations, directions, and drip funnels , cleanouts and changeover all together with each identification generally items.)

of

be made for

congested

t.

Preparation

of Plow sheet

Plow sheets of the sewer system are usually not included in other F.D, and it is recomendable to make the flow sheets for transmission OK confirmation of information, and for convenience of field construction and operation.

P&I or Utility

The followings

are examples. --

Butadiene

3rd n I

6" 6 6"

floor (700 m21 Zndty70f$;r

extraction

-unit

drain drain

area of pLd

Except

.

8"

(Only

Pumps .washing)

--

r-------

--

Product

tank

area

--_.

t1

34266

-176-

,’

:;.

‘:.

34266

-177-

:. ‘.’ .:. >--.:. iIf= ggs 2 :‘;‘a

I

(4) Design

of

non-oily

sewer

a. In general,

non-oily

sewers

should

b. Design water.

quantity

should

be based

C.

Design

flow

velocities

should

d. Types of sewers and as excavated e. The sewer

building drainage, f.

be 0.6

are U-shaped etc..

be designed on rain

by Civil water

to 1.8 m/set.

trough,

ditch

in of

Engineer.

and waste gravity

flow.

concrete

brick

or

should be provided on both sides of road, periphery with roof, and in a place where there is non-oily etc..

The following

considerations

should

be paid

in the

of

design.

sewer

1) Interference of non-oily sewers with other underground piping. (When the amount of rainfall is larger, or the length of sewer is longer, the bottom of the sewer is likely to become deeper;) 2) Isolation of paving area (Do not allow rainwater of oily enter into the non-oily sewer.) 3) Interference 8.14.5

Trench

(1)

areas

to

ways

piping

required

b. Water-spray etc..

by process.

piping

such

. .._.

as for

steam

curtains,

water

Gravity flow lines whose main lines are located (G.L) and are liable to clog. (Example : Drain lines to underground tanks.)

d. When a line maintenance. (2)

passage

paving

Scope of application

a. Piping

C.

with

or chemical

Construction

interferes cosuaonly

with

the passage

for

curtains

below

operation

the

grade

and

used 150

Notes:

34266

-178-

_. ._ . . .:1..

a. Inside of trenches should be filled with sand, if for safety. b. Top covers may be of checkered plates or gratings. Sometimes, the cover is not required.

required

c. In gener81, piping for steam curtains or water curtain8 should not be covered. But, when the trench interrupts a passage-way, the . interrupted portion should be covered with a light cover. d. For above mentioned(l)C gravity flow lines, 45O bends and 45O branches should be used, and nozzles for cleaning should be provided at cirtical points. (Example of installatin 450

of the cleaning

nozzle)

Cover

8.15 Firefighting

piping

(When requlations

in Japan are applied.)

8.15.1 Types of systems (1) Water extinguishing

.

system

Hydrant system b. Water-spray and deluge systems c. Sprinkler system d, Water curtain (Including steam curtain)

a.

(2)

Air-Form

sys

tea

a. Outdoor air-foam extinguishing b. Air-foam chamber system.

hydrant ]

system

(3) (2% system 8.15.2 Water extingushing 1. Water for firefighting facilities other than

.-. system system should not be used for any permanent for firefighting purposes.

2. Lines going to each yard should generally be underground, but the lines inside the tank-yard-dike should be aboveground. (1) Hydrant system a.

Location

of hydrant

Hydrants should be installed so that all equipment and buildings are included within a 40 meter radius of the point of the hydrants, 34266

-179-

..: .. ..: _.

b;L Hose box Hose boxes should be located within 5 meter distance. c.

Piping i)

on the

side

right

of

the

hydrants

planning

Main plant

lines for firefighting to contribute looped

2) The main isolation

water piping.

should

lines should have block valves of any required sections.

around

so as to permit

each

the

*

(Example 1

3) For the main blind flanges

be routed

lines for which future should be provided.

