TOEFL Exercise

October 27, 2017 | Author: Celt Lamongan | Category: Adjective, Noun, Nature
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Noun Mary’s Job The meat at the supermarket

Verb Is Is not

As Adjective As As As

Hard Expensive

As As

Noun Bill’s That at a butcher shop

2. COMPARATIVE A/ Short adjectives, one-syllable adjectives form the comparative by using –er after the form. Two syllable adjectives which end in y form the coparative by changing the y to i and adding er Example: the bill which we received was highter than the estimates Ellen has been happier lately than she was when she was first came The climate here iw milder than that of New England B/ Long adjectives; two and more than two-syllable adjectives form the comparative by using more or less before the adjective form Example: This room is more spacious than the other one The books for my engineering course more expensive than thoes for my other courses The diesel engine that runs on oil is more efficient than most other engines Irregular adjectives

Adjectives Bad Good Far Little Many Much

Comparative Worse Better Farther/further Less More More

Superlative The worst The best The farthest/furthest The least The most The most

Example: This ice-cream is better than the other brands The lad is farther/further from the bus stop than the library Please give me more sugar than you did last time This composition is worse than your last one 3. SUPERLATIVE: ARE USED TO COMPARE MORE THAN TWO THINGS OR PEOPLE A/ Short adjectives: form by using the before adjective forms and adding est after adjectives Example: She’s the prettest of all of the girls in our class Of all of the candidats, Alex is probably the leat qualified B/ Long adjectives: form by using the most before adjectives forms Example: New York is the most populous city of all American cities 1

In my opionion, the most beautifule place in the North of Vietnam is Ha Long Bay Although there are a number of interesting findings, the most significant results are in the abstract 4. EXACT SIMILARITY: THE SAME AS AND THE SAME The same as and the same have the same meaning, but the same as is used between the two nouns compared, and the same is used after the two nouns or a plural noun Examples: This coat is the same as that one That car is almost the same as mine The teacher gave Martha a failing grade one composition because it was the same as a composition he had read This coat and that one are the same My briefcase and yours are exactly the same These coats are the same 5. GENERAL SIMILARITY: SIMILAR TO AND SIMILAR, LIKE AND ALIKE Similar to and similar have the same meaning, but similar to is used between the two nouns compared and similar is used after the two nouns or a plural noun



This restaurant

Similar to



Similar to


All of the other departments

These houses

That one





This one

Verb Are





similar similar

LIKE AND ALIKE Your recipe for chicken and recipe that my mother has are alike Your recipe for chicken is like a recipe that my mother has The weather feels like spring Mary and her sister don’t look alike 6. SPECIFIC SIMILARITY: QUALITY NOUNS A/ Quality nouns: is used in comparisons of a specific characteristic: age, color, height, length, price, size, stype, weight



She This one Please

Is Isn’t Cut my hair

The same The same The same The same

Noun-quality As Age Size Style

As As As

Noun My mother The rest one In this magazine


Different from and different have the same meaning, but different from is used between the two nouns compared, and different is used after two nouns or a plural

Noun Time magazine

And And



New York



Different in several ways


These apartment Are Long distance telephone Are rates for day time hours The watch in the window and Is a little this one


dirrerent Different

Quite different Different from rates for night time Different

Differ from



Differ from

Other women I know

The campus at State University

Differ from

That of City College

8. COMPARATIVE ESTIMATES-MULTIPLE NUMBERS, MORE THAN AND LESS THAN, AS MANY AS A/ Multiple numbers: half, twice, three times. . .






Noun or S + V

Example: Fresh fruit cost twice as much as canned fruit This one is prettier, but it costs twice as much as the other one The rent at College Apartment is only half as much as you pay here The price was very reasonable, I would gladly have paid three times as much as he asked


More than/less than



Example: Steve has more than a thousand coins in his collection Andy has less than a dozen coins in his pocket More than one hundred people came to the meeting There are more than fifty students in the lab, but only two computers 9. DOUBLE COMPARATIVES: When two comparatives are used together, the first comparative expresses cause and the second expresses result. A comparative is more or less with and adjective, or and adjective with –er

The + comparative + subject + verb, the + comparative + subject + verb Example: The more you study during the semester, the less you have to study the week before exams The faster we finish, the sooner we can leave The less one earns, the less one must pay in income tax


Cumulative review exercise for comparatives Part A 1. One object will not be the same weight than another object because the gravitational attraction differs from place to place on the earth’s surface. 2. An identical twin is always the same sex his or her twin because they develop from the same zygote 3. We finished the test more rapidly of all 4. As many 100 billion stars are in the Milky Way 5. The valuablest information we currently have on the ocean floor is that which was obtained by oceanographic satellites such as Seasat 6. Compared with numbers fifty years ago, there are twice more students in collage today 7. The oxygen concentration in the lungs is higher than the blood 8. Since the earth is spherical, the larger the area, the worser the distortion on a flat map 9. The eyes of an octopus are remarkably similar to that of a human being 10. The terms used in one text book may be different from another text 11. In 1980, residential utility bills were as high sixteen hundred dollars a month in New England 12. When the ratio of gear teeth is five: one, the small gear rotates five times as fast the large gear 13. Although lacking in calcium and vitamin A, grains have most carbohydrates than any other food 14. The classes at my university are very different from State University 15. The more narrow the lens diameter, the more great the depth of field 16. No fingerprint is exactly alike another 17. The English that is spoken in Canada is similar to the United States 18. There is disagreement among industrialiss as to whether the products of this decade are inferior the past 19. The time in New York differs three hours from Los Angeles 20. The period is probably the most easiest punctuation mark to use 21. When mental replaced wood in the construction of ship’s hulls, more strong and larger ships could be build 22. Charcoal is the most commonly used cooking fuel in the world 23. I wish we could see each other most frequently 24. Soft solder melts at a low temperature than ordinary older 25. Many of the nation’s most important documents are stored in the National Archives Building in Washington DC. 26. The surfboards used twenty-five years ago were more heavier than the ones used by surfers today 27. Few American politicians have spoken most eloquently William Jennings 28. Subterranean termites are the more destructive type of termites in the United States 29. Prince Edward Island is the less populous of Canada’s ten provinces 30. During a depression, economic conditions are far worst than they are during a recession 31. One of the more basic American contributions to technology was the so-called “American system. Of interchangeable machine parts” 4

32. The horse chestnut has a stronger, bitter taste than other chestnuts 33. The higher the solar activity, the intense the auroras or polar light displays in the skies near the earth’s geomagnetic poles. 34. Chicago’s Field Museum is one of the largest and better known natural history museums in the United States 35. These photographs are very good, but that one is the better of all 36. Baltimore has one of the world’s most finest natural harbors 37. The Kenedy-Nixon race of 1960 was he closest presidential election of this century 38. The louder he shouted, less he convinced everyone 39. The finback whale is the fastest of all whales, and only the blue whale is largest 40. The cello is shorter and more slender than the double bass 41. Oil floats on water because oil is less dense than water 42. The more you practice speaking, the well you will do it 43. Basketball is played at a much fast pace than baseball 44. The deep oceans contain some of the stranger of all living creatures 45. The most small vessels in the circulatory system are capillaries 46. North America is the third larger of the seven continents 47. Pikes Peak, named for explorer Zebulon Pike, is Colorado’s most famous but not its most highest mountain 48. Gold tapaz is much rare than either white or blue topaz 49. The more you study during the semester, the lesser you have to study the week before the exams 50. State University offers as much as two hundred major fields of study 51. The new model costs twice more than last year’s model 52. Even through Miss Alabama lost the beauty contest, she was still more prettier than the other girls in the Miss America pageant 53. When a patient’s blood pressure is much high than it should be, a doctor usually insists that he not smoke 54. The more the relative humidity reading rises, the worst the heat affects us. 55. One of the more influent newspapers in US is the New York times chlorination of water sources 56. The bridge at Niagara Falls spans the longer unguarded border in the history of the world Part B 1. Wild strawberries are . . . . . . . . . as cultivated strawberries A. not so sweet B. not as sweet C. less sweet D. not as sweeter 2. Sea . . . . . . . . . fresh water bass A. are larger than B. are larger the 3. are as large D. are large 3. Automobiles, air planes, and buses use more energy per passenger . . . . . . . . . A. as do trains B. than trains do C. trains do D. like trains 5

4. The larger a drop of water, . . . . . . . . . freezing temperature A. the higher its B. its higher C. higher than its D. higher of its 5. . . . . . . . . . San Diego and San Francisco, Los Angeles has no natural harbor A. dissimilar B. unlike C. dislike D. different 6. The water of the Great Salt Lake is . . . . . . . . . seawater A. saltier than that of B. as salty as that of C. saltier than D. so saltier as 7. A psychosis is a severe mental disorder, . . . . . . . . . than a neurosis A. the most serious B. as serious C. more serious D. as though serious 8. The social system of bumblebees is not as complex . . . . . . . . . A. than honeybees B. as honeybees C. that honeybees are D. as that of honeybees 9. The administration of private colleges is nearly . . . . . . . . . that of public colleges A. same B. just as C. the same as D. similar 10. . . . . . . . . .a river on land, an ocean current doesn’t flow in a straightline A. same B. just as C. the same as D. similar 11. The skin temperature of humans is . . . . . . . . . their internal temperature A. not high as B. not so high C. as low D. lower than 12. A butterfly . . . . . . . . . a month in a number of ways A. is different from B. is different C. the different is D. differing from 13. . . . . . . . . . the worse I seem to feel A. when I take more medicine B. the more medicine I take C. Taking more of the medicine 6

D. More medicine taken 14. We will have to be careful not get our suitcases mixed up because yours is almost the same . . . . . . . . . mine A. like B. to C. as D. that 15. My new glasses cost me . . . . . . . . . the last pair that I brought A. times three B. three times more C. three times as much as D. as much three time as 16. Although she is very popular, she is not . . . . . . . . . her sister A. pretty as B. as pretty C. prettier than D. more pretty than 17. This new soap is not much . . . . . . . . . the others that I have tried A. different B. different from C. different than D. different that 18. Ms Jones isn’t as nice . . . . . . . . . Ms Smith A. as B. for C. like D. to 19. the rooms in Graduate Towers are . . . . . . . . . Patteson Hall A. Larger than B. Larger than that of C. Larger than those in D. Larger than in 20. The final will be . . . . . . . . . the midterm A. alike B. like C. the same D. similar 21. they are . . . . . . . . . my neighbors A. more friendlier than B. friendly than C. friendlier as D. friendlier than 22. tuition at an American university runs . . . . . . . . . six thousand dollars a semester A. so high as B. as high as C. as high to D. as high than 23. . . . . . . . . . I get to know her, the more I like her A. for more 7

B. more C. the more D. the most 24. I would have paid . . . . . . . . . for my car if the salesmen had insisted, because I really wanted it A. as much twice B. much twice C. twice as much D. times two 25. . . . . . . . . . 1000 species of finch have been identified A. as many a B. as many C. as much as D. much as 26. The observation desk at the World Trade Center . . . . . . . . . in the New York A. Is highest than any other one B. Is higher than any other one C. Is highest that any other one D. Is higher that any one other 27. The salary of a bus driver is much higher . . . . . . . . . A. in comparison with the salary of a teacher B. than a teacher C. than that of a teacher D. to compare as a teacher 28. Frost occurs in valley and on low grounds . . . . . . . . . on adjacent hills A. more frequently as B. as frequently than C. more frequently than D. frequently than 29. Staying in a hotel costs . . . . . . . . . renting a room in a dormitory for a week A. twice more than B. twice as much as C. as much twice as D. as much at twice 30. The consistency of protoplasm and that of glue . . . . . . . . . A. they are alike B. are similar to C. are similar D. the same 31. Although exact statistics vary because of political changes, . . . . . . . . . separate nation states are included in the official lists at any one time. A. more than two hundred B. as much as two hundred C. many as two hundred D. most that two hundred 32. A dolphin . . . . . . . . . a porpoise in that it has a longer nose A. different B. differs C. different than 8

D. differs from 33. The seed heads of teasel plants raise the nap on coarse tweed cloth . . . . . . . . . than do the machine tools invented to replace them A. more efficiently B. efficiently C. more efficient D. most efficient

Idiomatic expression and two word verb Lesson 1 1. above all ; most importantly 2. about to ; almost ready to 3. add up ; make sense; be logical 4. all at once ; suddenly; without warning 5. all of a sudden ; all at one, suddenly 6. as a matter of fact ; in reality, actually 7. as a rule ; generally, customarily 8. at the drop of a hat ; quickly, without any preparation time 9. at ease ; not nervous, calm 10. back out of ; withdraw an offer 11. be my guest ; do what you want; feel free; help yourself 12. by rusty ; need practice or review 13. beats me ; I don’t know, I have no idea 14. better off ; in an improved condition 15. bite off more than one can chew ; take on more responsibility than one can handle 16. bound to ; certain to; sure to 17. break down ; stop functioning a machine 18. break in; interrupt 19. break the ice ; break through social barriers 20. break the news ; inform; give bad news 21. break up ; end 22. break up with ; stop being a couple 23. a breeze ; something very simple and easy to do 24. bring about ; cause to happen 25. bring up ; raise a child or introduce a topic 26. brush up on ; review, study, practice 27. bump into ; meet unexpectedly, run into 28. by and large ; mostly, generally, on the whole 29. by heart; by memory, learned word for word 30. by no means ; in no way, not at all 9

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Quan träng nhÊt HÇu nh ®· s½n sµng Mét c¸ch logic ®ét nhiªn, kh«ng th«ng b¸o ®ét nhiªn, kh«ng th«ng b¸o Thùc tÕ Th«ng thêng, nh×n chung Nhanh chãng, kh«ng cã sù chuÈn bÞ

: Kh«ng håi hép, b×nh tÜnh : Tr¶ l¹i lêi mêi : Tù nhiªn nhÐ! : : : :

CÇn luyÖn tËp hoÆc xem xÐt T«i kh«ng biÕt, t«i kh«ng cã ý kiÕn C¶i thiÖn t×nh h×nh Lµm viÖc g× qu¸ søc

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S½n sµng, ch¾c ch¾n Háng C¾t ngang, lµm gi¸n ®o¹n Lµm tan kh«ng khÝ c¨ng th¼ng Th«ng b¸o thêng lµ tin xÊu KÕt thóc Chia tay DÔ

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Nguyªn nh©n D¹y dç «n tËp GÆp gì t×nh cê HÇu nh

: Häc thuéc : Kh«ng cßn c¸ch nµo

: Tin tëng vµo ai

31. count on, bank on

EXERCISE: fill in the blanks in the sentences or dialogs with idioms from the above list; there will be one word per blank. It may be necessary to change verb forms in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct 1. “Can you talk now” “No, I’m . . . . . . . . . . go to the grocery store, but I’ll call you as soon as I get back” 2. “You are probably too tired to play another game of racquetball, right?” “I’m not that tired, really . . . . . .... ...... ..... . . . . . . I’d enjoy another game” 3. “Will you support my proposal at the meeting?” certainly. You can . . . . . . . . . . my support” 4. I was talking to my aunt when suddenly my cousin George Ann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . our conversation 5. “I understand Diane lost her job.” “yes, but she’s actually . . . . . . . . . .she found a more interesting job with higher salary” 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carlos is very punctual, but she sure was late tonight. 7. My car . . . . . . . . . . last week, and I had to take the bus to work until it was repaired 8. I was taking a quiet walk last night when . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .there was a loud explosion 9. Kent is . . . . . . . . . . fail that class if he doesn’t start studying 10. They . . . . . . . . . . their children to be honest 11. There were a few things I didn’t like about Professor Wong’s class, but . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I enjoyed it 12. “I think Matthew was cheating on that quiz” “that doesn’t . . . . . . . . . .why should the best student in the class cheat?” 13. “Can I have another sandwich?” “sure, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I made plenty” 14. Actors and actresses must know their lines . . . . . . . . . . 15. If you don’t want to talk about this problem, why did you . . . . . it . . . . .? 16. Many accidents are . . . . . . . . . . by carelessness 17. Their team won the game, but they . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .dominated it. It was a very close game 18. “What a boring party. No one is talking to one another” “May be we should put on some music and start dancing. That might . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .” 19. “Have you studied Spanish before?” “yes, but it’s been years since I took a Spanish class, so I’ll need to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .it before I go to Venezuela 20. “you’re taking five classes this term?” “yes, and I’m having trouble getting caught up. I’m afraid I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . this time 21. “You’re all packed and ready to go, I see.” “I could leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... ..... 22. “Do you know what the name of this street is?” “. . . . . . . . . . this is the first time I’ve ever been in this town” 23. “How’s that biology class you’re taking?” “so far, it’s been . . . . . . . . . . We’ve just been going over things I studied last semester” 24. “What time did the pardy . . . . . . . . . . last nigh?” “I don’t know. It was still going on when I went home” 25. “I was awfully nervous when I gave that speech.” “really? You hid it well. I thought you were completely . . . . . . . . . .” 10

Lesson 2 1. Call it a day ; stop working for the day, go home 2. Call off ; cancel 3. Call on ; visit 4. Calm down ; relax 5. Care for; take care of; feel affection for 6. Catch on to ; understand, learn 7. Catch up with ; go as fast as, catch 8. Check out of ; leave a hotel; take material from library 9. Check into; to register 10. Cheer up ; become cheerful, be happy 11. Chip in ; contribute 12. Clear up ; clarify, make understandable, become nice to agree with 13. Come across ; find, meet, encounter 14. Come round to ; begin to change one’s opinion, begin to agree with 15. Come down with ; become sick with 16. Come up with ; think of 17. Cost an arm and a leg ; be very expensive 18. Count on ; depend on, rely on, bank on 19. Count out ; eliminate, no longer consider as a factor 20. Cut off ; stop, discontinue 21. Cut out for ; have an aptitude for

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NghØ Huû Th¨m, viÕng B×nh tÜnh, th gi·n Ch¨m sãc cho HiÓu B¾t kÞp Rêi khái kh¸ch s¹n Lµm thñ tôc Vui vÎ lªn, h¨ng h¸i lªn, phÊn khëi ®ãng gãp Lµm cho râ rµng, lµm cho s¸ng tá T×m, gÆp gì Thay ®æi ý kiÕn ai ®ã

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Ch¸n ngÊy víi NghÜ vÒ RÊt ®¾t Phô thuéc vµo, tin tëng vµo KÕt thóc Dõng Cã kh¶ n¨ng lµm viÖc g×

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EXERCISE: Fill in the blanks in the sentence or dialogue with idiom from the above list. There will be one word per blank. It may be necessary to change the verb form in order for the sentence to be grammatically correct. 1. The reception in the garden was . . . . . . . . . . because of a thunderstorm 2. Don’t get so excited just . . . . . . . . . . and tell us what happened 3. I was looking up some information in the almanac when I . . . . . . . . . . an interesting fact 4. I can . . . . . . . . . . my car. It’s very dependable and never breaks down 5. How did you . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . such a strange idea? 6. I arrived in town last nigh at seven thirty and . . . . . . . . . . my hotel room at around eight. This morning I plan to . . . . . . . . . . at about nine 7. “Did you rent this videotape?” “no, I . . . . . it . . . . . . . . . . the library 8. You looked tired. Why don’t we . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and finish up tomorrow?” 9. It won’t be too expensive to buy? Professor Mc Millen a present if we all . . . . . . . . . . his electricity 10. I don’t understand this theorem at all. “talk to professor Adler. I’ll best she can . . . . . . . . . . your confusion” 11. If Arthur doesn’t pay his electric bill soon, the utilities company might . . . . . . . . . . his electricity 12. Who . . . . . . . . . . your cat while you were out of town? 13. A good stereo system doesn’t have . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . you can find one for a reasonable price 11

14. Cauliflower isn’t my favorite vegetable. In fact, I don’t . . . . . . . . . . it at all 15. “I’m depressed. I didn’t do very well on this quiz . . . . . . . . . . that quiz only counted for 10 percent of the total grade. And I am sure you’ll do better on the other tests” 16. “How did Eric do in the cross-country ski race?” he got off to a bad start, and so he nerver . . . . . . . . . . the leading skiers 17. “Why did Brenda drop out of business school? “she decided she wasn’t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a career in business. She is going to study art instead 18. this song wasn’t very popular when it was first recorded but now it’s starting to . . . . . . . . . . 19. “Your room-mate is still planning to vote for Smithson for president of the Student Council?” “yes, but I’m going to keep talking to him. I think eventually he’ll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . our point of view and vote for Brannigan” 20. that saleswomen . . . . . . . . . . her clients at least once a month because she thinks personal contact is important 21. “Is it still raining?” “No, the rain has stopped. And it’s starting to . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3 1. Day in and day out ; constantly, for a long time

: Ngµy nµy sang ngµy kh¸c, nèi tiÕp nhau 2. Die down ; become less severe; quiet down : Yªn tÜnh 3. Do over ; do again; repeat : LÆp l¹i 4. Do without; not have : Kh«ng cã 5. Down the drain; wasted, done for no reason : L·ng phÝ, lµm viÖc g× kh«ng cã lý do 6. Dream up ; invent, think of, come up with : Ph¸t minh 7. Drop in ; visit informally : Th¨m (b¹n th©n, ngêi th©n) 8. Drop someone a line ; send someone a letter : Göi th cho ai 9. Drop off ; leave something, take someone home, : Rêi bá thø g× let someone out of a car 10. Drop out of ; stop attending classes : Bá häc 11. Easy as a pie ; very simple; a piece of cake : DÔ nh b¸nh nh©n t¸o 12. Easy bigger than one’s stomach ; said of : M¾t to h¬n bông (No bông ®ãi con someone who takes more food than he or she can m¾t) eat 13. Fall behind ; not move as quickly as, lag behind : Tôt l¹i phÝa sau 14. Fall through ; fail to happen : Kh«ng x¶y ra 15. As far cry from ; not similar to, not as good as : Kh«ng gièng nh, kh«ng tèt nh 16. Feel free ; do something if one wants : Tù nhiªn, lµm g× b¹n muèn 17. Feel like ; be inclined to, want to : C¶m thÊy thÝch lµm viÖc g× 18. Feel like a million dollars ; feel very good : T©m tr¹ng phÊn chÊn, t©m tr¹ng tèt 19. Feel up to ; feel able to do something; ready to : Cã thÓ lµm viÖc g× 20. Fed up with ; not able to tolerate; disgusted : Ch¸n ngÊy with; annoyed with 21. Few and far between ; uncommon and : Kh«ng thêng xuyªn inferquent 22. Figure out ; understand, solve : HiÓu 12

EXERCISE 1. It took me hours to . . . . . . . . . . how to record programs on my VCR 2. If you could . . . . . . . . . . the laundry on the way to work. I’ll pick it up on Monday 3. “What a wonderful masquerade party!” “People certainly . . . . . . . . . . some interesting costumes, didn’t they?” 4. “Do you . . . . . . . . . . going out tonight?” “No, I’d rather stay home and read” 5. “Why have you . . . . . . . . . . in your French class?” “I was sick and I missed a few classes. But I’m studying hard to catch up” 6. “Why do we need to get gas now? We have quite a bit left. “This highway goes through some very empty country, and gas station are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .” 7. Howard’s teacher wasn’t satisfied with the work he had done, so she asker him to . . . . . it . . . . . 8. I’m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . my roommate’s lack of responsibility. He never pays his bills or his share of the rent on time 9. “Isn’t your class picnic today?” “No, our plans for the picnic . . . . . . . . . . “ 10. “The food at that new restaurant isn’t bad.” “It’s alright, but it’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the food at Marior’s. Now that is a great restaurant 11. Ben had to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the university because of financial problems 12. After borrowing furiously, the win finally . . . . . . . . . . 13. “Do you telephone friends before you visit, or just . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . them? It depends. If they’re acquaintances, I generally call first 14. “I’m tired of the same old routine. “I know how you feel. I get tired of doing the same things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . too” 15. “Ralph really loaded up his tray with food”. He’ll never eat it all. “Ralph’s . . . . . are . . . . . his . . . . .” 16. “I need to use a computer for a few hours.” . . . . . . . . . . to use laptop computer. I don’t need it this morning” 17. “I’ve missed James since he moved to Seattle.” “You should . . . . . him . . . . . . . . . . and let him know how you’re doing. I’m sure he’d love to get a letter from you” LESSON 4 1. Fill in; write in a blank 2. Fill in for; substitute for 3. Fill one in; provide missing information 4. Fill out; complete 5. Find out; learn, discover 6. A fish out of water; someone not in his or her normal surroundings. 7. Fix up; repair, renovate 8. Follow in one’s footsteps; do what someone else did 9. For good; permanently, forever 10. For the time being; temporarily, for now 11. From out of the blue; unexpectedly, without warning 12. Get along with; have good relations with 13. Get carried away; go too far, do too much, buy too much 14. Get in one’s blood; become a habit; become 13

®iÒn vµo Thay thÕ cho Cung cÊp th«ng tin cßn thiÕu Hoµn thµnh Häc, t×m ra ThÝch nghi víi hoµn c¶nh, thÝch nghi víi ®iÒu kiÖn : Söa ch÷a : Lµm viÖc g× mµ ai ®ã ®· lµm : : : : : :

: M·i m·i, l©u dµi : T¹m thêi, b©y giê : Kh«ng mong ®îi, : Cã quan hÖ tèt víi : ®i qu¸ xa, lµm qu¸ nhiÒu, mua qu¸ nhiÒu : Trë thµnh thãi quen, trë thµnh tËp


16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

customary Get in over one’s head; take too much responsibility; bite off more than one can chew. Get in the way; block; obstruct Get in touch with; contact Get the hang of something; learn how to do something Get off; leave a vehicle Get a kick out of; have fun doing something, enjoy Get off the ground; start to be successful Get on ; board a vehicle Get over; recover from Get rid of; discard, no longer have Get under way; begin, start Give away; distribute Give someone a cold shoulder; act unfriendly toward someone; ignore

qu¸n, ®i vµo m¸u : Lµm qu¸ søc m×nh : Lµm bÕ t¾c : Gi÷ liªn l¹c : Häc c¸ch lµm g× : ®Ó l¹i ph¬ng tiÖn : ThÝch thó, lµm viÖc g× buån cêi : : : : : : :

Sù khëi ®Çu tèt ®Ñp Lªn xe LÊy l¹i tõ, giµnh l¹i tõ, t×m l¹i ®îc tõ Th¶i håi B¾t ®Çu, khëi dÇu ®ãng gãp, ph©n phèi Kh«ng th©n thiÖn; bá qua

EXERCISE; 1. “ How did you......... ........ where Warren lives? “ I just looked it up in my address book” 2. “ I’m interested in the job that was advertised in the newspaper.” “ fine, just........ ........ this application form.” 3. Don’t forget to......... ......... the date on your check. 4. “ Is Agnes still mad at you? “ I suppose so. I saw her at a party last weekend, and she ............ it. 5. “ Are you moving to Baltimore........... ............?” “ No, just......... .......... ............ ............ I’ll be back here in a month or two.” 6. “ That old paint that you have stored in your garage is a fine hazard. “ You’re right. I should......... .........” 7. Some companies......... samples of new products in order to familiarize consumers with them. 8. “How’s that advanced computer class you’re taking. Polly.” “ Not so good. I can’t understand a word that the teacher or any of the students are saying I really feel like........... ........... ........... ........... ............” 9. “ Don’t you just hate all this graffiti? “ It’s ugly, Isn’t it? I’ve never understood why people......... ........ .......... ........ ..........writing on walls. It doesn’t seem like much fun to me. 10. When the train stopped, a mysterious looking woman in a black raincoat........ .......... the train and found her seat. 11. Maxwell’s project will be very successful, I think” “ Oh, I don’t know. I’m not sure it will ever........ ........... ........ .........” 12. Do you........ ......... ........... your new roommate, or do you two argue? 13. “ That run down old house that David bought looks terrific”. “ Yes, he’s ......... it......... beautifully, hasn’t he?” 14. “ Has Edward.......... ......... .......... .......... you lately? “ No, he hasn’t. I don’t think he has my new telephone number.” 15. “ Will the concert start soon” “ It should......... ......... ......... any minute now.” 14

16. Living by the oceans really ......... ..........your........... Once you’ve lived here, you never want to leave. 17. This is the last stop. Everyone has to ......... ........... the bus here. 18. Professor Dunbar came down with the flu, so her teaching assistant........ ......... ............ her for a few days. LESSON 5 1.Give a hand; applaud, clap 2.give a hand with; assist 3. Go easy on; not punish severely 4. Go on with; continue 5. Go with; accompany, look good together, complement 6. Go without saying; obvious, clear 7. Grow up; to mature, to become an adult 8. Hand in; give back to , return 9. Hand out; distribute 10. Hang out; wait 11. Hard to come by; difficult to find 12. Have on; wear 13.Have one’s hand full; be very busy, have a challenging job 14. Have a heart; be compassionate, show mercy 15. Have a hunch; have an intuitive feeling 16.Have a word with someone; to talk to someone briefly 17. Have the time of one’s life; have fun, have a great time 18. Hear firsthand from; get information directly from someone 19. Hear from; be contacted by, be in touch with 20. Hear of; know about, be familiar with 21. Hit if off; become friendly, 22. Hit the road; leave, go away 23. Hold on; wait, 24. Hold on to; grasp 25. Hold still; not move 26. Hold up; delay

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Vç tay, hoan nghªnh Gióp ®ì, trî gióp Kh«ng kh¾t khe TiÕp tôc ®i cïng víi, bæ sung

: : : : : : : :

rµnh m¹ch, hiÓn nhiªn trëng thµnh quay trë l¹i giao cho, ph©n cho ®îi rÊt khã t×m mÆc rÊt bËn,

: th¬ng h¹i : thuéc vÒ trùc gi¸c : nãi ng¾n gän víi ai, lêi nh¾n : Mét thêi gian vui thÝch : LÊy th«ng tin trùc tiÕp tõ ai : : : : : : : :

Gi÷ liªn l¹c bëi Quen víi, biÕt vÒ Trë nªn th©n thiÖn Rêi khái, ®i khái ®îi NÝu lÊy, tóm lÊy, n¾m ®îc Kh«ng di chuyÓn, kh«ng cùa quËy ChËm trÔ

EXERCISE; 1. Everest was born in the South but he......... ............ in Michigan. 2. At the beginning of the class, the instructor......... ........ the quizzes and told the students they had 10 minutes in which to finish. 3. After 10 minutes, the students........ .......... their quizzes to the instructor. 4. “ Have you ever....... ......... Wiliam Carlos? “ I believe so. He was a poet, wasn’t he?” 5. “ Hello, is Gina there? “ Yes, ......... ......... a minute and I’ll get her.” 15

6. “ You’re graduating next month, right?” “ Yes, but I intend to........ ......... .......... my studies in graduate school.” 7. .......... ............ while I take your photograph. I don’t want the picture to be blurry. 8. “ I get stopped by the police for speeding. I have to pay a big fine.” “ Well, you could talk to the judge and ask him to reduce it . since you’ve never been stopped for speeding before, maybe, he’ll ........ .......... ....... you.” 9. “ Do you like this blouse?” “ Yes, but I think the gray silk one would........ better.......your jacket” 10. “ So, Dave is teaching you how to windsurf?” “ Yes, and he’s such a good teacher that I’m already ........... ........ .......... .......... it.” 11. The audience..........the cast a big.........after their wonderful performance. 12. “ Do you think Iris will pass the history test? “ That.......... ........... ........ in fact, she’ll probably have the best grade in the class.” 13. “ What......... .......... your flight?” “ There was a big snowstorm in Denver that delayed a lot of flights.” 14. “ Have you .......... .......... Maureen since she went to Hawaii.” “ Yeah, I got a postcard from her yesterday. She said she’s .......... ........... ......... ..........her..........and never wants to come home.” 15. Can you ........... ............ this luggage? It’s too heavy for me to carry by myself. 16. The wind is starting to blow. You’d better......... ........... ........... your hat. 17. “ Oh, you bought the new book by Richard Stone.” “ Yes, but that book is.......... ........... .......... ............I looked for it in three or four bookstores.” 18. It’s getting late. I’ d better....... .......... ........... if I want to get home by midnight. 19. “ Can I .......... ........... ......... now. Professor Rivera?” “ I’ve got to go to class right now. Drop by my office later and we’ll talk then.” 20. “ You sure bought a lot of groceries.” “ Year, I guest I .......... ........... ........... I should never go grocery shopping when I’m hungry. LESSON 6 In hot water; in trouble 2. In the dark; not knowing , confused 3. In the long run; over a long period of time 4. In not time; very soon, very quickly 5. In a nutshell; in summary, in brief 6. In the same boat; in the same situation, having the same problem 7. In person; face to face 8. In store; in the future, coming up 9. Iron out; solve a problem 10. Join the club; have the same problem 11. Jump to conclusions; form opinions without sufficient evidence 12. Keep an eye on; watch, take care of , look after 13. Keep an eye out for; look for 14. Keep on with; continue 15. Keep track of; know where something or 1.


