Thorn Technical Handbook

September 1, 2017 | Author: carlosmandopinto | Category: Reflection (Physics), Electromagnetic Spectrum, Light, Lighting, Visual Perception
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Lighting Handbook...

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Lighting people and places

Thorn Lighting Main Offices Australia Thorn Lighting Pty Limited 43 Newton Road, Wetherill Park NSW 2164 Tel: (02) 8786 6000 Fax: (02) 9612 2700 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.com.au Austria Thorn Licht GmbH Donau-City-Straße 11, 1220 Wien, Austria Tel: (43) 1 202 66 11 Fax: (43) 1 202 66 11 12 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.at China Thorn Lighting (Guangzhou) Operations Ltd, No.12 Lian Yun Road, Eastern Section, GETDD, Guangzhou 510530, China Tel: (86) 20 3228 2706 Fax: (86) 20 3228 1777 E-mail: [email protected] Thorn Lighting (Tianjin) Co. Ltd 332 Hongqi Road, Tianjin 300190, China Tel: (86) 22 8369 2303 Fax: (86) 22 8369 2302 E-mail: [email protected] Czech Republic Thorn Lighting CS spol. s.r.o., Na Březince 6/930, 150 00 Praha 5 Czech Republic Tel: (420) 224 315 252 Fax: (420) 233 326 313 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.cz

France Thorn Europhane SA 156 Boulevard Haussmann, Cedex 08, Paris 75379, France Tel: (33) 1 49 53 6262 Fax: (33) 1 49 53 6240 Website: www.thornlighting.fr Hong Kong Thorn Lighting (Hong Kong) Limited Unit 4301, Level 43, Tower 1, Metroplaza,223 Hing Fong Road, Kwai Chung, N.T., Hong Kong Tel: (852) 2578 4303 Fax: (852) 2887 0247 E-mail: [email protected]

Ireland Thorn Lighting (Ireland) Limited 320 Harold’s Cross Road, Dublin 6W, Ireland Tel: (353) 1 4922 877 Fax: (353) 1 4922 724 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.co.uk Italy Thorn Europhane Spa Via G Di Vittorio, 2, Cadriano di Granarolo, Bologna 40057, Italy Tel: (39) 051 763391 Fax: (39) 051 763088 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.it New Zealand Thorn Lighting (NZ) Ltd 399 Rosebank Road, P O Box 71134, Rosebank, Auckland 7, New Zealand Tel: (64) 9 828 7155 Fax: (64) 9 828 7591 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.co.nz Norway Thorn Lighting AS Strømsveien 344, 1081 Oslo, Norway Tel: (47) 22 82 07 00 Fax: (47) 22 82 07 01 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.no Poland Thorn Lighting Polska Sp.z.o.o., Ul. Gazowa 26A, Wrocław 50-513, Poland Tel: (48) 71 7833 740 Fax: (48) 71 3366 029 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.pl Russia Thorn Lighting Novoslobodskaya Str., 21, office 406 Business Center “Novoslobodskaya 21”, Moscow 127030, Russia Tel: (7) 495 981 35 41 Fax: (7) 495 981 35 42 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.ru

Singapore Thorn Lighting (Singapore) Pte Ltd 5 Kaki Bukit Crescent, 04-02 Koyotech Building, 416238 Singapore Tel: (65) 6844 5800 Fax: (65) 6745 7707 E-mail: [email protected] Sweden Thorn Lighting AB Industrigatan, Box 305, SE-261 23 Landskrona, Sweden Tel: (46) 418 520 00 Fax: (46) 418 265 74 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.se United Arab Emirates Thorn Lighting Ltd Dubai Al Shoala Building, Office 301, Block E, Airport road, P.O. Box 1200, Deira, Dubai, UAE Tel: (971) 4 2940181 Fax: (971) 4 2948838 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.com Thorn Gulf LLC Al Shoala Building, Office 301/2, Block E, Airport road, P.O. Box 22672, Deira, Dubai, UAE Tel: (971) 4 2948938 Fax: (971) 4 2948838 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.com United Kingdom Thorn Lighting Limited Silver Screens, Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FE, UK Tel: (44) 20 8732 9800 Fax: (44) 20 8732 9801 E-mail: brochures.u[email protected] Thorn Olympics Sports Lighting Team Tel: 07796 303176 E-mail: [email protected] International Sales Thorn Lighting Limited Silver Screens, Elstree Way, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, WD6 1FE, UK Tel: (44) 20 8732 1915 Fax: (44) 20 8732 1911 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.com