4) Connection between the hydrant should be as shown below.

and

expansion

the

is

expected,

firefighting

water

line

Hydrant

Firefighting

(2)

water-spray

and deluge

systems

a.

water-spray

and deluge

systems

These systems or explosive

are applied gases.

for

storage

water

tanks

of

line

flammable

liquids

1) Spherical tanks should be provided with topnozzle-type deluge system, which covers all of the upper half surface, and bottom-spray-system, which covers all of the lower half surface of the tank.

34266

-180-

2) Top-nozzle-deluge or drencher system should be provided on the roop of cone roof tanks for liquefied petroleum gases. For tank shells, the drencher system should be used.

I

I Deluge

b.

Piping

Drencher

system

svsteo :

planning

1) Drencher heads should be located covers the tank shell entirely.

so that the cooling

water

2) Distribution valves and main valves should be installed in a safe place outside of dike. (15 m apart from the outside surface of tanks) 3) A strainer distribution Galvanized stq+irl$E-

should

be

installed

between

the main valve and the

header.

pipes should be used for piping

downstream of the

.:

4) Piping inside the dike should be above ground and provided with drain valves. The piping should not penetrate the dike. 5) Winterizing

should

be

provided

in cold districts.

:.

._I..

.:

:

1: -::

_.

1 .:

:

3426G

-181-

6) Biping water.

.

6FF AU EL.1000

3426G

-182-

around

tanks

should

be sloped

(Example

of

piping

at distrubution

(Example

of

piping

at

spherical

to prevent

valves)

tank)

staying

of

(3)

Sprinkler

system

a. Sprinkler

system

This

system

is applied

to warehouse-yards

or bagging

warehouses

etc.. b.

Piping

planning

1) Main

valves

2) Strainers Galvanized strainer. (4)

should should pipes

be manually

operated.

be provided in the should be used for

water

curtain

and steam

curtain

a. Water

curtain

and steam

curtain

Water curtain is used for shielding curtain for dilution of gases leaked. b. Steam headers should of steam and pressure c. Piping

be designed,

drops

piping. down-stream

against taking

heat, into

piping

of

and steam

account

the

amount

etc..

planning

1) Steam should be supplied Consult Process Engineer.

from M.S headers.

2) When the length of header for steam curtain is longer than 15 m (TEC standard), the steam should be supplied to the header from two or more lines. Inlet

of steam

Control

valve

steam

3) Manually operated in a place ready 4) Pitch

34266

-183-

of holes

curtain

control

to access in

the

header

valves should be used and when gas leakage occurs.

steam

curtain

headers

the

installed

5) Steam curtain shown belaw.

header should

be installed

in the trench as

Clearance for thermal

Drain trench 8.15.3 Air-foam

system

(1) Air-foam

system

expansion

-one) -

Air-foam system should be used for fire extingushing of nowwater-soluble and flammable substance such as naphtha, oil etc.. a. Air-foam

system includes

two systems shown below.

1) Outdoor foam extinguishing 2) Fixed air-foam system (Air-foam chamber)

light

hydrant.

for tanks.

b. Air-foam chambers should be provided tanks for hazardous materials.

for the following

storage

1) Tanks whose liquid surfaces are 40 m2 (tank diameter of approximately 7.2 m) or more, or heights are 6 m or more. . oirer

c. Air-foam chambers should be provided above, where required.

for any tanks other than the

:

3426G

-184-

d. Air-foam 6y6tam6 should bc designed to allow fteding of foam liquid to the air-foam hydrant or the air-foam chamber6 from both the pressure balance tank and the air-foam firefighting truck. Foam liquid

fyq

Strainer

Bt

To foam chamber

Water for firefighting

Connection (Connection

to firef~~hting truck. should.be installed In a safe

alongside-the main road and also adjacent pressure balance tank.)

