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Uncountable Noun without a/an/ -s
a /an/the Regular
Noun –s/ es
Note 1 a means/series/species – means .. a child – children a foot – feet a tooth – teeth a louse – lice a person – people a goose – geese a mouse – mice a man – men a woman – women on ox - oxen a fish - fish a carp – carp a cod – cod a salmon – salmon a deer – deer a sheep - sheep a crisis – crises
a thesis – theses a diagnosis - diagnoses a hypothesis – hypotheses a parenthesis - parentheses an axis - axes an oasis - oases a phenomenon – phenomena a criterion - criteria a memorandum – memoranda a curriculum – curricula a bacterium - bacteria a syllabus – syllabi a cactus – cacti a fungus – fungi a stimulus – stimuli a radius – radii an appendix – appendices an index – indices
Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves a calf - calves
a life – lives
a shelf - shelves
a half - halves
a loaf - loaves
a thief - thieves
a knife - knives
-self - -selves
a wife - wives
a leaf - leaves
a sheaf - sheaves
a wolf –wolves
a hoof – hooves/hoofs
a roof – roofs
a cliff – cliffs
a safe – safes
a handkerchief – handkerchiefs
a belief- beliefs
NOUN 2: Compound Nouns 1. Normally the last word is made plural boyfriends
2. But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural men drivers
3. The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun lookers-on
NOUN 3: Quantifiers 1. Many/several/various/numerous/diverse
2. A number of/numbers of
An amount of/amounts of
3. (A) few
4. Fewer/ the fewest
Less/ the least
NOUN 4: Numbers 1. a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun 2. hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun 3. Compound adjectives A three-year-old boy A 16,000-page book 4. one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun
4 (1) Subject _ Verb Agreement (2) Tenses (3) Active
Transitive V + Obj
V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…)
(4) Form a. After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to) V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses) b. After ‘be’ P. P (passive) c. After ‘have’ + P. P (perfect tenses) d. Gerund >< Infinitive e. Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle)
PARALLEL STRUCTURE 1. , 2. and 3. but 4. or 5. either …or 6. neither… nor 7. not only… but also 8. both … and 9. rather than 10.
whether … or
as well as
1. Pronoun/Noun Agreement
they >< it/he/she/we their >< its/his/her/our them>< it/him/her/us themselves>< which that (of )
>< those (of) (plural)
2. Which type? a. Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They) -
Subject of a Verb
b. Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them) -
Object of a Verb
Object of a Preposition
c. Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their) -
Before a Noun
Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh conditions
d. Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs) e. Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)
3. Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself) 4. The >< Possessive Adjective Ex: His snake is a reptile. He devoted the life to science.
5. Double subject/object Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.
6. Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years. The woman lives next door is too nosy.
1. Adjectives a. Before nouns Ex: an important meeting b. After ‘be’ and other linking verbs
- be/become - look/seem/appear/sound - taste/feel/smell - stay/remain ( = continue to be) - turn/get/grow/go (= become) - prove/find Ex: She looks angry. c. Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/
lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly 2. Adverbs a. Modify verbs:
Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge.
b. Modify adjectives
Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic.
c. Modify participles
Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress.
d. Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ shortly before
e. Modify adverbs: f.
Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly.
Modify the whole sentence - general
Generally, I like my class
3. Note a. fast (adj) fast (adv) b. long (adj) long (adv) c. hard (adj) hard >< hardly d. high (adj) high >< highly (figurative meaning) e. early (adj) early (adv) f. good (adj) well (adv)
VERB Differ Invent Compete Fertilize Decide Prohibit Prevent Beautify Originate Emphasize Glorify Mystify Socialize Generalize Simplify Free Construct Live
NOUN Difference Invention Competition Fertilizer/fertility Decision Prohibition Prevention Beauty Origin Emphasis Glory Mystery Society Generalization Simplicity Freedom Construction Life
ADJECTIVE Different Inventive Competitive Fertile Decisive Prohibitive Preventive Beautiful Original Emphatic Glorious Mysterious Social General Simple Free Constructive Live/living
Music Poetry Administration Photography Athletics Philosophy Creation Law
Musician Poet Administrator Photographer Athlete Philosopher Creator Lawyer
Surgery Architecture Farming Biology Theory Chemistry Politics Humor
VERB Restrict Cultivate Empower Analyze Familiarize Popularize Classify Categorize Absent Interest Bore Fascinate Produce Necessitate Collect
PERSON Surgeon Architect Farmer Biologist Theorist Chemist Politician Humorist
NOUN Restriction Culture Agriculture Power Importance Significance Analysis Familiarity Popularity Classification category Absence Interest Boredom Fascination Production Necessity Collection
ADJECTIVE Restrictive Cultural Agricultural Powerful Important Significant Analytical Familiar Popular Classifiable Categorical Absent Interesting Boring Fascinating Productive Necessary Collective
Dentistry Engineering Finance Physics Science Invention Crime/criminology Mathematics
Dentist Engineer Financier Physicist Scientist Inventor Criminal mathematician
History Editing Magic
Historian Editor Magician
Forecast Training Contest Discovery
Forecaster Trainer Contestant Discoverer
Biography Writing Geography
Biographer Writer Geographe
Manufacture Acting Collection
8 Manufacturer Actor/actress Collector
Hunting Dance Beauty Carpentry
r Hunter Dancer Beautician Carpenter
Employment Competition Labor
Employee/er Competitor Laborer
Strength Strengthen Strong Hardness Harden Hard Softness Soften Soft Depth Deepen Deep Ripeness Ripen Ripe Solidity Solidify Solid Length Lengthen Long Shortness Shorten Short Weight Weigh Weighty/weightless Blackness Blacken Black Fat Fatten Fat Nouns: hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch
Heat Light Brightness Thickness Richness Humidity Flatness/flat Height Darkness/dark White/whiteness Largeness
Heat Lighten Brighten Thicken Enrich Humidify Flatten Heighten Darken Whiten Enlarge
Hot Light Bright/brilliant Thick Rich Humid Flat High Dark White Large
WORD CHOICE 1. Wrong choice of MAKE or DO 1) MAKE
an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a
decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment 2) MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ); MAKE UP (= compose) 3) DO
an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the
ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/
a job/ one’s work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/one’s duty/harm/one’s best/a service/damage/ wonder
2. Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as 1) Like/Unlike A, B + Verb 2) A, like/unlike B, + Verb 3) A is like/unlike B 4) A and B are alike 5) Like + Noun
Ex: My results were much like Paul’s
6) As + Subject +Verb
Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did
7) As + Noun (=in the role of) 8) serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as 9) regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/
nominate/proclaim/announce s.o/sth (as) s.o/sth
3. Wrong choice of so, such, too
1) so + adjective/adverb + that Subject + Verb 2) so + many/few + Noun (c) that Subject + Verb + much/little + Noun (u) that Subject + Verb 3) so + adjective + a/an + Noun (c, singular) that Subject + Verb 4) such + (a/an) + Noun that Subject + Verb 5) too adjective + (for someone) + to do something 6) enough + noun +( for someone) to do something 7) adjective/adverb + enough + (for someone) to do something
4. Wrong choice of because or because of; although or in spite of /despite; when/while or during Adverb clause markers + S+ V
Preposition + Noun/NP
because of/ due to/ on account of
in spite of/ despite
5. Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER Adjective
another + Noun (singular)
other + Noun (plural) Determiner (the, some, any, every, one, no) + other + Noun
another (an additional one)
(sing) the other/the others
Ex: Give me another.