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Trong sù phiÒn muén, lo l¾ng Kh«ng hiÓu, lóng tóng Sau cïng, sau rèt, kÕt qu¶ lµ Sím nhÊt, rÊt nhanh V¾n t¾t, ng¾n gän Cïng héi cïng thuyÒn

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MÆt ®èi mÆt Trong t¬ng lai Gi¶i quyÕt vÊn ®Ò VÊn ®Ò chung, cïng mét vÊn ®Ò Tõ sù ®¸nh gi¸ kh«ng râ rµng

: Nh×n, ch¨m sãc : Tr«ng hé : TiÕp tôc : BiÕt chç ai ®ã hoÆc chç vËt g×

someone is 16. Keep up with; maintain the same speed as 17. Kill time; spend time doing unimportant things 18. Know like the back of one’s hand; be very familiar with 19. Lay off; put out of work 20. Learn the ropes; become familiar with, get used to, get the hang of 21. Leave out; not include, omit 22. Leave someone or something alone; not disturb 23. Let someone down; disappoint 24. Look after; take care of, mind 25. Let up; decline in intensity 26. Look for; try to locate 27. Look forward to; anticipate with pleasure 28. Look into; investigate 29. In favor of ; support

: Ngang hµng víi, kh«ng thua kÐm : GiÕt thêi gian : RÊt quen thuéc víi : Tõ bá : Trë nªn quen thuéc víi : Bá sãt : Kh«ng quÊy rÇy : : : : : : :

Lµm cho ai ®ã thÊt väng Ch¨m sãc DÞu ®i T×m kiÕm ®o¸n tríc t¬ng lai Nghiªn cøu ñng hé

EXERCISE; 1. Will you......... ......... ........... ........... my dog while I go in the drug store? 2. Kathy’s daughter has such short legs that she has a hard time........ .......... .......... the other children. 3. The store had to.......... ........... a number of clerks because sales were down. 4. “ You must be anxious to go on your vacation.” “ I certainly am. I’m really......... .......... .......... this trip.” 5. Don’t ......... .......... ........... may be your jewelry wasn’t stolen after all. 6. “ I need to find a new apartment.” “ there might be some vacancies in the building where I live. I’ll......... .......... ........... .............” 7. The company may lose some money now, but............ .......... ............ ............,this is a good investment. 8. Alex complained that no one invited him to any social events and that he felt............. .............. 9. “ Can you hurry over here? I need to see you right away.” “ sure, I’ll be there............. .......... ............ 10. “ May I help you, sir? “ No, I’m just looking around and trying to........... some ............until my wife finishes shopping.” 11. “ Has it stopped raining yet? “ No, but it’s beginning to ......... ............ a little. 12. “ I can’t go to Daryl’ party this weekend. I have to study.” “ Guess we’re.......... ............ ............. ............. I’ve got to study too.: 13. “ Should we stop and spend the night at this motel? “ No, let’s........... ........... driving for a few more miles.” 14. If you find a baby animal in the woods, don’t touch it. Just ....... 15. I .........all over town..........a good used car, but I couldn’t find one. 16. Stella’s sister............ .............her baby while Stella is at work. 17. “ If you don’t know how to use this software, why don’t you ask Joanne to help? I did ask her, but I’m still......... .......... ........... I didn’t understand a word she said.” 18. The police........... .............. the crime 17

19. “ Did Amanda ever complete her project?” “ She’s almost finished. She just has a few minor problems left to ............ ............” 20. Alfred is ........... ............ ............. with his boss because he didn’t finish an important project by the decline. 21. “Has Marilyn gotten used to her new job at the bank yet? ? It took her awhile, but I think she’s finally.......... ........... ............ there. 22. Are you........... ............. ............ this proposal or against it? 23. Are you familiar with this neighborhood? “ I grew up here so I .......... it........... ........... ............. ............ my ..............” 24. Is your roommate at home now? “ I have no idea. I can never........... .......... ............ his comings and goings” 25. “ I understand that you have a new dean over at the Business School. “ Yes, his name is Dean Nishimura. He has a completely different philosophy of business education from the one Dean Woodford had, so I’m sure that some big changes are.......... ........... for us. LESSON 7 Look like; resemble 2. Look out for ; be careful 3. Look over; examine, read 4. Look up; find information, try to locate some one 5. Look up to; respect, admire 6. Make a fool of oneself; act embarrassingly 7. Make ends meet; balance a budget 8. Make a point of; make a special effort 9. Make sense of; be logical and clear, understand 10. Make up; invent, create 11. Make up one’s mind; decide 12. Make way for; allow space for , provide a path for 13. Mean to; intend to 14. Mixed up; confused 15. Music to one’s ears; something that sounds pleasant 16. A nervous wreck; someone who is very nervous 17. Next to nothing; very little, cheap

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Gièng nh ®Ó ý, cÈn thËn Xem xÐt, kiÓm tra T×m kiÕm th«ng tin

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T«n träng, kÝnh träng Hµnh ®éng rÊt lóng tóng, bèi rèi T»n tiÖn, tiÕt kiÖm, thu vÐn Lµm mét c¸i g× ®ã qu¸ søc HiÓu mét c¸ch logÝc S¸ng t¹o, ph¸t minh QuyÕt ®Þnh Tr¸nh ®êng, ®Ó cho qua

No doubt about it; certainly, definitely 19. No harm done; there was no damage done 20. Not at all; not in any way; not to any degree 21. Not believe one’s ears eyes; be unable to believe what one hears or sees 22. Not think much of; not like, not have a good opinion of 23. Odds and ends; small, miscellaneous items

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24. 25. 26.

: ®Þnh nãi : BÞ lung tung, bÞ x¸o trén : KhiÕn ai hµi lßng : MÊt hy väng : HÇu nh kh«ng Ch¾c ch¾n, nhÊt ®Þnh ®· kh«ng bÞ háng Kh«ng cã g×, kh«ng ®ång ý Kh«ng tin vµo m¾t/tai m×nh n÷a

: Kh«ng gièng, kh«ng cã ý kiÕn tèt vÒ : LÆt vÆt, mÉu thõa : Ngêi cã kinh nghiÖm : Håi hép : LiÒn, liªn tôc

An old hand at; an experienced person On edge; nervous On end; consecutively, without a break 18

On hands; easily available 28. On needless and pins; nervous, anxious 29. On one’s own; independent 30. On second thought; after reconsidering 31. On the go; always busy, always moving 32. On the tip of the tongue; almost able to remember 33. On the whole; in general 34. Out of something; not having something 35. Out of one’s mind; insane, illogical, irrational 36. Out of order; broken, not functioning properly 37. Out of the question; definitely not, impossible 38. Over and over; again and again, repeatedly 39. Over one’s head; not understandable, obscure 27.

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DÔ dµng, cã s½n Lo l¾ng, lo ©u ®éc lËp Sau khi xem xÐt l¹i Lu«n lu«n bËn, lu«n lu«n di chuyÓn Míi nhí ®©y mµ

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Nãi chung, ®¹i kh¸i Kh«ng cã c¸i g× Ngêi hay quªn Háng hãc Kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n, kh«ng thÓ cã LÆp ®i lÆp l¹i Kh«ng thÓ hiÓu ®îc, kh«ng thÓ th«ng c¶m ®îc

EXERCISE 1. “ Have you......... .......... this contract yet? “ Not yet. I’ll try to read it this weekend.” 2. “I think I’ll have the prime rib, waiter.” “ Alright, sir.” “ wait, no, .......... ....... .........I think I’ll have the chicken.” 3. Is this story true, or did you just......... it ............” 4. You can’t get a soda from that machine. There is a sign on it that says”....... ......... .............” 5. Sherry .......... .......... ......... her father because of all the help and good advice he’s given her. 6. I don’t have much cash........... ........... , but I can get some from an automatic teller machine. 7. What a confusing movie! I couldn’t .......... ......... ........ it. 8. “ You did a fine job on this research paper, especially on the bibliography.” “ Thanks. I .......... ............ .......... ......... getting the bibliography exactly right. I did it......... ......... ......... until it was perfect.” 9. “ what’s Fritz’s cousin’s name?” “ it’s.......... ........... ........... ........... my ............, but I can’t quite remember.” 10. “ Hello, I’d like to reserve a room for this weekend.” “ I’m afraid that’s .......... ........... .......... ......... the hotel is fully booked this weekend.” 11. “ Do you have any fresh peaches?” “ Sorry, I’m ......... ......... them. I just sold the last crate of peaches.” 12. “ Listen to the roar of the engines.” “ Year, it’s......... ........ my.........I just love going to these car races.” 13. The plane was delayed for hours......... ......... I thought we’d never get off the ground. 14. “ Have you finished moving into your new apartment?” “ Almost. There are still a few........ ........ ......... in my old apartment that I need to move today.” 15. “Brad sure is busy, isn’t he?” “ Yeah, he’s involved in so many activities that he’s always......... .......... .............” 16. There are so many interesting dishes on the menu that it’s hard for me to......... .......... my......... which one to order. 17. If you go into the swamp, ........... .......... ..........alligators. 18. “ When will you be informed of the test results?” “ Not until Monday, so I’ll be........ ........... ........... ..........all weekend.” 19

19. “ Do you know what the capital of South Dakota is?” “ I’m not sure. Let’s this atlas. 20. They are going to tear down those old ware houses to....... ....... ....... a big new hotel. 21. “ I like that painting you bought. Did it cost much?” “ No, the artist sold it to me for.......... ........... ...........” 22. “ How was your final exam. Laurier?” “ A couple of questions were tricky, but........ .......... ........... It was pretty easy.” 23. “ I’m sorry, I knocked that vase over. I mean to” “ .......... ......... .......... it wasn’t damaged.” 24. I must have been........ ........ my .........When I signed the lease on this apartment. I can’t afford this much rent. 25. He didn’t ......... ......... break the plate. It was an accident. 26. “ I didn’t know you could play horseshoes so well.” “ Oh, I’m........ ........ ....... ......... I’ve been playing since I was a kid.” 27. You must be......... .......... this isn’t River Street; it’s Laurel Avenue. 28. “ How long have you been living alone?” “ I’ve since I graduated from high school.” 29. “ Did you find that lecture boring?” “ ........ .......... .........In fact, I thought it was fascinating. 30. “ Christine is so funny, she should be a stand-up comic.” “ I suppose, but a lot of her jokes go right just don’t get them LESSON 8 Part with; no longer have, get rid of, not be in the company of 2. Pass up; not accept, not choose 3. Pass with flying colors; do very well on 4. Pat oneself on the back; congratulate on oneself 5. Pay attention to; concentrate on, focus on 6. Pick out; choose, select 7. Pick up; take something from a surface. Go to a location and get someone or something. Learn something without special training. 8. Pick up the tab for; pay for 9. The picture of; a perfect example of something 1.

Play it by ear; do something without definite plan 11. Play it safe; choose a cautious plan 12. Point out; indicate 13. A pretty penny; a lot of money 14. Pull one’s leg; joke with someone; make up a story 15. Push one’s luck; to continue doing something too long; to keep taking chances 16. Put aside; save for later, set aside 17. Put away; return something to its proper place 18. Put off; delay; post pone 10.


: L×a bá, bá : : : : : :

Tõ chèi, tõ bá, khíc tõ Lµm rÊt tèt Khen ngîi ai/tù khen m×nh TËp trung vµo Chän ra B¾t ®îc, nhÆt lªn

: Tr¶ cho : VÝ dô hoµn h¶o vÒ mét ®iÒu g× ®ã : Lµm viÖc g× kh«ng cã kÕ ho¹ch cô thÓ : Chän kÕ ho¹ch cÈn thËn : ChØ ra, cho biÕt, ra dÊu : NhiÒu tiÒn : Vui vÎ víi mét sè ngêi : Cè g¾ng t×m c¬ héi : ®Ó dµnh, dµnh dôm : CÇn cã : Ho·n l¹i

19. 20. 21.

: Lµm ra vÎ, kho¸c c¸i vÎ : KÕt hîp víi nhau : Tha thø, khoan dung

Put on; begin to wear Put together; assemble Put up with; tolerate

EXERCISE 1. Vanessa is allergic to tobacco smoke, so she can’t ......... ......... ........... smoking. 2. “ That conference you attended in Honolulu must have been very expensive.” “ Yes, but fortunately, the company I work for........ ......... ......... ............” 3. I asked my teacher to.......... .......... the mistaken t hat I made in my essay so that I could correct them. 4. “ What do you want to do tomorrow?” “ I don’t know. Let’s just......... ......... ........... ........... 5. “ You should get rid of that old leather jacket.” “ I know, but I hate to ......... ......... it. I’ve had it for years.” 6. “ How did you learn to make such beautiful pottery? Did you take a class in ceramics?” “ No, I just my own.” 7. “ Can you read that sign?” “ Just a minute. Let glasses........” 8. It took Linda weeks to......... ......... that thousand piece jigsaw puzzle. 9. This bike cost......... ......... .......... , but I think it was worth it. 10. “ I passed the first two quizzes in this class and I scarcely studied for them at all.” “ Well, if I were you, I wouldn’t further. You should study for the next quiz because it’s going to be a lot harder. 11. I’ll .......... ......... the laundry that you dropped off at the cleaners this morning. 12. The child ........... .......... her toys from the floor and her toy box. 13. Bert and Mary had to.......... ......... their dinner party until next weekend because Bert wasn’t feeling well. 14. “ Who........ .......... that tie for you?” “ No one, I chose it myself.” 15. “ Are you going to take that job?” “ No, I decided to......... it .........because I don’t want to relocate.” 16. .......... ........... as I read the directions or you won’t understand what to do. 17. “ I finally finished cooking all the materials I need to write my report.” “ Great, but don’t be too quick to ......... yourself......... ......... ........... you still have to write the report and then word process it.” 18. “ How did you do on your final exams?” “ Great! I......... them all........ ........... ............” 19. I’m going to...........this magazine ............. for now and read it later. 20. I wouldn’t believe a word Lynn told you. She’s just .......your............. LESSON 9 Right away; immediately Ring a bell with; sound familiar to 3. Rough it; experience somewhat difficult or primitive conditions 4. Rule out; say something is impossible; eliminate 5. Run a temperature; have a fever 6. Run for office; try to get elected 1. 2.


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Ngay lËp tøc Nghe cã quen víi ThiÕu thèn ®ñ mäi thø


Trõ ra, b¸c bá

: :

BÞ sèt, lµm cho xóc ®éng Cè g¾ng ®Ó ®îc bÇu

Run into; meet unexpectedly, bump into, collide with 8. Run late; be late, be in a hurry 9. Run of the mill; ordinary 10. Run out of ; exhaust supply of 11. Save one’s breath; don’t bother asking someone 12. Search me; I don’t know; I have no idea; beats me 13. See eye to eye; have the same opinion; be in agreement 14. see somebody off; accompany to an airport, station or train station 15. see to; take care of, check on, fix 16. serve one right; receive the proper punishment; get the penalty one deserves 17. short for; a nick name for 18. show around; orient; give a tour 19. show off; try to attract attention by unusual behavior 20. show up; arrive 21. shut down; close 22. sign up for; enroll for a class, a course 23. sing another tune; change one’s opinion; feel differently 24. size up; measure, estimate 25. sleep on it; postpone a decision until the next day 26. slowly but surely; gradually; steadily but not quickly 27. snowed under; very busy 28. so far, so good; up until now, there are no problems 29. sooner or later; at some indefinite future time 30. speak one’s mind; say what one is thinking 31. speak up; speak more loudly 32. speak up for; support verbally 33. spell out for; make something very clear; explain in detail EXERCISE 7.

1. 2. 3. 4.


GÆp gì t×nh cê

: : : :

RÊt véi, bÞ muén B×nh thêng, th«ng thêng Ch¹y ra khái ®õng lµm phiÒn ai


T«i kh«ng biÕt, t«i kh«ng cã ý kiÕn


sù b»ng lßng, ®ång ý kiÕn


®ãn ai

: :

söa ch÷a, nh×n ch¨m ch¨m nhËn h×nh ph¹t ®Ých ®¸ng

: : :

®Æt tªn riªng cho ®Þnh híng, giíi thiÖu khoe khoang, ph« tr¬ng

: : : :

®Õn ®ãng ®¨ng ký mét kho¸ häc thay ®æi ý kiÕn, c¶m thÊy kh¸c

: : :

íc lîng, dù to¸n tr× ho·n mét quyÕt ®Þnh ®Õn ngµy kÕ tiÕp chËm mµ ch¾c

: :

rÊt bËn ®Õn b©y giê vÉn tèt

: : : : :

kh«ng sím th× muén, tríc sau g× nãi ®iÒu g× m×nh nghÜ nãi to, qu¸t biÖn hé cho ai gi¶i thÝch chi tiÕt

“Has John gone back to Minneapolis yet?” “ Yes, I the airport.” “ This pipe is leaking again.” “ We’d better have a plumber...........” I was late because I........... ............ ........... .......... gasoline. Write down your ideas........... ............ if you wait to write them down, you may forget them. 5. When the factory............ ..........hundreds of workers were laid off. 6. “ Did you......... ........... ..........Professor Carmichael’s class?” “ No, I decided to take Professor Knudson’s class instead.” 22

7. “ Vickl, how’s that project you’re working on coming along?” “ ............ .........., ........... ..............,but the tricky part will be next week.” 8. “ Have you ever heard of an actor named Anthony Reed?” “ Hmmm. I don’t think so, The name doesn’t ........... ........... ............. ........... me at all. 9. “ Frank doesn’t take a hint very well, does he?” “ No, you have to..........things........... ............ Frank. He likes everything crystal clear.” 10. I’d heard that the clothes in this store were very nice, but I found them....... ........... ........... ............ 11. “ Bennet thought those stories Tina told about you were pretty funny.” “ they weren’t funny, they were embarrassing. Bennet would be......... ......... ...........if Tina had told that kind of story about him.” 12. Norman doesn’t like to............. ............ when he goes on vacation. He prefers to stay at luxury hotels. 13. I don’t like to go to parties too early. I’d rather........... ........... a little bit late. 14. It’s expensive to.......... ........... ............ these days. Political campaigns cost a lot of money. 15. So, do you plan to buy this motorcycle or not?” “ I’m still not sure. Can I........... ........... ............ and let you know tomorrow morning.” 16. “ Have you seen the campus yet?” “ Yes, my cousin Melissa is a student there, and ...........” 17. “ I’m collecting money for the Red Cross. I think I’ll ask Pat to contribute.” “ ........... your............Pat never contributes to anything.” 18. “ Are you going to medical school?” “ Not this year, but I wouldn’t in the future.” 19. I .......... .............. my old friend Leslie downtown yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for months. 20. “ I understand you’re learning how to speak Russian.” “ Yes, and it was really hard for me, especially at first. Now, though, I’m........... ............... ............. getting the hang of it.” 21. “ your sister’s name is Jessia?” “ That ‘s what everyone calls her. It’s............. ............ Jessica. 22. “ Have a busy night at the restaurant?” “ We weren’t just busy. We were............ ..............! I’ve never seen so many customers.” 23. “ I feel terrible. I have a terrible cold or maybe even the flu.” “ are you........... ............ .............? if you have a fever, then you probably have the flu.” 24. My brother and I agree on most issues, but I sure don’t.......... ............ .............. ........... ...........him.........this proposal to build a new stadium. LESSON 10 Spick and span; extremely clean, spotless 2. Stack up against; compare with 3. Stamp out; eliminate, wipe out 4. Stand for; tolerate, put up with, symbolize; represent 5. Stand out; be noticeable 6. Stay out; not come home 7. Stay out or up to all hours; come home or go to bed very late 1.


: : : :

RÊt gän gµng So s¸nh víi Lau chïi, cä Tha thø, thay thÕ cho, cã nghÜa lµ

: Kiªn tr×, chèng cù, ®¸ng ®Ó ý : ë ngoµi kh«ng vÒ nhµ : ë ngoµi kh«ng vÒ nhµ


: Kh«ng ngñ ë nhµ, kh«ng ngñ trªn giêng : Kh«ng thay ®æi, ë víi : Dù tr÷ ë sè lîng lín

Stay up; not go to bed

Stick with; not change, stay with 10. Stock up on; get a large supply of something 11. A stone’s throw from; not far away from; close to 12. Stop by; visit informally, go to see 13. Straighten up; clean up, make tidy 14. Stuck with; have something one can’t get rid of 15. Take a break; stop working for a short time 16. Take a lot of nerve; require a lot of courage 17. Take a lot out of someone; be hard on someone, drain energy from someone. 18. Take advantage of; utilize, make use of, exploit 19. Take after; resemble, look like ( an older relative) 20. Take apart; disassemble 21. Take it easy; relax, calm down 9.

: Kh«ng xa : ®Õn ch¬i kh«ng b¸o tríc : S¾p xÕp gän l¹i : BÞ m¾c kÑt : NghØ gi¶i lao : Yªu cÇu ph¶i m¹o hiÓm, ph¶i cã lßng dòng c¶m : Sù bßn rót : Sö dông, tËn dông, khai th¸c : Gièng : Th¸o ra, th¸o rêi : NghØ ng¬i

EXERCISE 1.Vaccines have permitted doctors to virtually........... ........... a number of diseases, including small pox and polio. 2. “ How late do you usually.......... ..........?” “ I’m normally in bed by eleven on weekdays.” 3. How late do you usually........... ............on weekends? “ I sometimes don’t come home until two or three in the morning.” 4. “ Do you.......... .......... your mother or father?” “ I don’t think I look much like either one of them.” 5. Earl had no trouble.......... .......... the engine on the lawn mower, but then he couldn’t put it back together. 6. You look a little tired. why don’t you.......... ......... .........and finish your homework later.? 7. The teacher won’t ......... ......... cheating. When she caught one student cheating on the midterm exam. She gave hem a zero on that test. 8. “ I tried to find a buyer for this old car.” “ Looks like you’re.......... ......... it for now.” 9. “ My brother is going to invest all his savings in a new business venture.” “ That........... ............ .......... .......... ........... I’d be afraid to take a risk like that.:” 10. “ I give up. I can’t solve this chemistry problem.” “ ........... .......... it. Eventually, you’ll figure it out.” 11. We have to leave the apartment.......... ............ .............. The landlord said that if it wasn’t clean when we moved out, we’d lose part of our security deposit. 12. Don was wearing jeans and a T. shirt while all the other guests had on formal dinner wear. He really............ .............. 13. “ I’m nervous about my interview.” “ ............ ............ .............You’ll make a better impression if you’re relaxed.” 14. The fifty stars on the American flag........... .............. the fifty states. 24

15. Do you ........... ............. your apartment before guests............ .............? “ A little bit, I don’t mind if it’s a little messy, but I don’t want it to look like a disaster area.” 16. “ My new roommate is from Italy.” “ You should............ .......... ........... this opportunity to learn some Italian.” 17. “ I just heard on the news that the Florida orange crop was damaged by the hurricane last week, and that orange juice prices are going to go way up.” “ If we dad a big freezer, we could.......... .......... ............ frozen orange juice now and we wouldn’t have to pay those prices.” 18.Do you live near Cecillia? “ Oh, sure. My apartment building is just.......... ........... .............. .............. hers.” 19.“ So you ran in that I0 kilometer race?” “ Yes, but it.............. .......... .............. ............ I can hardly move.” 20. “ Tim, you’ve eaten at both these restaurants. How does Chez Michelle............. ........... ........... the Oak Room?” “ Oh, they are both good. I think the Oak Room has slightly better food, but the service is better at Chez Michelle.” LESSON 11 Take off; remove, ascend, become popular quickly 2. Take over; assume control or responsibility 3. Take part in; participate in 4. Take a short cut; take a more direct or faster route than usual 5. Take the plunge; finally take action or do something different 6. Take time off; take a vacation or a break from work or school 7. Take up; begin to study some topic or engage in some activity 8. Talk down to; speak to someone as if she or he were a child; patronize 9. Talk into; persuade; convince 10. Talk out of; dissuade, convince not to do something 11. Talk over; discuss 12. Tear oneself away from something; stop doing something interesting 13. Tear up; rip into small pieces 14. Tell apart; distinguish 15. Things are looking up; the situation is improving 16. Think over; consider 17. Throw away; discard, get rid of 18. Throw cold water on; discourage, force to cancel 19. Throw the book on someone; give someone the maximum punishment 20. Try on; test clothing before buying 1.



Cëi, bá

: : :

ChuyÓn, chë, ®a, dÉn Tham dù Nhanh h¬n b×nh thêng


Lµm viÖc g× kh¸c thêng


NghØ phÐp, nghØ gi¶i lao


Thu hót, cho¸n, chiÕm


ChÆn häng

: :

ThuyÕt phôc, lµm cho tin Bµn ra, can ng¨n, nãi ®Ó ®õng lµm

: :

Th¶o luËn, bµn c·i Ngõng lµm viÖc g×

: : :

XÐ Nghe ra, nhËn ra, ph©n biÖt C¶i thiÖn t×nh h×nh

: : :

NghÜ kü Vøt ®i Ch¸n n¶n, mÊt hÕt can ®¶m


Hµnh h¹ ai, trõng ph¹t ai


Thö quÇn ¸o tríc khi mua

21. 22.