www.thornlighting.com

Thorn Lighting is constantly developing and improving its products. All descriptions, illustrations, drawings and specifications in this publication present only general particulars and shall not form part of any contract. The right is reserved to change specifications without prior notification or public announcement. All goods supplied by the company are supplied subject to the company’s General Conditions of Sale, a copy of which is available on request. All measurements are in millimetres and weights in kilograms unless otherwise stated. Publication No: 434 (INT) Publication Date: 06/08

Technical Handbook

Technical Handbook

Denmark Thorn Lighting A/S Albuen 44, 6000 Kolding, Denmark Tel: (45) 7696 3600 Fax: (45) 7696 3601 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.dk

India Thorn Lighting India Pvt. Ltd RH-2 Nirav CHS, 636A, 90 Ft. D.P. Road, Near Thakur Polytechnic 400 101 Mumbai, India Tel: (91) 22285 41056 Fax: (91) 22285 1120 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.thornlighting.com

Glossary Editor Peter Thorns BSc(Hons) CEng MCIBSE MSLL Contributors Patricia El-Baamrani; Lou Bedocs; Karl Flax; Stefan Hauer; Pat Holley; Hugh King; Jan-Erik Jerleke; Iain Macrae; Robin Ostlin; Paul Stranks This is the fifth edition of the Technical Handbook Copyright © Thorn Lighting. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, without prior permission in writing from Thorn Lighting, except for the quotation of brief passages in reviews. While Thorn has made every effort to credit the copyright owners for the illustrations and photographs used herein, there may be omissions, for which the company apologises.

Picture credits: Danny Maddocks; Chris Gascoigne; Mike Gee; Richard Seymour and Alan Turner

Graphics: Juice Creative

Price £15 GBP/€20 EUR. Not for resale.

Spill Light Stray light from a luminaire that incidentally illuminates nearby objects or surfaces within the public environment. Can be a cause of ‘light trespass’. Spine See batten Track A linear bus bar system providing one to three main circuits or a low voltage supply to which display lighting (spotlights) can be connected and disconnected at will along the length of the system. Transformer Transformers reduce the line voltage (for instance 230V) to the lower voltage required for operating low-voltage halogen lamps. This will generally be 12V. Trunking Trunking usually provides mechanical fixings for the luminaires as well as electrical connection. Uniformity The ratio of the minimum illuminance to the average illuminance over the specified area. Visual performance The ability to perceive detail and carry out the visual tasks. Visual comfort Our feeling of ease or well being within the visual field. Visual satisfaction The qualitative impression of a lit space.

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Glossary

| 251

Contents 1

Introduction

5

2

The Mechanics of Seeing 2.1 What is light? 2.2 The eye and vision 2.3 Lighting fundamentals

7 7 7 8

3

Controlling Light 3.1 Reflection 3.2 Transmission 3.3 Refraction

9 9 10 10

4

Recommendations for Good Lighting 4.1 Indoor workplaces 4.2 Outdoor workplaces 4.3 Sports 4.4 Emergency 4.5 Roads 4.6 Amenity 4.7 Tunnel 4.8 Lighting scheme surveys

11 13 21 24 29 30 33 34 35

5

Applications and Techniques 5.1 General Considerations 5.2 Office 5.3 Education 5.4 Industry indoor 5.5 Industry outdoor 5.6 Healthcare 5.7 Super/hypermarket 5.8 Road lighting 5.9 Urban – decorative roadlighting and amenity areas 5.10 Urban – architectural floodlighting 5.11 Sports lighting