Ex: Of the two teachers, one is experienced, and the other is not.
each other / one another from one …
6. Other word form problems BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS 1) no + noun >< not … any 2) no longer >< not … any longer/any more
11 3) most + Noun most of the Noun almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun the most +adj/adv (superlative) 4) almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order) 5) twice (adjective) >< double (verb) Note: be twice as… as… 6) earliest >< soonest 7) one /two/three…percent of >< a /the percentage of 8) after >< afterward (adv = after that ) 9) ago >< before 10) tell so that >< say that/say to so that Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret 11)hardly ever >< never 12)hard/hardly 13)and/but/or 14)be alive >< live + Noun 15)old > < of age 16)near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost) 17)some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective 18)affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth 19)already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective) 20)among (3 or more) >< between ( 2) 21)and (conjunction) >< also (adverb) 22)beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition) 23)costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice) 24)farther/further (distance) >< further (= more) 25)formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously) 26)hard >< hardly 27)imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative) 28)later >< latter 29)lay lie
laying +Object (= put/place)
lying (= be situated/located)
lying (= not tell the truth)
30)loose (adj) >< lose (verb) 31)no>< not>< none 32)pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition) Note: pass = go/come past 33)quiet (adj) >< quite (adv) 34)raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object) 35)set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object) 36)thorough (adj) >< through (adv) 37)out >< out of +Noun 38)away>< away from + Noun 39)out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective) 40)listen to >< hear 41)lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep
transmit send out
separated away from
such as for example
13 a) Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs Hardly ever
On no account
Hardly … when
Only by/in/ at/once/recently
In no circumstances
Only in this way
No sooner… than
(So) + adj or participles (Such) + be + Noun
I haven’t got a ticket. – Neither/Nor have I. Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe. Not only do they rob you, they smash everything too On no account must this switch be touched Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard. Only in an emergency should you use this exit. Rarely did this remedy fail So suspicious did he become that … So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions. Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night.
b) The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence Not until
Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it. Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam.
14 c) In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down, from, in, on, over, off, out of, round, up .etc.) can be followed by verbs indicating position (crouch, hang, lie sit, stand, be etc.), by verbs of motion.
From the rafters hung strings of onions. In the door way stood a man with a gun. On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot Over the wall came a shower of stone. In front of the museum is a statue. Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.
Note: Prepositional Phrase, S + V Ex: d)
Across the United States, the general movement of air masses is from west to east.
If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary and subject with if omitted.
If I were in his shoes …
Were I in his shoes …
If you should require anything…
Should you require anything …
If he had known …
Had he known…
The + comparative + S + (V), the +comparative + S + (V)
Note: the worse (not the worst), the less (not the least), the better (not the best)
Ex: The more he plays, the more he improves.
Incorrect Article Choice •
A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial
without a/an (uncountable noun)
Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme
Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals. The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars.
The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty
Note: - a university/ a European/ a one-parent family/a union/a unicorn/ a unique character - an hour/ an honest man/ an honor/ an heir/ an heiress/ an MP/ an FBI
Clause marker (a) S+ V(f) (b) Present P
(c) Past P (d) Adjective Common clause markers: a. Time: after , as, as long as, as soon as, before, by the time, now that, once, since, until, when, while, whenever b. Concessions/Contrast: although, even though, though, even if, whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except that/however c. Reason: as, because, since, in that, in case d. Results: so that, so … that, such… that e. Manner: as if, as though f. Place: wherever g. Conditions: if, even if, only if, provided, unless
(,) (1) Clause marker
2. S + V + (Object) Conjunctions:
Conjunctive advs -
(3) conjunctive adverbs
S + V + (Object)
and, but, yet, for, so, or besides, likewise, moreover, in addition, additionally however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite this
therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently
similarly, correspondingly, likewise
for example, for instance
ARTICLES A/AN 1. Before singular countable nouns Ex: Australia is a continent 2. To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before Ex: I saw a tiger. 3. With certain expressions a dozen
a great many
fifty miles an/per hour
a great deal
ten kilometers an/per hour
a lot of
$10 a/per day
4. With names of professions Ex: He is an engineer.
She is a doctor.
THE 1. Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear Ex:
The moon is full today. Please open the door.
2. With certain expressions the morning/afternoon/evening the past/present/future the front/back/center/top/bottom the beginning/middle/end the north/south/east/west 3. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals, plants, inventions, musical instruments, and parts of the body) Ex:
The tiger is the largest cat The heart pumps blood The Wright brothers invented the airplane. She plays the guitar.
18 4. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal numbers.) Ex:
The First World War (But: World War One) The second chapter (But: Chapter Two) The third gate
(But: Gate Three)
The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven) 5. Before decades and centuries Ex:
the twenty-first century
the twentieth century
6. Before superlative adjectives Ex:
The biggest island on earth is Greenland.
7. Quantifier + of + the + noun Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/... of the + Noun Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the Ex:
not much paper
a few pictures
8. Before a group of people or a nationality Ex:
The Vietnamese are very hardworking The Swedish are proud of their ancestors, the Vikings.
