TOEFL - Structure 3.0
Download TOEFL - Structure 3.0...
Structure Section 3
Participial phrases generally occur after nouns. They are actually reduced (shortened) relative clauses. Present participles (which always end in ing) are used to reduce adjective clauses that contain active verbs.
* Minnesota, which joined the Union in 1858, became the thirty-second state. (adjective clause with active verb) * Minnesota, joining Minnesota, joining the Union Union in 1858, became the thirty-second state. (participial phrase with a present participle) parti ciple)
Most past participles end in -ed, but there are also many irregular forms. Past participles are used to reduce adjective clauses with passive verbs. v erbs. * William and Mary College, which was founded in 1693, is the second oldest university in the United States. (adjective clause with a passive verb) * William and Mary College, founded in 1693, is the second oldest university in the United States. (participial phrase with a past participle) parti ciple)
Participial phrases can also come before the subject of a sentence.
* Joining the Union in 1858, Minnesota became the thirty-second state. * Founded in 1693, William and Mary College is the second oldest university in the United States.
Directions: Choose the one option -(A), (B), (C), or (D)- that correctly completes the sentence, and then mark the appropriate blank. The first one is done as an example. 1. Aerodynamics is the study of the forces ______ on an object as it moves through the atmosphere. ______ (A) acting ______ (B) act ______ (C) are acting ______ (D) acted
2. ______ for their strong fiber include i nclude flax and hemp. ______ (A) Plants are grown grown ______ (B) Plants grown grown ______ (C) Plants that grow grow ______ (D) To grow plants plants 3. ______, Jose Limon's dance troupe often toured abroad. ____(A) The The u.s. State Department Department sponsored it ____(B) Sponsored Sponsored by the U.S. U.S. State Department ____(C) The The U.S. State Department, Department, which sponsored it ____(D) The The sponsorship of the U.S. State Department
4. Elfreth's AllJey in Philadelphia is the oldest residential street in the United States, with ______ from 1728. ______ (A) houses are dated dated ______ (B) the dates of of the houses ______ (C) the dating of houses ______ (D) houses dating dating 5. In 1821 the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, was laid out in a design ______ after that of Washington, D.C. ______ (A) patterned ______ (B) was patterned patterned ______ (C) a pattern ______ (D) that patterned
8. Barbara McClintoc McClintock k ______ for her discovery of the mobility of genetic elements. ______ (A) known ______ (B) who knows knows ______ (C) knowing ______ (D) is known known 9. The solitary scientist ______ by himself has in many instances been replaced by a cooperative scientific team. ______ (A) to make important discoveries ______ (B) important discoveries discoveries were made made ______ (C) has made important discoveries ______ (D) making important discoveries
6. ______ ______ in front of of a camera camera lens changes the color of the light that reaches the film. ______ (A) Placed a filter ______ (B) A filter is placed placed ______ (C) A filter placed placed ______ (D) When When a filter placed 7. The Massachusetts State House, in ______ 1798, was the most distinguished building in the United States at that time. ______ (A) completing ______ (B) which was was completed ______ (C) was completed completed ______ (D) to be completed completed
10. Geometry is the branch of mathematics ______ the properties of lines, li nes, curves, shapes, and surfaces. ______ (A) that concerned concerned with ______ (B) it is concerned concerned with ______ (C) concerned with with ______ (D) its concerns concerns are 11. ______ an average of 471 inches of rain a year, Mount Waialeale in Hawaii is the wettest spot in the world. ______ (A) It receives ______ (B) Receiving ______ (C) To receive ______ (D) Received
12. Amber is a hard, yellowish-brown ______ of years ago. ______ (A) substance formed formed ______ (B) to form a substance substance ______ (C) substance has has formed ______ (D) forming a substance