place

to the

e. Air-foam extinguishing hydrant6 should be located so that concerned hazardous material6 are covered within a 40 10radius the hydrant. f. Hazardous materials within a 15 m radius of the hydrant coverd also by other air-foam extinguishing hydrants. (2) Number of air-foam Tank diameter i Le66 than l3 II! 13 1 to le66 than 19 a-to less than 24 a to le66 than 35 m to less than 42 m to le66 than 46 m to less than 53 m to less than 60 m to less than 67 m to less than 73 m to less than 79 m to les6 than 85 m to less than

34266

-185-

should be

chamber6 Cone roof 19 1 24 m 35 m 42 m

46 53 60 67 73 79 85 90

IQ m m m m m m m

1 1 I; 2 3 4 6 8'

10 12 14 16 18

tank

.. .

Floating

of

roof 2 3; 4' 5 6 7 8

10 10 l2 12 14 14

tank

(3) Piping a.

planning

When two of more foam chambers are following should be complied with.

installed

1) Foam chambers should at uniform intervals.

on the

2) The piping distribution

be

located

on one tank, periphery

should be planned so as to obtain of the foam from each chamber.

Foam liquid piping inside the oil-dike be underground, and should not penetrate

should

not

d.

Foam liquid piping should be sloped(1/250) and be provided valves at the lowest points so that the foam liquid in the can be drained completely. When the lowest points are underground, pits should be provided for the drain valves.

With

f.

to the foam liquid

The foan liquid tanks and manual be located outside the dikes. Block valves in the lines to extinguishing system should as far as grouped together, They should be located 15 m

be a loop

uniform

C.

lines

to

tanks

Foam liquid

water strainers.

is not required

the

b.

e. Feed

piping

of

the

of

system

tank yards the oil-dike.

should

tanks

operated

piping.

be provided

control

valves

drain

piping

with

should

be used for the hydrants of foam be located outside the oil dikes and possible. apart from the outside surfaces of

tanks.

h. The foam liquid tanks the control rooms.

should

be located

in

a place

adjacent

to

Foam chamber

Foam liquid

tank

I

3

From firefighting water main line

8.15.4

CO2 extinguishing CO2 extinguishing rooms, control

8.15.5

Cases

where

system system should be provided rooms, computer rooms etc..

-186-

the

switch

NFPA CODE is applied

Attached "Design of tank should be complied with.

34266

for

yards

in

conformity

with

NFPA CODE 30"

MALONEY

STEEh LTb

PROTEK ENGINEERS MALONEY FILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 2

l ,

l*O

DESIGN BASIS

1.1

PRCCESS DESCRIPTION Our offer Is based on the use of triethylae glycol as the dehydrating medium. The reasons fox the choice of a glycol drying system and for the use of TEC are outlined in section 3.10 and 3.11 of this quotation, The glycol contactor lower consists of a gas/liquid knock-out sections The liquids are where entrained liquids are removed from the gas, discharged under level control and the gas passes up through the vessel counter current with lean TEG, Mass transfer of water into the glycol from the gas takes place over the length of the coatactor before the gas leaves’the top of the tower as dry gas. The tower is fitted with a chimney tray between the knock-out and contacting sections in order to collect the rich glycol and from where it is discharged under level control. The tower has a mist extractor above the knock-out section to prevent entrainment of liquids entering theoontactor section and contacting the glycol and a second mist extractor below the gas outlet,to prevent entrainment of glycol in the dry gas, The contactor section has been designed using valve trays which However a design using we believe gives the most economical design. a structured packing would result In a more compact tower with consequent reduction in weight which would be a bonus on an offshore installation. We would be pleased to consider such a design if this basic offer is of interest. A glycol dehydration unit can de designed with a large number of variation of glycol flowrate and concentration, number of stages The design and degree of heat recovery on the regeneration package. to provide the most cost effective offered has been computer rjptimized design. The water rich glycol discharged from the chimney tray is piped to the regeneration package where it firstly, passes through a still reflux coil where it is preheated to approxLmately 162’F. Then the rich glycol is piped to a vessel operating at about 4 barg (60 psig) which serves as a flash drum and a hydro-carbon liquid skimmer. This vessel is a vertical three-phase separator sized to provide thus assuring complete degassing 15 minutes glycol retention time, of the rich glycol and removal of any liquid hydrocarbons which may have been entrained in the glycol solution. The degaeeed rich glycol is discharged from the flash drum through firstly a glycol sock filter which removes solids and then through a carbon filter which removes any remaining hydrocarbons, well treating chemicals or any other trouble-some impurities and then through a rich-lean glycol heat exchanger where it is further preheated to 350Q F. &.Jd filtered, the rich glycol is Having been preheated, degassed ed to a feed point near the centre of the packed still. reflux