Note: No article is used before the name of a language Ex:
She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi.
9. The + adjective (= people who are...) Ex:
The rich should help the poor.
10. Before a specific noun Ex:
The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific) Coffee originated in Ethiopia. (general) The rice that I bought today is in the bag. (specific) Rice is a staple in many countries.(general) The trees in this park are mostly evergreens. (specific) Trees provide shade. (general)
19 11. The + subject + of NP Subject (used alone) --> no article Adjective + Subject --> no article Ex:
The literature of the twentieth century The history of The United States.
I major in literature I study American history.
12. Before names of countries, states, cities, universities, colleges, and schools that contain the word "of" or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the name, except for Great Britain Ex:
The United States of America The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam) The State of Florida (But: Florida) The city of Boston ( But: Boston) The University of Texas ( But: Boston University) The Netherlands/ The Philippines
13. Before a. oceans:
The pacific Ocean
The Black Sea
The Gulf of Mexico
e. plural names of mountains
The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest)
f. plural names of islands
The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island)
g. plural names of lakes
The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan)
14. Before the names of ships, planes, trains and people's family names Ex:
The Titanic The Orient Express The Browns
GERUND AND INFINITIVE I. VERB + TO INF afford agree appear arrange ask attempt
beg care consent decide desire deserve
expect fail forget hesitate hope learn
manage mean need offer plan prepare
pretend promise refuse seem struggle swear
threaten want wish try intend
Tom wants to become a doctor. Susan pretended to sleep. David promised not to be late again.
II. VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE advise allow ask beg cause
challenge convince dare encourage expect
forbid force hire instruct invite
order permit persuade remind require
teach tell urge want warn
invite recommend enable lead motivate use
Ex: They begged us to come. I warn you not to drive so fast.
Note: advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf (2) + V-ing Ex: He doesn’t allow smoking in his house He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his house Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house
III. VERB + V-ING admit appreciate avoid complete consider
delay deny discuss dislike enjoy
finish can’t help keep mention mind
postpone practice quit recall recollect
I dislike driving long distances I can’t help worrying about it. Would you mind not smoking in this class?
resent resist risk stop suggest
miss tolerate involve understand include
IV. VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE begin start
continue can’t stand
Ex: It began to rain/ raining
Note: would like/love/prefer + to infinitive Ex: I would like to play tennis today.
V. ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE anxious eager usual easy
difficult hard dangerous ready
willing able pleased prepared
boring interesting …
Ex: Tom is anxious to see his family. It is very dangerous to drive in this weather. We are ready to leave now.
Note: be busy/worth + V-ing. Ex: He is busy doing his homework. The book is worth reading.
PREPOSITION + V-ING 1. VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING
approve of give up rely on insist on
succeed in count on keep on think about
think of depend on put off dream about
look forward to object to confess to devote to
dedicate to commit to
Ex: John gave up smoking three years ago. I am looking forward to going back to school.
2. ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING afraid of interested in
capable of successful in
tired of be/get accustomed to fond of be/get used to
Ex: She is afraid of getting married now. To gets used to getting up early.
SPECIAL CASES 1. STOP He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking; he is not going to smoke any more.) He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke)
2. TRY TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something Ex: I was very tire. I tried to keep my eyes open, but I couldn’t.
TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test Ex: I’ve got a terrible headache. I tried taking an aspirin, but it did not help.
3. REMEMBER REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it Ex: Please remember to post the letter. (= Don’t forget to post the letter)
REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it Ex: I clearly remember locking the door before I left.
4. NEED NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE) Ex: John needs to paint the door. My friend needed to learn Spanish
NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE) Ex: The grass needs cutting/ to be cut. The television needs fixing/to be fixed.
5. MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE Ex: Sad movies always make me cry. I had the mechanic repair my car. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic My parents do not let me go out late at night.
6. VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE see notice watch
look at observe hear
listen to smell feel
Ex: I saw my friend running/run down the street.
7. GO + V-ING GO
boating bowling camping canoeing
dancing fishing hiking hunting
jogging climbing running sailing
shopping sightseeing skating skiing
Ex: My sister went sailing yesterday
8. TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first, the second…, the last, the only and sometimes after superlatives. Ex: She loves parties. She is always the first to come and the last to leave. He is the second man to be killed in this way.
23 9. TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns ability ambition anxiety attempt decision
demand desire determination eagerness effort
failure offer plan promise refusal
request scheme willingness wish readiness
Ex: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset. Ex: He made an effort to stand up. 10. catch/find/leave + Object spend/ waste + Time have fun/ a good time have trouble/difficulty have a hard time/ difficult time
+ + + + +
V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing
WORD ENDINGS A. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS 1. –ism : baptism, criticism, organism, heroism, patriotism, alcoholism, barbarism, dwarfism, parallelism
: importance, significance, dependence, arrogance, resistance, subsistence
: bitterness, conceitedness, darkness, hardness, kindheartedness
: excision, damnation, pollution, suggestion, a notion, an action, vexation, concoction, completion.
: abridgement, accomplishment, banishment, commencement, embodiment, enhancement, excitement, fragment, garment, ornament, treatment
: purity, authority, dubiety, majority, superiority, humidity, cruelty, faculty, honesty, plenty, safety, subtlety
: baggage, carriage, cartage, damage, dotage, hermitage, homage language, luggage, marriage, passage, tillage, tonnage, vicarage, village.
: ambassadorship, citizenship, headship, professorship, chairmanship, fellowship, scholarship, companionship, friendship, hardship, relationship, craftsmanship, entrepreneurship, horsemanship, membership, courtship
: bath, birth, death, oath, growth, stealth, filth, health, length, strength, truth, depth, breadth, wealth.