39 39 42 48 55 62 69 78 86 94 105 109

6

Specific Techniques 6.1 Indoor lighting controls (ILC) 6.2 Lighting for display screen equipment 6.3 Light for learning 6.4 Emergency lighting 6.5 Low mount road lighting 6.6 Road tunnel lighting

125 125 131 133 137 145 149 Contents

|3



6.7 Lighting maintenance 6.8 Control of obtrusive light 6.9 Lighting for crime prevention 6.10 Lighting and health 6.11 Sustainability 6.12 Outdoor lighting controls (OLC)

152 162 167 171 174 177

7

Checklists 7.1 Life cycle analysis 7.2 Economics 7.3 Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI)

181 181 183 185

8

Lamps, LEDs and Circuits 8.1 Choosing the right lamp 8.2 Tungsten halogen lamps 8.3 Fluorescent lamps 8.4 Compact fluorescent lamps 8.5 Metal halide lamps 8.6 Sodium vapour high pressure lamps 8.7 Mercury vapour lamps 8.8 Induction lamps 8.9 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 8.10 Lamp coding systems – LBS/ILCOS 8.11 Characteristic values of the major lamps 8.12 Energy efficiency of luminaires 8.13 Circuits 8.14 Properties of electronic ballasts 8.15 Voltage drop 8.16 Fusing 8.17 Wiring regulations 8.18 Fault detection

191 191 193 193 196 197 198 199 200 200 204 206 219 219 223 225 226 227 229

9

Standards and Directives 9.1 Directives 9.2 Standards 9.3 Quality and safety marks 9.4 Product/corrosion compatibility guide

233 233 235 237 240

10 Tools 10.1 Tools

243 243

11 Glossary

246

4|

1 Introduction Light is life, without light we could not live. Our human physiology is based upon light and the complex structure of our earth relies upon light to function. And as we have progressed technologically we have taken this further, turning the dark into light, from using fire to the electric light. Electric lighting is the basis for our modern society, turning darkness into light in windowless or deep-plan offices, in our city streets at night, in numerous leisure and amenity facilities. Our society exists as it does because of light. Our patterns of work and leisure are made possible through our ability to control our environment and supply light on demand. As we have developed the technology of lighting we have also developed our understanding of how to use light. Through standards we lay down limits for safety and adequacy, through guides we direct lighting toward established good practice, show how to transcend the adequate. We have learnt how to give light meaning, transforming spaces by giving them a lit atmosphere, applying light to give beauty to a scene. But the use of light is constantly challenging us. It is no longer enough to ensure good task visibility, or a comfortable environment. It is not even enough to produce an environment that gives a sense of well-being. We need to do all these, but also in a way that minimises harm to the environment. Therefore stricter rules are being applied to product design, use and disposal. We have to minimise the carbon footprint of a product or an installation and maximise sustainability. Therefore, all aspects of design, whether for a luminaire or lighting installation, is a balance of factors, a balance of performance, efficiency and comfort (PEC).

Fig. 1.1 A  menity lighting creating a pleasant balanced scene

Performance is the achievement of visual effectiveness, meeting requirements and targets. It is quantifiable through known lighting measures such as illuminance, luminance, glare rating, colour rendition and uniformity. These measures are generally defined through national and international standards and recommendations.