Try out; test a product before buying Try out for; audition for, attempt to join

: :

Thö s¶n phÈm tríc khi mua Thö xem quÇn chóng cã thÝch kh«ng

EXERCISE 1. “ You’d better........... ........... these gloves before you buy them; they may not fit. 2. At first, I didn’t want to go to the party, but I’m glad that Annette It was fun. 3. The spy.......... ...........the document so that no one else could read it. 4. The twins look so much alike that almost no one can.........them ......... 5. “ I need more excitement in my life” “ Why don’t you give up stamp collecting and......... ........... skydiving instead?” 6. “ Who made the final decision?” “ All of the people who were at the meeting........... ........ ......... the decision-making process.” 7. Most air accidents take place when a plane is......... ........... or landing. 8. “ Will your friend Scott be coming to the reception?” “ If he can .......... himself .......... ...........those computer games he’s always playing.” 9. Dan was afraid the judge would ......... ........... ............. ..............him because he had been charged with the same offense several times. 10. ......... ............. your boots before you go into the house. 11. I wish I’d.......... ............ this calculator before I bought it. It doesn’t seem to be working right. 12. Marvin was going to drop out of school, but his grandfather........ him .......... 13. I’m not sure if this is a suitable topic for a research paper. I need to my teacher before I start writing. 14. “ I’m going to............ ............. those old newspapers.” “ Don’t just put them in the trashrecycle them instead. 15. “ Are you going on the class trip?” “ I need to ..........before I decide.” 16. “ How did you get home so quickly? “ I ........... ........... ........... through the fields: 17. “ So, Louisa, you decided to .......... ............ for a part in the play?” “ Yes, I’ve been interested in acting for quite a while, so I finally decided to ........... ............. ..............” 18. Akiko is going to...........some........... ............ ............. teaching to finish writing her dissertation. LESSON 12 Turn around; face in a different direction 2. Turn down; reject an offer, decrease in intensity 3. Turn in; return, give back, hand in, go to bed 4. Turn into; change to, transform into 5. Turn off; stop the operation, shut off 6. Turn on; start the operation 7. Turn out; result, end up, be the final product, arrive, gather 8. Turn up; increase in intensity, arrive 9. Under the weather; slightly ill 10. Use up; use completely 11. Wait on; serve 12. Walk on air; be very happy 13. Warm up; heat, practice, prepare for 1.


: :

Thay ®æi hoµn toµn Kh«ng thõa nhËn, b¸c bá, khíc tõ

: : : : :

Quay l¹i, tr¶ l¹i Thay ®æi tíi T¾t, kho¸ BËt, më Sa th¶i, ®uæi, kÕt luËn

: : : : : :

LËt lªn, xíi lªn, vÐn lªn Kh«ng khoÎ TËn dông, dïng cho ®Õn kiÖt Phôc vô, hÇu h¹ RÊt h¹nh phóc Lµm cho nãng, lµm cho Êm, trë nªn

s«i næi ®Ò phßng Lµm cho mßn h¼n, mßn, hao mßn

Watch out for; be alert, look out for : 15. Wear out; become no longer useful because : of wear 16. What the doctor ordered; exactly what was : ChÝnh x¸c cÇn c¸i g× needed; the perfect thing 17. Wipe out; eliminate, stamp out : DËp t¾t, dÑp bá 18. Without a hitch; without a problem : Kh«ng vÊn ®Ò g× 19. Work out; exercise, bring to a successful : Tíi ®©u, ®Õn ®©u, ra sao, kÕt conclusion, solve thóc EXERCISE 1. The story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde is about a scientist who......... ........ a monster after drinking a chemical position. 2. ........... ............. the water or the tub will overflow. 3. It’s warm in here. Could you........... ............ the heater a little.? 4. I love that song. Could you......... ............ the radio a little? 5. I can’t see a thing. Please........ ............ the light. 6. This sweater looked nice when it was new, but now it’s........... ............ 7. “ I’m hungry!” “ why don’t you........... ........... some of the leftovers that are in the refrigerator? You can use the microwave oven.” 8. Not many people.......... ........... for the meeting last night. 9. It’s been a rough day. I’m going to........... ........... early and get a good night’s sleep. 10. “ How about a nice cup of hot tea?” “ That’s exactly what I’m in the mood for. It’s just........... ............ ............. ................ 11. How was your presentation.” “ Great. It went off........... ........... ............” 12. I’m going to the gym to .......... ............ on the exercise machines. 13. If you are on a crowded bus or subway car, you must........... ........... ............. pick pockets. 14. “ A bear! I don’t see a bear! Where is it? ............ .............. slowly. It’s right behind you” 15. Maria had quite a few problems last year, but she.........them all.......... 16. Don’t ask me to .......... ........... you! I’m not your servant. 17. Brian was offered the manager’ job but he.......... it............He said he didn’t want the responsibility. 18. Before the game starts, the players need to........... ............ 19. “ This cake Holly baked for the wedding........... ........... very well, don’t you think?” “Yes, indeed. It was delicious.” 20. Michell looked pale and tired.” “ He told me he was feeling a little ......... .......... ............” 21. “ You must be happy about getting that scholarship” “ Are you kidding? I’m still............ ........... 14.

MAIN PROBLEM IN READING COMPREHENSION 1. Reading for main ideas (10 percent) 27

By previewing, you can form a general idea of what a reading passages is about; that is, you identify the topic. By reading for main ideas, you identify the point of view of the author that is, what the writer’s thesis is. Specifically, what does the author purpose to write the topic? The main idea usually comes at the beginning of a reading passage Sample questions: The primary idea of the passage is . . . What is the main idea of the passage? Which of the following best summarizes the author’s main idea What does the passage mainly discuss? The answer choice must be not 1. too specific 2. too general 3. incorrect according to the passage 4. irrelevant (unrelated) to the main idea of the passage Main purpose questions What is the author’s main purpose in the passage? Why did the author write the passage? The main point of the passage is. . . The author’s purpose in writing is. . . 2. Using contexts for vocabulary (26 percent) In English, a context is the combination of vocabulary and grammar that surrounds a word. Context can be a sentence or a paragraph or a passage. Context helps you make a general prediction about meaning. If you know the general meaning of a sentence, you also know the general meaning of the words in the sentence. Most of the question asks about single words (usually nouns, verb, adjectives, and adverb) In ordinary reading, there are a number of clues that can help you determine the meaning of an unknown word. 2.1. Synonyms 2.2. Contrast 2.3. General context You should follow these steps to answer vocabulary – in – context items A. Look at the word being asked about and the four possible answer choices. If you are familiar with the word guess which answer is correct. B. Read the sentence in which the word appears. If you are familiar with the word guess at the answer, make sure that the word you chose fits with the word as it is used in the sentence. If you are unfamiliar with the word, see if context clues in the sentence or in the sentence before or after to help you guess the meaning. C. If you are not sure, make the best guess you can and go on 3. Scanning for details (4 percent) First read a question and find the important content words. Content words are usually nouns, verbs, or adjectives. They are called content words because they contain the content or meaning of a sentence. Next, let your eyes travel quickly over the passage for the same content words or synonyms of the words. This is called Scanning. By scanning, you can find a place in the reading passage where the answer to a question is found. Finally, read those specific sentences carefully and choose the answer that correspond to the meaning of the sentence you have read. 4. Making inference (12 percent) 28

An inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence. It can be about the passage itself or about the author’s view point. Sometimes, in a reading passage, you will find a direct statement of fact. That is called evidence. But other times, you won’t find a direct statement. Then you will need to use the evidence you have to make an inference. Sample questions: 4.1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? 4.2. It can be inferred from the passage that. . . 4.3. The author implies that. . . 4.4. Which of the following does the passage imply? 4.5. Which of the following would be the most reasonable guess about. . .? 4.6. The author suggest that. . . 4.7. It is probable that. . . 5. Identifying exceptions (9 percent) After reading a passage on the TOEFL, you will be asked to select from four possible answers the on that is not mentioned in the reading. Use your scanning skills to locate related words and phrases in the passage, and the answer choices. Sample questions: 5.1. According to the passage, all of the following are true except 5.2. Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage 5.3. Which of the following is least likely. . .? 6. Locating reference (10 percent) After reading a passage on the TOEFL, you will be asked to find the antecedent of a pronoun. An antecedent is a word or phrase to which a pronoun refers. Usually, you will be given a pronoun such as it, its, them or their and you will be asked to locate the reference word or phrase in the passage. Then read the sentence using the four answer choices in place of pronoun. The meaning of the sentence in the context of the passage will not change when you substitute the correct antencedent. 7. Referring to the passage (24 percent) After reading the passage on the TOEFL, you will be asked to find certain information in the passage and identify it by line number. First, reading the question. Then refer to the line numbers in the answer choices to scan for the information in the question. Sample question: 7.1. In what line does the author shift his focus to. . .? 7.2. Where in the passage does the author first discuss? 7.3. A description of . . . . can be found in . . . 7.4. Where in the passage does the author specifically stress….? 7.5. In what paragraph does the author first mention the concept of. . .?

Exercise for main topic sentence 29

PASSAGE 1 There are two main types of cell division. Most cells are produced by a process called mitosis. In mitosis, a cell divides and forms two identical daughter cells, each with an identical number of chromosomes. Most one-called creatures reproduce by this method, as do most of the cells in multi-celled plants and animals. Sex cells, however, are formed in a special type of cell division called meiosis. This process reduces the number of chromosomes in a sex cell to half number found in other kinds of cells. Then, when sex cells unite, they produce a single cell with the original number of chromosomes. 1. What is the main topic of this passage? A. The method by which one-celled organisms reproduce B. A comparison between mitosis meiosis C. Meiosis, the process by which identical cells are produced New word: Mitosis: Chromosome: Meiosis: Organism: PASSAGE 2 The last gold rush belongs as much to Canadian history as it does to American. The discovery of gold along the Klondike River, which flows Canada’s Yukon Territory in Alaska, drew some 30,000 fortune hunters to the north. The Yuko became a territory and its capital of the time, Dawson, wouldn’t have existed without the gold rush. The gold strike furnished material for a dozen of Jack London’s novels, it inspired Robert Service to write “The Shooting of Dan Mc Grew” and other poems, and it provides the background for the wonderful Charlie Chaplin movie, The Gold Rush. It also marked the beginning of modern Alaska. 1.The author’s main purpose in writing is to A. Discuss the significance of mining in Canada and the United States. B. Show the influence of the Klondike gold on the creative arts. C. Point out the significance of the Klondike gold strike. PASSAGE 3 The keystone arch was used by almost every early civilization. To build a keystone arch, stones are cut so that the opposite sides taper toward each other slightly. The upper and lower surfaces are carved so that when several stones are placed side by side, the upper and lower surfaces meet in smooth, continuous curves. Some form of scaffolding is built under the arch and shaped to accept the curved underside of the stones, the last to be dropped into position. Afterwards, the scaffolding is removed and the arch is self-suppording. 1. The passage mainly concerns A. The basic principles of building keystone arches B. The uses of arches in modern architecture C. The role of scaffolding in building keystone arches New word: Keystone: Arch: Carver: Scaffolding PASSAGE 4 Circumstantial evidence is evidence not drawn from the direct observation of a fact. If, for example, there is evidence that a piece of rock embedded in a wrapped chocolate bar is the same type of rock found in the vicinity of the candy factory, and that rock of this type is found in few other places, then there is circumstantial evidende that the stone found its way 30

into the candy during manufacture and suggests that the candy maker was negligent. Despite a popular notion to look down on the quality of circumstantial evidence, it is of great usefulness if there is enough of it and if it is properly interpreted. Each circumstance, taken singly, may mean little, but a whole chain of circumstances can be as conclusive as direct evidence. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. A manufacturer’s negligence can be shown by direct evidence only B. Enough circumstantial evidence is as persuasive as direct evidence C. Circumstantial evidence can be very useful New word: Circumstantial: Evidence: Embed: Vicinity: Negligent: Notion: Interpret: Conclusive: PASSAGE 5 The Northwest Ordinance was passed by Congress in 1787. It set up the government structure of the region north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania, then called the Northwest Territory. It set the conditions under which parts of the territory could become states having equality with the older states. But the ordinance was more than just a plan for government. The law also guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury in the school to be built for each township. It also abolishes slavery in the Territory. Eventually, the Territory became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 1. What is the main topic of this passage A. The structure of government B. The provisions of an important law C. The establishment of schools in the Northwest Territory New word: Ordinance: Guarantee: Trial: Township: Abolish: Provision: PASSAGE 6 The story of the motel business from 1920 to the start of World War II in 1941 is one of uninterrupted growth. Motels spread from the West and the Midwest all the way to Maine and Florida. They clustered along transcontinental highways such as U.S Routes 40 and 66 and along the north-south routes running up an down both the East and West coasts. There were 16,000 motels by 1930 and 24,000 by 1940. The motel industry was one of the few industies that was not hurt by the Depression of 1930s. Their cheap rates attracted travelers who had very little money. 1. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. How the Depression hurt US motels B. The impact of transcontinental highways C. Two decades of growth for the motel industry New word Cluster: Transcontinental: Depression: Uninterrupted: PASSAGE 7 31

An old proverb states, “Beware of oak, it draws the stroke”. This saying is handy during thunderstorm season. In general, trees with deep roots that tap into groundwater attract more lightning than do trees with shallow, drier roots. Oaks are around 50 times more likely to be struck than beeches. Spruces are nearly as safe as beeches. Pines are not safe as these two, but are still much safer than oaks. 1. What is the author’s main point? A. Old proverbs often contain important truths B. Trees with shallow roots are more likely to avoid lightning than those with deep roots C. The deeper a tree’s roots, the safer it is during a thunderstorm New word Oak: Stroke: Handy: Root: Tap: Shallow: Spruce: Pine:

PASSAGE 8 Alternative history is generally classified as a type of science fiction, but it also bears some relation to historical fiction. This type of writing describes an imaginary world that is identical to ours up to a certain point in history, but at that point, the two worlds diverge, some important historical event takes place in one world but not in the other, and they go in different directions. Alternative histories might describe words in which the Roman Empire had never fallen, in which the Spanish Amanda had been victorious, or in which the South had won the Civil War. Or they may suppose that some technology had been introduced earlier in the world’s history than actually happened. For example, what interesting because of the way they stimulate the imagination and get them thinking about the phenomenon of cause and effect in history. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Alternative histories describe worlds in which history has taken another course B. Alternative histories are a type of historical novel C. Science fiction writes have accurately predicted certain actual scientific developments New word Alternative: Diverge: Stimulate: Phenomenon: PASSAGE 9 Until the late 1700s, metal couldn’t be turned on a lathe to make it uniformly smooth and round. The operator couldn’t guide the cutting tool evenly by hand against the turning piece. This problem was solved by David Wilkinson of Pawtucket, Rhode Island. In 1798 he invented a machine in which the cutter was clamped into a moveable slide that could be advanced precisely, by hand crank, parallel to the work. The slide rest, as it came to be called, has many uses. It permits the manufacture of parts so uniform that they can be interchanged. Without is, mass production would not have been possible. As it turns out, the great English machinist Hennry Maudsley developed nearly the same mechanism a few years before, but this was unknown to Wilkinson and doesn’t diminish his accomplishment. 1. Why did the author write this passage? A. To prove that Wilkinson’s invention was based on Maudsley’s B. To demonstrate the importance of mass production to American society 32

C. To show the usefulness of Wilkinson’s invention New word Lather: Evenly: Hand crank: Demonstrate: PASSAGE 10 Almost every form of transportation has given someone the idea for a new type of toy. After the Montgolfier brother flew the first balloon, toy balloons became popular playthings. In the nineteenth century, soon after railroads and steamships were developed, every child had to have model trans and steamboats. The sam held true for automobiles and airplanes in the early twentieth century. Toys rockets and missiles became popular at the beginning of the space age, and by the 1980s, there were many different version of space shuttle toys. 1. The main idea of this passage is that A. Inventors have been inspired by toys to build new forms of transportation B. Toy automobiles and airplanes were very popular in the early 1900s C. Toy design has followed developments in transportation

PASSAGE 11 American folk music originated with ordinary people at a time when the rural population was isolated and music was not yet spread by radio, records, or music videos. It was transmitted by oral tradition and is noted for its energy, humor, and emotional impact. The major source of early American folk song was music from the British Isles, but songs from Africa as well as song of the American Indians have a significant part in its heritage. Later settlers from other countries also contributed songs. In the nineteenth century, composer Steven Foster wrote some of the most enduringly popular of all American songs, which soon became part of the folk tradition. Beginning in the 1930s, Woody Guthric gained great popularity by adapting traditional melodies and lyrics and supplying new ones as well. In the 1950s and 1960s, signer composers such as Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, and joan Baez continued this tradition by creating urban folk music. Many of these songs deal with important social issues, such as racial integration and the war in Vietnam. 1. The primary purpose of this passage is to A. Explain the oral tradition B. Contrast the styles of folk musicians Originate: Transmit: Impact: Enduringly: Lyrics: Integration: PASSAGE 12 Every scientific discipline tens to develop its own special language because it finds ordinary words inadequate, and psychology is no different. The purpose of this special jargon is not to mystify non-psychologists, rather, it allows psychologists to accurately describe the phenomena they are discussing and to communicate with each other effectively. Of course, psychological terminologists use these words somewhat differently. For example, laymen use the term anxiety to mean nervousness or fear, but most psychologists reserve the term to describe a condition produced when one fears events over which one has no control 1. The main topic of this passage is A. Effective communication 33

B. The special language of psychology C. Two definitions of the word anxiety D. The jargon of science New word Discipline: Terminology:

Jargon: Inadequate:

PASSAGE 13 Gifford Pinchot was the first professionally trained forester in the United States. After he graduated from Yale in 1889, he studied forestry in Europe. In the 1890s he managed the forest on the Biltmore estate in North Carolina (now Pisgah National Forest) and conservation was persuading President Theodore Rooverlt to set aside millions of acres in the West as forest reserves. These lands now make up much of the national parks and national forests of the United States. Pinchot became the chief forester of the US Forest Service in 1905. Although he held that post for only five years, he established guidelines that set forest policy for decades to come. 1. The passage primarily deals with A. Gifford Pinchot’s work on the Biltmore Estate B. The practice and theory of scientific forestry C. The origin of national parks and national forests in the United States D. The contributions Gifford Pinchot made to American forestry New word Forester: Persuade: Post: Guideline: PASSAGE 14 Off-Broad-Way theater developed in New York city in about 1950 as a result of dissatisfaction with conditions on Broadway. Its founders believed that Broadway was overly concerned with producing safe, commercially successful hit plays rather than drama with artistic quality. Off-Broadway producers triad to assist playwrights, directors, and performers who could not find work on Broadway. Off-Broad theaters were poorly equipment, has limited seating, and provided few conveniences for audiences. But the originality of the scripts, the creativity of the performers, and the low cost of tickets made up for these disadvantages, and Off-Broadway proposed. However, by the 1960s, costs began to rise, and the 1970s, Off-Broadway theater was encountering many of the difficulties and had lost much of its vitality. With its decline, a experiment movement called Off-Off Broadway theater developed. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. After initial success, Off-Broadway theater began to decline. B. Off-Broadway theaters produced many hit commercial plays. C. Theaters on Broadway were not well equipment. D. Off Broadway plays were highly creative. 2. The paragraph that follow this passage most likely deals, with A. The help Off-Broadway producers provided directors, playwrights, and performers B. Methods Off-Broadway producers provided directors, use to cope with rising prices C. The development of Off-Broadway theater D. The decline of Broadway theater New word Prosper: Encounter: 34



PASSAGE 15 At the time of first European contact, there were from 500 to 700 languages spoken by North American Indians. These were divided into some 60 language families, with no demonstrable genetic relationship among them. Some of these families spread across several of the seven cultural areas. The Algonquin family, for instance, contained dozens of languages and occupied a vast territory. Speakers of Algonquin languages included the Algonquins of the Eastern Woodland, the Blackfoots of the Plains and the Wiyots and Yuroks of California. Other language families, like the Zuni family of the Southwest, occupy only a few square miles of area and contain only a single tribal language. 1. What is the main idea of this passage? A. Each of the cultural areas was dominated by one the language families B. The Zuni language is closely related to the Algonquin language C. There is considerable diversity in the size and the number of languages in language families of the North American Indians D. Contact with Europeans had extraordinary effect on the language of the Indian tribes of North America PASSAGE 16 Other major changes in journalism occurred around this time. In 1846, Richard Hoe invented the steam cylinder rotary press, making it possible to print newspapers faster and cheaper. The development of the telegraph made possible much speedier collection and distribution of news. Also in 1846 the first wire service was organized. A new type of newspaper appeared around this time, one that was more attuned to the spirit and needs of the new America. Although newspapers continued to cover politics, they came to report more human interest stories and to record the most recent news, which they couldn’t have done before the telegraph. 1. The main purpose of the passage is to A. Present a brief history of American journalism B. Outline certain developments in mid-nineteenth century journalism C. Explain the importance of the steam cylinder rotary press D. Present some biographical information about Richard Hoe 2. What is the most probable topic of the paragraph preceding this one? A. Other types of rotary presses B. Alternative to using wire services C. Newspapers that concentrated on politics D. Other developments in journalism 3. The tone of the passage could be best described as A. Objective B. Optimistic C. Angry D. Humorous PASSAGE 17 In the western third of North America, the convoluted folds of the Earth’s surface and is fractured geologic structure tend to absorb the seismic energy of an earthquake. Even if an earthquake measuring 8.5 on the Richter scale Los Angeles, its force would fade by the time it reached San Francisco, some 400 hundreds miles away. But in the eastern two thirds of the 35

continent the same energy travels more easily. The earthquake Washington, DC about 800 miles away, and was felt as far as Boston and Toronto. 1. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of Boston and Toronto. A. If a major earthquake strikes Los Angeles, it will probably damage San Francisco as wel B. The New Madrid earthquake of 1811 was felt in Boston and Toronto C. The geology of the western United States is much more complex than that of the East D. Earthquakes travel farther in the East than in the West New word Convoluted: Fracture: Seismic: Fade: PASSAGE 18 There has never been an adult scientist who has been half as curious as any child between the ages of four months and four years. Adults sometimes mistake this superb curiosity about everything as a lack of ability to concentrate. The truth is that children begin to learn at birth, and by the time they begin formal schooling at the age of 5 or 6, they have already absorbed a fantastic amount of information, perhaps more, fact for fact, than they will learn for rest of their lives. Adults can multiply by many times the knowledge children absorb if they appreciate this curiosity while simultaneously encouraging the children to learn. 1. With which of the following statements would the author probably agree? A. Children lack the ability to concentrate B. Young children have a much greater curiosity than adult scientists do C. The first few years of school are the most important ones for most children D. Adults can utilize children’s intense curiosity to help children learn more 2. The paragraph following this one most likely deals with A. Way in which adults can help children learn by stimulating their curiosity B. The learning habits of children over the age of 4 C. The methods adults scientists use to study the curiosity of young children D. Way in which adults scientists use to study as children about their environment. New word Superb: Fracture: Absorb: Fade: PASSAGE 19 Settlement houses were institutions esbalished to improve living conditions in poor city neighborhoods in the late 1800s and early 1900s. They offered health, educational, recreational, and cultural activities. The first to open in the United States was University Settlement in New Yourk City. It was established by the social reformer Stanton Coin in 1886. The most famous example was Hull House, established by the famous reformer young college graduates who were eager to improve the condition of the poor. 1. The passage mainly discusse A. American cities in the late nine theenth century B. The idealism of college graduates C. Settlement houses in the late 1800s and early 1900s D. The life of several American social reformers New word Settlement: Neighborhood: Reformer: Idealistic: 36

PASSAGE 20 The dancer Isadora Duncan was a daring, dynamic innovator in dance. While she was very successful in teaching her highly personal style of dance to others, she taugh a generation of dancers to trust their own forms of experession. She rebelled against the rigid, formal style of classical ballet. Inspired by the art of Greece, she usually danced barefoot in a loose, flowing Greek tunic. She found further inspiration in nature and used dance movements to mirrorthe waves of the sea and passing clouds. Isadora Duncan was born in Sanfrancisco in 1878. She gave her first performance in 1899. Early failures gave way to triumphant perfomances in Budapest, Berlin, London, and finally in 1908, back in the United States. She lived in Europe most of her life, establishing dancing schools for children there. She died in 1927 near Nice, France, in a freak accident, her long scraf being caugh in the wheel in 1927 of an open sports car in which she was riding. 1. The author’s attitude toward Isadora Duncan could best be described as one of A. Displeasure B. admiration C. Compassion D. amazement 2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage? A. The author first discusses Isadora Duncan’s stype of dance and then her lifer history B. The first paragraph deals with Isadora Duncan’s role as a teacher, the second, her role as a performer C. The author first discusses Isadora Duncan’s short comings and then her positive points D. First there is an analysis of Isadora Duncan’s influences and then of her lasting contributions to dance New word Rigid: Inspire: Freak: Loose: PASSAGE 21 In most of Europe, famer’s homes outbuilding are generally located within a village, and tools and animals are housed there. Every morning, the farmers and farm laborers leave their village to work their land or tend their animals in distant fields and return to the village at the end of the day. Social life is thus centipetal, that is, it is focused around the community center, the village. Only in certain parts of Quebec has this pattern been preserved in North America. Throughout most of North America, a different pattern was established. It was borrowed from northern Europe, but was pushed even further in the New World where land was cheap or even free. It is a centifugal system of social life, with large isolated farms whose residents go the village only to buy goods and procure services. The independence American farmers is as free of the intimacy of the village as ther urbanite. 1. The main topic of the first paragraph is A. Eroupean farm products B. Social life in Quebec C. The European pattern of rural settlement 2. The main topic of the second paragraph is A. The relative isolation of North American farm families B. The relationship between farmers and urbanites in North America C. The low cost of farmland in North America 3. The main topic of the entire passage is 37

A. B. C. D.

A comparision of farming in northern and southern Europe The difference between farming in Quebec and the rest of North America European influence on American agriculture A contrast between a centripetal system of rural life and a centrifugal system

PASSAGE 22 While fats have lately acquired a bad image, one should not forget how essential they are. Fats provide the body’s best means of storing energy, far more efficient energy sources than either carbohydrats or proteins. They act as insulation against cold, as cushioning for the internal organs, and as lubricants. Without fats, energy would be no way to utilize fat soluble vitamins. Furthermore, some fats contain fatty acids that contain necessary grow factors and help with the digestion of other foods. Saturaed fats, which are derived from dairy products, animals fats, and tropical oils, increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol may lead to coronary heart disease by building up in the arteries of the heart. However, unsaturated fats, derived from vegetables oils, tend to lower serum, cholesterol if taken in a proportion twice that of saturated fats. The consumption of a variety of fats is necessary, but the intake of too much fat may lead to a variety of health problems. Excessive intake of fats, like all nutritional excesses, is to be avoided. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is that A. Fats have a bad image B. Fats serve important functions in the body C. Fats store food more efficiently than proteins or carbohydrates 2. What is the main idea of the second paragraph? A. Unsaturated fats may reduce cholesterol levels B. The consumption of any type of fat leads to heart diet C. Fats taken in the proper proportion may reduce serum cholesterol 3. The main idea of the third paragraph is that A. People are eating less and less fat today B. Fats should be gradually eliminated from the diet C. Excessive consumption of fats may be dangerous to one’s health 4. With which of the following is the whole passage primary concerned? A. The role of fats in human health B. The dangers of cholesterol C. The benefits of fats in the diet D. The importance of good nutrition PASSAGE 23 The term weathering refers to all the way in which rock can be broken down. It takes place because minerals formed in a particular way (say at high temperatures, in the cause of igneous rocks) are often unstable when exposed to various conditions. Weathering involves the interaction of the lithosphere (The earth’s crust) with the atmosphere and hydrosphere (air and water). It occours at different rats and in different ways, depending on the climatic and environmental conditions. But all kinds of weathering ultimately produce broken minerals and rock fragments and other products of the decomposition of stone. Soil is the most obvious and, from the human point of view, the most important result of the weathering process. Soil is the weathered part of the Earth’s crust that is capable of sustaining plant life. The character of soil depends on the nature of rock from which it is formed. It also depends on the climate and on the relative “age” of the soil. Immature soils are little more than 38

broken rock fragments. Over time, immature soil develops into nature soil, which contatins quantities of humus, formed from decayed plant matter. Mature soil is darker, richer in microscopic life, and more conductive to plant. 1. The first paragraph primary describes A. The process by which rocks are broken down B. The weathering of igheous rocks C. Gradual changes in the Earth’s weather patterns 2. The main topic of the second paragraph is A. A description of immature soil B. The growth of plants C. The evolution of soil 2. The main topic of the entire passage paragraph is that A. Weathering braks down rocks and leads to the development of soil B. Soils may be classified as mature or immature C. The process of soil development is more important to human than that of weathering D. The earth’s crust is constantly changing PASSAGE 24 The fist Dutch outpost in New Netherlands was made at Fort Orange (now Albany) in 1624; It became a depot of the fur trade. But the most important settlement was at the Southern tip of Manhattan, commanding the great harbor at the mouth of the Hudson River. Peter Minuit, first gonernor-general of New Netherlands, “purchase” tittle to the island from the Canarsie Indians for the equivalent of $24 worth of trinkets. However, the Canarsie Indians might be described as tourists Brooklyn, Minuit had to make a later payment to the group that was actually residents there. Within its rectangular walls, permanent houses were built, replacing the thatched dwelling of the original Manhattan. The port became the nucleus of the town of New Amsterdam. Soon Manhattan had its first skyline: the solid outline of the fort; the lagstaff, the silhouette of a giant windmill; and the masts of trading ships. The Duthc West India company established dairy farms in the vicinity of New Amsterdam. Each morning, the cattle were drivedn to the “Bouwerie” (now the Bowery), a large oen common in the city. Just sothwest of the Bouwerie was the Bowling Green, Bowling Green became the site of a cattle fair where livestock were marketed; beer and sausage were available from booths, cheese, lace and linen were sold by framer’s wives; and Indian women sold baskets and other handicrafts. These colorful gatherings and other aspects of everyday life in New Amsterdam are descirbed in Washington Irving’s rollicking book, Kiedrich Knikerbocker’s “History of New York” The last and most powerful governor-general of New Netherlands was Peter Stuyvesant, famous for his temper and his wooden leg. He annexed the Swedlish colony of Delaware and ordered the streets of New Amsterdam laid out in an orderly manner and numbered. He did his best to obtain military and finacial aid from Holland against the British. When the Brishtish sent emissaries demanding the surrender of the colony, he wanted to flight. 1664. the fort was long out of repair, and there was a shortage of ammunition of New York, and New Amsterdam became New York City. 1. What is the main topic of the first paragraph? A. The first Dutch settlement in New Netherlands B. Peter Minuit’s acquisition of Manhattan C. Tourism in Manhattan 2. The second paragraph deals primarily with 39

