To Extraction of Essential Oil Present Aniseed , Carom and Cardamon

September 30, 2017 | Author: dhavalpawar | Category: Essential Oil, Distillation, Petroleum, Foods, Food & Wine
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AIM:To extract essential oil present in Saunf (aniseed). INTRODUCTION We are all familiar with the pleasant odours coming out from flowers, spices and many trees. The essence or aromas of plants are due to volatile oils present in them. These smelling volatile oils present in plants are called essential oils. Cinnamon, clove, cumin, eucalyptus, garlic, jasmine, peppermint, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, thyme, wintergreen are a few familiar examples of valuable essential oils. The term “essential oils” literally means “oils derived from the essence” of plants. Essential oils are mainly used for their pleasant odours and flavors in perfumes and as flavoring agents in foods. Some are used in medicines (e.g., camphor, wintergreen, eucalyptus) others as insect repellants (e.g., citronella). Chemically essential oils are composed of complex mixtures of ester, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. They are essentially non-polar compounds and are thus soluble in non-polar solvents such as petroleum ether, benzene etc. Essential oils may occur in all parts of the plant, but they are often concentrated in the seeds or flowers. They are obtained from the plants by the process of steam distillation and extraction. The technique of steam distillation permits the separation of volatile components from non-volatile materials without raising the temperature of the distillation above 100° C. Thus steam distillation reduces the risk of decomposition of essential oils. ANISEED ESSENTIAL OIL Aniseed, on steam distillation, yields an essential oil, known as `Oil of Aniseed`, which has now replaced the fruits for medicinal and flavoring purposes. Aniseed oil is a colorless or pale-yellow liquid having the characteristic odour and taste of the fruit. The yield of oil generally varies from 1.9 to 3.1 per cent. Higher values up to 6 per cent have been reported from Syrian aniseed. Crushing of fruits prior to distillation gives better yields of oil. The material should be distilled soon after the crushing to prevent any loss of oil due to evaporation. Aniseed oil is a highly refractive liquid, which solidifies on cooling. The congealing point depends much on the anethole content and is a valuable criterion for evaluating the oil. Exposure of the oil to air causes polymerization, and some oxidation also takes place with the formation of anisaldehyde and anisic acid. The chief constituent of aniseed oil is anethole, which is present to the extent of 80 to 90 per cent and is mainly responsible for the characteristic flavor of the oil. The oil also contains methyl chavicol , p-methoxyphenyl acetone, and small amount of terpenes and sulfur containing compounds of disagreeable odour.

Aniseed Essential Oil V Common Method of Extraction:- Steam Distillation V Color:- Clear V Botanical Name:- Pimpinella anisum V Aromatic Description:- Distinctive scent of licorice. Rich and sweet. V Constituents:- a-pinene, camphene, B-pinene, linalool, cis-anethole, trans-anethole, safrole, anisaldehyde, acetoanisole. Uses of Aniseed Oil:Ø In aromatherapy, aniseed essential oil is used to treat colds and flu. Ø Aniseed oil can be made into a liquid scent and is used for both hunting and fishing. It is put on fishing lures to attract fish. Ø Anethole, the principal component of anise oil, is a precursor that can eventually produce 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde which is can be used in the clandestine synthesis of psychedelic drugs such as 2C-B, 2C-I and DOB. Ø Oil of aniseed is also reported to be used as an aromatic carminative to relieve flatulence, and as an ingredient of cough lozenges in combination with liquorice. Ø Essential oil is also used externally as an insecticide against small insects such as head lice, mites and vermin. It also has fungicidal properties. Carom essential oil: Carom seeds are also known as ajwain , Thymol seeds, Onum , Ajma , Ajmodika and bishops weed. They are the tiny, cute, delicate and oval shaped herbs with a penetrating fragrance. Carom seed belongs to the family of cumin and parsley. These seeds have been used since years as they consists number of medical properties. Because of their strong aroma, carom seeds are highly used for the Indian culinary. Carom seeds are sharp and hot with the burning taste, that’s why few seeds are enough to bring the flavor in any Indian recipe. Carom seeds can be whole or powdered one. It is always advisable to buy whole carom seeds as they can be easily turned into powder form just by grinding them in a smooth powder. Uses: These seeds are used for the tempering or tadka’s in the dishes.

Ajwain has strong, dominant and distinctive taste and flavor, that’s why few seeds are enough to bring exotic fragrance to the vegetarian and non-veg food. Ajwain can be used for making pickles as well. The aroma and unique taste of ajwain is used for making various types of roti’s, parathas, thepla’s and so on. They are specially used in different types of meat, snack recipes and dal recipes to enhance the flavor. Soups, stocks and stews can be flavored with few seeds of ajwain. Ajwain are highly incorporated for making various salad dressings and Indian bakery items.