10. –dom 11. –hood
: earldom, freedom, kingdom, officialdom, wisdom : childhood, falsehood, sisterhood, brotherhood, neighborhood, likelihood, livelihood
12. –ure : closure, picture, scripture, legislature, nature, failure, pleasure, treasure
: bankruptcy, captaincy, democracy, privacy, delicacy, advocacy, confederacy, accuracy, obstinacy, piracy, , aristocracy, expectancy, efficiency, presidency, sufficiency, deficiency
14. –(t)ry: rivalry, ancestry, carpentry, industry, greenery, machinery, scenery, bakery, brewery, bravery, slavery, archery
: archaeology, geology, sociology, theology, zoology 16. –graphy : bibliography, biography
B. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS 1. – or : actor, creator, doctor, monitor, sculptor, successor, guarantor, conqueror, donor, governor, solicitor, tailor, visitor. bachelor
2. – er
: hatter, geographer, astrologer, cottager, foreigner, Londoner, New Yorker, northerner, villager, airliner, old-timer, sorcerer
3. – ee 4. – ist
: employee, payee, devotee, escapee, conferee, absentee, refugee. : chemist, dramatist, economist, geologist; dentist, pianist, tobacconist; Buddhist, Darwinist, idealist, Marxist, racist, optimist, pessimist
5. – ician
: magician, physician, musician, electrician, beautician, politician, statistician, mathematician, mortician,
6. – ant (10%) : assistant, accountant, consultant, contestant, inhabitant
C. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 1. – ent : independent, sufficient, absent, ambivalent, ancient, apparent, ardent 2. – ant
: arrogant, expectant, important, significant , abundant, ignorant, brilliant,
3. – ful
: beautiful, graceful, powerful, grateful, forgetful, mournful, Exceptions: handful, mouthful, spoonful are nouns
4. – ic 5. – less
: civic, classic, historic, artistic, economic, : doubtless, fearless, hatless, powerless, countless, tireless, faceless, legless, careless, helpless
6. – ive
: authoritative, demonstrative, figurative, imitative, qualitative, talkative, active, passive, comparative, possessive
7. – ous 8. – able 9. – ible
: dangerous, glorious, murderous, viscous, ferocious, hilarious, : charitable, separable, bearable, reliable, comfortable, suitable. : audible, compressible, edible, horrible, terrible
10. – al : central, general, oral, colossal, tropical, tidal Exceptions : rival, arrival, proposal, withdrawal, survival are nouns 11. – ory
: mandatory, compulsory, predatory, satisfactory Exceptions : dormitory, promontory, territory are nouns 12. – ary : arbitrary, budgetary, contrary, primary, temporary, necessary 13. – y : angry, happy, icy, messy, milky, tidy, chilly, haughty, slippery, 14. – ly : beastly, cowardly, queenly, rascally 15. – (r)ate (10%): temperate, accurate, considerate, immediate, literate 16. – ish: boorish, boyish, foolish, womanish, bookish, feverish, bluish, reddish
D. COMMON VERB ENDINGS 1. – en/ en – : listen, happen, strengthen, lengthen, shorten, soften, ripen, deepen, widen, entrust, enslave, enlighten, entangle, enlarge, encourage, enable, enrich
2. – ate
: assassinate, associate, fascinate, felicitate, hydrate, separate, vaccinate, evacuate
3. – ize
: characterize, idolize, agonize, apologize, sympathize, theorize, authorize, extemporize, fertilize, fossilize, jeopardize, moralize, Americanize, carbonize, oxidize
4. – ify
: pacify, satisfy, petrify, solidify, horrify
E. COMMON ADVERB ENDING 1. – ly : amusingly, deservedly, firstly, fully, greatly, happily, hourly, truly, firstly, secondly
2. – wise 3. – ways 4. – ward
: crosswise, lengthwise, otherwise, clockwise : edgeways, endways, lengthways, sideways : backward, homeward, inward, onward, skyward, eastward
SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT A. BASIC SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT 1. Singular Subject + Singular Verb 2. Plural Subject + Plural Verb Ex:
My friend lives in Boston. Growing flowers is her hobby. My friends live in Boston.
B. SPECIAL CASES 1.
Sing Subject 1 and Sing Subject 2 + Plural Verb
The actor and the singer are coming. Jean and David are coming back to Australia.
Note: However, phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as making up a single item. Ex:
Meat pie and peas is Tom’s favorite at the moment Fish and chips is my favorite food
Subject 1 +
of in addition to with together with + Subject 2 + Verb along with as well as no less than like/ unlike
One of my friends is here. You together with Tom are responsible for this failure.
or + Subject 1 +
+ Subject 2 + Verb nor
Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach
There + be +
There is a book on the shelf There are three books on the shelf
5. There/ Here
Here comes the Queen. Here lie many unknown soldiers.
Every Each Either Neither Ex:
Noun (singular) +
+ Singular Verb of the Noun (plural)
Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift.
Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise.
Everyone Everybody Everything Someone Somebody
Something Anyone Anybody Anything No one
Ex: Everyone has his or her own idea.
A/the majority of A number of A lot of + Plenty of Some of None of Half of No Ex:
29 Plural Noun +
A number of refugees have been turned back at the border. Plenty of potatoes are grown here. None of the answers are correct.
The number of +
council association audience class club college committee community
+ Singular Verb
The number of books in the library has risen to over five million.
Any of None of The majority of A lot of Plenty of All (of) Some (of)
+ Uncountable Noun +
All the furniture was destroyed in the fire. company crowd department electorate enemy family firm generation
government group jury orchestra population press public school
staff team university faculty choir gang couple cabinet
Singular Verb ( if they are referred to as a group)
Plural Verb ( if they are seen as a collection of individual)
The team is winning. (the team as a group) The team are going back to their homes. (meaning individual members of the team)
30 belongings clothes congratulations earnings goods outskirts particulars premises
riches glasses savings pliers stairs pants surroundings + Plural Verb thanks scissors shorts jeans
The pants are in the drawer. (A pair of pants is in the drawer)
police people cattle poultry
The police are looking for the missing child.
news physics politics mumps economics
measles statistics mathematics physics phonetics
rabies diabetes gymnastics athletics linguistics
Physics is difficult. The news is alarming.
The titles of books, plays, movies, etc., always take a singular verb Ex:
The Los Angeles Times is on the desk. Gulliver’s Travels is a well-known children’s book.
Nouns stating an amount of time, money or measurement always take a singular verb Ex:
Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise. Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt. Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day.
The + Ex:
The poor need help.
Fluids Solids Gases Particles Abstraction
Uncountable Noun +
baggage garbage mail
clothing hardware makeup
equipment jewelry money
food junk cash
fruit luggage change
furniture machinery postage
beauty happiness intelligence patience truth
confidence health justice peace violence
courage help knowledge pride wealth …
education honesty laughter progress
enjoyment hospitality music recreation
fun importance luck sleep
advice space vocabulary
weather lightning darkness
dew rain light
fog sleet sunshine
hail snow electricity
heat thunder fire
humidity wind gravity
Smoking is harmful to your health.