A. B. C. 3. A. B. C. 4. A. B. C. D.

The establishment of Fort Amsterdam The skyline of Manhattan The thatched houses of the Indians The third paragraph mainly describes Aspects of everyday life in New Amsterdam The origin of the game of modern bowling Washinton Irving’s book about New Amsterdam What does the fourth paragraph mainly discuss? The annexation of the Swedish colony of Delaware The origin and importance of the cattle fair European colonization in the New World Forty years of Dutch rule in New Amsterdam

Vocabulary TEST 2. 1. The pioneer wagon trains were usually escorted by experienced frontiersmen. A. organized B. financed C. accompanied D. tracked 2.Chick-peas are now extensively grown in California. A. widely B. hardly C. permanently D. increasingly 3. Industrial strife seems to become more rampant in some countries in times of prosperity. A. competition B. demand C. proliferation 40

D. conflict 4. Breeding laboratory animals is a multimillion -dollar business. A. investigating B. selling C. researching D. raising 5. Only very low-grade graphite is needed for lead pencils, whereas that used as a moderator in atomic piles must be thoroughly, and expensively, purified. A. while B. in addition C. consequently D. because 6. Since they thought that gold resembled the sun, the ancients represented this chemical element with a solar symbol. A. derived from B. looked like C. reflected D. symbolized 7. The groundnut is found in moist places in most parts of the eastern United States. A. various B. damp C. fertile D. sandy 8. The legendary Lady Godiva of Coventry was renowned as a devout noble woman. A. high-born B. false C. determined D. pious 9. The Emancipation Proclamation, originally read to the Cabinet by Lincoln in September of 1862, came into force on January 1, 1983. A. went into effect B. received military backing C. became forceful D. was ratified 10. The word “ Christmas” derived from the old English for “ Christ’s Mass” first occurred in the eleventh century. A. started B. recurred C. appeared D. predominated 11. The house by the sea had a mysterious air of serenity about it. A. melancholy B. joy C. sadness D. calmness 41

12. The speaker emphasized the need for cooperation in the project that were about to undertake. A. Accentuated B. Downplayed C. Discussed D. displayed 13. Marsha found it difficult to cope with the loss of her job. A. anticipate B. think about C. deal with D. confirm 14. The number of unemployed people in our country is increasing rapidly. A. licensed B. working C. business D. jobless 15. Migrant workers have difficulty finding steady employment. A. midget B. diligent C. transient D. unmotivated 16.Christopher Columbus was the first person to navigate under the patronage of Queen Isabella of Spain. A. explore B. sail C. work D. circumvent 1. The sun’s intensive rays distorted the image on the horizon. A. reflected B. altered C. melted D. disrupted 2. A new government department was established to control maritime traffic. A. sea B. military C. highway D. air 3. His company empowered him to negotiate the contract. A. helped B. forbade C. authorized D. ordered 4. His involuntary reflexes betrayed his feelings. A. automatic B. unbelievable C. unnecessary D. unreasonable 42

5. The principal congratulated the student on his outstanding display of leadership. A. alluded B. scolded C. praised D. contacted 6. A middle-aged woman of tremendous girth sat down beside the other patients in the waiting room. A. prestige B. rotundity C. eloquence D. mirth 7. Numbing terror filed their brains as they witnessed the explosion. A. torpid B. tantalizing C. paralyzing D. sentient 8. The atmosphere in the police chief’s office was electric with contention. A. discord B. rejoicing C. weeping D. curiosity 9. Penny’s impromptu speech given at the state competition won her the first prize. A. interesting B. informative C. extemporaneous D. expensive 10. The slender boy scaled the wall like a lizard. A. balanced B. crawled C. plastered D. climbed 11. The salon was the most elegant room Madeline had ever seen, despite its austerity. A. flexibility B. design C. decoration D. simplicity 12. The Royal Museum contains a facsimile of the king’s famous declaration. A. copy B. showcase C. record D. new edition 13. The raccoon is a nocturnal animal. A. harmless B. night 43

C. marsupial D. diurnal 14. The author wrote with great clarity, not missing a single detail. A. genius B. cleverness C. clearness D. extensiveness 15. Double agents live in a perpetual state of fear. A. perfect B. constant C. ceasing D. perpetrated 16. After the alien spacecraft had hovered over the park for a short while, it vanished. A. landed B. disappeared C. attacked D. rose 17. After receiving the insulting letter, Ron became furious. A. ghastly B. resentful C. fulgent D. irate 18. Her childhood poverty caused Lucy to be very thrifty as she grew older. A. practically B. indigence C. wealth D. shyness 19. If the crops are not irrigated soon, the harvest will be sparse. A. watered B. plowed C. planted D. fertilized 20. While in Europe on vacation, the twins roamed the countryside on their bikes. A. rounded B. rocked C. wandered D. rustled 21. The coroner was able to extract a minute particle of cloth from under the victim’s fingernail. A. infinitesimal B. significant C. large D. short 44

22. Let’s suppose that we are floating in a cool pool on a hot summer’s day. A. imagine B. imply C. succumb D. suggest 23. The students’ records were not readily accessible for their perusal. A. offered B. available C. acceptable D. accountable Wordlist test 2. : (v) nhÊn m¹nh, nªu bËt 1. accentuate / k’sentjueit/ : (v) lµm cho giËn ghÐt, xa l¸nh 2. alienate/’ eiljneit/ : (v) bãng giã , ¸m chØ 3. allude/’lu;d/ : (v) dïng tríc , hëng tríc, biÕt tríc, liÖu tríc 4. anticipate / n’tisipeit/ 5. austerity/ o:s’teriti/ : (n) sù khæ h¹nh , sù kh¾c khæ : ph¸ vì, lµm háng kÕ ho¹ch, 6. circumvent /s:km’vent/ : (n) sù c·i nhau, tranh luËn,c¹nh tranh 7. contention/ kn’tenn/ : Nh©n viªn ®iÒu tra nh÷ng vô ®ét tö 8. coroner/’korn/ 9. cripple/’kripl/ : (v) lµm quÌ, háng, tµn tËt 10. devou : (adj) thµnh kÝnh, mé ®¹o, ch©n thµnh t/di’vaut/ 11. dishea : lam ch¸n n¶n, ng· lßng rten/ dis’ha:tn/ 12. disrup : ®Ëp g·y, ph¸ vì t/ dis’rpt/ 13. diurna : (adj) ban ngµy, h»ng ngµy l/ dai’:nl/ 14. eloque : (n) tµi hïng biÖn, nce/’elkwns/ 15. empo : (v) cho quyÒn, lµm cho cã thÓ wer/im’pau/ 16. Escort : (v) ®i hé tèng, ®i theo ®Ó b¶o vÖ, gióp ®ì / ‘esko:t/ 17. extem : (adj) tuú øng poraneous/ekstemp’reinjs / 18. extens : (adv) réng r·i, bao qu¸t ively/iks’tensivli/ 19. facsim : (v) sao, chÐp (n) b¶n sao, b¶n chÐp ile /f k’simili/ 20. fulgen : (adj) s¸ng chãi, ãng ¸nh, rùc rì t/ ‘fldznt/ 21. girth/g : (n) ®ai yªn ngùa, ®êng vßng quanh,(v) bao quanh ,®o :/ 45

22. impov erish/ im’povri/ 23. impro mptu/ im’promptju/ 24. involuntary/ in’volntri/ 25. marsu pial/ma’sju:pi l/ 26. melan choly/’melkli/ 27. midge t/’midzit/ 28. moder ator/ ‘modreit/ 29. noctur nal/ nok’t:nl/ 30. patron age/ ‘peitrnidz/ 31. perpet rate/p:pitreit/ 32. perpet ual/p’petul/ 33. pious/’ pais/ 34. prolife ration/prlif’rein/ 35. purify/ ‘pjurifai/ 36. raccoo n /r’ku:n/ 37. rampa nt/ ‘r mpnt/ 38. ratify/’ r tifai/ 39. resem ble/ ri’zembl/ 40. rotund ity/rau’tnditi/ 41. rustle/ ’rsl/ 42. scale/ skeil/ 43. scold/ skuld/ 44. sereni ty/ si’reniti/ 45. strife/

: (v) bÇn cïng ho¸, hao mßn, lamf cho kiÖt søc : (n) bµi nãi øng khÈu, (adj) øng ngÉu, kh«ng chuÈn bÞ tríc : (adj) kh«ng chñ t©m, v« t×nh : thó cã tói : (adj)u sÇu, u uÊt : (n) ngêi lïn, : m¸y ®iÒu tiÕt, ngêi hoµ gi¶i : (adj) ®ªm, vÒ ®ªm : sù b¶o trî, ®ì ®Çu : (v) g©y ra, thùc hiÖn tåi : (adj) vÜnh viÔn, kh«ng ngít, liªn miªn : (adj) ngoan ®¹o, mé ®¹o : (n) sù sinh s«i, t¨ng nhanh, ph¸t triÓn : (v) lam cho s¹ch, läc trong, tinh chÕ, tÈy uÕ : gÊu tróc Mü : (adj) hung h¨ng, hïng hæ, qu¸ khÝch : (n) th«ng qua , phª chuÈn : (v) gièng víi, t¬ng tù : (n) tÝnh khoa tr¬ng, sù bÐo, phôc phÞch : (v) kªu xµo x¹c, sét so¹t : (n) v¶y : (v) rÇy la, tr¸ch m¾ng, quë tr¸ch, chöi rña : (n) c¶nh trêi quang m©y t¹nh, sù thanh b×nh, thanh th¶n : (n) sù xung ®ét , c·i nhau, tranh chÊp 46

straif/ 46. succu mb/ s’km/ 47. track/t r k/ 48. transi ent/ ‘tr nzint/ 49. undert ake 50. unmot ivated/ n’moutiveitid/

: (v) thua, kh«ng chÞu næi chÕt : (n) dÊu vÕt, ®êng ®i : (adj) ng¾n ngñi, nhÊt thêi, chãng tµn : (v) thùc hiÖn, ®¶m tr¸ch, nhËn : (adj) kh«ng cã lÝ do, kh«ng cã môc ®Ých

Test 4 1. In order to maintain physical well-being, a person should eat wholesome food and get sufficient exercise. A. healthy B. fresh C. well-cooked D. delicious 2. Trees, shrubs, flowers, and grass give character and interest to the parks. A. vines B. vegetables C. bushes D. weeds 3. The spleen is a small organ located beneath the left side of the rib cage. A. caught B. found C. ingrown D. implanted 4. Not until his play Beyond the Horizon was produced was Eugene O’Neill lauded as the foremost creative American playwright. A. compensated B. secretly named C. given preference D. praised 5. If a foreign object becomes lodged in the eye, medical help is necessary. A. deposited in B. invisible to C. blurry to D. isolated in 6. In some libraries young people can check out ten juvenile books at one time. A. adventure B. large print 47

C. hardcover D. children’s 7. Among all societies legal marriage is usually accompanied by some kind of ceremony that expresses group sanction of the union. A. opinion B. coercion C. approval D. insistence 8. Charles Wilson Peale is generally considered the most gifted of the Philadelphia colonial artists. A. talented B. presented C. eccentric D. sophisticated 9. Only sovereign states are able to make treaties. A. constitutional B. powerful C. legitimate D. independent 10. The population of Seattle is a conglomerate of people from different ethnic and cultural back grounds. A. a company B. a fluctuation C. an assortment D. a matching 11. The 1960’s saw a change in the form and content of movies, treating subjects that for so many years were considered taboo. A. unpleasant B. prohibited C. unethical D. worthless 12. Few composers have been so idolized during their lifetime as was Edward Mac Dowell. A. dissatisfied B. reviewed C. misguided D. worshipped 13. Small flaws in an object show that it is handmade. A. requirements B. details C. defects D. trademarks 14. A mature tulip bulb contains the embryo of a plant. A. flower bud B. waste product C. complete undeveloped form D. color producing pigment 48

15. A number of loopholes still remain in the campaign contribution law. A. unprofitable sections B. illogical contradictions C. descriptions for cheating D. ways of evading rules 16. Grounded whales often struggle fruitlessly to reenter deep water. A. violently B. desperately C. in vain D. at length 17. An individual nerve cell usually has a large cell body and a conspicuous nucleus. A. an obvious B. a cohesive C. an enormous D. an immature 18. A darkened sky in the daytime is usually an indication that a storm is imminent. A. about to take place B. close by C. expected to be severe D. possibly coming 19. CAPut!’’.Many tourists are attracted to the New England states by the autumn foliage. A. weather B. leaves C. festival D. harvest 20. Manufacturers who carry out government order have to be very careful to meet specifications. A. encounter B. adhere to C. prepare D. anticipate 21.Geologists recognize three classes of rocks. A. weights B. hardness C. colors D. types 22. Serious grain damage can occur after a person has stopped breathing for two or three minutes. A. happen B. return C. continue D. decrease 23. An invention is seldom wholly new; it is built on experience from the past. 49

A. fundamentally B. totally C. visibly D. unmistakably 24. Hybridization often produces plants that exhibit characteristics not present in either parent plant. A. show B. transmit C. perfect D. resist 25. The early American settlers brought a heritage of European culture to New England. A. cargo B. treasure C. tradition D. volume 26. Sometimes heartburn is one of the earliest symptoms of a more serious disorder of the digestive system. A. fastest B. timely C. chief D. first 27. The accordion is a portable musical instrument of the reed-wind variety. A. a versatile B. an easily transportable C. an inexpensive D. a highly popular 28. In 1961 , Wilma Rudolph, an Olympic gold medal winner, was named America’s outstanding amateur athlete. A. woman B. young C. volunteer D. nonprofessional 29. The today of a jury is to ascertain guilt of innocence. A. question B. recommend C. pursue D. decide 30. At one time a computer of abstract music, Aaron Copland later shifted to a style that more people could understand. A. refused to work with B. converted to C. imitated D. exaggerated 31. Abilene, Kansas, was the railhead for a cattle raising region that extended southwest into Texas. A. stretched B. scattered 50

C. loitered D. evolved 32. Almost half of Nevada has a desert climate. A. an arid B. a humid C. a cold D. an unpredictable 33.Hypothetically, sources of energy such as solar power and nuclear fusion could provide more energy than the world needs. A. Fortunately B. Eventually C. Ideally D. Theoretically 34. The dolphin is noted for its ingenuity. A. cleverness B. artlessness C. affability D. playfulness 35. A mirror is a familiar example of a plane reflector. A. relative B. common C. companion D. standard 36. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s proposal to add more justices to the United States Supreme Court was rejected by the Congress. A. resolved B. adjusted C. cursed D. dismissed 37. Edward MacDowell showed the world that the United States not devoid of creative musical talent. A. lacking in B. hampered by C. burdened with D. interested in 38. Silver in an extremely good electrical conductor A. deceptively B. exceptionally C. deliberately D. pointedly 39. The most important achievement of Thomas Jefferson’s first administration was the Louisiana Purchase. A. exploit B. development C. acquisition D. accomplishment 40. The major function of the kidneys is the excretion of metabolic wastes and excess substances through the formation of urine. A. manifestation 51

B. elimination C. collection D. derivation Test 5 1. Elementary education was fostered in early New England for religious purposes. A. manifestation B. promoted C. excused D. protected 2. In early American novels, the heroines were usually chaste. A. scheming B. earnest C. fickle D. virtuous 3. The movement toward equality of rights had some antecedents that helped the cause of aspiring women. A. elements B. procedure C. precedents D. justification 4. Edward Hopper’s paintings go beyond the seemingly aimless surface of American city life. A. abnormal B. distorted C. random D. revolutionary 5. Although America made use of the steamboat on rivers and lakes, it lagged behind England in using it on the oceans. A. vacillated B. sailed C. fought D. fell 6. Some discount stores are known for their shoddily constructed merchandise. A. Carelessly B. Skillfully C. Colorfully D. Durably 7. William McGuffey was a well-known compiler of textbooks. A. assembler B. publisher C. writer D. critic 8.John Adams sought to sever his personal ties with the British king. A. improve 52

B. proclaim C. dissolve D. embellish 9.A comprehensive theory explaining the growth of civilization has yet to be accepted by most scholars. A. An advanced B. An original C. An acceptable D. An inclusive 10. The octopus is a clever and diligent animal, A. awkward B. busy C. destructive D. intelligent 11.The oldest preserved manuscripts are those written on papyrus, which were found in Egyptian tombs. A. protected B. hidden C. sought D. discovered 12.Any overpayment to the school should be detected by the computer, and a refund will be issued immediately. A. excess money paid B. large payment C. extravagant gift given D. generous donation 13. The shifting layers of the earth’s center continue to make earthquakes inevitable. A. burning B. non-durable C. deteriorating D. moving 14. The symptoms of influenza are fever, headache, and muscular pain. A. effects B. delights C. forces D. signs 15. Although a newspaper’s primary function is to inform, special features are usually included for entertainment. A. jointly B. cautiously C. commonly D. intentionally 16.American journalists often overstate a situation to make the news more stimulating. A. exaggerate B. inspire C. animate D. misinterpret 53

17.Acetate is one of the most important artificial fibers. A. insulating B. synthetic C. unadorned D. complex 18.The term “ New Deal” applies to the program of reform and recovery initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. A. spoiled B. inherited C. originated D. attacked 19’.Although many modifications have been made in it, the game known in the United States as football can be traced directly to the English game of rugby. A. rules B. changes C. demands D. leagues 20.Much of the space in the National Gallery is devoted to paintings presented to the museum by Andrew Melon. A. suitable for B. devoid of C. reserved for D. divested of 21.One of the most widely discussed environmental effects of supersonic travel is the sonic boom. A. completely B. distantly C. extensively D. deliberately 22.It is generally believed that the principal ancestor of the domestic cat is the Libyan desert cat. A. chief B. official C. only D. probable 23.The optical properties of a diamond give it the beauty that makes it pleasing as a gem. A. popular B. valuable C. acceptable D. attractive 24.Devaluation is an official decrease in the par value of a nation’s currency. A. money B. taxes C. prices D. wealth 25.The new method of inoculation was the scientific discovery of the age. 54

A. experiment in B. concept of C. strain of D. procedure for 26.If there are civilizations on other planets, they are likely to be radically different from ours. A. exactly B. approximately C. partially D. basically 27.Mary McCarthy’s novel “ The Group” helped to solidify her position as America’s foremost female author. A. describe B. assure C. characterize D. direct 28.Nineteenth century scholars tried to trace the origins of modern languages to ancient Hebrew. A. limit B. connect C. convert D. draw 29.Any sketch of Amelia Earhart’s life will certainly mention her last flight. A. book on B. outline C. index of D. information on 30.A dog’s most important sense is that of smell. A. remarkable B. enviable C. noticeable D. significant 31.A cathode emits electrons in a controlled environment. A. submits B. gives off C. rejects D. passes by 32.In his novels, Upton Sinclair showed his unique genius for recreating social history. A. proven B. understandable C. peerless D. understated 33.One out of five bridges in the United States is outmoded. A. narrow B. obsolete C. illegal D. concrete 55

34.In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “ The Scarlet Letter” Reverend Dimmesdale succumbed to Hester’s charms. A. appealed to B. conversed about C. cared nothing for D. yielded to 35.Although the work needs to be done more exhaustively, efforts have been made to collect the songs and ballads of the American Revolution. A. precisely B. selectively C. frantically D. thoroughly 36.A child’s behavior often changes in the presence of strangers. A. personality B. conduct C. comprehension D. attitude 37.Deems Taylor was distinguished both as a music critic and as a composer. A. inventive B. classified C. eminent D. different 38.When bothered by other animals or humans, some species of horned lizards will posture threateningly and squirt blood from their eyes. A. menacingly B. distrustfully C. fiercely D. impudently 39.The disease, rust, stunts a plant’s growth and leads to the destruction of the plant. A. enhances B. moderates C. stops D. hinders 40.Chemically pure iron has relatively few commercial uses. A. Unrefined B. unadulterated C. clear D. stable TEST 6 1. No part of New Hampshire is far from water. A. mountain B. town C. section D. role 2. The company issues an annual report every March. 56

A. a yearly B. a comprehensive C. a financial D. a product 3. Bay laureal leaves are still an emblem of victory. A. a symbol B. a result C. a suggestion D. a spoil 4. X-rays are basically a form of radiation. A. fundamentally B. definitely C. probably D. frequently 5. When Washington, D. C, was burned in 1814, Dolley Madison rescued many official papers from the White House. A. stole B. filed C. hid D. saved 6. The Depression in the United States lasted until the beginning of the Second World War. A. was avoided B. continued C. had been restrained D. deteriorated 7. The women’s army Corps was founded in 1942. A. supported B. established C. discovered D. emphasized 8. The future survival of the bald eagle is still an important America ecological concern. A. migration B. population C. existence D. evolution 9. One of the greatest breakthroughs for professional women came in 1973 when the field of banking opened up for them. A. most serious disappointments B. most significant advances C. most abrupt declines D. most crucial situation 10. The Salk vaccine is a major factor in the fight to eradicate polio. A. completely destroy B. carefully disguise C. sustain D. contain 11. Blue green algae grow abundantly in salt marshes. 57

A. primarily B. slowly C. on plants D. in great numbers 12. Insect pests are among the leading causes of crop failure. A. expected B. chief C. natural D. least 13. As both a religion and a social force, Puritanism has had a widespread influence in the United States. A. a disturbing B. a complex C. an annoying D. a far reaching 14. Formerly, in the United States, many nurses worked as private duty nurses rather than in hospitals. A. previously B. strictly C. officially D. periodically 15. Neighboring states often sign trade agreements with one another. A. peacefully B. friendly C. adjacent D. developing 16. The national industrial recover act was designed to spur industry. A. tax B. stimulate C. censure D. rebuke 17. When the Erie Canal was built in the 1820’s , it was the engineering marvel of its time. A. wonder B. dispute C. frustration D. model 18. Communications is one of the most important bonds that hold cultural systems together. A. obligations B. qualities C. links D. needs 19. In 1974 Henry Ruth’s monumental life time record of 714 home runs. A. archaic B. degrading C. outstanding D. entire 58

20. An oversight in proofreading often results in printed errors. A. an inconsistency B. a discrimination C. a blotch D. an inattention 21. Food must be moist in order to have a taste. A. appetizing B. nutritious C. damp D. chewed 22. Although the Carbon 14 method of dating old objects is not foolproof, it is the best method available at present. A. wholly operational B. entirely serviceable C. fully reliable D. completely safe 23. Mary McCarhy’s satires are couched in a prose style that has a classic precision. A. fused B. prefaced C. standardized D. expressed 24. The economy of Dallas, Texas, is strong and diversified. A. inflated B. stable C. varied D. well regulated 25. Motivation is a primary factor in learning. A. memorization B. aptitude C. intelligence D. incentive 26. Double Eagle II, the first transatlantic balloon, was greeted by avid crowds in France. A. eager B. surging C. appreciative D. vigorous 27. Cold air causes the arteries around the heart to constrict. A. become rigid B. contract C. close D. die 28. The fear of small pox, which terrorized the eighteenth century, has no analogy today. A. occurrence B. remnants C. witnesses D. parallel 59

29. The flower bud of a water lily opens at sunset since its opening is triggered by the decreased light. A. alleviated B. endured C. set off D. covered up 30. Daylight saving time was instituted to increase productivity. A. reorganized B. started C. encouraged D. taught 31. Modern techniques have made dentures virtually unnoticeable. A. false teeth B. surgical implants C. artificial hair D. plastic surgery 32. Early log cabins were crude if sturdy structures. A. unpainted B. resilient C. unseasoned D. rough 33. The first American Thanksgiving was held in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1621. A. retained B. declared C. celebrated D. arranged 34. Though many scientific breakthroughs have resulted from mishaps, it has taken brilliant thinkers to recognize their potential. A. misunderstanding B. accidents C. misfortunes D. incidentals 35. Considerable energy savings are made in parts of California by harvesting melons at night. A. picking B. planting C. watering D. packing 36. The library has announced that henceforth, fines on overdue books will be 25 cents per day. A. for the time being B. across the board C. from now on D. as a result 37. When the tombs of two Zhongshan rulers were excavated, two of the vessels found, which were more than 2,200 years old, still had wine in them. A. chambers 60

B. containers C. remains D. coffins 38. The kiwi is a peculiar flightless creature with furry feathers and a long, curved beak. A. a particular B. a solemn C. an awkward D. an old 39. American children customarily go trick-or-treating on Halloween . A. gaily B. traditionally C. readily D. inevitably 40. Our knowledge of at least two-thirds of the world’s languages remains scanty. A. theoretical B. meager C. indeterminate D. implicit WORDLIST TEST 6 1. Abrupt /’brpt/ 2. Adjacent /’dzeisnt/ 3. Alleviate/ ’livieit/ 4. Analogy/ ’n ldzi/ 5. Aptitude /’ ptitju:d/ 6. Avid/ ‘ vid/ 7. Awkward /’o:kwd/ 8. Blotch 9. Bond 10. Breakthrough 11. Censure/’sen/ 12. Chamber/teib/ 13. Constrict/kn’strikt/ 14. Couch /kaut/ 15. Crucial /’kru:l/ 16. Crude 17. Decline / di’klain/ 18. Degrade /di’greid/ 19. 20.

