TOEFL - Structure 2.0

March 18, 2019 | Author: Adrianosvki Figuerosvki | Category: Adjective, Subject (Grammar), Clause, Sentence (Linguistics), Onomastics
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The Complete Guide To The TOEFL Test PBT Edition Structure Section 2

Lesson 18: Incomplete Adjective Clauses. As mentioned in the previous lesson, there are three types of dependent clauses.   also called   are the most  –  also  –  are commonly tested of the three. Adjective clauses are a way of joining two sentences. In the joined sentence, the adjective clause modifies (describes) a noun (called the ) in another clause of the sentence. It begins with an .

* I wanted the book. The book had already been checked out. * The book which I wanted wanted had already been checked out. out. The adjective clause in this example begins with the marker which  and  and modifies the head noun book  . Adjective clause markers are relative pronouns such as who , that  , or which  or  or the relative adverbs when  or  or where .

Adjective Clause Marker Who Whom Whose Which

Use

Example

Subject

A neurologist is a doctor who

(people)

specializes in the nervous system.

Object

This is the patient whom the doctor

(people)

treated.

Possessive Possessive Mr. Mr. Collins is the man whose house I (people)

rented.

Subject

That is a topic which interests me.

(things)

(which as subject)

Adjective Clause Marker

Use

Example

Which

Object

This is the topic on which I will

(things)

write.

Subejct

Art that is in public places can be

(people)

enjoyed by everyone. (as subject)

Object

The painting painting that Ms. Wallace

(things)

bought was very expensive.

Adverb

Here is the site where the bank .

(place)

plans to build its new headquaters.

That That Where

Adjective Clause Marker When

Use

Example

Adverb

This is the hour when the children

(time)

usually go to bed.

Like all clauses, adjective clauses must have a subject and a verb. In some cases the adjective-clause marker itself is the subject; in some cases, there is another subject. * The painting was very expensive. Ms. Wallace bought it. * The painting which Ms. Wallace bought was very expensive.

The adjective-clause marker in the the joined sentence replaces it  , the object of the verb bought  . In the joined sentence, the adjective clause keeps the subject  –  Ms.  –  that  Ms. Wallace –   that it had in the original sentence. * This is a topic. It interests interests me. * This is a topic that interests me. The adjective-clause marker in the joined sentence replaces it, the subject of the second original sentence. In the joined sentence, the marker itself is the subject of the adjective clause. Notice that the inclusion of the pronoun it in the joined sentences above would be an error.

Incorrect: * The painting which Ms. Wallace bought it was very expensive. * This is a topic which it interests me. This type of mistake is sometimes seen in distractors. When the markers which, that, and whom are used as objects in relative clauses, they can correctly be omitted. * The painting Ms. Ms. Wallace Wallace bought is very expensive. expensive. (which omitted) The adjective-clause markers which and whom can also be used as objects of prepositions

* That is the topic. I will write on it. * That is the topic on which I will write. write . You may also see sentences with adjective clauses used in this pattern: quantity word + of + relative clause * He met with two advisors. He had known both of them for years. *He met with two advisors, both of whom he had known for years. years . * I read a number of articles. Most of them were very useful. * I read a number of articles, most of which were very useful.

Directions: Choose the one option-(A), (B), (C), or (D)-that correctly completes the sentence, and then mark the appropriate blank. The first one is done as an example.

1. Most folk songs are ballads ______ have simple words and tell simple stories. _____ (A) what _____ (B) although _____ (C) when _____ (D) that

2. After its introduction in 1969, the float process ______ the world's principal method of manufacturing flat sheets of glass. ______ (A) by which it became ______ (B) it became ______ (C) became ______ (D) which became 3. In 1850, Yale University established Sheffield Scientific School, ______. ______ (A) engineers were educated there ______ (B) where engineers were educated ______ (C) in which were engineers educated ______ (D) where were engineers educated

4. Many of Louise Nevelson's sculptures consisted of a number of large wooden structures ______ in complex patterns. ______ (A) which she arranged ______ (B) she arranged them ______ (C) which arranged ______ (D) arranged them 5. In addition to being a naturalist, Stewart E. White was a writer ______ the struggle for survival on the American frontier. ______ (A) whose novels describe ______ (B) he describes in his novels ______ (C) his novels describe ______ (D) who, describing in his novels

6. Diamonds are often found in rock formations called pipes, ______ the throats of extinct volcanoes. ______ (A) in which they resemble ______ (B) which resemble ______ (C) there is a resemblance to ______ (D) they resemble 7. William Samuel Johnson, ______ helped write the Constitution, became the flrst president of Columbia College in 1787. ______ (A) whom he had ______ (B) and he had ______ (C) who had ______ (D)had

8. Seals appear clumsy on the land, ______ are able to move short distances faster than most people can run. ______ (A) but they ______ (B) which they ______ (C) they ______ (D) which 9. The instrument panel of a light airplane has at least a dozen instruments ______ ______ (A) the pilot must watch ______ (B) what the pilot must watch ______ (C) which the pilot must watch them ______ (D) such that the pilot must watch them

10. A keystone species is a species of plants or animals ______ absence absence has a major effect on an ecological system. ______ (A) that its ______ (B) its ______ (C) whose ______ (D) with its 11. The size and shape of a nail depend primarily on the function ______ intended. ______ (A) which it is ______ (B) for which it is ______ (C) which it is for ______ (D) for which is

12. In geometry, a tangent is a straight line ______ a curve at only one point. ______ (A) it touches ______ (B) whose touching ______ (C) its touching ______ (D) that touches I3. It was the ragtime pianist Scott Joplin ______ the "Maple Leaf Rag," perhaps the best known of all ragtime tunes. ______ (A) wrote ______ (B) the writer of ______ (C) who wrote ______ (D) writing

14. There are oyer 2.000 varieties of snakes. ______ are harmless to humans. ______ (A) mostly they ______ (B) most of them ______ (C) most of which ______ (D) which most

I5. Smokejumpers are ______ descend into remote areas by parachute to fight forest fires. ______ (A) firefighters ______ (B) when firefighters ______ (C) who, as firefighters ______ (D) firefighters who

16. Charlotte Gilman's best known book ______ she urges women to become financially independent. ______ (A) is Women and Economics, in which ______ (B) Women and Economics, in which ______ (C) is Women and Economics, which ______ (D) Women and Economics, which

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