PREPOSITIONS 1. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME A. In •
century ( in the twenty-first century)
decade ( in the 1970s; in the nineties)
year (in 2007)
season ( in the summer)
month ( in July)
parts of the day ( in the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening)
the past/ future
amounts of time ( in/within an hour)
B. On •
date (on September 11)
day (on Monday; on Sunday morning)
C. At •
time of day (at 9:20)
night/ midnight/ noon /dawn/dusk/sunrise/sunset/the moment/the same
D. During During is used with periods of time
It snows a lot in Montreal during the winter
His company grew rapidly during the 1980s During is NOT used with dates or days of the week.
E. Until Until is used with points of time to indicate that an action continues up to that point
Helen practiced the piano until noon
They won’t arrive until tomorrow
F. From …. To/until and between … and These phrases are used with starting points and ending points
From 1990 to/until 1993, Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division.
Between 1990 and 1993, Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division.
G. Since/ For Since and for are generally used with a perfect tense
We've been waiting here since two o'clock.
The factory has been here since the 1970s.
We had been talking for a good half hour.
2. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE A. In •
continent (in Asia)
country ( in China)
state/province (in California; in Ontario)
in city ( in Munich)
building (in the Empire State Building)
room (in the living room)
B. On •
earth (the origin of life on Earth)
street ( on Wall Street)
coast ( on the East Coast)
floor ( on the second floor)
C. At •
address (at 634 Sutter Street)
building (at the museum)
D. From … to and between … and •
They're building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield.
They're building a new road from Manchester to Sheffield.
3. OTHER COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS
A. In •
clothes ( in a gray suit)
language ( written in Vietnamese)
book ( in the Complete Guide to TOEIC)
newspaper ( in the International Herald-Tribune)
magazine ( in Times)
department ( in the sales department)
field ( in computer science)
one’s opinion (in her opinion)
a car / a taxi (I've left my bag in the car.)
trouble (I think I'm in trouble with Dad.)
danger of (The bridge was in danger of collapsing.)
part (The failure of the project was due in part to his lack of leadership.
front of (He walked along in front of me, holding the lantern.)
the middle of (Jo was standing in the middle of the room.)
the back of (Two men were sitting in the back of the car.)
the rear (a passenger traveling in the rear of a car)
line (The kids were standing in line waiting for their teacher.)
the process of (The company is in the process of moving to new offices.)
B. On •
a vehicle ( on a bus; on a train; on a plane)
foot (It takes about 30 minutes on foot, or 10 minutes by car.)
a trip (We were all going on a trip.)
business (She's in New York this week on business)
holiday (I'm away on holiday until the 1st of June.)
sale (These gloves were on sale for only $9.)
the market (Handguns are freely available on the open market)
schedule (The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule.)
time (Jack was worried about whether he'd be able to get there on time.)
(the) television/radio (Later that evening we watched it all on television again.)
the phone (Bridget's on the phone all day long.)
a farm (Joe had worked on the farm all his life.)
the other hand (I'd like to eat out, but on the other hand I want to save money.)
purpose (Fire investigators believe the fire was set on purpose.)
C. BY By is used before a point of time to indicate the latest time. By, in this
case, means “no later than”.
I will be home by noon. By can mean “next to”
She is standing by her friend. By is used after passive verbs to identify the agent of the action.
This report was written by Peter. By is used with means of transportation and communication
by car/plane/e-mail Note: in a/my car; on a plane Other By chance/ hand/ far/check/credit card/ means of
D. With With is used to express the idea of accompaniment or ownership
I went to the restaurant with Andrea.
The man with the briefcase is the vice-president.
With is also used to indicate the tool or instrument used to complete something •
He opened the door with his key.
He paid for the bill with a credit car
E. Without Without means “ not having, experiencing or showing something”; “not in the company of someone” or “not doing the action mentioned”
They had gone two days without food.
He found the place without difficulty.
She spoke without much enthusiasm.
Don't go without me.
I don't know what I'd do without you.
The rest of the group set off without him.
Don't go out without your coat.
He left without saying goodbye.
You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs.
Suddenly and without any warning, the army opened fire.
He had gone out without his parents' permission.
F. Within Within can mean “during a particular period of time”
We should have the test results back within 24 hours.
He fell sick and died within a matter of weeks.
Within an hour of our arrival, Caroline was starting to complain.
Within the space of a year, three of the town's factories have closed down. Within can mean “less than a certain distance from a particular place”
The invading troops came within 50 miles of Paris.
We live within easy reach of (=close to) the shops.
Adjust the driver's seat so that all the controls are within reach (=close enough to touch)
Within can also mean “ inside the range or limits of something”
We have to operate within a very tight budget.
Private security firms have to work strictly within the law.
You can go anywhere you want within reason (=within reasonable limits)
He finds it hard to live within his income.
G. Beyond Beyond can mean “more or greater than a particular amount, level, or limit”
More people are choosing to work beyond retirement age.
Inflation has risen beyond the 5% level.
Such tasks are far beyond the scope of the average school kid.
Expensive luxuries that are beyond the reach of ordinary people Beyond can be used to say that “something is impossible to do”
Scott's equipment was damaged beyond repair.
The town centre had changed beyond all recognition.
Due to circumstances beyond our control the performance has had to be cancelled.
Why Joan ever married such an idiot in the first place is beyond me.
READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES
READING STRATEGIES OVERVIEW QUESTIONS The most common overview question asks about the purpose or main topic of the passage. Other overview questions ask about the writer of the passage or the reader of the passage.
What does this article/the memo mainly discuss? What is this form? What is the purpose of this letter/announcement/notice…? Why was this notice/letter written? In what business is the writer of the passage? What kind of business is Mr. ________ probably in? Who issued/wrote this notice? What is the author’s opinion of ______? Who were these instructions written for? Who would be most interested in the information in this announcement? For whom is this advertisement/notice intended? -
Don’t answer the initial overview questions until you have answered the other questions
Usually focus on the title and the first sentence(s) of each paragraph for the topic and main idea; also focus on the last sentence for the conclusion and a possible restatement of the topic and main idea.