Cardamon seeds: Cardamon provides a warming and stimulating tonic .Cardamon is also an excellent choice for the digestive system. I am sure I don’t have to tell you that Cardamon is greatly admired and extensively used as a culinary spice all over the world. You can also try a gargle with Cardamon if you suffer with halitosis (bad breath). Why not try 1 drop Cardamon and one drop of Peppermint in a small amount of water as an effective way to freshen your breath! If your energy is waning, perhaps in the middle of the afternoon, when you still have a mountain of work to do, try inhaling Cardamon to perk you up. It will help to relieve your mental fatigue and improve your concentration. On a spiritual level, Cardamon helps you to establish true and strong bonds with others on the spiritual pathway. uses for Cardamon 1 Smoothies

Add some cardamom to fruit smoothies to give them an extra edge. It doesn’t matter what flavor the basic smoothie is – in fact, the more exotic the better. Mango, pineapple and guava are particularly good matches for this heady spice.

2 Fruit loaves

If you want to jazz up your banana bread or add a bit of life to your tired fruit loaf recipe, then a touch of ground cardamom will make a world of difference. Just add the spice when you are mixing in the rest of the dry ingredients and you will get a lovely warm, rich flavor from the finished loaf.

3 Bread

As with fruit loaves, a sprinkling of cardamom will do wonders for your bread rolls and loaves. Don’t worry about the cardamom turning savory breads into sweet; the spice will just a hint of warmth to the flavor and you can add as little or as much as you like, depending on taste.

4 Puddings

Many desserts benefit from the addition of cardamom – rice pudding works especially well, but you could also try adding a little ground cardamom to ice cream, set custards, yogurt, and baked fruit.

5 Casseroles

A few pods added to a casserole dish will give a lamb, chicken or vegetable casserole an extra zing and makes a great entertaining or moving house meal.

6 Rice

A lot of people a couple of bruised cardamom cloves to the pan when they cook rice. It adds a subtle flavor to the rice, which works really well with Indian curries and vegetable dishes. You can do with any kind of rice – basmati, brown, white, etc and it also works well with rice dishes like pilaff and biryani.

7 Roast meat

Cardamom is strong enough to hold its own with any grilled or roasted meat and yet it only adds to, and never detracts from, the main flavor of the recipe. Try adding a few pods to the roasting pan. The juices will make fantastic gravy once the meat has cooked.

8 Soups

Spices always work well with soup, but have you tried cardamom yet? As it works equally well with sweet and savory dishes, you can experiment with any kind of soup – try it with carrot and coriander, or a chunky root vegetable soup.

9 Tea

Yes, that’s right; a couple of cardamom pods can transform a cup of tea into an exotic drink. Chai tea traditionally includes cardamom, as well as a number of other spices, but you can create your own drink based on your favourite flavors. Hot milk has a natural affinity to warm spicy ingredients and cardamom is no exception. Cardamom tea recipe.

10 Breath freshener

Popping a cardamom pod in your mouth can help get rid of unwanted food smells and give your breath a nice, fresh odour. It makes a change from chewing gum and is great to chew after a spicy meal.

REQUIREMENTS:- Steam generator (Copper Vessel), round bottom flask (500 ml), conical flask, condenser, glass tubes, iron stand, sand bath, separatory funnel, tripod stands, burners, Ajwain(Carum), Petroleum ether(60-80°C),Saunf(Aniseed) . PROCEDURE:-Set the apparatus as shown in the picture of Experimental Setup. The apparatus consists of a steam generator connected to the round bottom flask through a glass inlet tube. The flask is connected to a water condenser through a glass outlet tube. Condenser is further attached to a receiver through an adaptor. Take about 750 ml of water in the steam generator and start heating to produce steam. In the round bottom flask take about 75 gm of crushed saunf. A vigorous current of steam from steam generator is passed through the round bottom flask. A part of the steam condenses in the round bottom flask. As more and more steam is passed, the steam volatile components of saunf pass through the condenser along with steam. These contents on condensation are collected in the receiver. The contents in the round bottom flask may be heated by a bunsen burner to prevent excessive condensation of steam. The process of steam distillation is continued for about half an hour. Transfer the distillate to a separating funnel and extract with 20 ml portions of petroleum ether 3 times. Combine the petroleum ether extracts in a 250 ml conical flask and dry it with the help of anhydrous sodium sulphate. Remove the solvent from the dried filtrate by careful distillation in a water bath. The essential oil is left behind in the distillation flask. Find the weight of the extracted essential oil. Note the colour, odour and weight of the essential oil. OBSERVATIONS:- 1.) Saunf (Aniseed):Weight of Saunf taken = 100 gm Initial Weight of the bottle = 10gm(x) Weight of bottle + essential oil = 11.25 gm(y) Weight of essential oil extracted =(y-x) =1.25 gm Percentage of essential oil = (y/100)*100=1.25 % Colour of the oil = Colourless Odour of the oil = Saunf like smell. 2.) Ajwain (Carum):Weight of Saunf taken

= 75 gm

Initial Weight of the bottle = 10 gm(x) Weight of bottle + essential oil = 11 gm(y) Weight of essential oil extracted =(y-x) =1 gm

Percentage of essential oil = (y/75)*100=1.33% Colour of the oil = Colourless Odour of the oil = Ajwain like smell BIBLIOGRAPHY

Comprehensive Chemistry Practical Class-XII. Ø Ø

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