column

where

the water

and glycol

are

separated

by

fractiona

at I on.

I al st

,:,

1. .::’

PROTEK ENGINEERS MALONEY FILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 3 1.1

The still column reflux condenser is cooled by the rich glycal leaving the contactor tower. The sole purpose of the dietillation or still column is to vent water vapour and to recover all glycol vapours generated by heat in the reboiler, This method is so effective that glycol losses in the still overhead are small. As the rich glycol passes from the bottom of the still column downward into the reboiler, the temperature is further increased to the reboiler temperature of 204°C (4OO’F.f with heat being supplied Normal reboiler temperature is 204*C. Alternatively by a gas fired heater. the reboiler could be electrically heated at additional cost. Even though TEG begins to degrade at slightly above 204’C, glycol degradation ie not a problem when air is excluded from the system and when heater flux rates are reasonable. The lean glycol from the reboiler then passes through the glycol/glycol heat exchanger where it is cooled while preheating the rich glycol before passing to the gl.ycol accumulator. Before re-entering the contactor tower at the completion of the regeneration cycle further cooling is required which may be by sea water, process gas or ambient air. This offer is based on the use of sea water cooling using a litanium plate and frame heater exchanger. After final cooling the glycol is pumped into the top of the contactor tower using an electric driven positive displacement pump. This offer includes the supply of 2 x 100% duty pumps,

'HI

b

PROCESS, DESCRIPTION

1.2

DESI.Gp DATA Each dehydration unit ie designed to dry 165 MMSCFD of gas water saturated at 850 psig and 14O’F. to an outlet dewpoint of 57*F(14*C). Gas supplied at 980 psig contains less water and hence the equipment will handle gas from 850 to 980 pslg, The tower offered has sufficient contactor stages to maintain the 14°C dew point if the gas inlet temperature is increased to 155*F but gas throughput is then limited by the capacity of the regeneration package, and hence gas throughput must be reduced. If the system is operated with gas at 400 psig an extra stage must be added to the contactor tower in order to maintain the 14°C dew point and also the gas throughout must be reduced.

WlALONEY

STEEL Mb

PR0TEK ENGINEERS MALONEYFILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 4 1,2

DESIGN DATA Maximum gas throughputs

are listed

INLET TEMPERATURES &F 140 145 150 ,': 155 NB.

Extra stage required

1.3

JJESIGNBASIS

below in MMSCFD:

INLET PRESSURE 850 - 980 psi&

INLET PRESSURE 400 psig

165 151 138 128

90 82 76 70

for operation

of 400 psig.

Gas flow rate 165 MMSCFU Gas inlet pressure 850-980 psig Gas inlet temperature 1406F. Mechanical design pressure 1700 psig Gas molecular weight 21.3 Gas saturated with water at above inlet conditions. Gas outlet dewpoiat 57°F (14'C), Water removal rate 1220 lb/h. Lean glycol concentration 99.1% TEG Lean glycol circulation 27,785 lb/h, Rich $1~~01 circulation 29,005 lb/l Glycol circulation 2.5 USG/lb water removed Glycol contactor ID 81" height s/s 21'6" for 850 psig 23'6“ for 400 psig Contactor design pressure 1700 psig Contactor design code ASME VIII Div. 2 Reboiler operating temp. 400'F pressure atmospheric Reboiler heat load Heat load recovered by reflux coil. Heat load recovered by glycol/glycol exchanger

2.5 x lo6 BTU/h 0.3 x lo6 BTU/h

Total regeneration heat load Reboiler capacity filLed

6.3 x lo6 BTU/h 3.0 x 106 BTU/h

3.5 x lo6 BTU/h

--

WUONEV

-

--

__,

-

Wm.--(

OTEEL LTD

PROTEKENGINEERS MALONEYFILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 5 1.3

4?