Introduction

|5

Efficiency is conserving energy and effort, reducing CO2 emissions and waste, producing a system that is practical and efficient to install, operate and maintain. Efficiency can also be quantified, through units such as lumens/watt, cost/m2, CO2 kg/year, percent recycled element, percent maintenance link, and many others. Some of these measures are defined through national and international standards and recommendations, such as energy efficiency or the ecodesign of products, whilst others are concerns for the end-user, such as cost. Comfort is the achievement of complete satisfaction, providing a stimulating atmosphere that gives sustainable wellness. The criteria for assessing comfort are subjective and are the criteria that differentiate the design, that give the design its individuality, its own character. Is it calming/stimulating/inspiring, welcoming and pleasant, reassuring, fulfilling? Does it have a pleasing flow of light and give a well balanced ambient? Do all parts of the design complement each other, the architecture of the space, the lit effect, and the physical design of the luminaires? This is the point where the engineering and art are blended to produce good lighting. So in their job the designer needs to know a wide selection of information and how to blend this to deliver better lighting, with better efficiency and a better environment in a sustainable manner. This is the PEC philosophy, and in this handbook we supply some of this information to help the designer in their task.

6 | Introduction

2 The Mechanics of Seeing Our discernment of the world is via our five senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. Of these sight is the most important. Over 80 per cent of our experience of the world comes via our sight. But how do we see?

2.1 What is light? To see we need light, and light is an emission of electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic spectrum varies from radio waves through infrared, ultra-violet, X-rays and finally to gamma rays, and light is a very small part of this spectrum with wavelengths from 380 to 760 nanometres (1nm=10-9m). This is the part of the spectrum whose rays are visible to the human eye and lies between infrared and ultra-violet. Light may be further divided as the wavelength of the light relates to the colour we see. As the wavelength changes so does the colour of the light, from blue at 400nm to red at 700nm.

Vision 80%

Other senses 20%

Fig. 2.1 The importance of vision

380 400

WAVELENGHT (nanometers) 500 600 700

2.2 The eye and vision Rays of light entering the eye are directed onto the retina, which is a layer of light sensitive cells within the eye. The retina is composed of two basic types of light sensitive cells, the rods and the cones. These cells have different properties. Cones operate during the day and enable us to see in detailed colour (photopic vision). As the light level drops, say to that of a well-lit street, the cones become less effective and are assisted by the more sensitive rods (mesopic vision). However, the rods only give black and white vision. Therefore we see a less brightly coloured view as we are using a mixture of the rod and cone cells, the relative mixture varying depending upon the actual light level. At much lower light levels, say that of dim moonlight, the cones cease to function at all, and our vision becomes totally monochromatic using just the rods (scotopic vision). The unit for this measure of light is the lumen. These concepts are important as we consider the appearance of a space under different lighting conditions with respect to the amount of light and the colour spectrum of the light.

760

VISIBLE LIGHT

GAMMA X RAYS RAYS

ULTRA VOILET

INFRA RED

RADIO

Fig. 2.2 The electromagnetic spectrum

Photopic vision (day)

100%

400

500

600

700

800

Scotopic vision (dark adapted eye) Photopic vision (day)

100%

400

500

600

700

800

Fig. 2.3 P hotopic and Scotopic visual response curves

The Mechanics of Seeing

|7

2.3 Lighting fundamentals 2.3.1 Illuminance (E) - This is a measure of the amount of light falling onto an object, and is measured in lux. It is the amount of luminous flux (F) that is received by a surface of given area. 2.3.2 Luminance (L) - This is a measure of the amount of light reflected by an object and is measured in cd/m². It is the amount of luminous flux (F, lumens) that is emitted by a surface of given area and is dependant upon the properties of the surface (e.g. reflection, refraction and transmission. See section 3 on controlling light). The value of luminance at a point on a surface can therefore vary dependant upon the observer viewpoint. 2.3.3 Glare - Glare is the result of excessive contrasts of luminance in the field of view. The effect may vary from mild discomfort to an actual impairment of the ability to see. When the ability to see is impaired this is called disability glare. Discomfort glare refers to the discomfort or distraction caused by bright windows or luminaires.