Denture/’dent/ Depression/ di’pren/

21. Deteriorate/di’trirei t/ lµm / 22. Discriminate

: bÊt ngê, ®ét ngét, hiÓm trë, gian nan : gÇn kÒ, kÕ liÒn, s¸t : lµm gi¶m bít, lµm dÞu, lµm khu©y : sù t¬ng tù, gièng nhau, phÐp lo¹i suy : n¨ng khiÕu, n¨ng lùc, khuynh híng : khao kh¸t, thÌm muèn, thÌm thuång : lóng tóng, vông vÒ, bÊt tiÖn, rÇy rµ, r¾c rèi : nhät sng tÊy, chç sng tÊy,giÊy thÊm : khÕ íc, lêi cam kÕt, phiÕu nî : sù chäc thñng phßng tuyÕn : phª b×nh , khiÓn tr¸ch, chØ trÝch : buång, phßng ngñ, phßng luËt s : lµm thui chét, bãp l¹i, siÕt l¹i : trêng kØ, ®i v¨ng, hang : quyÕt ®Þnh, cèt yÕu, chñ yÕu : nguyªn sèng, th«, cha gät giòa : sù suy tµn, suy sôp, gÇy mßn : gi¸ng chøc, h¹ tÇng c«ng t¸c, lµm mÊt danh gi¸, lµm mñn ra, r· ra : hµm r¨ng, bé r¨ng, : sù ch¸n n¶n, ng· lßng, t×nh tr¹ng ®×nh ®èn, tr× trÖ : h háng, lµm gi¶m gi¸ trÞ : ph©n biÖt, nhËn râ sù kh¸c nhau 61

/dis’krimineit/ 23. Disguise/ dis’gaiz/ 24. Dispute/ dis’pju:t/ 25. Diversified ® 26. Ecological/ik’lodzikl / 27. Emblem/’emblm/ 28. Endure/ in’dju:/ 29. Eradicate/i’r dikeit/ 30. Excavate/ ‘ekskveit/ 31. Foolproof 32. Formerly/’fo:mli/ 33. Fundamentally/ fnd’mentli/ 34. Henceforth /hens’fo:/ 35. Implicit 36. Inattention 37. indeterminate 38. Marsh /’ma:/ 39. Marvel / ma:vl/ 40. Meager /’mi:g/ 41. Mishaps/mis’h pz/ 42. Moist 43. Motivation 44. Nutritious /nju:’tris/ 45. Outstanding 46. Oversight 47. Peculiar/ pi’kju:lj/ l 48. Polio/ ‘pouliou/ 49. Rebuke/ ri’bju:k/ 50. Remnant 51. Resilient /ri’zilint/ 52. Restrain/ri’strein/ 53. Scanty /’sk nti/ 54. Solemn /solm/ 55. Spur/ ‘sp:/ 56. Sturdy/’st:di/ 57. Sustain/s’stein/ 58. Trigger 59. Vessel 60. Vigorous /’vigrs/

: : : :

c¶i trang, nguþ trang, bÒ ngoµi lõa dèi cuéc tranh luËn, tranh chÊp, bÊt hoµ, bÊt ®ång a d¹ng ho¸, nhiÒu mÆt thuéc sinh th¸i häc

: : : : : : :

tîng trng, biÓu tîng, chÞu ®ùng, cam chÞu, kÐo dµi, tån t¹i nhæ rÔ, trõ tiÖt ®µo, khai quËt hÕt søc râ rµng, dÔ dïng tríc ®©y , thña xa vÓ c¬ b¶n

: tõ nay trë ®i, vÓ sau : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

ngÊm, ngÊm ngÇm, Èn tµng, sù thiÕu chó ý, l¬ lµ, l¬ ®Ônh v« ®Þnh, v« h¹n, lê mê, kh«ng qu¶ quýÕt ®Çm lÇy ng¹c nhiªn, vËt k× diÖu gÇy cßm, gÇy gß, kh¼ng khiu sù bÊt h¹nh, viÖc rñi ro, tai n¹n chÈy mñ, Èm ít, sù thóc ®Èy, ®éng c¬ thóc ®Èy bæ dìng, chÊt dinh dìng næi bËt, næi tiÕng, ®¸ng chó ý sù gi¸m s¸t, quªn , sãt ¹ kú, kh¸c thêng, lËp dÞ, bÖnh b¹i liÖt khiÓn tr¸ch, quë tr¸ch c¸i cßn l¹i, tµn d, dÊu vÕt cßn l¹i co gi·n , ®µn håi, s«i næi, mau phôc håi ng¨n c¶n, kiÒm chÕ, nÐn, d»n l¹i Ýt ái, thiÕu , kh«ng ®ñ, nhá ,chËt hÑp träng thÓ, long träng, trang nghiªm thóc, khuyÕn khÝch, khÝch lÖ cøng c¸p, v÷ng ch¾c, cêng tr¸ng, sung søc chèng ®ì, duy tr×, kÐo dµi bãp cß, g©y ra , lµm næ ra b×nh, chËu, v¹i, lä, thïng s«i næi, m·nh liÖt, ho¹t b¸t, ®Çy sinh lùc



1. Though it can sense the slightest touch anywhere on the body, the brain itself is insensitive to pain. A. intellectualize B. reveal C. sensualize D. feel 2.Congress has earmarked funds for research into alternative sources of energy. A. set aside B. increased C. turned down D. discussed 3.Some hotels in the United States have imposed a ban on cigarette smoking. A. restriction B. guarantee C. fine D. prohibition 4. The production of hot glass necessitates a fusion of art and technology. A. an explosion B. a nuclear C. a blending D. a combating 5. In her book of 1857, A selection of Synonyms, Elezabeth Jane evidences a closer affinity to the modern approach to synonyms than had hitherto been the case. A. usually B. traditionally C. characteristically D. formerly 6. It is no simple matter for champanzees accustomed to living with human beings to return to the wild. A. foolish B. easy C. common D. unique 7. Prospects for an upturn in the economy remain bleak. A. dismal A. indifferent B. encouraging C. unknown 8. The supreme court only takes on cases it believes warrant its attention. A. demand B. respect C. merit D. guarantee 9. The saber-tooth tiger had very long, slender upper canines. A. sharp 63

B. curved C. thin D. ferocious 10. The 1908 Siberian meteorite explosion brought about considerable depletion of the northern hemisphere’s ozone layer. A. was caused by B. resulted in C. brought back D. was initiated by 11. Killing frosts occur when moisture within plant cells freezes. A. inside B. surrounding C. combined with D. involved with 12.Aristotle believed that a thrown ball traveled in a straight line until the force impelling it was exhausted. A. used up B. debilitated C. diverted D. tired out 13.Studies of climatology indicate that volcanic dust in the atmosphere may contribute to the onset of ice ages. A. explain B. insinuate C. suggest D. prove 14.Taillevent’s fame as a chef has endured since the 14th century. A. cook B. soldier C. diplomat D. leader 15. From the first, president Reagan’s avowed intention was to change the course of the American economy. A. nature B. productivity C. uncertainty D. direction 16. The word “ antonym” was coined in 1857. A. invented B. current C. codified D. valued 17.Alexander Hamilton remained adamantly opposed to the policies of John Adams throughout the latter’s presidency. A. admirably B. strongly C. inflexibly D. manfully 64

20. The use of Navajo code talkers resolved a situation of the utmost gravity in world war II. A. delicacy B. seriously C. levity D. deadliness 21. Rote learning is now considered to be of dubious worth. A. dual B. questionable C. spurious D. salient 22. Even more powerful computers are needed to process all the pertinent information required for accurate weather forecasting. A. sophisticated B. complex C. different D. relevant 23. Eye glasses have been in use since about 1300. A. spectacles B. goblets C. binoculars D. telescopes 24. Hair is found exclusively in mammals. A. particularly B. commonly C. exceptionally D. only 25. While endeavoring to find a new route to India, Columbus discovered America by accident. A. sailing B. falling C. trying D. hoping 26. Many countries nowadays restrict the exportation of genuine archeological artifacts. A. particular B. rare C. authentic D. costly 27. The design of wildlife refuges is still a matter of considerable controversy. A. significance B. debate C. urgency D. concern 28. Patrick Henry delivered his speech asking for liberty or death at a church in Richmond, Virginia. A. made B. went over 65

C. announced D. handed over 29. Cashiers must generally account for discrepancies between money taken in and the amount recorded on register tapes. A. deficits B. delays C. inconsistencies D. uncertainties 30. With the coming of the Christmas shopping season, downtown traffic is often diverted. A. entertained B. rerouted C. delayed D. deterred 31. The inland Caspian Sea is saline. A. salubrious B. extensive C. navigable D. salty 32. Aside from its reproduction on the one dollar bill, the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States has hardly been used. A. except for B. since C. as a result of D. in addition to 33. Carpets from countries such as Persia and Afghanistan often fetch high prices in the United States. A. Artifacts B. Rugs C. Pottery D. Textiles 34. After the tremendous improvements of recent years, the hugeness of the first computers is almost shocking to use today. A. slowness B. primitive appearance C. ugliness D. vast size 35. After attempting to join a religious order in 1862, Auguste Rodin finally yielded to his inclination to pursue an artistic career. A. resisted B. understood C. gave in to D. returned to 36. The diver’s task was complicated by the fact that, besides the gold, the wreck contained bombs and ammunition. A. next to B. away from C. allied to D. in addition to 66

37. The 1961 missile crisis brought the world to the verge of all-out war. A. horror B. brink C. prospect D. danger 38. Theodore Roosevelt as blessed with a hearty constitution. A. robust B. legal C. weak D. cardiac 39. Given current economic trends, liberal increases in the money supply appear unlikely in the extreme. A. following B. presenting C. in view of D. in lieu of 40. Engineers are still trying to come up with a commercially viable replacement for internal combustion engines. A. desirable B. driveable C. accessible D. feasible 41. It takes roughly 4.000 pounds of petals to make a single pound of rose oil. A. as much as B. amazingly C. more or less D. relatively 42. Further arms limitations talks were called off when congress failed to ratify the treaty. A. cancelled B. postponed C. scheduled D. interrupted WORDLIST TEST 7 1. adamantly /’ dmntli/ 2. ammunition / mju’nin/ 3. artefacts 4. authentic /o’entik/ 5. bleak 6. blend 7. brink 8. canine/’keinain/ 9. cardiac / ‘ka:di k/ 10. codify

: : : : : : : : : :

(adv) cøng r¾n ®¹n dîc, qu©n trang qu©n dông dông cô do ngêi lµm ra (adj) x¸c thùc, ®¸ng tin, ®Ých thùc trèng tr¶i, l¹nh lÏo, hoang v¾ng, ¶m ®¹m trén lÉn, pha trén, hîp nhau bê miÖng, d×a r¨ng nanh thuèc kÝch thÝch tim lËp ®iÒu lÖ, hÖ thèng ho¸, so¹n luËt lÖ 67

11. coin 12. constitution 13. controversy/ ‘kontrvsi/ 14. debate / di’beit/ 15. debilitate / di’biliteit/ 16. depletion 17. deter 18. discrepancy/ dis’krepnsi/ 19. dismal/ ‘dizml/ 20. divert / dai’v:t/ 21. dubious/ ‘djubis/ 22. earmark 23. endeavor / in’dev/ 24. endure 25. evidence/ ‘evidns/

: ®óc tiÒn, t¹o ra : hiÕn ph¸p, sù thiÕt lËp, t¹o thµnh : (n) sù tranh luËn, tranh c·i, bµn c·i : cuéc tranh luËn, th¶o luËn, tranh c·i : (v) lµm yÕu søc : sù th¸o ra, sù rót hÕt ra, sù x¶ hÕt ra, sù lµm kiÖt søc : ng¨n c¶n, c¶n trë, lµm n¶n lßng, nhôt chÝ : sù kh¸c nhau, kh«ng nhÊt qu¸n, tr¸i ngîc


buån th¶m, tèi t¨m, phiÒn muén (vt) lµm trÖch híng, tiªu khiÓn, gi¶i trÝ lê mê, m¬ hå, ®¸ng ngê, kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n dÊu ®¸nh ë tai sù cè g¾ng, nç lùc chÞu ®ùng, cam chÞu, kÐo dµi, tån t¹i b»ng chøng, chøng cí, r¬ rµng, hiÓn nhiªn, chøng tá , chøng minh dµnh riªng, ®Æc biªt cho d÷ tîn, hñng ¸c, d· man, tµn b¹o sù lµm cho ch¶y ra, nÊu ch¶y ra, hîp nhÊt, liªn hiÖp thËt, chÝnh cèng, x¸c thùc (n) ly cã ch©n, cèc nhá cã ch©n vui vÎ, th©n mËt, nång nhiÖt, m¹nh khoÎ, tr¸ng kiÖn b¸n cÇu n·o

: : : : : :

(adv) cho ®Õn nay ®Èy , thóc Ðp, b¾t buéc b¾t chÞu, g¸nh v¸c, c¸ng ®¸ng, ®¸nh traã thay cho ®é nghiªng, dèc, sù cói sù m©u thuÉn, tr¸i ngîc

: : : : : : :

26. 27. 28.

exclusively ferocious / f’rous/ fusion

: : :

29. 30. 31.

genuine/ ‘dzenjuin/ goblets/ ‘goblit/ hearty /’ha:ti/

: : :

32. hemisphere / ‘hemisfi/ 33. hitherto / hi ’tu:/ 34. impel 35. impose 36. in lieu /lju/ 37. inclination 38. inconsistency /inkn’sistnsi/ 39. initiate/ i’niiit/ 40. insinuate / in’sinjueit/ 41. intellectualize/ inti’lektjulaiz/ 42. manfully 43. merit 44. necessitate/ ni’sesiteit/ 45. ratify /’r tifai/ 46. refuge /’refju:dz/

: ®îc kÕt n¹p, khai t©m, b¾t ®Çu, khëi xíng : (vt) nãi bãng giã, ¸m chØ, luån lät : trÝ thøc ho¸ : dòng m·nh, t¸o b¹o, can trêng, kiªn quyÕt : c«ng lao, sù kiÖn, hµnh ®éng xøng ®¸ng ®ù¬c khen thëng : b¾t ph¶i, ®ßi hái ph¶i, cÇn ph¶i cã : th«ng qua, phª chuÈn : Èn n¸u, tró Èn, n¬i n¬ng n¸u 68

47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56.

robust /’ roubst/ rug sabre-tooth salient / ‘selint/ salubrious/ s’lubris/ sensualize/’senulaiz/ slender spurious / ‘spjuris/ verge /v:dz/ yield

: : : : : : : : : :

tr¸ng kiÖn , cêng tr¸ng th¶m dµy chïi ch©n. mÒn ch¨n r¨ng cöa hay nh¶y, næi bËt, ®¸ng chó ý, låi ra (adj) lµnh, tèt, ®em l¹i søc kháe biÕn thµnh thó nhôc dôc m¶nh mai, thon th¶ (adj) sai, kh«ng x¸c thùc, gi¶ m¹o bê ,ven lîi nhuËn, lîi tøc, s¶n xuÊt , lµm ra

TEST 8. 1. Professional gamblers will rarely back a long shot. A. an unlikely winner B. an inconsistent player C. a distant target D. an away game 2. Enraged by being taxed without being given representation, New Englanders tipped tea into Boston harbor. A. disappointed B. infuriated C. alienated D. endangered 3. Probably due to her failure to recognize the male of the species, the female praying mantis often devours him. A. reflecting B. aside from C. causing D. because of 4. In a period of economic stagnation, finding a job is particularly difficult for those in certain groups. A. individually B. fundamentally C. especially D. privately 5. The degree to which heat affects tennis players’ performance depends in part on the level of humidity. A. extent B. temperature C. height D. strength 6. Some critics claim that links between academics and biotechnology companies are a menace to unfettered research. A. an incentive B. a nuisance C. a threat D. an invitation 69

7. The practical applications of the gyroscope received added impetus during the two world wars. A. considerable B. extra C. summary D. infinite 8. Even a century after the end of the Civil War, old grievances still rankled A. prevailed B. threatened C. appeared D. irritated 9. John F. Kennedy was born into a well-to-do Massachusetts family in 1917. A. privileged B. prosperous C. famous D. respected 10. In 1981, the world recession and conservation measures combined to curb demand for oil. A. restrict B. involve C. spread D. affect 11. Diving is the leading cause of spinal- cord injuries. A. primary B. ultimate C. conductive D. utmost 12. The choice of a particular career is influenced by a number of factors. A. usefulness B. success C. desirability D. selection 13. Washington’s army, consisting mainly of farmers and backwoodsmen, lacked military supplies. A. exclusively B. fortunately C. principally D. initially 14. United States presidents often greet foreign dignitaries on the White House lawn. A. welcome B. congratulate C. address D. accredit 15. Many properties of the atmosphere affects the amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth. 70

A. belongings B. impurities C. levels D. characteristics 16. New chemical dyes for coating glasses have been developed which screen out harmful light rays. A. invisible B. damaging C. dreadful D. excessive 17. In ancient Egyptian paintings, royal figures were differentiated by making them several time larger than others. A. distinguished B. estranged C. enlarged D. deferred 18. The company possesses unique research capabilities. A. single B. only C. unequalled D. different 19. Chimpanzees are frequently used as stand-ins for human beings in experiments. A. partners B. role-models C. stand-bys D. substitutes 20. Viewers often find the paintings of the photo-Bealist school some what disconcerting. A. rather B. thoroughly C. very D. instrinsically 21. Differences in positions adopted by oxygen and hydrogen atoms account for variations in the crystalline structure of different forms of ice. A. are caused by B. explain C. derive from D. constitute 22. No other newspaper columnist has managed as yet to rival Ann Landers’ popularity in terms of readership. A. though B. in spite of C. even D. so far 23. Any politicians find that they can no longer afford the luxury of a personal chauffeur. A. valet 71

B. driver C. secretary D. servant 24. The United States Food and Drug Administration has shown itself to be particularly wary with regard to alleged “ miracle” drugs in recent times. A. bellicose B. exhausted C. cautious D. severe 25. The plainer a bower bird’s plumage, the more brightly it decorates its nest to attract a mate. A. more spectacular B. duller C. flatter D. more melancholy 26. Attitudes on the two sides in the Revolutionary War precluded the possibility of a peaceful solution. A. presaged B. prejudiced C. anticipated D. prevented 27. Cow-rie shells were once in widespread use as a token of value. A. a symbol B. an amount C. a thing D. an investment 28. Because leeches behavior patterns are simple, it is relatively easy to identify which neurons govern which behavior. A. apparently B. comparatively C. obviously D. consequently 29. Adverse reviews in the New York press may greatly change the prospects of a news Broadway production. A. additional B. encouraging C. unfavorable D. subversive 30. Translating literally from one language to another works unsatisfactorily at best. A. pays B. functions C. reads D. labors 31. The army permitted Teddy Roosevelt’s “ Rough Riders” to carry six shooters instead of regular army weapons. A. allowed B. forced 72

C. instructed D. convinced 32. The quest for supercomputers is intensifying. A. investment B. challenge C. search D. demand 33. Some brush fires are set on purpose. A. deliberately B. at will C. spontaneously D. on impulse 34. A number of animals in Aesop’s fables are portraved as being crafty. A. Vain B. Virtuous C. Artistic D. Cunning 35. The founder of the American Red Cross was Clara Barton. A. leader B. backer C. discoverer D. originator 36. General acceptance of 3-D films may prove hard to come by, as the experience of three decades ago indicated. A. obtain B. explain C. understand D. discern 37. Perhaps more than anything else, it was onerous taxes that led to the Peasants’ revolt in England in 1381. A. multiple B. unjust C. burdensome D. infamous 38. Psychologists have recently mounted an offensive against what they describe as nastiness toward students by educators. A. arbitrariness B. unpleasantness C. severity D. aloofness 39. Recent research into aging suggests that the body’s defense mechanisms may lose the ability to distinguish what is alien. A. insane B. infectious C. foreign D. poisonous 40. Jane Austen’s Persuasion was not published until 1818, after the author’s death. 73

A. edited B. issued C. publicized D. promoted WORDLIST TEST 8 Accredit / ’kredit/ 2. Adverse / dv:s/ 3. Alienate / ‘eilineit/ 4. Allege 5. Anticipate / n’tisipeit/ 6. Arbitrariness 7. Bellicose /’ belikous/ 8. Belongings 9. Biotechnology / baitek’noldzi/ 10. Chimpanzee /timpn’zi:/ 11. Conducive 12. Crystalline / ‘kristlaiz/ 13. Curb / k:b/

: : : : : : : : :

(Vt) lµm cho ®îc tÝn nhiÖm, g©y uy tÝn bÊt lîi , ®èi ®Þch, chèng ®èi lµm cho giËn ghÐt, xa l¸nh, chuyÓn nhîng, cho lµ, kh¼ng ®Þnh thÊy tríc, biÕt tríc, liÖu tríc tÝnh chuyªn quyÒn, ®éc ®o¸n hiÕu chiÕn, thÝch ®¸nh nhau, hay g©y gæ ®å dïng c¸ nh©n, bµ con hä hµng c«ng nghÖ sinh häc

: : : :

14. Defer 15. Derive/ di’raiv/ 16. Desirability 17. Differentiate / dif’reniet/ 18. Disconcert /diskn’s:t/

: : : : :

19. Duller 20. Enrage / in’reidz/ 21. Estrange/ is’treindz/ 22. Excessive 23. Extent 24. Gyroscope / ‘dzairskoup/ 25. Impulse 26. Impurity/ im’pjuriti/

: : : : : : : :

27. Incentive / in’sentiv/ 28. Infuriate / in’fjurieit/ 29. Irritate/ ‘iriteit/ 30. Mantis / ‘m ntis/ 31. Melancholy /’melkli/ 32. Menace/ ‘mens/ 33. Nuisance / ‘nju:sns/ 34. Onerous / ‘onrs/ 35. Preclude/ pri’klu:d/ 36. Prejudice / ‘predzudis/

: : : : : : : : : :

(n) con tinh tinh cã Ých, cã lîi kÕt tinh, b»ng pha lª sù kiÒm chÕ, nÐn l¹i,bê, thµnh giÕng, lÒ ®êng ho·n, tr× ho·n, ®Ó chËm l¹i xuÊt ph¸t, chuyÓn ho¸ tõ sù thÌm muèn, kh¸t khao ph©n biÖt, khu biÖt lµm ®¶o lén, lµm rèi, lµm mÊt b×nh tÜnh, lµm cuèng chËm hiÓu, tèi d¹, ®Çn, nghÔnh ng·ng lµm giËn ®iªn lªn, lµm ®iªn tiÕt vt lµm cho xa l¹, ghÎ l¹nh, ly gi¸n qu¸ møc, thõa, qu¸ thÓ , qu¸ ®¸ng qui m«, ph¹m vi con quay håi chuyÓn c¬n bèc ®ång, sù th«i thóc sù kh«ng trong s¹ch, kh«ng tinh khiÕt, d¬ bÈn, chÊt bÈn sù khÝch lÖ, thóc ®Èy lµm tøc ®iªn lªn (vt) lµm ph¸t c¸u, chäc tøc, lµm tÊy lªn con bä ngùa u sÇu, u uÊt, sÇu muén ®e do¹ , uy hiÕp, mèi ®e do¹ mèi g©y khã chÞu, phiÒn to¸i nÆng nÒ khã nhäc, phiÒn hµ lo¹i trõ, ng¨n ngõa, ®Èy xa ®Þnh kiÕn, thµnh kiÕn, thiªn kiÕn



37. Presage /’presidz/ 38. Privilege/ ‘privlidz/ 39. Rankle / ‘r kl/ 40. Spinal-cord 41. Spontaneously/ spon’teinsli/ 42. Stand-ins 43. Substitute / ‘sbstitjut/ Subversive / sb’vsiv/ 45. Target / ‘ta:git/ 46. Ultimate /’ltimit/ 47. Utmost 48. Valet 49. Virtuous/ ‘v:tus/ 50. Wary 44.

: : : : :

®iÒm, linh tÝnh (v) tiªn ®o¸n, b¸o tríc ®Æc quyÒn, ®Æc lîi, ®Æc ©n giµy vß, lµm ®au ®ín, khæ së, viªm sng tÊy x¬ng sèng tù ®éng, tù ph¸t, kh«ng gß bã

: ngêi ®ãng vai phô, ®ãng thÕ : ngêi thay thÕ, vËt thay thÕ, thay thÕ, lµm thay : cã tÝnh chÊt lËt ®æ, ph¸ vì : bia môc tiªu, ®Ých : cuèi cïng, sau cïng, tét bùc, tèi théng : tËn cïng, cùc kú : ®Çy tí, ngêi hÇu : cã ®¹o ®øc, ®oan chÝnh : thËn träng, c¶nh gi¸c, ®Ò phßng

TEST 9. 1. President Eilenhower’s confidence was infectisous. A. dangerous B. contagious C. subject to quarantine D. prone to relapse 2. Impending changes in tax legislation should provide a boost t industry. A. recommended B. important C. imminent D. favorable 3. Certain diseases of the brain are suffered by human beings alone. A. On their own B. singly C. without help D. only 4. Alexander Hamilton is generally regarded as the founder of the modern Republican party. A. derided B. reviled C. concerned D. viewed 5. Really bright comets, which scare some people, occur only a few times each century. A. attract B. frighten C. affect D. excite 6. Scientists have found surprising evidence of a response in plants to physical abuse. 75

A. reaction B. warning C. disposition D. trigger mechanism 7. The current trend towards a lowering of interest rates is predicated on an upcoming loosening of the money supply. A. electric B. alternative C. actual D. present 8. Older brothers and sisters sometimes unwittingly reduce the confidence of younger siblings. A. unfairly B. seemingly C. unintentionally D. unpleasantly 9. Spain gave up its control of Guam in 1897. A. relinquished B. upgraded C. strengthened D. transferred 10. An odometer is a device for measuring distance traveled. A. a hypothesis B. an instrument C. a figure D. an engine 11. Excavation for the first time atomic power plant at Shipping port, Pennsylvania, started officially in 1954. A. planning B. preparations C. exploration D. digging 12. A number of third world nations have accumulated staggering foreign debts since the oil crisis of 1973- 1974. A. overwhelming B. intolerable C. wobbling D. surmountable 13. In common with his predecessors, the Japanese emperor bears a name never given to any other child. A. In association with B. In imitation of C. Like D. Ignoring 14. Although starfish are of great interest to scientists because of their extraordinary capacity for regenerating limbs, they are less so to skin divers, as they exude a paralyzing poison. A. inflict B. bring up 76

C. inject D. give off 15. Data books make a popular Christmas gift. A. appointment books B. books of facts C. cookbooks D. calendars 16. Evidence exists that hearing problems may be alleviated by changes in diet and exercise habits. A. initiated B. lessened C. cured D. complicated 17. Martin Couney was zealous in his efforts to ensure the survival of premature babies. A. creative B. unusual C. fervent D. pioneering 18. Entertaining on a lavish scale sometimes pays off for businesses. A. slavishly B. extravagantly C. exotically D. snobbishly 19. In the history of the New York Stock Exchange, 1929 must be rated as the most shattering year. A. condemned B. quoted C. ranked D. impugned 20. Mimicry of other, unpalatable species enables many butterflies to protect themselves from potential predators. A. imitation B. camouflage C. techniques D. prusuite 21. Over the past ten years, more and more American men have begun to use make up products. A. artificial B. diet C. cosmetic D. health 22. Mother Teresa’s unceasing efforts on behalf of Calcutta’s poor eventually brought her the Nobel Prize. A. in the area of B. directed at C. at he behest of D. for the benefit of 77

23. Scientists are expected to carry out thoroughgoing studies to back up claims made concerning new drugs. A. support B. elevate C. investigate D. challenge 24. Views regarding private education appear to be changing. A. intentions B. foresights C. opinions D. projects 25. Nathan Hale doggedly refused to accept English rule of the colonies. A. resolutely B. animatedly C. petulantly D. faithfully 26. Many immigrants, when they first arrived in the United States, were forced to engage in menial jobs. A. significantly B. lowly C. rough D. remedial 27. German meteorologists have correlated each of six weather phases with the onset of certain medical conditions, ranging from epilepsy to stomach pain. A. worsening B. pain C. diagnosis D. start 28. Only one of the world’s ten highest peaks lies outside of the Himalayas . A. rises up B. is located C. originates D. is discernible 29. When new math was introduced into schools, many parents were perplexed by the approach it involved. A. puzzled B. shocked C. frightened D. annoyed 30. Throughout her career, Mary Baker shrewdly maintained tight control over the affairs of the Church of Christ- Scientist. A. stubbornly B. tactfully C. astutely D. ruefully 31. Certain nerve gases are extremely toxic. 78

A. dangerous B. volatile C. poisonous D. ephemeral 32. Cattle raising began in Texas well before the Civil War. A. just B. properly C. shortly D. long 33. The introduction of Ford’s ideas revolutionized the auto-making industry. A. implementation B. publication C. production D. presentation 34. From the outset it was clear that the Mediterranean fruit fly constituted a threat to agricultural production. A. information B. beginning C. explanation D. consequences 35. All efforts to persuade at least one of the residents of the Mount St. Helen area to leave were to no avail. A. indecisive B. imprudent C. mistaken D. unsuccessfully 36. George Ravencroft’s invention of lead crystal in the late seventeenth century was crucial to the development of optical lenses. A. essential to B. prior to C. dependent on D. instructive for 37. It was a widespread belief in the nineteenth century that railroads were the ultimate mode of transport. A. contagious B. expansive C. common D. broad 38. Tests by psychologists have shown that people conceive of intelligence as having three facets. A. bases B. aspects C. definitions D. levels 39. Government health campaigns have fostered an awareness of the dangers in certain social habits. A. engendered B. perfected 79

C. discovered D. encouraged 40. Painters such as Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer adapted themselves to the photographic image, but tried to transcend it. A. go beyond B. reach in to C. transmit D. modify WORDLIST TEST 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Alleviate Animatedly Astutely Avail Behest Boost

: : : : : : : 7. Camouflage : : 8. Conceive : 9. Condemn : 10. Correlate : 11. Diagnosis : 12. Discernibl : e 13. Dispositio : n 14. Doggedly : 15. Elevate : 16. Ephemer : al 17. Ephemer : als 18. Epilepsy : 19. Excavatio : n 20. Exotically : 21. Expansiv : e 22. Extravag : antly 23. Exude : 24. Faithfully : 25. Fervent : 26. Foresight : s 27. Foster : 28. Hypothes :

(v) lµm nhÑ bít, gi¶m bít, lµm khu©y, dÞu (adv) ®Çy søc sèng, sinh khÝ, n¸o nhiÖt, (adv) tinh ranh, l¸u lØnh (v) gióp Ých , cã lîi cho (N) chØ thÞ mÖnh lÖnh (n) sù qu¶ng c¸o rïm beng, sù t¨ng gi¸, næi tiÕng (v) n©ng lªn, rïm beng (n) sù nguþ trang (v) nguþ trang (v) diÔn ®¹t, bµy tá, thai nghÐn trong ãc, (v) kÕt ¸n, xö ph¹t, chØ trÝch, lªn ¸n, Ðp buéc (v) cã t¬ng quan, t¬ng liªn (n) chÈn ®o¸n (adj) cã thÓ nhËn thøc râ, thÊy râ (n) sù s¾p xÕp, bè trÝ (adv) gan l×, bÒn chÝ, v« cïng (v) N©ng lªn, ®a lªn, ngÈng lªn (adj) phï du, sím chÕt, chãng tµn (adj) phï du, sím chÕt, chãng tµn (n) chøng ®éng kinh (n) sù ®µo, khai quËt (adv) k× l¹, ngo¹i lai (adj) cã thÓ më réng, bµnh tríng,ph¸t triÓn (adv) ng«ng cuång, qu¸i gë (v) rØ , øa (adv) trung thµnh, trung thuû (adj) nång nhiÖt, tha thiÕt, s«i sôc (n) sù thÊy tríc, sù nh×n thÊy tríc (v) nu«i dìng, Êp ñ, båi dìng (n) gi¶ thuyÕt 80

is 29. 30. 31. t 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. ming 39. 40. sor 41. 42. e 43. te 44.

Imminent Impend Impruden

: (adj) s¾p x¶y ra, : (v) s¾p x¶y ®Õn, treo l¬ löng, ®ang ®e do¹ : (adj) kh«ng thËn träng, khing xuÊt

Impugn : (v) c«ng kÝch, bµi b¸c, nghi vÊn Infectious : (adj) l©y nhiÔm Lavish : (adj) phung phÝ, hoang toµng (v) tiªu xµi hoang phÝ, l·ng phÝ Menial : (adj) dµnh cho ngêi hÇu lµm Onset : (n) sù tÊn c«ng, c«ng kÝch Outset : (n) sù b¾t ®Çu, miÖng giÕng Overwhel : (adj) trµn ngËp, lµm tr«n vïi, qu¸ manh, ¸t h¼n Petulantly : (adv) nãng n¶y, hay hên dçi Predeces : (n) ngêi tiÒn nhiÖm, ngêi phô tr¸ch tríc Prone : (adj) óp , sÊp, n»m sãng soµi Quarantin : (n) thêi gian c¸ch li, sù kiÓm dÞch Regenera

: (v) t¸i sinh, phôc håi, c¶i t¹o


45. h 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. g 51.