DESIGN BASIS Gas consumptions if reboiler gas fired Power consumption if electr1caU.y heated Gas consumption based on gas with GCV

SO00 SCFH 900 kw 1000 BTII/SCF

Glycol cooler sea watersupply Sea water consumption Sea water return

Assumed 9O*F 34,710 lb/h lll°F

Power absorbed by glycol Pumps motor fitted

34 hp (25 kw) 40 hp (30 kw)

pump

Pump power based on max pressure casing designed for 1700 psig,

of 980 psig in contactor.

Regeneration skid dimensiona (apprax.) Height to top of still column 1.4

Pumps

36’0” x 14’0” 36’ 0”

INSTRUMENTATIONAND CONTROL This offer is baaed on the minimum controls required for safe operations of the unit, We would be pleased to consider controls in more detail once your control philosophy is determined, For example we would need to know whether controls should be electric or pneumatic and whether controllers are to be local or provided by a remote DCS syatem, CONTROLSINCLUDEDARE:

4)

Contactor Tower: Level. controLler and control valve for knock-out section Level controller and control valve for chimney tray Level contwoller and control valve for glycol level High and low level ewitches for knock-out level section High and low level switches for chimney tray glycol Level gauge for knock-out section Level gauge for chimney tray glycol level.. Pressure gauge Temperature indicator REBOILER: Temperature controller Fuel gas valve train consisting of fuel gas shut down valve, control/shut down valve, pilot valves , manual isolating valve, main,gas regulator, pilot gas regulator:. Flame f allure sensor Low level switch High temperature switch Level gauge

MALQNEY

STEEL Ltll

PROTEKENGINEERS MALONEYFILE: CQgl-207 PAGE 6 1.4

CONTROLS LNCLUDEU: GLYCOL PUMPS Pressure gauge8 Relief valve6 FLASH TANK Level controller and control valve for glycol Manual valve for manual skim of hydrocarbon condensate ReguLaror and relief valves for gas blanket Level gauge High and low liquid level ewitches Pressure gauge Relief valve.

FILTERS fsolating valve8 Pressure gauges Differential pressure gauges Manual bypass valve for charcoal Thermal relief valves 2.0

filter

EXLUSI,ON All instrumentation controls and valves far process gas* All instrumentatlcn, controls and valves for sea water. Any instruments , controls or valves not listed in section Relief valves on contactcr tower, ESD valves or blowdown valves Accees platforms and ladders on contactor tower, Brackets fitting of ladders/platforms are included. HIC and SSC testing We would would be pleased to advise prices for any of the once your final requirements are known.

3.0

REPLY TO ATTACHMENT 2 OF YOUR RF-Q

3.1

Reboiler BTU/SCF,

fuel

3.2

Electrical Nl3, This

power requirement for electric reboiler offer is based on the use of a gas fired

3.3

The rsboiler offered is deeigned for uce with sweet gas. However controls, firetube, burner and exhaust be specified for use with aour gas at extra cost if

gas demafid

5000

SCFH based

on gas with

1.4 above

far

above

GCV of

1000

900 kw reboiler. dehydraeed stack may required.

MALONEY

STEEL LTD

PROTEKENGXNEERS MALONEYFILE: cp9 l-207 PAGE 7

.+a Tb

3.4

Choice between electric heating or gas firing ie an economic trade off depending upon capital cost and relative costs of gas as opposed to electricity, An electric reboiler will take up less space which can be at a premium for offshore applications.. Thyristor control is recommended for electric heaters with the control panel mounted Indoors in a non-hazordous area. However the thytistor control panel cost is significant.