E

Fig. 2.4 Illuminance

L

Fig. 2.5 Luminance

Glare may be calculated in a variety of ways depending upon the application. So for example in interiors the Unified Glare Rating (UGR) is calculated. Similarly for sports lighting applications Glare Rating (GR) is used and for street lighting Threshold Increment (TI) is calculated. All of these methods, whilst using different parameters are essentially the ratio of luminaire brightness to background brightness. Fig. 2.6 G  lare from indoor luminaires with poor optical control

8 | The Mechanics of Seeing

3 Controlling Light When we light an object, be it a space such as a room or a sports field, or part of a luminaire such as a louvre or diffuser, we do not see the light that falls onto a surface or object. What we actually see is the effect of light upon the object. Different materials affect light in different ways, for example paper reflects light differently to polished metal and the lit effect is different again for glass. To understand how a surface or object will look we need a basic understanding of reflection, transmission and refraction, the principal ways materials react to light.

3.1 Reflection As mentioned above paper reflects light differently to polished metal. This is because paper exhibits what we term matt or diffuse reflection whilst polished metal exhibits what we term specular reflection. With diffuse reflection the light reflected from a surface is scattered equally in all directions.

Fig. 3.1 Diffuse reflection

With specular reflection the light reflects from a surface as if from a mirror, producing a sharp-mirrored image. For any ray of light striking a specular surface the angle of incidence of the light is equal to the angle at which the ray of light is reflected. Some surfaces exhibit a mixture of diffuse and specular reflection, showing a fuzzy mirrored image. For this the peak reflection still obeys the rule of angle of incidence equals angle of reflection but light is also diffusely scattered around this peak.

Fig. 3.2 Specular reflection

Fig. 3.3 Mixed specular and diffuse reflection

Controlling light

|9

3.2 Transmission Certain materials have the ability to transmit and diffuse light. When light falls on a translucent (light transmitting) material some light will be reflected in a specular manner, and some light will pass through the material. For a clear material, such as clear glass, the light will pass through with a minimum of scattering. However for materials such as opal plastic the light is scattered or diffused, therefore spreading the brightness of the light ray over a larger area. (See Fig.3.4)

3.3 Refraction

Fig. 3.4 T ransmission of a ray of light through a translucent material

When light passes from one transparent medium to another of different density (e.g. air to glass) it bends. This is known as refraction and this principle is used to control light, for example using prisms. In luminaires prisms are used to direct light away from areas that could cause glare or waste light and into areas that produce more useful light, thereby making the luminaire more efficient at illuminating a task or object. (See Fig. 3.5)

Fig. 3.5 R efraction of a ray of light through a prismatic panel

10 | Controlling light

4 Recommendations for good lighting The recommendations for good lighting give practical values for various lighting criteria, depending upon the application. The recommendations are drawn from a variety of documents, the principle documents being:

Section 4.1 Indoor workplaces EN 12464-1:2002 Light and Lighting – Lighting of work places – Part 1: Indoor work places and CIE S 008:2001

Section 4.2 Outdoor workplaces EN 12464-2:2007 Lighting of work places – Part 2 : Outdoor work places and CIE S 015:2005

Section 4.3 Sports EN 12193: 2007 Light and Lighting – Sports Lighting

Section 4.4 Emergency EN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007 Emergency Lighting

Section 4.5 Roads EN 13201 1-4 Road lighting practice

Section 4.6 Tunnel CR 14380:2003 Lighting Applications – Tunnel Lighting

Note that these recommendations are based upon the European norms and local regulations may stipulate different values.

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 11

Recommendations for good lighting Whilst these limiting values may be considered to be the minimum design criteria additional factors should be taken into account to ensure a good lighting installation. Some of these factors are described in other sections of this book. The criteria used in the recommendations are defined below. Em

This is the maintained average illuminance, that is the minimum value for average illuminance provided during the maintenance cycle of the installation.

Emin

This is the minimum value of illuminance that is permissible within any calculation or measurement grid.

GRL

This is maximum value of glare rating that is permissible in any direction within any measurement or calculation grid.

Lm

This is the maintained average luminance, that is the minimum value for average luminance provided during the maintenance cycle of the installation.

Ra

This is the colour rendering index for a lamp and defines the ability of a lamp to show different colours correctly.