: (n) sù t¸i ph¸t bÖnh : (v) trë l¹i, r¬i vµo : (v) bá kh«ng lµm, tõ bá, bu«ng th¶

Remedial Response Revile Ruefully Shatterin

: : : : :


52. 53. 54. y 55. 56. y 57. able 58. 59. going 60. ess 61.

Sibling Slavishly Snobbishl

: (adv) kh«n ngoan, th«ng minh, linh lîi, ®au ®ín , nhøc nhèi : (n) anh chÞ em ruét : (adv) n« lÖ, hÌn h¹, mï qu¸ng : (adv) hîm m×nh, ®ua ®ßi, trëng gi¶ häc lµm sang : (n) s l¶o ®¶o, bíc ®i lo¹ng cho¹ng : (adv) bãng bØnh, ¬ng ng¹nh, kh«ng khoan nhîng

Stagger Stubbornl

(adj) ch÷a bÖnh , ®iÒu trÞ, söa ch÷a (n) tr¶ lêi, ®¸p l¹i, hëng øng, ®èi phã l¹i (v) chi rña, m¾ng nhiÕc, sØ v¶ (adv) buån b·, rÇu rÜ, th¶m n·o (adj) rÊt g©y rèi, lµm cho¸ng

Surmount : (adj) cã thÓ kh¾c phôc ®îc , vît qua ®îc Tactfully Thorough

: (adv) khÐo xö , lÞch thiÖp : (adj) tØ mØ, cÈn thËn, hoµn toµn


: nhÑ d¹, dÔ bay h¬i


: (adj) ®éc 81

62. d 63. 64. ly 65. (adj) 66.


: (v) vît qu¸, h¬n

Ultimate Unwitting

: (adj) cuèi cïng, chãt, c¬ b¶n , nÒn t¶ng : (adv) kh«ng chñ t©m, kh«ng cè ý


: kh«ng kiªn ®Þnh, hay thay ®æi, nh


: (n) sù l¾c l, sù lung lay

TEST 10 1. The monetarist case has been vividly expressed by Milton Friedman . A. Issue B. argument C. example D. strongbox 2. Registering a patent entails a number of expenses. A. includes B. saves C. involves D. precludes 3. There is no known cure for dyslexia, but neurologists are developing ways to help sufferers cope with it. A. retard B. dispense with C. deal with D. eradicate 4. Detroit, founded a hundred years before Chicago, enjoys a favorable geographical location. A. a preferential B. a pleasing C. an exceptional D. an advantageous 5. Maps of the brain at work are becoming increasingly accurate. A. complex B. precise C. disparate D. confusing 6. In his book, William James did not hesitate to devote several pages to arguments he felt deserved careful scrutiny. A. examination B. exposition C. detailing D. recounting 7. The safety features make it almost impossible to open the door inadvertently. A. dangerously B. hastily C. accidentally 82

D. incautiously 8. Electronics firms continue to seek ways of cramming more bits of information onto tiny silicon chips. A. find B. look for C. stake out D. reveal 9. Before he became president, Truman was given to hint regarding the atomic bomb project. A. detail B. authority C. explanation D. indication 10. The series of breathing and clicking sounds that constitute the Kung language have so far defied transcription. A. resisted B. avoided C. challenged D. scorned 11. The first ice-boxes were quite fancy pieces of dining room furniture. A. whimsical B. delightful C. elaborate D. delicate 12. The bulk of the Wheat exported from the United States comes from the mid-west. A. majority B. surplus C. best D. profitability 13. Benjamin Lee has pointed out that the Hopi language practically forces its users to observe vibratory phenomena. A. virtually B. usefully C. relatively D. repeatedly 14. Coffee consumption by American coffee drinkers diminished to 2.o6 cups per day by 1979. A. amounted B. improved C. dropped D. fluctuated 15. Many animals have evolved complicated ways of transferring environmentally learned information to each members of their species. A. combined B. complementary C. complicit 16. Though often quoted, the “ Hawthorne Effect” is viewed as defective by most psychologists. 83

A. valued B. cited C. touted D. defended 17. In the late seventies, the price of gold rose sharply on account of a worldwide sense of insecurity. A. on behalf of B. in payment of C. together with D. because of 18. The word “ you”, originally a plural only, was first used in addressing one person as a term of respect. A. a means B. a show C. an expression D. an example 19. The demise of the dinosaurs still mystifies scientists. A. bone structure B. extinction C. behavior D. origins 20. In the eighteenth century, William Harvey was reviled by many of his colleagues for claiming that blood circulated through the body. A. attacked B. vindicated C. revered D. exposed 21. The energy crisis encouraged Americans to make more sparing use of scarce resources. A. efficient B. frugal C. imaginative D. discreet 22. The easternmost point in the United States is West Quoddy Head, Maine. A. indication B. direction C. location D. station 23. Crystallization is the most frequently employed technique for the purification of solid substances. A. used B. enjoined C. belabored D. added 24. New Year’s Eve celebrations tend to be livelier than those marking Christmas Eve. A. more animated B. healthier 84

C. longer D. more spiritual 25. Notwithstanding the fact that it is only one of Saturn’s many moons, Titan is larger than the planet Mercury. A. considering B. with regard to C. in spite of D. ignoring 26. The secretary of State’s illness meant that his visit had to be curtailed. A. postponed B. shortened C. cancelled D. rearranged 27. The phonograph brightened the lives of many people in the 1920’s. A. record player B. electric light C. radio D. cinema 28. Cereal prototypes among wild grasses have not been identified. A. uncultivated B. savage C. hybrid D. intemperate 29.The old tea clippers were largely replaced by steamships during the nineteenth century. A. gradually B. imperceptibly C. finally D. mostly 30.The Arabic term from which the word “ coffee” derives originally referred to the bitter quality of the beverage itself. A. plant B. substance C. drink D. infusion 31.Peat represents the first stage in the development of coal from vegetable matter. A. era B. phase C. product D. process 32. Cinnabar is the sole ore of mercury. A. soldered B. basic C. essential D. only 33.The United States armed forces maintain cemeteries in a number of foreign countries. 85

A. graveyards B. foundations C. bases D. camps 34. Not until they were able to discern the Statue of Liberty did many European immigrants to the United States really believe, they would reach their destination. A. pass by B. make out C. embrace D. visit 35. Toward the end of his life, W.C. Handy became totally blind. A. by B. before C. near D. until 36. There were a number of limiting factors on the output of consumer durables in 1973-74. A. outflow B. production C. income D. reduction 37. The gila monster is a poisonous lizard with a stout body found in the southwestern deserts of the United States. A. lengthy B. powerful C. muscular D. thickset 38. New York is quite muggy in the summer. A. hot and humid B. dangerous C. colorful and boisterous D. abandoned 39. Derided by modern scientists, the view was once common among alchemists that an agent existed capable of turning base metals into gold. A. disproved B. scorned C. excluded D. disputed 40. The pioneer wagon trains were usually escorted by experienced frontiersmen. A. organized B. financed C. accompanied D. tracked WORDLIST TEST 10 1. boisterous : (adj) hung d÷, n¸o nhiÖt, huyªn n¸o 2. bulk : (n) hµng hãa, khæ lín, phÇn lín h¬n 86

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

cinabar cite cram curtail defy

8. demise 9. diminish 10. discreet 11. disparat e 12. dyslexia 13. elaborat e 14. embrac e 15. eradicat e 16. fluctuat e 17. frugal 18. graveya rd 19. hastily 20. hint 21. hybrid 22. inadvert ently 23. incautio usly 24. infusion 25. muggy 26. mystify 27. neurolo gist 28. outflow

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

(n) sù ®äc khã (adj) phøc t¹p, tØ mØ, c«ng phu (v) th¶o, so¹n kÜ lìng (n) c¸i «m, sù ¨n n»m víi nhau (v) «m , gh× chÆt (v) nhæ rÔ, trõ tiÖt

: :

(v) lªn xuèng, thay ®æi bÊt thêng, bËp bÒnh c¨n c¬, tiÕt kiÖm (n) b·i tha ma, nghÜa ®Þa

: : : :

(adv) véi vµng, hÊp tÊp (n) lêi gîi ý, bãng giã, dÊu vÕt (n, adj) c©y lai, ngêi lai, lai (adv) t×nh cê, kh«ng cè ý


(adv) thiÕu thËn träng, khinh xuÊt

: : : :

(n) sù pha, tiªm truyÒn (adj) nåm , Êm, oi , (v) lµm bèi rèi, hoang mang, (n) nhµ thÇn kinh häc


: : patent : phonogr :

29. 30. aph 31. preclud e 32. prototyp e 33. quote 34. recount 35. revile 36. scorn 37. scrutiny

(n) thÇn sa, mµu son (v) dÉn, trÝch dÉn (n) sù nhåi sä, ®¸m ®«ng, lêi nãi dãc (v) c¾t bít, rót ng¾n (v) th¸ch thøc, th¸ch ®è, bÊt chÊp, coi thêng (n) sù cho thuª, chuyÓn nhîng tµi s¶n (v) bít , gi¶m, thu nhá thËn träng, dÌ dÆt, kÝn ®¸o, kh«n ngoan (adj) kh¸c h¼n nhau, kh¸c lo¹i, t¹p nham

(n) sù ch¶y m¹nh (v) ch¶y m¹nh (adj) cã b»ng s¸ng chÕ, khÐo lÐo, tinh x¶o (n) m¸y h¸t


(v) lo¹i bá, ng¨n ngõa, ®Èy xa


(n) vËt mÉu, nguyªn mÉu

: : : : :

(n) lêi trÝch dÉn (v) thuËt kü l¹i, kÓ l¹i chi tiÕt (v) chöi rña, m¾ng nhiÕc, sØ v¶ (v) khinh miÖt, khinh bØ (n) sù ch¨m chó, nh×n kü, nghiªn cøu cÈn 87

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. y 44. e 45. 46. al

sole sparing stake thickset tout vibrator

: : : : : :

thËn (n) c¸ b¬n, lßng bµn ch©n (adj) thanh ®¹m, t»n tiÖn, dÌ sÎn (n) cäc, ®e nhá, tiÒn ®¸nh cuéc (adj) rËm um tïm, thÊp vµ ch¾c nÞch (n) ngêi chµo hµng, phe vÐ (adj) rung, chÊn ®éng, g©y ra rung ®éng



(v) minh oan, thanh minh, chøng minh

Vividly whimsic

: :

(adv) chãi, sÆc sì, sèng ®éng (adj) bÊt thêng, hay thay ®æi, k× qu¸i , kú dÞ

TEST 11. 1. Larry was so absorbed in his novel that he forgot about his dinner cooking in the oven. A. engrossed B. obliged C. enlivened D. excelled 2. Having come from an affluent society, Dick found it defficult to adjust to a small country town. A. affable B. wealthy C. overpopulated D. large 3. The question was discarded because it was ambiguous. A. incorrect B. biased C. vague D. dull 4. Most students abhor lenthy exams at the end of the year. A. detest B. regret C. nullify D. negate 5. The news of the president’s death astonished the world. A. alerted B. admonished C. atoned D. negate 6. King Midas’s greed led him to spend a life of grief. A. cruelty B. wealth C. warning D. avarice 88

7. A multitude of people attended the fund-raising presentation in the mall. A. small number B. select group C. huge crowd D. large herd 8. The new building was to be octagonal in shape. A. five sided B. six sided C. seven sided D. eight sided 9. Mark can’t talk well because he has a speech impendiment. A. skeptic B. defect C. imposition D. aspect 10. Our final assignment for the English class is to give an impromptu speech. A. eloquent B. unprepared C. technical D. unbiased 11.The rigor exhibited by the general was totally unwarranted. A. calisthenics B. severity C. march D. cleaniness 12.The people interviewed for the survey were randomly selected. A. carefully B. carelessly C. indiscriminately D. thoughtfully 13.Lyndon John succeeded John Kennedy as president of the United States. A. overruled B. preceded C. followed D. assisted 14. The foreign countries’ attempt at a blockade of the port was unsuccessful. A. expedition B. opening C. landing D. closure 15. When he was director of the company, his first accomplishment was to bring about better working conditions. A. accumulation B. achievement C. defeat 89

D. job 16. During the American colonial period, the capable leaders instilled a spirit of nationalism in the colonists. A. insatiated B. extirpated C. implanted D. extracted 17. Because the details of the project were rather hazy, we decided to reject the proposal. A. dubious B. unobtainable C. lucrative D. vague 18. Many weak and incompetent rulers were overthrown by more poweful forces. A. incapable B. impulsive C. elever D. greedy CAPut!’. The pasengers on the boat were mesmerized by the motion of the sea. A. paralyzed B. hyponotized C. nauseated D. reverberated 20. Allowing fields to lie fallow is one means of restoring fertility. A. unplanted B. plowed C. watered D. seeded 21. The guests at the luau enjoyed it very much but refused to eat the raw fish. A. marinated B. fresh C. rotten D. uncooked 22. American legend says that Johnny Appleseed planted apple orchards throughout Ohio. A. almanac B. myth C. history D. record 23. After a long, hard struggle, we gradually succeeded in having people accept the truth of our theory. A. slowly B. momentarily C. suddenly D. graciously 24. Exchanges of languages and culture were a direct result of comerce. 90

A. embargo B. trade C. stagnation D. schooling 25. That artist did not achieve acclaim because he was an imitator, not a creator. A. a distorter B. a copier C. an originator D. a burglar 26. The powerful ruler suppressed a rebellion and punished the instigators. A. initiated B. supported C. quashed D. reinstated 27. During the war, many foreign lands were confiscated by the government. A. owned B. sequestrated C. bartered D. sold 28.That vast region was irrigated by the large river and its many tributaries. A. arid B. miniscule C. enormous D. damp 1. The television station was inundated with calls protesting the distasteful program. A. harassed B. modulated C. probated D. flooded 2. The dog saw his reflection in the pool of water. A. image B. bone C. imagination D. leash 3. The fourth year sociology class was a homogeneous group of university students. A. uniform B. dreary C. imrelated D. distinguishable 4. The tornado caused irreparable damage to the Florida citrus crop. A. irresolute B. irresponsible C. irrecoverable 91

D. irregular 5. The discontented students retaliated by boycotting the school cafeteria. A. rewarded B. vindicated C. took revenge D. fluctuated 6. The spy used a fictitious name while dealing with the enemy. A. funny B. false C. real D. foreign 7. John didn’t enjoy the rock concert because he thought the tempo was bad. A. audience B. rhythm C. singer D. weather 8. The flowers on the table were a manifestation of the child’s love for his mother. A. a demonstration B. an infestation C. a combination D. a satisfaction 9. Marvin’s doctor said that he was obese and had to take immediate measures to corredt the problem. A. anemic B. tired C. corpulent D. petulant 10. Frank condoned his brother’s actions because he knew he meant well. A. overlooked B. praised C. condemned D. satisfied 11. Johnl’s unabashed hehavior caused great concern among his teachers. A. Terrible B. unembarrassed C. cowardly D. unforgivables 12. Many new medicines today eradicate diseases before they become too widespread. A wipe out B. identify C. prolong D. suspend WORDLIST TEST 11. 1. Abhor 2. Absorb 3. Admonish

: : :

(v) ghª tëm , ghÐt cay ghÐt ®¾ng (v) hót Èm, hÊp thô,mª m¶i, ch·m chó,l«i cuèn (v) khiÓn tr¸ch, quë m¾ng, c¶nh c¸o, b¸o cho biÕt 92

4. Affable 5. Affluent 6. Alert 7. Almanac 8. Ambiguous 9. anemic 10. Astound 11. Atone 12. Avarice 13. Biased 14. Blockade 15. boycott 16. Calisthenics 17. citrus 18. condemn 19. corpulent 20. Discard 21. distorter 22. dreary 23. Dubious 24. Engross 25. Enliven 26. Extirpate 27. Fallow 28. fictitious 29. Graciously 30. Greed 31. harass 32. Hazy 33. Hypnotize 34. Impediment 35. Impulsive 36. Incompetent

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

Indiscriminate infestation Insatiated Instil irreparable irresolute leash Lucrative Marinate Mesmerize modulate

: : : : : : : : : : :

48. 49.

Myth Negate

: :

tríc (adj) lÞch sù, nh· nhÆn, niÒm në (adj) nhiÒu , dåi dµo, phong phó (adj) tØnh t¸o, c¶nh gi¸c,linh lîi, nhanh nhÑn niªn lÞch ,niªn gi¸m (adj) khã hiÓu, m¬ hå, nhËp nh»ng thiÕu m¸u (v) lµm kinh ng¹c, kinh hoµng, söng sèt (v) dµn xÕp, hoµ gi¶i (n) tÝnh h¸m lîi, tham lam (n) ®é xiªn, dèc, thµnh kiÕn (n) sù phong to¶ , sù bao v©y, sù ïn t¾c (v) tÈy chay m«n thÓ dôc mÒm dÎo gièng cam quýt (v) kÕt ¸n, xö ph¹t, tÞch thu (adj) to bÐo, bÐo tèt (v) chui , dËp bµi, lo¹i bá , th¶i håi (v) vÆn vÑo, bãp mÐo, xuyªn t¹c (adj) tåi tµn , ¶m ®¹m, buån th¶m (adj) lê mê, kh«ng râ rµng, kh«ng ®¸ng tin cËy (v) lµm mª m¶i, thu hót, chiÕm cho¸n hÕt (v) chÊn hng, hng thinh, lµm s«i næi (v) nhæ rÔ, ®µo tËn gèc, c¾t bá (n) ®Êt bá hoang,, kh«ng canh t¸c (adj) h cÊu, tëng tîng, gi¶ (adv) hßa nh· , ©n cÇn, ®é lîng, khoan dung (n) tÝnh tham lµm, thãi h¸u ¨n g©y u phiÒn, lo l¾ng, quÊy rÇy (n) mï s¬ng, mï mÞt, chÕnh cho¸ng, ngµ ngµ say (v) th«i miªn sù trë ng¹i, ®iÒu ng¨n trë (adj) hÊp tÊp, bèc ®ång (adj) thiÕu kh¶ n¨ng, thiÕu tr×nh ®é, kh«ng ®ñ thÈm quyÒn (adj) kh«ng ph©n biÖt bõa b·i (n) sù trµn vµo quÊy ph¸, ph¸ ho¹i (adj) kh«ng bao giê tho¶ m·n (v) truyÒn dÉn ( ý nghÜ, t×nh c¶m) cho, nhá ,rá (adj) kh«ng thÓ ®Òn bï l¹i ®îc, kh«ng thÓ söa l¹i (adj) do dù, ph©n v©n, lìng lù, thiÕu quyÕt t©m d©y, xÝch buéc chã s¨n (adj) cã lîi, sinh lêi (v) íp thÞt b»ng níc íp (v) th«i miªn (v) ®iÒu chØnh, söa l¹i cho ®óng, lµm cho phï hîp, ng©m nga (n) thÇn tho¹i, chuyÖn tëng tîng, hoang ®êng (v) phñ ®Þnh, phñ nhËn, 93

50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

Nullify Oblige petulant Plough, plow probate

: : : : :

55. Reverberate 56. Rigor 57. Stagnation , stagnancy 58. suppress 59. tempo 60. Vague 61. Vague 62. vindicate

: : :

(v) huû bá, lµm thµnh v« hiÖu (v) b¾t buéc, cìng b¸ch, gia ¬n (adj) nãng n¶y , hay hên dçi c¸i cÇy b¶n sao di chóc cã chøng thùc, thñ tôc chøng thùc mét di chóc déi l¹i, vang l¹i, ph¶n chiÕu (n) sù rÐt run, rïng m×nh sù ø ®äng, t×nh tr¹ng tï h·m

: : : : :

(v) tÞch th©u, ®×nh b¶n (n ) tèc ®é, nhÞp cña b¶n nh¹c (adj) m¬ hå, lê mê, mang m¸ng, kh«ng rµnh m¹ch (adj) m¬ hå, mËp mê, kh«ng râ rµng (v) minh oan, lµm s¸ng tá, thanh minh

TEST 12 1. The director’s spacious new office overlooked the city. A. Quiet B. Colorful C. Roomy D. Comfortable 2. The thieves were trying to perpetrate a robbery in the office building. A. view B. interfere with C. stop D. commit 3. Before the earthquake hit the area, many minor tremors were felt. A. spasms B. noises C. vibrations D. crumbtings 4. When the protestor entered the meeting clad only in a beach towel, the audience was dumbfounded. A. speechles B. excited C. content D. applaunding 5. Marcia’s career involved a dual role for her as a counselor and a teacher. A. tiring B. dedicated C. twofold D. satisfying 6. Andy’s jocular manner made him loved by all his companions. A. easygoing B. jesting C. intelligent 94

D. artistic 7. Sally was mortified by her date’s unprecedented behavior. A. eradicated B. humiliated C. overjoyed D. challenged 8. The student’s wan appearance caused the teacher to send him home. A. pale B. shabby C. bellicose D. hungry 9. Nothing could efface the people’s memory of their former leader’s cuelty although many years had elapsed. A. broaden B. erase C. edify D. substantiate 10. The doctor asked the patient to disrobe before the examination. A. take medicine B. breath deeply C. relax D. undress 11. The protesting crowd dispersed after the rally. A. scattered B. became violent C. fought D. danced 12. Because Dolly is such a good cook, she has concooted a great new recipe. A. created B. named C. epitomized D. baked 13. After the drops were placed in the patient’s eyes, his pupils became dilated. A. enlarged B. smaller C. irritated D. sensible 14. Her brusque manner surprised all of the guests. A. satirical B. humorous C. shameless D. abrupt 15. In that organization, they place emphasis on mutual aid and cooperation. A. reward B. work C. stress 95

D. pressure 16. She didn’t say much, but her tone of voice insinuated more. A. blamed B. suggested C. demanded D. intervened 17. Jame took many snapshots while on vacation in Europe. A. notes B. gifts C. photos D. clothes 18. The young couple chose a secluded place for their picnic. A. authentic B. sunny C. isolated D. grassy 19. The daring young woman rode through the Indian village trying to find his long-lost sister. A. bold B. cowardly C. persistend D. captured 20. Victors defined their terms to the conquered. A.dictated B. wrote C. insinuated D. forced 21. Plato’s teaching had a profound effect on Aristotle. A. depth B. affection C. afflicition D. influence 22. The superintendent was the principal speaker at the shool board meeting. A. only B. main C. outstanding D. strongest 23. The campers heard a strange rustling in the trees. A. stealing B. pillaging C. movement D. fight 24. He was an exemplary prisoner despite his past experience. A. model B. sample C. honest D. humble 96

25. The hotel manager became suspicious of those people who were loitering in the lobby. A. busting B. sleeping C. meddling D. loafing 26. We decided to pay for the furniture on the installment plan. A. cash and carry B. piece by piece C. monthly payment D. credit card 27. Boy’s clubs do not deprive poor children of the opportunity to participate in sports. A. deny B. retract C. improvise D. dilute 28. The supervisor dictated a memo to her secretary. A. letter B. note C. report D. research paper 29. Picasso was a well-known cubist painter. A. artistic B. colorful C. celebrated D. knowlegeable 30. The inquiry concerning the accident was handled by the chief of police. A. gossip B. inquisitivenes C. investigation D. recording 31. The department chairman refused to authorize the requisition. A. request B. transfer C. grant D. project 32. It is imperative that they arrive in time for the lecture. A. necessary B. suggested C. hoped D. intended 33. The counterfeit bills were a good fascimile of the real ones. A. factorial B. reproduction C. identification D. similarity 97

34. The Montford have decided to take a cruise, so they went to the travel agency for some brochured. A. questions B. inquisition C. pricelists D. pamphlets 35. Scott seized the opportunity to present his proposal to the director. A. realized B. grasped C. rendered D. delivered 36. The boundary between Canada and the United States has been unfortified for over one hundred years. A. border B. bridge C. water D. diplomatic relations 37. While they were away on vacation, they allowed their mail to accumulate at the post office. A. be delivered B. pile up C. get lost D. be returned 38. The professor tried to stimulate interest in archaelogy by taking his students an expedition. A. simulate B. fake C. encourage D. diminish 39. John’s unsportmanlike behavior caused him to be ostracized by the other members of the country club. A. shunned B. excelled C. readmitted D. wavered. WORDLIST TEST 12 1. Abrupt : (adj) bÊt ngê, ®ét ngét, th« lç, lÊc cÊc 2. Affliction : (n) nçi ®au buån, u phiÒn, tai häa 3. Authentic : (adj) ®Ých thùc , x¸c thùc, ®¸ng tin 4. Bellicose : (adj) hiÕu chiÕn, thÝch ®¸nh nhau, hay g©y gæ 5. Brusque : (adj) sèng sîng, lç m·ng, céc c»n 6. Clad mÆc : quÇn ¸o 7. Counterfeit : vËt gi¶ m¹o, gi¶ , gi¶ vê 8. Disperse : (v) gi¶i t¸n, ph©n t¸n, xua tan 9. Disrobe : (v) cëi quÇn ¸o dµi, lét trÇn , bãc trÇn 10. Dual : (adj) lìng, kÐp, ®«i 11. Dumbfou : (v) lµm chÕt lÆng ®i, lµm ®iÕng ngêi 98

nd 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. y 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. eness 23.

Edify Efface Elapse Epitomize Eradicate Exemplar

: : : : : :

(v) khai trÝ, soi s¸ng (v) xãa , xo¸ bá, lµm lu mê, ¸t tréi h¬n (v) tr«i qua (v) tãm t¾t , c« l¹i (v) nhæ rÔ , trõ tiÖt g¬ng mÉu , mÉu mùc

Facsimile Factorial Humble Humiliate Inquisitiv

: : : : :

(v) sao chÐp thõa sè (adj) khiªm tèn, nhón nhêng, khóm nóm (v) lµm nhôc , lµm bÏ mÆt (n) tÝnh tß mß, hay dß hái, täc m¹ch



(v) nãi bãng giã, ¸m chØ, nãi xa gÇn, khÐo luån lät (v) ®Æt m¸y mãc

24. t 25. 26. 27.

Instalmen : Jesting Jocular Loafing

: : :

28. 29. 30. e 31. 32. 33. 34. n 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. ate 44. ndent 45. 46.