3.5

The dehydration unit may be turned down to 30% of design flow, i.e. to 50 MMSCFD at 850.-980 psig or to 30 MMSCFD at 400 p&g.

3.6

The unit offered is constructed from carbon requirements fo NACE MR-01-75, Vessels are and pipework will be heat treated to ensure also complies with NACE MR-01-75,

3.7

Maloney dehydration systems are designed to minimize Details of maintenance requirements and recommended can be discussed when control’philosophy is decided

3.8

See section

1.2

3.9

See section

1.2

3.10

The alternative to a glycol dehydration system is a dry bed system. Dry bed systems are capable of dehydrating to lower dewpoints rhan glycol systems but equipment costs and energy costs are higher. The required dewpoint far this application is 14“C. which is relatively high and easily obtainable using a glycol system. There is thus no advantage in using a dry bed system in this case and economic disadvantages.

\

3.11

steel. conforming to A-516-70. Vessels that weld hardness

maintenance/downtime, spares holding upon.

vapour pressure than DEG or MEG. Consequently in the gas outlet stream are lower if TEG is used, especially when gas temperatures are high as in this case. DEG is normally only used when gas temperature is below 2O*C (68°F) and MEG only when gas is refrigerated. Also because of its lower vapour pressure the fractional distillation of the rich glycol is easier with TEG with lower Losses in the water vapour stream from the still column, A further advantage of TEG 1s its higher thermal stability enables the use of higher reboiler temperatures leading to higher concentrations of lean glycol without the use of gas stripping to increase glycol concentration, TEG has a lower losses

of

glycol

P .a .

MALONEY STEEL LTD PROTEK ENGINEERS MALONEY FILE: CQ91-207 PAGE 8 3.12

4.0

The high gas inlet temperature specified in the RFQ has necessitated a regeneration package capable of removing large quantities of water due to the high water content of the saturated gas. Reduction of the gas temperature would lead to a reduction in size, weight, capital cost and energy costs. Each 5°F reduction in gas temperature reduces the energy requirement by approximately 8%. You may therefore wish to consider cooling the inlet gas to the contaccor tower. REFERENCE LIST.

OFFSHORE GLYCOL DEHYDRATION UNITS AND REGENERATORS

YEAR FABRICATED 1976 1980

1990 Awaiting Currently

commissioning building

LOC&CION North Sea North Sea Gulf Thailand North Sea North Sea

The last two references above are for platforms and are designed CO operate roll, heave and pitch.

CAPACITY MMSCFD 375 100 75 47 116 use OR floating under condftions

production of severe

. Wilter . Lean

l

removed glycvl

Reboilcr

3,

per

train

: $.%G5 LB/HR

: Conc:enl:t:at.i+ Flow r3.t.e Cj.rculacion duty

: Calculat,c?di Installecl

DESCRlPTfON .------v---.

OF

S1JPPI.Y

a) One gas dehydration

PSIG,

140°F)

: 99.1 X weight : 33 000 LB/HR : 2.75 Gall/LB

ioed

: 1300 i : 1500 I FbR

gackake

(050

KW (4.4 KV (5.1

PACH

MMBTUIH) MMBTU/H)

TRAIN

housj.nA

- One gas/glyc(>l. cont.nct.or, SCl-LIbber. Sizing : z m diamer.er per

ba.cksd 1:ypc, including an integrated inlet. , 5r.G m height; ! - Ona caslglycol heat excha$ger, t.ubular BEM type, mounted along the , absorber. I I hcces+jories and i,nst-rumtnts, associated CO - Including piping, valves, ccntactot and heat exchanger; Skid

s1.7.ing

Estimat.ed

: II = 11 m

I

w = 3.5

m

I

L = 3.5

m

empt.y wai&t.