Skim (read very quickly) the rest of the passage for the key words that will confirm the topic and main idea.
Read the answer choices and eliminate the distractors which may have one of these characteristics: a. too general b. too specific (detailed) c.
d. irrelevant (not mentioned)
DETAIL QUESTIONS 1. Information/Factual Questions often begin with the phrases “According to the passage/the author, wh- questions...”
2. Negative Questions contain the words NOT, EXCEPT, or LEAST -
Focus on one or two key words in the question
Scan the passage looking for the key words or related words (synonyms, word family)
Carefully read the sentence in which the key words occur. (You may have to read the sentence preceding or following that sentence as well.)
Choose the correct answer
III. REFERENCE QUESTIONS 1. --------------------------------- . A -------------------------------------
Initial position ---> usually read the previous sentence and find the noun that the referent replaces
2. ---------------------------------------------------------- A----------------------. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A.
Middle/Final Position ---> usually read the whole sentence in which the referent occurs
3. This/ That usually refer to the whole previous sentence or phrase. So, read the previous sentence or phrase and summarize it.
4. Another ---> Look for One + Noun 5. Others ----> Look for Some/Many + Noun 6. The former/the later/ respectively
IV. VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT 1. Look for synonyms in the passage because the author may avoid repeating the same word.
2. Look for examples
- for example, for instance, such as 3. Look for contrast
- but, yet, still - however, nevertheless, on the other hand, in contrast, in spite of this - although, even though, though, even if, whereas, while, despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that, except that - not - rather than, instead of 4. Focus on the general context and see if context clues in the sentence or in the sentences before or after can help you guess the meaning
- Literal Meaning >< Figurative meaning Example: * He grasped my hand firmly * I don’t think you have quite grasped the seriousness of the situation.
Inference Questions usually include such words as “infer, imply, suggest, guess, probably, or likely” or such phrases as “Why … mention?” “What …. to do next?” “Which of these ….. is probably true?” and “ What …..probably do?” Answer choices to inference questions require students to 1. understand what the question is asking and know where to find the answer
passage 2. relate the information in the answer choice to a synonym or paraphrase of information in the passage; and 3. determine what is true and not true in the answer choices
Note: Answer choices that contain such words as always, never, all, and only are usually NOT correct.
PART 1: Strategies for sentences about photographs 1. Always complete each item as quickly as possible so that you can preview the photograph for the next item. Don’t wait for the statement that says, “Now look at photograph number ______” 2. If you are previewing a photograph that involves a person or people, ask yourself these questions What are the people doing? Where are they?
Who are they? (Is there a uniform or a piece of equipment or anything else that indicates their profession or role?)
What distinguishes them? (Is there a hat, a mustache, a purse, a pair of glasses, a tie or anything else that differentiates the people?)
What do the people’s expressions tell you? (Do they look happy? Unhappy? Excited? Bored? Upset?) 3. If you are previewing a photograph of an object, ask yourself these questions What is it? What is it made of? What is it used for?
43 Where is it?
4. I If you are previewing a photograph of a scene, ask yourself these questions Where is it? What is in the foreground (the front of the picture)? What – if anything – is happening? What is in the background (the distant part of the picture)?
5. Don’t mark an answer until you have heard all four choices. When you hear a choice that you think is correct, rest your pencil on that oval on your answer sheet. If you change your mind and hear a sentence that you think is better, move your pencil to that choice. Once you have heard all four sentences, mark the oval that your pencil is resting on. (This technique helps you remember which choice you think is best.) 6. Try to eliminate choices with problems in Sound Meaning Sound & Meaning
7. Never leave any blanks. Always guess before going on to the next item. 8. As soon as you have finished marking the answer, stop looking at and thinking about the photograph and move on to the next item.
PART II: Strategies for Questions/Responses 1. Identifying time Words you might hear in the questions
Words you might hear in the answers
When did ….
When will/ is/ is …expected, due / be… V-ing/ can How long What time When did Christopher arrive? When will the advertising seminar begin? When is Maria’s birthday? When was Mr. Chen born? When will my laundry be ready? When does Mr. Gustavson predict the construction of the building will be finished? How long will this session last?
yesterday/ last/ ago/ in (month, year)/ this morning… at + time/ tomorrow/next/ in …/ this afternoon/ on (date) for/since/ over …. at… Last Wednesday. At two o’clock sharp.
On March 3. In 1953. In about two hours. In about a month.
For another hour, perhaps.
How long has the photocopying machine been out of order? What time does your flight leave? What time is the news on television?
Since 10:00 this morning.
At 7:30. It’s on at 11.
2. Identifying people Words you might hear in the questions
Words you might hear in the answers
Name/ Occupation title A man/woman … who ….
Whose Who will go with you on the business trip? Who’s the new chef at the Fontaine’s bakery? Who did Mrs. Martelli pick to fill the position? Who can deliver this memo to Mr. Wantanabe for me? Who’s going to pick him up at the station? Whose coffee cup is this on my desk? Whose scarf is this?
Possessive case (It’s + name’s) Ms. Preston
A man who worked at the Central Pastry Shop. A young intern from the marketing department was chosen. I can do it when I’ve finished typing this letter. I was planning to.
I was wondering where I left it! It’s Fran’s.
3. Identifying a thing, an action or idea Words you might hear in the questions
Words you might hear in the answers
What …? What kind/type of
Something (…) I don’t know
What do you think I should wear to the party What is the fine for overdue books? What was that loud noise I just heard? What kind of work does Ms. Garcia do? What kind of novel do you like? What’s the name of the travel agency this company uses? What are your total production figures for this factory? What do you plan to do when school is finished? What do you estimate your firm’s profit will be in December?
A suit and a tie. It’s ten cents a day. I don’t know. She’s a computer programmer. I prefer adventure stories. I think it’s called All Points Travel.
Over 1000 units a week.
Work for my father.
Optimistically speaking, about 20 percent.
4. Identifying an opinion Words you might hear in the questions
Words you might hear in the answers
How What’s your opinion of …? Do you think Tom will ….? What do you think of ….?
Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/
How did you like that new movie? What do you think of Scott Graham’s latest novel? What do you think of your new supervisor?
I enjoyed it, but my husband didn’t. It’s terrific.