Meddle Ostracize Perpetrat

: : :

(adj ) nãi ®ïa, giìn, pha trß (adj) vui vÎ , hµi híc ®i tha thÈn, lêi nh¸c, (n) sù rong ch¬i lêi nh¸c (v) xen vµo, dÝnh vµo, can thiÖp (v) ®Çy, ph¸t v·ng (v) ph¹m vµo, g©y ra, biÓu diÔn tåi

Persistent Pillaging Render Requisitio

: : : :

(adj) kiªn gan, bÒn bØ, dai d¼ng, liªn tôc sù cíp bãc, (v) cíp bãc , cíp ph¸ (v) tr¶ l¹i, hoµn l¹i, d©ng, nép (n) sù yªu cÇu, tiªu chuÈn ®ßi hái

Rustling Satirical Scatter Seclude Shabby Simulate Spacious Spasm Substanti

: : : : : : : : :

(n) sù xµo x¹c, sét so¹t (adj) ch©m biÕm , trµo phóng tung , r¶i , r¾c, lµm tan (v) t¸ch biÖt (adj) mßn, sên, xÊu, tåi tµn, tiÒu tuy (v) gi¶ vê, ®ãng vai, ®éi lèt, b¾t chíc (adj) réng r·i, tho¸ng (n) sù co th¾t, c¬n ®au, sù bïng ra (v) chøng minh



ngêi coi sãc, tr«ng nom, gi¸m s¸t

Suspend Tremor

: :




(v) treo lªn, ®×nh chØ, ho·n, ®uæi (n) c¬n rïng m×nh, sù rung ®éng, chÊn ®éng (adj) nhiÒu gÊp hai lÇn, gÊp ®«i

TEST 13. 99

1. After listening to the testimony, the members of the jury delivered their verdict. A. sentence B. decision C. cross-examination D. foreman 2. The children were frolicking in the park. A. running playfully B. gloating C. sulking D. endangering 3. Efficient air service has made available through modern technology. A. affluent B. modern C. inexpensive D. effective 4. Fear of pirate raids caused the Spanish t fortify their coastline. A. invasions B. ships C. arms D. investigation 5. Nearly half of the town’s inhabitants are descendants of indigenous civilizations. A. native B. backward C. hard-working D. poor 6. That area of the country is laced with large and often dangerous rivers. A. criss-crossed B. decorated C. ornate D. diluted 7. After a long lunch hour, business resumes as usual. A. responds B. delays C. continues D. resurfaces 8. Twenty-five percent of Ecuador’s population speaks Quechua exclusively. A. mainly B. only C. voluptuously D. still 9. The Chinese people worship their ancestors. A. fossils B. elders C. forefathers D. heirs 100

10. Under the major’s able leadership the soldiers found safety. A. guidance B. intensity C. flagship D. ability 11. The old age of the equipment is a definite liability to the factory. A. cost B. disadvantage C. aid D. capacity 12. Having lived in a ghetto most of her life, she despaired of ever living the good life. A. segregated slum B. visitor’s quarters C. public house D. high-rise apartment 13. The president considered the vote on his tax bill to be crucial. A. extremely important B. unimportant C. hard-fought D. far-off 14. The panorama from their porch encompassed a large part of the Rocky Mountains. A. cooking utensil B. unbroken view over a large area. C. TV screen D. Plot of land 15. The candidate felt that his academic credentials were sufficient to win him the job. A. important B. educational C. costly D. experience 16. Peace in the area was as elusive as the wind. A. easy B. absurd C. difficult to catch D. slow in coming 17. Young people who go away to college often experience a strong nostalgia which can produce deep emotions. A. nosebleed B. independence C. sadness D. homesickness 18.The ultimatum handed to the opposition was simple : unconditional surrender. A. final statement of terms B. last words before the dawn C. opening statement 101

D. prime decision CAPut!’. The professor’s obituary told of her years of dedication to history. A. inscription B. eulogy C. death notice D. article 20. Initially, eater found it difficult to cope with her new environment. A. play with B. contend and deal with C. create D. deny 21. What a shock to find that the entire story was a fabrication. A. lie B. product C. build up D. cloth 22. This serum is supposed to make you immune to further infection. A. innocuous B. not susceptible C. open D. vulnerable 23. The new government regulation disallows disclosure of personal tax information. A. announcement B. public revelation C. opening D. closing 24. The artist was always ready with a bon mot, making him an asset at small cocktail parties. A. candy B. clever remark C. good time D. bad joke 25. She estimated that 250 people would attend the reception for the ambassador. A. denied B. hoped C. calculated D. asserted 26. The reference she made to her friend the poet was interesting but too obscure for anyone to appreciate. A. delightful B. helpful C. dismal D. cryptic 27. When Sue was little, she picked on her younger sister quite a bit A. picked up B. teased C. care for 102

D. selected 28. It crossed my mind today that you might want to accompany us. A. occurred to me B. made me angry C. escaped my attention D. reminded me 29. The director was dubious about the new performer’s acting ability. A. happy B. doubtful C. anxious D. nervous 30. Just how pertinent was her observation? A. well received B. honest C. dishonest D. relevant 31. It was no surprise when we were told that our grandfather had passed away. A. survived B. slipped C. died D. gone on vacation 32. Sandy was astounded at her brother’s news. A. amazed at B. happy about C. perplexed by D. bothered by 33. The Doubloons wondered how they were going to make ends meet. A. produce two effects B. do their fair share C. tie the laces D. pay for their expenses 34. We were gratified to learn of her interest in our case. A. thankful and pleased B. sorry and displeased C. good-natured D. overwhelmed 35. The martial music roused everyone to a peak of excitement. A. wedding B. dirgelike C. seasoned D. warlike 36. Were their vows made publicly or privately? A. opening remarks B. thoughts C. promises D. emotions 37. The salesman stood up for his product when challenged. A. defended 103

B. sold C. spoke of D. fought 38. The affection they felt for each other was obvious ot everyone. A. hatred B. fondness C. adherence D. sickness 39. The reporter described the scence as one of total chaos. A. joy B. disoder C. wonder] D. intensity 40. I understand that George can play piano by ear, is that true? A. without depending on written music B. with his eyes closed C. by hitting the keys with his ears D. timidly Wordlist test 13 1. Absurd/b’s:d/ 2. adherence /d’hirns/ 3. Affluent/’ flunt/ 4. assert/’s:t/ 5. astound /s’tound/ 6. bon mot 7. chaos / ‘keis/ 8. Credentials/kri’denl/ 9. Crucial/ ‘kru:l/ 10. cryptic /’kriptik/ 11. Dilute/dai’ljut/ 12. Disclosure/ dis’klouz/ 13. dubious/’ dju:bis/ 14. Elusive/ i’lu:siv/ 15. Eulogy/’ju:ldzi/ 16. Fabrication / f bri’kein/ 17. Flagship/’fl gip/ 18. Forefathers/’fo:fa z / 19. Fortify/’fo:tifai/ 20. Ghetto/’getou/ 21. Gloat/ glout/

: : : : : : : : : :

(adj) v« lý, ngu xuÈn, ngí ngÈn, buån cêi sù dÝnh chÆt, b¸m chÆt, gia nhËp (adj) nhiÒu , dåi dµo, phong phó (n) s«ng nh¸nh , chi lu x¸c nhËn, kh¼ng ®Þnh, qu¶ quyÕt (v) lµm kinh ng¹c, kinh hoµng lêi nãi dÝ dám (n) sù hçn ®én, hçn lo¹n, lén xé giÊy uû nhiÖm, th uû nhiÖm (adj) quyÕt ®Þnh, cèt yÕu, chñ yÕu (adj) khã hiÓu, bÝ Èn (Adj) lo·ng, nh¹t, phai (v) lµm lo·ng ®i sù v¹ch trÇn, ph¬i bµy

: : : :

(adj) lê mê, kh«ng râ rµng (adj) hay l¶ng tr¸nh bµi t¸n d¬ng, lêi ca ngîi sù bÞa ®Æt, sù lµm gi¶ giÊy tê

: :

(n) tµu ®« ®èc (n) tæ tiªn , «ng cha

: : :

(v) cñng cè , lµm cho v÷ng ch¾c khu ngêi do th¸i, da ®en ë (v) nh×n hau h¸u, nh×n mét c¸ch thÌm muèn, hÓ h¶

: : :


22. gratify /’gr tifai/ 23. Immune/i’mju:n/ ( 24. Indigenous/ in’didzins/ 25. Innocuous/i’nokjus/ 26. Inscription/in’skripn / 27. Jury/’dzuri/ 28. Liability/lai’biliti/ 29. martial / ‘ma:l/ 30. Nostalgia / nos’t ldzi/ 31. Obituary /’bituri/ 32. obscure/b’skju/ ( 33. Ornate/o:neit/ 34. Panorama/p n’ram / 35. pertinent/ ‘p:tinnt/ 36. Raids/ reid/ 37. relevant/ ‘relvnt/ 38. Resume/ ri’zju:m/ 39. Resurface/ ri’s:fis/

: : :

(v) tr¶ tiÒn thï lao, lµm hµi lßng, hèi lé, ®ót lãt adj) ®îc miÔn, miÔn khái (adj) b¶n xø

: :

(adj) kh«ng ®éc, kh«ng cã h¹i, v« thëng v« ph¹t c©u viÕt , c©u kh¾c , lêi ®Ò tÆng

: : : : : : : :

ban båi thÈm tr¸ch nhiÖm ph¸p lý, tiÒn nî (adj) thuéc qu©n sù, thîng vâ, hïng dòng (n) nçi nhí nhµ, lßng nhí quª h¬ng, lßng hoµi cæ, luyÕn tiÕc qu¸ khø lêi c¸o phã adj) tèi, mê, tèi t¨m, v« danh, (adj) trang trÝ c«ng phu, trang søc léng lÉy (n) toµn c¶nh, bøc tranh toµn c¶nh

: : : : :

(adj) ®óng chç, thÝch ®¸ng, thÝch hîp cuéc tÊn c«ng, ®ét kÝch, cuéc bè r¸p (adj ) thÝch ®¸ng, thÝch hîp, cã liªn quan (v) lÊy l¹i, chiÕm l¹i, l¹i tiÕp tôc, håi phôc l¹i (v) lµm l¹i bÓ mÆt, l¹i næi lªn mÆt níc

40. Segregate/ ‘segrigeit/ 41. Sulk/’slk/ 42. Testimony/’testimn i/ 43. Ultimatum / lti’meitm/ 44. Utensil 45. Verdict/ ‘v:dict/ 46. Voluptuously/v’lpt usli/ 47. vow/ vau/


(v) c¸ch ly, c« lËp, ph©n biÖt

: :

(v) hên dçi, (n) c¬n hên dçi (*n) sù chøng nhËn, b»ng chøng ,chøng cí


th cuèi, tèi hËu th, kÕt luËn cuèi cïng

: : :

®å dïng, dông cô hµng ngµy trong gia ®×nh (n) lêi tuyªn ¸n, lêi ph¸n quyÕt, d luËn (adv) khªu gîi, g©y kho¸i l¹c, gîi c¶m, ham x¸c thÞt, nhôc dôc (n) lêi thÒ, nguyÒn, (v) thÒ, nguyÖn, tuyªn thÖ


TEST 14 1. You belligerent attitude is often the cause for your lack of popularity. A. Hostile B. courageous C. asinine D. cowardly 2. What brought about your change in attitude? A. altered B. redid C. gave up 105

D. caused 3. Hand me that pamphlet before you leave. A. novel B. comb C. brochure D. note 4. The politician promised to be candid, but we wondered. A. sweet B. open and frank C. casual D. discreet 5. Robert Redford radiates goodwill when he speaks of projects to protect Utah’s environment. A. hates B. exposes C. emits D. hides 6. Maude Ellen looked merry at the opere last night, didn’t she? A. down at the mouth B. bored C. Christmaslike D. Jovial 7. The adjective used most often to describe Lee’s movements was lithe. A. graceful B. clumsy C. marvelous D. small 8. It was difficult to understand, let alone accept, the customs of the tribe. A. relatives B. languages C. mores D. merchandise 9. June played the role of an unsophisticated country girl who had come to the city for her first job. A. overweight B. poorly clothed C. illiterate D. naive 10. Sandy thought she was fat, so she went on a crash diet. A. obese B. obeseness C. greasy D. obesity 11. It’s the one indispensable item in the suicase, and I forgot it! A. temporary B. essential C. indiscernible D. forgettable 106

12. There is on stigma attached to what you are doing A. purpose B. disgrace C. illness D. honor 13. Chuck complained that his remuneration was too little and too late. A. degree B. remorse C. pay D. solution 14. The paper described the two as being neck and neck as they neared the finish. A. lovers B. attentive C. faraway D. very close 15. Dick warned you that she might turn you down , didn’t she? A. upend you B. flip you over C. reject you D. deliver you 16. By all means, call me whenever you have a problem. A. at least B. always C. incidentally D. certainly 17. this is an absurd production I’m leaving ! A. foolish B. abstract C. bitter D. kind 18. Kojak interrogated the suspect for two hours. A. baited B. watched C. questioned D. infiltrated 19. Lately, Leslie always seems to be in an introspective mood. A. querulous B. contemplative C. covert D. outgoing 20. When Joey was a teenager, she was quite a rowdy. A. raucous person B. queen C. introvert D. cowgirl 21. The terms laity and clergy are opposites. A. synonyms B. antonyms 107

C. homonyms D. gegunds 22. There are many acronyms in the English language. A. words that sound alike B. words formed from the initial letters of other words C. abbreviated sentences D. performers skilled in feats of agility and balance 23. The queen always appeared haughty when receiving her subjects. A. regal B. tall C. arrogant D. generous 24. The vote for the treaty was unanimous A. limited B. acrimonious C. unsightly D. by common consent 25. Tonia asked the doctor what he had to soothe her nerves. A. calm B. deaden C. jangle D. rouse 26. Professor Moriarity, composed as ever, delivered a two-hour speech. A. pompous B. nervous C. serene D. written up 27. The scarcity of good actors in this town is astounding. A. dearth B. abundance C. plethora D. fright 28. Although people in the neighborhood considered Judy odd, she never noticed. A. aged B. eccentric C. senile D. stupid 29. Did you suspect that the entire episode was an elaborate deception? A. large party B. death C. invitation D. hoax 30. If you gather the kinkling , I’ll make sure the fireplace is clean. A. children B. matches C. small pieces of wood 108

D. fire 31. The rule states that if a boxer is knocked down, he must stay down for a mandatory eight seconds. A. long B. delayed C. obligatory D. crucial 32. He surprised everyone by showing up in his mother’s dress. A. standing out B. arriving C. administering D. watching a film 33. It’s ludicrous to think that Mary would ever consent to be his bride. A. excessive B. logical C. fanatical D. ridiculous 34. Their conversation was stilted but friendly/ A. stiffly formal B. drawn out C. exhausting D. secretive 35 Agatha thwarted her sister’s every effort to sell the old house. A. assisted B. blocked C. reported D. hoped for 36.She was naturally apprehensive at the prospect of meeting her future mother- in- law. A. quiet B. strong C. resigned D. fearful 37.The O’Briens greeted us with open arms. A. cordially B. sadly C. at a distance D. sternly 38. They were loath to say so, but they didn’t want Tasha to be invited to the party. A. hateful B. unwilling C. ready D. unprepared 39. After a trial lasting five weeks, the defendant was exonerated of all changes. A. convicted B. told C. imprisoned 109

D. freed 40. Chryl was in no position to make a judicious decision. A. wise B. courageous C. rested D. complete WORDLIST TEST 14 1. abbreviated / ’bri:vieitid/ 2. absurd/b’s:d/ 3. acrimonious/  kri’mounjs/ 4. administer/ d’minist/ vt

: :

(adj) tãm t¾t, viÕt t¾t (adj) v« lý, ngu xuÈn, ngí ngÈn, lè bÞch chua cay, gay g¾t tr«ng nom, qu¶n lý, cai qu¶n, thi hµnh, thùc hiÖn (n) sù nhanh nhÑn, nhanh nhÈu, lanh lîi (adj) sî h·i, e sî (adj) kiªu ng¹o, kiªu c¨ng, (adj) gièng lõa, ngu xuÈn, ngu nh lõa (n) måi, b¶ (adj) tham chiÕn (n) ngêi tham chiÕn, níc tham chiÕn (adj) thËt thµ, ngay th¼ng, béc trùc, v« t, kh«ng thiªn vÞ (n) giíi t¨ng l÷, t¨ng l÷ (n) sù ®ång ý, ng thuËn, tho¶ thuËn (v)®ång ý, ng thuËn (n) thuÕ nhËp khÈu, h¶i quan,c¬ quan thu thuÕ xuÊt nhËp khÈu sù dèi tr¸, lõa dèi, m¸nh khoÐ lõa bÞp (adj) thËn träng, dÌ dÆt, kÝn ®¸o, biÕt suy sÐt, kh«n ngoan (n) t×nh tr¹ng thÊt sñng, gi¸ng chøc, bÞ ghÐt bá (adj) ph¸t ra, bèc ra, to¶ ra ngêi cuång tÝn

: : : : : : :

(n) kú c«ng, chiÕn c«ng, (adj) khÐo lÐo, ®iªu luyÖn, nhanh nhËy (n) c¸i bóng, có vôt nhÑ mµ ®au (n) trß ch¬i kh¨m, ®µnh lõa (v)®¸nh lõa, ch¬i kh¨m (adj) dèt n¸t, mï ch÷, thÊt häc (adj) kh«ng ph©n biÖt, kh«ng thÊy râ

: : : :

5. agility/’dziliti/ 6. apprehensive/  pri’hensiv/ 7. arrogant/’ rgnt/ 8. Asinine/’ sinain/ 9. bait/ beit/ 10. Belligerent/ bi’lidzrnt/ 11. Candid / ‘k ndid/

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12. 13.

clergy/’kl:dzi/ consent/ kn’sent/


customs/ kstmz/

: : : :

15. 16.

deception/ di’sepn/ discreet/ dis’kri:t/

: :


disgrace/ dis’greis/


18. emit / i’mit/ 19. fanatical/f’n ntikl/ fanatic 20. feat/ fi:t/ 21. 22.

flip / flip/ hoax/ houks/


23. illiterate/ i’litrit/ 24. indiscernible/indi’s nbl/ 25. indispensable/indis’pe : nbl/ 26. infiltrate / ‘×nfiltreit/ : 27. interrogate/ in’tergeit/ :

(adj) rÊt cÇn thiÕt, kh«ng thÓ thiÕu ®îc (v) rØ qua, th©m nhËp (vt) chÊt vÊn, thÈm vÊn 110

28. introspective/ ‘introu’spektiv/ 29. introvert/ ‘intrv:t/


(adj) hay tù xem xÐt néi t©m


(n) ngêi sèng néi t©m, nhót nh¸t

jangle/ dz gl/


(n) tiÕng kªu chãi tai, om sßm

31. 32. 33.

jovial/’dzouvjl/ kindling/ ‘kindlin/ laity/ ‘leiti/

: : : :

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

lithe/ ‘lai / ludicrous/ ‘lu:dikrs/ mandatory/’m ndtri/ naïve obese/ou’bi:s/ odd/ od/ pamphlet / ‘p mflit/ plethora/ ‘pler/

: : : : : : : :

42. 43. 44. 45. 46.

pompous/ ‘pomps/ querulous/ ‘kweruls/ radiate/ ‘reidieit/ raucous/ ‘ro;ks/ remorse/ ri’mo:s/

: : : : :

47. 48.

resign/ ri:’sain/ rouse/ rauz/

: :

49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

rowdy/ ‘raudi/ scarcity/ ‘skesti/ senile/ ‘si:nail/ serene/ si’ri:n/ soothe/ su: /

: : : : : : : : :

(v) kªu chãi tai, lµm om sßm (adj) vui vÎ, vui tÝnh sù nhen löa, nhóm löa (n) ngêi thÕ tôc, kh«ng thuéc cïng ngµnh nghÒ (adj) mÒm m¹i, yÓu ®iÖu, uyÓn chuyÓn (adj) buån cêi, ®¸ng cêi, lè l¨ng (adj) cã tÝnh chÊt b¾t buéc, ngê nghÖch , khê d¹i (adj) bÐo phÞ, rÊt mËp (adj) kú côc , kú quÆc (n) s¸ch máng, (n) tr¹ng th¸i thõa th·i, sè lîng lín h¬n cÇn thiÕt (adj) hoa lÖ, tr¸ng lÖ, ph« tr¬ng (adj) hay c¸u kØnh, cµu nhµu (adj) to¶ ra, xoÌ ra (v) to¶ ra, chiÕu ra, ph¸t ra (adj) khµn khµn (n) sù ¨n n¨n, hèi hËn, lßng th¬ng xãt, sù hèi tiÕc tõ chøc, th«i viÖc (vt) khua, khuÊy ®éng,®¸nh thøc, lµm thøc tØnh (adj) om sßm, Çm Ü, hçn lo¹n (n) sù khan hiÕm, thiÕu thèn (adj) l·o suy, suy yÕu do tuæi giµ (adj) s¸ng sña, quang t¹nh, thanh th¶n (vt) lµm yªn tÜnh, lµm ªm dÞu, lµm nguéi, bít nghiªm träng (n) vÕt nh¬, ®iÒu sØ nhôc cét, cµ kheo (n) v¸n ngang, ngang (adj) nhÊt trÝ, ®ång lßng


(adj) thËt ,kh«ng gi¶ m¹o, kh«ng phøc t¹p


(v) lËt óp , lËt ngîc


54. stigma/’stigm/ 55. stilt 56. thwart/wo:t/ 57. unanimous/ju:’n nims / 58. unsophisticated/ns’f Ýtikeitid/ 59. up-end/p, end/

TEST I5 1. If you send me a memorandum, I’ll surely remember to attend the meeting. 111

A. calling card B. short note C. cost analysis D. itinerary 2. The team’s morale was at its lowest point of the season. A. literary B. spirit C. talent D. lession 3. The dogs in Apartment 6 E sound ferocious. A. gentle B. funny C. mean D. stupid 4. By her clothes one could see that she was quite prosperous. A. peaceful B. poor C. well-to-do D. calm 5. Be careful not to mention the matter to him, he’s still a bit touchy on the subject. A. handy B. sensitive C. manual D. ill-mannered 6. It seemed as though every third sentence he spoke was a cliche A. trite phrase B. pun C. innovation D. paragraph 7. The football game commenced at 1:00. A. transpired B. began C. ended D. continued 8. The tour guid who led us through the museum seemed experienced. A. like a newcomer B. young C. old D. thoroughly versed 9. The hotel he recommended proved to be too expensive. A. Turned out to be B. Wasn’t C. Demanded proof of being D. Looked 10. My brother is almost six and a half feet tall. A. 120 centimeters B. three yards C. an acre 112

D. two meters 11.Lend a hand here, will you? A. give up your hands B. give me your arm C. put your hands up D. help me 12.Our itinerary took us through Philadelphia and Baltimore A. tour guide B. road map C. route D. ideas 13.Carol dozed off while we watched the ballet. A. napped B. drove C. spaced out D. left 14. He reciprocated by sending the general a silver tray. A. began B. gave up C. responded D. finished 15. He was as deft at handling complaints as he was at playing tennis. A. intelligent B. angry C. skillful D. crude 16.The intricate mechanisms of government seemed awesome to the visitors. A. complex B. subtle C. interesting D. new 17 There is no gainsaying the validity of her remarks. A. agreeing with B. denying C. assisting D. hunting 18.The irate crowd edged closer to the police barricades. A. calm B. gawking C. large D. angry CAPut!’. He recinded his offer to take pictures at the graduation dance. A. reinforced B. renewed C. fired up D. withdraw 20. The film summarily rejected the intitial offer. A. abbreviated 113

B. final C. first D. largest is impossible for parents to shield their children from every danger. A. protect B. conserve C. relieve D. free 22. That student is discourteous he grumbles nio matter how one tries to please him. A. giggle B. scolds C. complains D. sneers 23. Don’t leave the iron on that delicate fabric or the heat will scorch it. A. melt B. press C. discolor D. winkle 24. The new contact lenses made the woman blink her eyes much more tghan usual. A. strain and stretch B. open and close C. rub D. shade 25. The man walked briskly to keep warm on the very cold night. A. quickly B. excited C. aimlessly D. steadily 26. Michael was such a shrewd business person that he never lost money in any transaction. A. fortunate B. clever C. wealthy D. well-liked 27. There was no trace of poison in the coffee the chemist anayzed. A. indication B. taste C. color D. smell 28. The intricate directions were difficult to understand. A. vague B. unusual C. routine D. complicated 29. The little boy had had a long day; he was feeling drowsy. A. lazy B. sleepy 114

C. exhausted D. sad 30. Since I have been ill, my appetite has diminished. A. desire fro exercise B. desire for visitors C. desire for sleep D. desire for food 31. He stayed late to tell his hostess how much he had enjoyed the party. A. neglected B. attempted C. lingered D. struggled 32. The night was so foggy that the murderer was easily able to escape his pursuers. A. misty B. moist C. mild D. messy 33.The horse finally came to a halt on the very rim of the cliff. A. top B. edge C. slope D. base 34.Her husband is very competent; he will repair the roof himself. A. capable B. industrious C. thrifty D. careful 60. Mr. Henderson was determined to remain neutral. A. untroubled B. unhurried C. unmarried D. uncommitted 61. The stray dog was picked up by the dog-catcher because he had no collar. A. dirty B. sick C. unfriendly D. homeless 62. The time for discussing the problem is overp; now we must act. A. talking about B. thinking about C. arguing about D. putting off 63. He agreed to the plan of his own accord. A. enthusiastically B. voluntarily C. unwillingly D. unhesitatingly 115

64. Ignoring something will not make it go away. A. taking an interest in B. looking closely at C. paying no attention to D. studying the cause of 65. His apparel showed him to be a succesful man. A. clothing B. confidence C. answer D. manner WORDLIST TEST 15 1. ‘CAPut!’. conserve/ kn’s:v/ 2. accord/ ‘ko:d/ 3. affluent /’ flunt/ 4. apparel/ ’p rl/ 5. appetite/ ‘ pitait/ 6. asset/’ set/ 7. barricade/b ri’keid/ 8. bashful/’b ful/ 9. beseech/ bi’si:t/ 10. briskly 11. compel/ km’pel/ 12. competent/ ‘kompitnt/ 13. dabbles/ ‘d bl/ 14. discourteous/ dis’k:tjs/ 15. doze off [douz] 16. drowsy/ ‘drauzi/ 17. equivocal/i’kwivkl/ 18. ferocious f’rous] 19. futile/’fju:tail/ 20. gainsaying/ gein’sei/ 21. gawk/ go:k/


(vt) gi÷ g×n, duy tr× , b¶o tån

: : : : : : : : : : : :

(n) hiÖp ®Þnh, hiÖp íc, sù hoµ hîp, ý chÝ (adj) nhiÒu dåi dµo (n) s«ng nh¸nh , chi lu (n) ®å thªu, y phôc, ®å trang søc (n) sù ngon miÖng, s thÌm ¨n, lßng ham muèn (n) tµi s¶n, cña c¶i vËt chíng ng¹i (adj). Rôt rÌ , bÏn lÏn , e lÖ (vt) cÇu xin, cÇu khÈn, van xin (adv) m¹nh mÏ, lanh lîi (vt) buéc ph¶i, b¾t buéc,Ðp (adj) cã ®ñ kh¶ n¨ng, tr×nh ®é, th¹o, giái

: :

(v) vÈy, nhóng, r¶y (adj) bÊt lÞch sù, khiÕm nh· ngu gµ , ngñ gËt, ngñ l¬ m¬ (adj) ngñ l¬m¬, gµ gËt, uÓ o¶i, thê thÉn (adj) lËplê, níc ®«i, kh«ng ch¾c ch¾n d÷ tîn, hung ¸c,d· man, tµn b¹o (adj) v« Ých, phï phiÕm, kh«ng ®¸ng kÓ (v) chèi c·i, kh«ng nhËn, nãi tr¸i l¹i, ngîc l¹i (n)gêi lãng ngãng (v) trè m¾t ra nh×n (n) , tiÕng cêi róc rÝch, khóc khÝch (v) cêi róc rÝch , khóc khÝch (n) sù cµu nhµu, c»n nh»n, (v) cµu nhµu, lÇm bÇm (adj), kiªu k×, ng¹o trß ®¸nh lõa, ch¬i kh¨m, ch¬i xáv) ®¸nh lõa, ch¬i kh¨m (adj) rèi beng, r¾c rèi, phøc t¹p, khã hiÓu (adj) næi giËn, giËn d÷


giggle/ ‘gigl/


grumble/ ‘grmbl/

24. 25.

haughty/’ ho:tix/ hoax/houks/

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

26. 27.

intricate / Øntik;it/ irate/ ai’ reit/

: :


28. itinerary[ai’tinrri] 29. Judicious [ dzu:dis] 30. linger/ ‘lig/ 31. lull/ ll/ 32. meddles/ ‘medl/ 33. memorandum[mem’r  ndm] 34. nap[n p]

: : : : : :

(n) hµnh tr×nh ,nhËt ký ®i ®êng (adj) s¸ng suèt, kh«n ngoan thËn träng (v) nÊn n¸, lÇn nøa, la cµ, chÇn chõ (n) thêi gian yªn tÜnh, v ru ngñ (v) xen vµo, dÝnh vµo , can thiÖp vµo (n) b¶n ghi nhí, th b¸o (n) giÊc ngñ chîp, giÊc tra, (v) ngñ chîp mét l¸t, ngñ tra (n) vµnh b¸nh xe, bê mÐp, vµnh, miÖng (v) rÇy la, tr¸ch m¾ng, chöi rña (n) c¸i méc , c¸i khiªn (adj) kh«n ngoan , s¾c s¶o , lanh lîi (adj) l¹c mÊt, r¶i r¸c, t¶n m¹n, l¬ th¬ (¹dj) ph¶ng phÊt, huyÒn ¶o, tinh vi, tinh tÕ tiÕt kiÖm, t»n tiÖn, phån thÞnh, thÞnh vîng (adj) hay giËn dçi, hay tù ¸i, dÔ ®éng lßng, qu¸ nhËy c¶m (n) dÊu, vÕt tÝch, dÊu hiÖu (vt) bay h¬i, lé ra, tiÕt lé (adj) cò rÜch, mßn , s¸o, lÆp l¹i (adj) kh«ng rµng buéc, kh«ng giao, kh«ng uû th¸c (n) gi¸ trÞ ph¸p lý, tÝnh hîp lÖ, gi¸ trÞ (n) tÝnh v« nghÜa, rçng tuÕch, h ¶o,kiªu c¨ng, tù phô (adj) gioi, sµnh, th«ng th¹o,khÐo lÐo

35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

rim scold/ skuld/ shield/ i:ld/ shrewdly/ ‘ru:dli/ stray/ strei/ subtle/ sbtl/ thrifty/’r×ti/ touchy[tti]

: : : : : : : : : :

43. 44. 45. 46. id/ 47. 48.

trace/treis/ transpire[tr n’spai] trite[trai] uncommitted/nk’mit

: : : :

validity/v’lidti/ vanity/’v niti/

: :




INCOMPLETE ADVERB CLAUSES An adverb clause consists of a connecting word, called an adverb clause marker (or subordinate conjunction) and at least a subject and a verb Adverb clause markers: because, since, althouth, while, if, unless, when, as, until, one, before, after. Adverb clauses Adverb clause of time (when, after, before, while, as, as soon as, since, until, by the time, once, as/ so long as, whenever, every time, the first time, the last time, the next time). Of contrast (even though-unexpected result, although, though, despite, in spite of, while, whereas, but, however, on the other hand), of conditional (if, unless, only, on condition causes aparticular result, whether or not-neither this condition nor that condition matters, even if, in case, in the even that-if by chance this should happen), of cause and effect (because-expected result, now that-because now, since-because it is a fact that, because of, due to, therefore, consequently, such . . . . that, so . . . that) 1. Yesterday John ate breakfast at 8.00. He (eat, already) . . . . . . . . . . . breakfast when he (leave) . . . . . . . . . . .for class at 8:45. He (eat, always) . . . . . . . . . . . breakfast before he (go) . . . . . . . . . . . to class. Tomorrow before he (go) . . . . . . . . . . . to class, he (eat) . . . . . . . . . . . breakfast. 117