I I : 50 i.ona

- Two full glycol flow c:arjridg:e filters, able tr) remove all solids particles of 5 microns diamc!Rnr and ahow. I - 1)ne side flow glyr:vl c:haIjc:oal filter, able t,o handle 20 X of rich I glycol flow rate. i - OI~F! gly~~~.~l/glycvl heater ekc:hangcr, plate type of tubular type. !

bundlel;

: 2,3

(3)

long - Ont? sr.il.f-

One

column,

glycol

reboiler

packed drum,

surge

I I/i’e, 'i [email protected]

inches

34

to

per

3 m

diameter

per

4 m height:

the

glycol

c:ontained

r.riplex

type

r’k?r:t?ive

in

.

- Twn gJ.yr..ol recirculation frumps, with. their electrical muters: f interc:onncr:t.~TIS

Including at:c(~s~;nries . !

m diameter TL / TL

- Including Skid sizing

Estimated

empty

=

Up

equipad and

inStrumant.3

I

to

wright.

valves,

piping,

heat insulation : I, :k I.5 m W = 4,6 m ii

rc?c:iprocating

11

still

I 11

column

installed.

:ons

: 70

4. ANSWERS TO ATTACHEMENT i z OF YOUR PAX t

fired ~lycul reboile:: : Futrl gas consumpr.i.on ,it 7 case of direct a Net heating value of 1005 p e r c Ka 1.n , based on a fue, I. I gas hav !ng BTU./SCF, fuel gas con+:;umpt.. ii ,n will be : 7050 SCF/HR and per train. 4.1.

4.2. Elc:ct,rj.cal gl.yc0.l reboiler Fuel h.3. available. 4.4.

heated

power : 1305

rdql KW

gas quality : Mjnimum pressure

Comparison reboilsr. . Elnct.rical.ly

of

- smaller - smaller - higher which

direct heat.ed

larger

- lower

in

3boi.ler

of

in quality limit 3 bar

referaLly rt. battery fired

case

heat.er

vis

elac:trically

heated

dehydrated R.

a vis

of

gas

elec:trically

:

vessel izing package j izing ixvestme: shall

be

: cost due to ruvideci +

1 1

. Rebuiler -

.t-e1nent.s

sizing investmen

t-1cost I i i , I 1 i I j I

associated

cnnt.rnl

panel

as

Metallurgy

6.6. r'~~on'uW~lded

thr

r:las

ttr

first

hundred

::0Llr recommerlddtion due t0 the 1owek part ut the contac:rlor mil limrrter~ of strut:t.ured packing.

We will ser,vice. from bott.om up to

Rich g!.ycol piping up to f;‘lash vessel, flash vrs$el. flash out.ler, gas piping should satrsfy recommenciations of NACE, Still and internals shall be l)rc>vj $ctd in stainless steal. 4.7 Wlml thrnufihput. st.rigl>ing

operating at 400 shall be reducef gas shall be uticd.

4.0 W?len uperating reduced as fc~llows 145°F 0 150°F 3 55°F

--5.

at :

‘PSIG

4: down

145/l.

vc+ssel cc~1um.n

instead of 850 PSIG t,hc inlt?‘t gas lo 7 +4 MMSCFD and 1 SCPT/GALL or

Oll55”F

the

inlet

gas

t.hroughput

shall

be

the desii n and sul)ply of trains is : 38 000 000 FF

four

identical

gas

and

12 to

14 months.

: 10.5 MNSCFD : 127 MMSCFD : 112 MMSCFD

BUDGET PRIcrf

Hutiget. ~,lyc:ol

pri~:e for d.ehydration

j?ii.- DELXVERY

Delivery

TIME

time

gf

7. Rl?FERENCL -A..PROSER list Staying

at

those

unit.:;

will

be between

LIST of

your

refercxes disposal

is fol

added ;

hert!

any other

after, information

you may require.

We remain, Yvurs faf th.ful ,...*/--7

ly

:; I /j. I ! i

MC. RIGAIL t I

l/j i

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