I don’t know her well enough to say.
excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/ terrible/ boring… Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/ Expressions: It’s a good/great idea
5. Identifying a choice Words you might hear in the questions -
…. A or B? …. prefer? … like better?
Which does that artist produce more of – paintings or sculptures? Will you arrive in the morning or the evening? Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee? Should I wait here at the counter or follow you back to the warehouse? What do you think, plain or patterned carpet in the waiting room? Will the conference be held here or at the
Words you might hear in the answers A/B will be repeated in the answer choice Neither one/Both, please Either one
Note: The speaker can offer a third option - Lately, she has been doing a lot of -
paintings. In the morning, I think.
Neither one. Oh, come with me please.
Either one is fine with me.
It’s scheduled for this building.
headquarters? Should they move the file cabinet to the right or over by the copy machine? Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the filing cabinet? Can you locate the files on the merger, or should I ask Mr. Chan to do it?
I think it looks good where it is.
I’ll take it.
I’ll have them ready for you in a minute.
6. Identifying an invitation, offer, request Words you might hear in the questions -
Why don’t we …? Why don’t you…? Don’t you want to..? I was wondering if you’d like to …. Let’s …. What/How about ….? Shouldn’t we/ Shall we …? Would/Wouldn’t you like me to ….? Can I…? Couldn’t you …?
Words you might hear in the answers
OK I’d love to! Of course Sure That sounds like fun/ That’s a good idea/ Great, … Yes, please (accept the offer) No, thanks …. (turn down the offer) Thank you, but …( turn down the offer) Sorry, I’ve already made plans/ I have other plans. …( turn down the offer) Sorry, but ……( turn down the offer) We’d love to – thanks!
Would you like to join us for a game of tennis? Would you like to order a calendar for next year?
Shall we send you a reminder for your next dental appointment? Why don’t we go out this evening? Why don’t we take the earlier train home? How about a movie when we finish up here? Would you mind opening you bag so I can inspect it, sir? Don’t you want to go to the reception for Miss Gunther? I was wondering if you’d like to join us for dinner this evening? Couldn’t you stop at the post office today? What about visiting the flower show over the weekend?
- Yes, that would be helpful.
- Thanks, but I already have one
- Sorry, I’ve already made plans - Great, I’m exhausted. - That’s a good idea. - Not at all
- Sorry, but I’m not feeling well. - Sorry, I have other plans. - I might have time after lunch. - Wednesday afternoon would be better for me.
7. Identifying a reason Words you might hear in the questions -
Why is this train running late? Why didn’t you let us know you’d be late? Why did the board of directors change its policy? Why did the meeting begin so early? Why didn’t Mr. Danforth bring the situation to the attention of his supervisor? Why didn’t you get to work on time? Why does Ms. Ortiz want to see the invoices?
Words you might hear in the answers To do sth Because/ Because of Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain problem) can be given - I think there are mechanical problems. - I couldn’t find a phone.
- There had been too many complaints. - Everyone was in a hurry. - He though he could handle it himself
- The traffic was terrible. - There’s a problem with the shipment.
8. Identifying a description Words you might hear in the questions -
What is … like? What does ….look like? What are your new co-workers like? What’s the weather like here in the winter?
Words you might hear in the answers -
an adjective or adjectives
They seem very pleasant It’s cool and often rainy
9. Identifying manner or a method Words you might hear in the questions -
Words you might hear in the answers -
By ( a means of transport …)
How will you get to work tomorrow? How can we be sure that the order will arrive on time? How can I get more letterhead and envelopes? How do you handle inquiries?
I’ll get my car back from the mechanic. Express service is very reliable.
Contact Ms. McKay in the stockroom.
I send out this pamphlet.
10. Identifying a location Words you might hear in the questions -
Words you might hear in the answers -
How far …?
Where should we meet so we can all go to the game together? Where are you staying ion Paris? Where did Maria leave the Oceanview contract? How far would you say Conrad Park is from here?
Names of the places Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/ beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/ behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of… … minutes away/ walk/drive … km Let’s meet at the stadium entrance.
At the Grand Hotel. She put it in Ms. Garcia’s mailbox.
It’s about 10-minute walk.
Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions
Words you might hear in the questions
Words you might hear in the answers
Yes /No/ Not
Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn’t …? Have they delivered our lunch yet?
Yes, it’s here.
Has the director already left?
Yes, he had an appointment.
Didn’t anyone train the new employee to use -
Mike showed him everything works.
Did you ask them what time their flight would
No, I didn’t think of it.
Your managing director resigned yesterday, -
Yes, it was quite a surprise.
49 didn’t he?
Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving -
Yes, but she has to submit a claim form.
her car to the meting, doesn’t she?
This new product should sell well, shouldn’t
Yes, it is priced fairly.
I would appreciate it
You want me to retype this document, don’t you?
You don’t want to start a new project this late in the day, do you?
I still have time
Part 3: Short Conversations I. Strategies 1. Between each question is an eight-second pause. That means there are twenty-four seconds between each conversation. You can accomplish quite a bit during this time. You need to mark your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer choices. They tell you what to listen for. 2. While listening to each conversation, keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions and answer choices. Don't close your eyes or look away. Try to evaluate the four choices as you are listening.
50 3. Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to the question. Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in the conversation. 4. If the correct answer is not obvious, try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect. If more than one answer choice is left, take a guess. 5. Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item. 6. Never leave any answers blank. If you are not sure, always guess.
II. Question types A. Overview questions B. Detail questions C. Inference question A. Overview Questions Types of over view questions 1. Questions about locations 2. Questions about occupations 3. Questions about activities 4. Questions about topic
Question Words Where..? Who…? What …doing? What…talking about?
1. Questions about locations Where are they?
Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated
M: We don’t have any
Where are the speakers?
with a certain location
reservations. Is it still
Where is the man/woman?
- Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure
possible for us to get a
• Where is the conversation taking place?
lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way
table for two?
F: You’re in luck — a party
- Rolls/cake/bread Bakery
of two just canceled their
- Stage/cast/scene/box office/ Theater
reservations. We can
- Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet Jewelry
seat you in about fifteen or
- Menu/terminal/keyboard Computer
twenty minutes. M: Great! I was worried,
- Bulldozer/hard hat/crane
but I guess this is our lucky night!