2. John is in class every morning from 9:00 to 12:00. Two days ago, I (cal) . . . . . . . . . . . him at 11:30, but I couldn’t reach him because he (attend) . . . . . . . . . . . class at that time. Don’t try to call John at 11:30 tomorrow morning because he (attend) . . . . . . . . . . . class at that time. 3. Yesterday John took a nap from 1:00 to 2:00. I arrived at 1:45. When I (get) . . . . . . . . . . . there. John (sleep) . . . . . . . . . . . he (sleep) . . . . . . . . . . . for 45 minutes by the time I got there. 4. Tomorrow, after he (eat) . . . . . . . . . . . diner, John (go) . . . . . . . . . . . to a movie. In other words, he (eat) . . . . . . . . . . . dinner by the time he (go) . . . . . . . . . . . to the movie 5. Last nigh, I went to bed after I . . . . . . . . . . . my home work. 6. Ever since I was a child. I . . . . . . . . . . . afraid of dogs 7. By the time I left my apartments this morning, the mail carrier . . . . . . . . . . . the mail 8. A black cat ran across the road as I . . . . . . . . . . . my car to work this morning 9. Whenever Mark . . . . . . . . . . . angry, his nose gets red 10. By the time I leave this city. . . . . . . . . . . . I here for four months. 11. I . . . . . . . . . . . to the beach whenever the weather was nice, but now don’t have time to do that because I have to study. Combine each pair of sentences. Use the given time words if they are possible and appropriate the meaning. 1. The other passengers get on the bus soon. Then we’ll leave. A. While B. As soon as C. The last time 2. I turned off the lights. After that, I left the room A. Before B. By the time C. After 3. Susan sometimes feels nervous. Then she chews her nails A. whenever B. before C. every time 4. The frying pan caught on fire. I was making dinner at that time A. by the time B. while C. as soon as 5. We were just sitting down to eat. Some one knocked on the door at that moment A. just as B. just after C. just before 6. The singer finished her song. The audience immediately burst into applause A. as long as B. as soon as C. immediately after 7. We have to wait here. Nancy will come A. as soon as B. after C. until 8. My roomate walked into the room yesterday. I immediately knew that something was wrong. A. just as soon as B. when C. whenever 9. I stood up to give my speech. Immediately before that, I got butterflies in my stomach A. until B. while C. just before 10. I saw the great pyramids of Egypt in the moonlight. I was speechless A. until B. the first time C. before 11. The weather will warmer soon. Then we can start playing tennis again A. while B. when C. once 12. Shakespeare died in 1616. He had written more than 37 plays before then A. while B. once C. by the time 13. Sam will go to the movie again. He’ll remember to take his glasses then A. the next time B. as long as C. by the time 14. I will not forget Mr. Tanaka. I will live for a long time A. as B. as long as C. so long as 118

15. Mahammad had never heard about Halloween. Then he came to the US A. before B. until C. since 16. Jane has gotten three promotions in the last six months. She started working at this company six months ago A. before B. since C. when 17. I had gone to bed. The phone rang A. shortly B. not long after C. when Choose the best completion 1. As soon as Martina saw the fire, she . . . . . . . . . the fire departmen A. was telephoning B. telephoned C. has telephoned D. has telephoned 2. Before Jennifer won the lottery. She . . . . . . . . any kind of contest A. hasn’t entered B. doesn’t enter C. wasn’t entering D. Hadn’t entered 3. Every time Prakas sees a movie made in India, he . . . . . . . . . . homesick A. will have felt B. felt C. feels D. is feeling 4. While he was washing his new car. Mr. DeRosa . . . . . . . . . . a small dent in the rear fender A. has discovered B. was discovering C. is discovering D. discovered 5. Yesterday, while I was attending a sales meeting, Mathew. . . . . . . . . on the company’s annual report. A. was working B. had been working C. has worked D. works 6. Tony. . . . . . . . . . . to have children until his little daughter was born. After she won his heart. He decided he wanted a big family A. doesn’t want B. hadn’t wanted C. wasn’t wanting D. hasn’t wanted 7. After the horse threw her to the ground for the third time. Jennifer picked herself up and said. I . . . . . . . . . . . on another horse as long as I live. A. never ride B. have never ridden C. will never ride D. do not ride 8. The next time Paul . . . . . . . . . to New York, he will visit the Metropolitan Museum’s famous collection of international musical instruments. A. will fly B. flies C. has flown D. will have flown 9. After Nancy. . . . . . . . . . . for twenty minutes. She began to feel tired. A. jogging B. had been jogging C. has been jogging D. has jogged 10. By the time the young birds. . . . . . . . . . .the nests for good, they will have learn how to fly. A. will leave B. will have left C. are leaving D. leave 11. The last time I . . . . . . . . . . . . in Athens, the weather was hot and humid. A. had been B. was C. am D. will have been Reduced adverb clauses When the subject of the main clause and the subject of the adverb clause are the same person or thing, the adverb clause can be reduced (shorten). Reduced adverb clauses do not contain a main verb or a subject. They consist of a marker and a participle or a marker and an adjective. Clause marker: past participle or present participle or adjective . . . . . . ., subject + main verb . . . . 1. When + verb-ing, subject + verb . . . . . . Upon + verb (ing) . . . . ., subject + verb . . . . . On + verb (ing) . . . . . . . , subject + verb . . . . . . 119

Ex: when orbiting the Earth, astronauts don’t feel the force of gravity When + past participle, subject + verb . . . . . . Ex: when trained, parrots are able to speak Although the machine was damaged, it was still operational Although damaged, the machine was still operational Although he was nervous, he gave a wonderful speech Although nervous, he gave a wonderful speech 2. While + verb (ing) . . . . . . . . , subject + verb Verbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .subject + verb While walking on the moon, astronauts happened to see some marks of the previous running water. Walking on the moon, astronauts happened to see some marks of the previous running water 3. Because Verbing. . . . . . . . . ., subject + verb. . . . . . . . . Adjective . . . . . . . . ., subject + verb . . . . . . . . Ex: Because he lacked the necessary qualification, he was not considered for the job Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle 4. Before + verb (ing) . . . . . . , subject + verb Before I left for work, I ate breakfast Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast or i had eaten breakfast 5. After + verb (ing) . . . . . . . ., subject + verb After he had finished his homework, Peter went to bed After having finished his homework, Peter went to bed 6. Phrasal preposition: because of, due to, due to the fact that Because of the cold weather, we stayed at home Due to the cold weather, we stayed at home Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed at home 7. Transitions to show cause and effect: therefore, consequently (as a result) Al failed the test because he didn’t study Al didn’t study, therefore/ consequently, he failed the test Al didn’t study. He failed the test, therefore 8. Transitions to show contrast (unexpected result). Nevertheless, and however 9. It was cold. Nevertheless. However, I went swimming w contrast (unexpected result). Nevertheless, and however It was cold. Nevertheless. However, I went swimming It was cold, nevertheless. I went swimming 10. Conjunctions to show contrast. (but. . . . Anyway. But . . . . still. Yet . . . . . .still) It was cold, but I went swimming anyway It was cold, but I still went swimming It was cold, yet I still went swimming 11. Prepositional phrases with the same meaning as an adverb clauses There are also certain prepositions that have the same meaning as adverb clause markers but are used before noun phrases or pronouns, not with clauses, because of, due to, on account of, in spite of, despite, during. Prepositional phrases + noun phrase or pronouns . . . .. . . . , subject + main verb. . . . . . Ex: he chose that university because of its fine reputation The accident was due to mechanical failure 120

Visibility is poor today on account of air pollution He enjoys motorcycle riding in spite of the danger Despite its loss, the team is still in first place Her father lived in England during the war Practice exercise 1. Small sailboats easily capsized . . . . . . . . . . . . they are not handled carefully a. but b. which c. if d. so 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . they are tropical birds, parrots can live in temperate or even cold climates a. despite b. even though c. nevertheless d. but 3. . . . . . . . . . . . added to a liquid, antifreeze lowers the freezing temperature of that liquid a. that b. as is c. it is d. when 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . advertising is so widespread in the United States, it has had an enormous effect on American life a. why b. the reason c. on account of d. since 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . toward shore, its shape is changed by its collision with the shallow sea bottom a. during a wave rolls b. as a wave rolls c. a wave roll d. a wave’s rolling 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . are increasingly linked over long distances by electronic communications, but many of them still prefer face-to-face encounters a. although b. despite people c. today people d. the fact that people 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . together in one place, they form a community a. when people who live b. when people living c. whenever people live d. whenever living people 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . managed by an independent governor and board of directors, the Bank of Canada is owned by the Canadian government a. and yet b. in spite of it 121

c. although d. it is 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . pieces of rope are of different thickness, the weaver’s knot can be used to joint them a. two of b. what two c. two such d. if two 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . the seeds of the Kentucky coffee plants are poisonous a. until they have been cooked b. cooking them c. they have been cooked d. cooked until 11. natural silk is still highly prized . . . . . . . . . . . . similar artificial fabrics a. although is available b. despite there are available c. in spite of the availability of d. even though an availability of 12. cattle ranches are found almost. . . . . . . . . . . . in Utah a. wherever b. every where c. overall d. some where 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . though a prism, a beam of white light breaks into all the colors of he rainbow a. when shines b. it shines c. it is shone d. when shone 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . most of people think of freezing as a relatively modern method of food reservation, it is actually one of the oldest a. even b. as though c. however d. although 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . large bodies of water never freeze solid is that the sheet of ice on the surface protects the water below it from the cold air. a. because b. why do c. the reason that d. for the reason 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . granted by the Patent Office, it becomes the inventor’s property and he or she can keep it, sell it, or license it to someone else a. once a patent is b. when a patent c. a patent, once d. a patent, wherever it 17. Owls can hunt in total darkness . . . . . . . . . . . . their remarkably keen sense of smell a. since b. because of 122

c. the result d. that 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . most bamboo blooms every year, there are some species that flower only two or three times a century a. whenever b. that c. while d. however 19. Salmon lay their eggs and die in fresh water . . . . . . . . . . . . during most of their adult lives a. although they live in salt water b. despite they live in salt water c. due to their living in salt water d. as they are in salt water 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the United States begin to realize the true value of the Lousiana territory a. when b. because c. because of d. however 21. Heavy industry developed so rapidly in Alabama primarily . . . . . . . . . . . . its rich natural resources a. because b. inspire of c. despite d. because of 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . the right side of a person’s brain is dominant, that person is left-handed a. that b. if c. which d. for 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . relatively inexpensive, the metal pewter can be fashioned into beautiful and useful objects. a. even it is b. despite c. nevertheless, it is d. although 24. not until the seventeenth century . . . . . . . . . . . . to measure the speed of light a. did anyone even attempt b. anyone did event attempt c. did anyone attempt even d. did even attempt anyone 25. It is difficult for even small boats to navigate through swamps . . . . . . . . . . . . tangled roots and shallow waterways a. because of b. despite of c. inspite d. even 26. Sex cells. . . . . . . . . . . . are formed in a special type of cell division called meiosis 123

a. although b. despite c. however d. nevertherless 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . a popular notion to look down on the quality of circumstantial evidence, it is of great usefulness if there is enough of it and if it is properly interpreted a. even though b. because c. however d. despite 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . toy balloons became popular playthings a. after the Montgolfier brothers flying the fist balloon b. after the first balloon flying by the Montgofier c. alter the Montgolfier brothers had flew the first balloon d. alter flying the Montgolfier brothers had flown the first balloon 29. every scientific discipline tends to develop its own special language . . . . . . . . . . . ., and psychology is no different a. because it finds ordinary words inadequate b. because of ordinary words inadequate c. due to ordinary words inadequate d. now that it finds ordinary words inadequate 30. . . . . . . . . . . . ., he established guidelines that set forest policy for decades to come a. although Fiffort Pinchot held that post for only five years b. because Giiffort Pinchot held that post for only five years c. due to the fact that Giffort Pinchot held that post for only five years d. despite Giffort Pinchot held that post for only five years 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . they came to report more human interest stories and to record recent news, which they couldn’t have done before the telegraph a. despite newspaper continuing to cover politics b. inspite of newspaper’s continuing to cover politics c. although newspapers continued to cover politics d. however, newspapers continued to cover politics 32. fats provide the body’s best means of storing energy, far more efficient energy sources than either carbohydrates or protains. . . . . . . . . . . . a. so that one shouldn’t forget how essential they are b. so one shouldn’t forget how essential they are c. therefore, one shouldn’t forget how essential they are d. in order that one shouldn’t forget how essential are they 33. cholesterol may lead to coronary heart disease by building up in the arteries of the heart . . . . . . . . . . , unsaturated fats, derived form vegetables oils, tend to lower serum, cholesterol if taken in a proportion twice that of saturated fats. a. however b. although c. because d. while 34. the consumption of a variety of fats is necessary. . . . . . . . . . . . may lead to a variety of health problems a. but the intake of too much fat b. however the intake of too much fat 124

c. nevertheless the intake of too much fat d. consequently, the intake of too much fat 35. the term “weathering” refers to all the way in which rock can be broken down. . . . . . . . . . . . a. when exposing to various conditions b. when exposed to various conditions c. when it exposing to various condition d. upon exposing to various conditions 36. Humans have struggled against weeds. . . . . . . . . . . . a. since the beginning of agriculture b. when the beginning of agriculture c. when the agriculture begins d. by the time of the agriculture began 37. In recent years, the chemical industry has introduced several herbicides that are more ecologically sound. . . . . . . . . . . . a. yet new chemicals can not solve the world’s weed problems b. However, new chemical alone can not solve the world’s weed problems c. Consequently, new chemical alone can not solve the world’s weed problems d. As a result, new chemical alone can not solve the world’s weed problem 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . Tony killed Mary’s brother and ultimately killed himself a. while was attempting to stop a street fight b. while he were attempting to stop a street fight c. while being attempted to stop a street fight d. attempting to stop a street fight 39. Children often make the head too large for the rest of the body. . . . . . . . . . . . a. when drawn human figures b. when is drawing human figures c. when drawing human figures d. drawing human figures 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . the size of the heads was nots so exaggerated a. when children drawing rear views of men b. when drawing rear views of men c. drawing rear views of mane d. when children drew rear views of men 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . George Susanna supported herself until 1918 by teaching in various schools and colleges in Texas a. to begin as an advertising illustrator b. she began as an advertising illustrator c. beginning as an advertising illustrator d. her beginning as an advertising illustrator 42. O’Keefer’s stype changed dramatically in 1929. . . . . . . . . . . . a. during she visited New Mexico b. during a visit to New Mexico c. while she visiting New Mexico d. visiting New Mexico 43. in fact, before George Washinton became president. . . . . . . . . . . . to build a canal that was to connect the Ohio and Potomac Rivers a. he has headed the first company in the United States b. he headed the first company in the United States c. heading the first company in the United States 125

d. he had headed the first company in the United States 44. there was some on-again, off-again federal funding,. . . . . . . . . . . . a. but the War of 1812 put an end to this b. however, the War of 1812 put an end to this c. because the war of 1812 put an end to this d. because of the fact that the War of 1812 put an end to this 45. . . . . . . . . . . . ., increased traffic would undoubtedly have warranted its construction a. had it not been for the development of the railroads b. if it were not for the development of the railroads c. if had it not been for the development of the railroads d. if it not would have been for the development of the railroads 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . some insects communicate at ultrasonic frequencies, they may pick up the trees’ vibrations and attack the weakened trees. a. because of b. because c. therefore d. due to 47. scenes of factory interiors account for only about third of the footage of Modern Times, . . . . . . .. . . . they contain some of the most pointed social commentary as well as the most comic situation a. however b. despite c. although d. but 48. Clearly, Modern Times has its faults, its faults. . . . . . . . . . . . treating technology within a social context. a. so that it remains the best film b. but it remains the best film c. so it remains the best film d. however, it remains the best film 49. when they early migrants arrived in North America, . . . . . . . . . . . . dominated by three types of American mammoths a. they found the woods and plains b. which they found the woods and plains c. they had found the woods and plains d. finding the woods and plains 50. Carson’s first book “Under The Sea Wind” received excellent reviews, . . . . . . . . . . . . until it was reissued in 1952 a. yet sales were still poor b. so that sales were still poor c. so sales were still poor d. nevertheless 51. cloudy weather makes for chilly conditions,. . . . . . . . . . . . a surfeit of sunlight creates too much heat a. while b. however c. despite d. nevertheless 52. farming has come a long way. . . . . . . . . . . . the days of the horse-drawn plow 126

a. since b. during c. because d. despite 53. site-specific farming can increase yields . . . . . . . . . . . . a. while reducing chemical use b. if chemical use is reduced c. unless chemical use is reduced d. unless reducing chemical use 54. transfer of information takes place. . . . . . . . . . . . in some way to the material that was originally learned a. only if the new material is similar b. when is the new material similar c. only with similar new material d. so the similar new material 55. if there is insufficient rain to form a lake,. . . . . . . . . . . . or even longer if necessary a. the eggs lie dormant for a year b. the eggs will lies dormant for a year c. the eggs would lie dormant for a year d. lie the eggs dormant for a year 56. by the twelfth day,. . . . . . . . . . . . hundreds of tiny eggs form on the underbodies for the females a. during they are about 3 centimeters long b. when they are about 3 centimeters long c. that they are about 3 centimeters long d. when about 3 centimeters long 57. Suicide is the third most common cause of death among young adults. . . . . . . . . . . . a. after car wreeks and homicides b. because car wrecks and homicides c. because of car wrecks and homicides d. during car wrecks and homicides 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . they lived on meaer rations a. during their 6-to-12-week voyages b. for their 6-to-week voyages c. or their 6-to-12-week voyages d. in their 6-to-12-week voyages 59. by 1630,. . . . . . . . . . . . , married and made their homes, great plantations had already risen along the James River, and the population had increased to a thousand settlers a. when women were recruited in England to come to Virginia b. when being recruited in England to come to Virginia c. when were women recruited in England to come to Virginia d. when women recruited in England to come to Virginia 60. . . . . . . . . . . . . sewing had been done by boring a hole with a bone, and then passing a fiber through the opening a. before the invention of the needle b. with the invention of the needle c. it was during the needle’s invention d. after the needle’s invention 61. . . . . . . . . . . . . the moon has no water, its solid crust does respond to the gravitational forces of the earth 127

a. although b. however c. except 62. the participants represent their experiences spontaneously,. . . . . . . . . . . . a. although the repetition of a them can frequently be of therapeutic advantage b. because of the repetition of a them can frequently be of therapeutic advantage c. due to the repetition of a them can frequently be of therapeutic advantage d. despite the repetition of a them can frequently be of therapeutic advantage 63. . . . . . . . . . . . . the female Stickleback fish is ready to lay, she responds by curving her head and tail upwards a. if b. when c. that d. while 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . the film used for Cinema-scope is the same as for conventional pictures, the image produced has twice the normal width a. yet b. however c. although d. as 65. thermometric study is essential to human welfare. . . . . . . . . . . . all people on earth are affected by temperature, natural or man-made a. because of b. due to c. however d. because 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . a suntanned person moves to a less sunny climate, the melaning disappears, and the body is able to benefit from what little sun there is a. if b. although c. because d. unless 67. in recent experiments at the University of lowa. Eight trained pigeons were shown photograph of people. . . . . . . . . . . . a. display emotion of happiness, anger, surprise, and disgust b. to display c. who displays d. whom are playing 68. some psychologists have theorized that because of the importance of facial expression to human communication. Human developed special nervous systems. . . . . . . . . . . . a. capable of recognizing subtle expressions b. which capable of recognizing subtle expressions c. are capable of recognizing subtle expressions d. capability of recognizing subtle expressions 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . water in a kettle rises because of convection, the narrow tubes of the geyser system prevent free circulation of the water a. while b. however c. on account 128

d. since 70. one group of immigrants. . . . . . . . . . . . did not find the weed at all unfamiliar a. but b. however c. yet d. consequently

INTRODUCTORY VERBAL MODIFIERS In some sentences in Part B of the structure and written expression, you will be asked to identify errors in introductory verbal modifiers and the subjects that they modify. Introductory verbal modifiers are ing-form, participles (ed-form) and infinitives. A phrase with an introductory verbal modifier occurs at the beginning of a sentence and is followed by a comma. The subject modified by an introductory verbal modifier must followed by a comma. Misplaced modifiers is a participle phrase of other modifier that comes before the subject, but doesn’t refer to the subject. 1. Present participle: Ex: walking along the beach, the ship was spotted by the men Correction: walking along the beach, the men spotted the ship 2. Past participle: Ex: based on this study, the scientist could make several conclusions Correction: based on this study, several conclusions could be made 3. Appositive: Ex: a resort city in Arkansas, the population of Hot Spring is about 35,ooo Correction: a resort city in Arkansas. Hot Spring has a population of about 35,ooo 4. Reduced adjective clause: Ex: while peeling onions, his eyes began to water Correction: while he was peeling onions, his eyes began to water 5. Adjective phrases: Ex: warm and mild, everyone enjoys the climate of the Virgin Islands Corrected: everyone enjoys the warm and mild climate of the Virgin Islands 6. Expressions with like or unlike: Ex: like most cities, parking is a problem in San Francisco Corrected: like most cities, San Francisco has a parking problem Exercise: 1. Fearing economic hardship. . . . . . . . . . . . a. many New Englanders emigrated to the Midwest in the 1820s b. emigration from New England to the Midwest took place in the 1820s c. it was in the 1820s that many New Englanders emigrated to the Midwest d. and emigration took place in the 1820s from New England to the Midwest 2. rich and distinctive in flave. . . . . . . . . . . . a. there is in the United States a very important nut crop, the pecan b. the most important nut crop in the United States, the pecan c. farmers in the United States raise pecans, a very important crop d. pecans are the most important nut crop in the United States 3. orbiting from 2.7 to 3.6 billion miles from the sun. . . . . . . . . . . . a. the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto in 1930 b. pluto was discovered by the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 129

c. it was in 1930 that the astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered Pluto d. the discovery of Pluto was made by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 4. a popular instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . a. only a limited role has been available to the accordion in classical music b. there is only a limited role for the accordion in popular music c. classical music provieds only a limited role for the accordion d. the accordion has played only a limited role in classical music 5. unlike most birds. . . . . . . . . . . . Correction: everyone enjoys the warm and mild elimate of the Virgin Islands a. the heads and necks of vultures lack feathers b. beathers are not found on the heads and necks of vultures c. vultures don’t have feathers on their heads and necks d. the accordion has played only a limited role in classial music 6. widely reproduced in magezines and books . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. expressions with like or unlike: Correction: like most cities. SanFancisco has a parking problem a. Ansel Adams depicted the Western wilderness in his photographs b. The Western wilderness was depicted the Western wilderness c. Ansel Adams’s photographs depicted the Western wilderness d. It was through his photographs that Ansel Adams depicted the Western wilderness 8. Smaller and flatter than an orange. . . . . . . . . . . . a. a tanerine is easy to peel and its sections separate readily b. the peel of a tangerine is easily removed and its sections are readily separated c. it’s easy to peel a tangerine and to separate its sections d. to peel a tangerine is easy, and its section can be readily separated 9. like the federal government. . . . . . . . . . . . a. taxation provieds most of the funds for state and local government as well b. state and local governments obtain most of their funds through taxation c. through taxation i how state and local goverments obtain most of their funds d. funds are provided from taxation for state and local goverments 10. orginally settle by Polynesians around 700 AD. . . . . . . . . . . . a. Hawaii received its first European visitor in 1778, when Captain James Cook landed there b. Hawaii’s first European visitor, Captain James Cook, landed in 1778 c. In 1778 the first European visitor. Captain James Cook, visited Hawaii d. The first European to visit Hawaii was Captain James Cook, landing there in 1778 11. Unlike most modernist poets. . . . . . . . . . . . base on ordinary speech a. Robert Frost’s poems were b. The words of Robert Frost were c. Robert Frost wrote poems that were d. The poetry written by Frost was 12. Named for its founder. . . . . . . . . . . . in Ithaca, New York a. in 1865 Ezra Cornell established Cornell University b. Cornell University was established in 1865 by Ezra Cornell c. It was in 1865 that cornell University in 1865 d. Ezra Cornell established Cornell University in 1865 13. While living in New Orleans. . . . . . . . . . . . the Creole people of Louisiana a. a book of folklore, Bayou Folk, was written by Kate Chapin about b. bayou Folk, a book of folklore, was written by Kate Chapin about c. the subject of Kate Chapin’s book Bayou Folk was the folklore of 130

d. Kate Chaplin wrote Bayou Folk, a book about the folklore of 14. After finishing Roots, the one-hundred-year history of an African family. . . . . . . . . . . . a. the Nobel Prize Committee awarded author Alex Haley a special citation for literary excellence b. the supertanker hauled toward the open seas by firefighters c. firefighters hauled the supertanker toward the open seas d. firefighters had hauled the supertanker toward the open seas 15. according to the conditions of their scholarships,. . . . . . . . . . . the university will employ them for three years a. after finishing their degrees b. after students finishing their degrees c. after students finished them degrees d. after students finish their degrees 16. written by Neil Simon. . . . . . . . . . . . at the world premiere Saturday evening a. New York audiences received the new play enthusiastically b. New York audiences received enthusiatically the new play c. The new play was received enthusiatically by New York audiences d. The new play were enthusiatically received by New York audiences 17. Saddebed by the actor’s student death. . . . . . . . . . . . they can make donations in his name to the American Cancer Society a. a memorial fund will be established so that b. family and friends will established a memorial fund so that c. family and friends established a memorial fund so that d. a memorial funds established so that 18. while searching the problem of violent crime. . . . . . . . . . . . were used to commit 64 percent of all murders in the United States a. the Senate committee’s discovery that handguns b. the Senate committee discovering that handguns c. handguns were discovered by the Senate committee that d. the Senate committeee discovered that handguns 19. after reviewing the curriculum. . . . . . . . . . . . in traditional business programs at Harvard University a. several significant changes were made by the faculty b. the faculty had made several significantly changes c. the faculty made several significant changes d. several significant changes had been made by the faculty 20. having hit more home runs than any other player in the history of baseball. . . . . . . . . . . . a. Hank Aaron’s record is famous b. The record of Hank Aaron makes him famous c. Hank Aaron is famous for record d. Hank Aaron’s fame is his rocord 21. Traditionally named for women. . . . . . . . . . . . a. Bob, the first male name, was chosen for a hurricane b. Bob was chosen as the first male name for a hurricane c. A hurricane was named Bob, the first male name d. A hurricane was chosen the first male name, Bob 22. Attempting to smuggle drugs into the country. . . . . . . . . . . . a. The criminals were apprehended and taken to police headquarters for questioning by customs officials 131

b. Customs officials apprehended the criminals and took them to police headquarters for questioning c. The criminals were apprehended and took them to police headquarters for questioning by customs official d. Customs officials apprehended the criminals and taken them to police headquarters for questioning 23. While trying to buil a tunnel through the Blue Ridge Mountains, . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Coal was discovered by workmen at the construction site b. Coal was being discovered by workmen at the construction site c. Workmen had discovered coal at the construction site d. Workmen discovered coal at the construction site 1. After finishing Roots. The one-hundred-year history of an African America family. The Nobel Prize Committee awarded author Alex Haley a special citation for literary excellence. 2. A cometitive sport. Gymnasts perform before officials who must use their judgment along with their knowledge of the rules to determine the relative skill of each participant 3. To remove stains from permanent press clothing, carefully soaking in cold water before washing with a regular detergent 4. Found in Tanzania by Mary Leakey, some archeologists estimated that the three-millionyear-old fossils were the oldest humans to be discovered 5. After fighting the blaze for three days, the supertanker was hauled toward open seas by firefighters in an effort to save the southern Caribbean from the worst oil spill in history 6. According to the conditions of their scholarships, after finishing their degrees. The university will employ students for three years 7. Originally having been buried in Spain, and later moved to Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, Columbus’s final resting place is in Andalucia, Spain 8. Written by Neil Simon, New York audiences received the new play enthusiastically at the world premiere Sartuday evening 9. By migrating to a warmer climate every fall, survival is assured for another year 10. Saddened by the actor’s sudden death, a memorial fund will be established so that family and friends can make donations in his name to the American Cancer Society 11. To prevent cavities, dental floss should be used daily after brushing one’s teeth 12. While researching the problem of violent crime, the Senate committee’s discovery that handguns were used to commit 64 percent of all murders in the United States 13. Trying to purchase with cash, salespersons often asked customers for credit cards instead 14. After reviewing the curriculum, several significant changes were made by the faculty in traditional business programs at Harvard University 15. Having hit more home runs that any other player in the history of base ball, Hank Aaron’s record is famous 16. Banned in the U.S. the effect of fluorocarbons continues at a level that could eventually damage the ozone layer, and bring about such serious results as high rish of skins cancer and global climate changes 17. To avoid jet lag, many doctors record recommend that their patiens begin adjusting one week before departure time by shifting one hour each day toward the new time schedule 18. After cooking in the microwave oven for five minutes, one should put most meat dishes on a platter to cool 19. Traditionally named for women, Bob was chosen as the first male name for a hurricane 132

20. Before testifying, their answers were sworn in by the court 21. By reading the instructions carefully, mistakes on the examinations can be avoided 22. Having been divorced, her credit could not be established in spite of her high income 23. Attempting to smuggle drugs in to the country, customs officials apprehended the criminals and took them to police headquarters for questioning 24. While trying to build a tunnel through the Blue Ridge Mountains, coal was discovered by workmen at the construction site 25. Founded in 1919, students and teachers who are interested in spending several months abroad may benefit from educational programs administered by the Institute for International Education 26. Being too young to understand death, my mother gave me a simple explanation of where my father had gone 27. While working in my office last night, someone suddenly knocked loudly at my door and nearly scared me to death 28. Strickly carnivorous, large animals such as elk and deer, as well as their mainstay such as mice and rabbits are hunted by wolves 29. Relentlessly poisoned, trapped, and shot, hunters eradicated the timber wolf, a subspecies of gray wolf, in the lower states by the 1940s 30. In 1970s, after realizing a mistake had been made, laws to protect wolves were passed by U.S. lawmakers


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