- Dryer/hangars/detergent Laundromat
- Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard Post office
- Account/balance/statement /checkbook /
Where are they? A. At a theater B. At a party C. At an airport D. At a restaurant
deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates Bank
- Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe Beach
- Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/ jury Courtroom
- Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player Stadium
- Lane/driver/exit Freeway - Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/ receptionist/room service/ housekeeper Hotel
- Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/ seat/ reservation Restaurant
Questions about occupations Questions
Who is the man/woman?
Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated
M1: There’s something
Who are they?
with a certain occupation
wrong with this switch.
What is he/she?
- Kitchen/pot/knife Cook
Can you fix it?
What are they?
- Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine
M2: It’s not just the switch,
• What is the man/woman’s profession / occupation/jon?
I’m afraid. This whole
- Class/exam/student Teacher
building needs rewiring.
M1: But that will cost a
52 - Money/deposit/withdrawal Bank teller
Who is the second
- Order/tip/guests Waiter
speaker? An electrician
- Runner/training/game Athlete
- Instrument/orchestra/note Musician - Stage/drama/theater Actor
F: I want to put a new
- Passenger/Fare/Tip Taxi driver
deck on the back of my
- Cash register/change/receipt Sales clerk
- Newspaper/write/report/article Journalist
- Switch/rewiring/ fix Electrician
house. Do you know anyone who does that kind of work? M: Why don’t you ask Thomas? He did a great job repairing the wooden
- Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix Plumber stairway in my house. - Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/ F: I asked him, but he’s hammer/nail Carpenter
working on a new construction job. Who is Tomas? A sailor A mechanic A plumber A carpenter
3. Questions about activities Questions What are they doing?
Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated
M: I’ve been waiting here
• What is happening now?
with a certain activity
15 minutes. How often do
• What is the man doing?
- Drinking coffee: cup, spoon, sugar,
the buses come?
• What is going to happen?
cream, coffee break
- Watching a movie: film, screen, theater, popcorn
- Going to the post office: mail, stamps, postal clerk, letter, package
W: One stops here every twenty minutes M: Good, we only have five minutes to wait, then.
53 - Reading a book: novel, pages, cover, character
What are the speakers doing?
- Making a telephone call: number,
Getting on a bus
receiver, dial, answer, hang up
Waiting for a bus
- Using a computer: keyboard, monitor, screen, software, crash
Taking a taxi Paying a fare
- Ordering food at a restaurant: menu, waiter, waitress, table, drink
- Buying clothes: suit, pants, dress, skirt, jeans, dressing room
- Eating dinner: - Waiting for a bus:
- Moving furniture: - Buying a plane ticket: - Parking a car:
- Driving a car:
4. Questions about topics Questions • What/ whom are they discussing?
Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is
• What are they referring to?
Examples W: Is there a dress code at your company? M: No, but most of the
The answer choices will be
men wear coats and
• What are they talking about?
four plausible topics. Incorrect
ties, and the women
• What is the conversation about?
answers may include details
wear dresses or suits.
that are mentioned in the
W: Oh, it’s pretty formal
conversation but that are not the
54 conversation What are they discussing A.
outfit that the woman is wearing B.
people dress at the man’s company C.
to buy clothes for work D.
social event that the man attended
B. Detail Questions Types of over view
questions 1. Questions about time
When does Claudia want to go
• How often…?
to the play?
55 • At what time…?
• How long…?
B. Wednesday C. Thursday D. Saturday W1: I need to call the theater to order tickets for Wednesday. W2: Why don’t you see the play over the weekend Claudia? W1: It runs only Monday through
2. Questions about
• Why did … happen…?
Thursday. Why is Mrs. Sompong leaving?
• Why is the man/woman going
A. To join another company
to…? • Why does the man/woman want to…? • Why
upset/ happy/ puzzled…? • Why did … not happen? • Why does the man/woman not want to…?
B. To start her own business C. To enter a race D. To
working M: Do you hear about Mrs. Sompong’s resignation? W: Yes. Our competitors made her an offer she couldn’t resist. M: I’ll wonder if they’ll appoint her as their new marketing
3. Questions about plans
manager? man/woman What is the woman going to do? A. Sell the camera planning/going to do?
• What does the man/woman
C. Fill out a form
plan to do next? • What
B. Pay by check
D. Write her name on the card
• What does the man/woman M: And how would you like to pay for the camera? plan to do? W: Could I write you a check?
M: Certainly. I’ll need some form of identification or a major credit card. 4. Questions about
• What is the matter with …?
What is Ms. Kim worried about?
• What is the problem here?
A. Whether she has enough
• What’s wrong with • What is the man/woman concerned/ worried about?
money for her vacation. B. Whether she returned the book on labor
56 • What is the man/woman’s
dispute. C. Whether the airline will
problem? • What is bothering the
be operating or not. D. Whether her union will
get higher wages. M: Are you all set for your vacation on Friday, Ms. Kim? W: Yes, but now I’m waiting to see if the airline we’ve booked our return flight on will go out on strike that day. M: Oh yes. I head that’s a possibility. The company claims it has no money to meet the union’s demands. 5. Questions about
• What does the man/ woman
think of/ about …? • What is the man/woman’s opinion of …? • How does the man/woman
6. Questions about advice
feel about …? • What is the man/woman’s What does Martha advise Dan to do? suggestion? • What does the man/woman is
suggesting? • What is the man/woman’s advice?
advise … to do? • What
B. Walk to the office C. Turn on the lights D. Give a shorter report M: I’ll never get this report finished before the weekend. W: You’ve got to allocate your time more carefully, Dan. M: I guess you’re right. I’ll probably wind up working at the office all night again.
(See the strategies for part 2)
C. Inference Questions Questions • What does the man/woman imply?
• What is the man/woman saying about …?
• What can be said about…? • What is known about …? • What can be inferred from the conversation? • What does the man/woman mean? • What is probably true about? • What are they likely to…?
Tactics The answers for inference
Examples What are they likely to eat
questions are not directly stated
out for lunch?
in the conversations. Instead you
have to draw a conclusion based
on the information that is
presented by the speakers.
Read the question carefully and focus on one or two key words
M: I’ve heard nothing but
Listen for key words that help
praise for that new health
you make a logical conclusion
food restaurant. W: Same here. And I’ve got a coupon for the salad bar – buy one, get one free. M: I’m always looking to save some money. Let’s check it out for lunch