SR

This is the surround ratio, which is a value used in the design of road lighting applications. It is the ratio of the average illuminance of a strip just outside the carriageway compared to the average illuminance of a strip just inside the carriageway

TI

This is the threshold increment, which is a measure of the loss of visibility caused by the disability glare of the luminaires in an installation.

UGRL This is the limiting maximum value of glare calculated by the unified glare rating method. Ul

This is the uniformity of illuminance along a line, being defined as the minimum illuminance value within a line of measurement points divided by the average illuminance value of the line of measurement points (Emin_line/Em_line).

Uo

This is the uniformity of illuminance across any calculation or measurement grid, being defined as the minimum illuminance value within a grid of measurement points divided by the average illuminance value of a grid of measurement points (Emin/Em).

12 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

Recommendations for good lighting 4.1 Indoor workplaces Type of task or activity Traffic zones and general areas inside buildings Traffic Zones Circulation areas and corridors Stairs, escalators, travalators Loading ramps/bays Rest, sanitation and first aid rooms Canteens, pantries Rest rooms Rooms for physical exercise Cloakrooms, washrooms, bathrooms, toilets Sick bay Rooms for medical attention Control rooms Plant rooms, switch gear rooms Post room, switchboard Store rooms, cold stores Store and stockrooms Dispatch packing handling areas Storage rack areas Gangways : unmanned Gangways : manned Control stations Industrial activities and crafts Agriculture Loading and operating of goods, handling equipment and machinery Buildings for livestock Sick animal pens, calving stalls Food preparation, dairy, utensil washing Bakeries Preparation and baking Finishing, glazing, decorating Cement, cement goods, concrete, bricks Drying Preparation of materials, work on kilns and mixers General machine work Rough forms Ceramics, tiles, glass, glassware Drying Preparation, general machine work Enamelling, rolling, pressing, shaping simple parts, glazing, glass blowing Grinding, engraving, glass polishing, shaping precision parts, manufacture of glass instruments Grinding of optical glass, crystal, hand grinding and engraving Precision work e.g. decorative grinding, hand painting Manufacture of synthetic precious stones

Em

UGRL

Ra

100 150 150

28 25 25

40 40 40

200 100 300 200 500 500

22 22 22 25 19 16

80 80 80 80 80 90

200 500

25 19

60 80

100 300

25 25

60 60

20 150 150

22 22

40 60 60

200 50 200 200

25 25 25

80 40 80 80

300 500

22 22

80 80

50 200 300 300

28 28 25 25

20 40 80 80

50 300 300 750 750 1000 1500

28 25 25 19 16 16 16

20 80 80 80 80 90 90

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 13

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Chemical, plastics and rubber industry Remote-operated processing installations Processing installations with limited manual intervention Constantly manned work places in processing installations Precision measuring rooms, laboratories Pharmaceutical production Tyre production Colour inspection Cutting, finishing, inspection Electrical industry Cable and wire manufacture Winding -Large coils -Medium-sized coils -Small coils Coil impregnating Galvanising Assembly work -Rough e.g. large transformers -Medium e.g. switchboards -Fine e.g. telephones -Precision e.g. measuring equipment Electronic workshops, testing, adjusting Food stuffs and luxury food industry Work places and zone in -Breweries, malting floor -For washing, barrel filling, cleaning, sieving, peeling -Cooking in preserve and chocolate factories -Work places and zones in sugar factories -For drying and fermenting raw tobacco, fermentation cellar Sorting and washing of products, milling, mixing, packing Work places and critical zones in slaughter houses, butchers, dairies mills, on filtering floor in sugar refineries Cutting and sorting of fruit and vegetables Manufacture of delicatessen foods, kitchen work, manufacture of cigars and cigarettes Inspection of glasses and bottles, product control, trimming, sorting, decoration Laboratories Colour inspection Foundries and metal casting Man-size underfloor tunnels, cellars, etc. Platforms Sand preparation Dressing room Work places at cupola and mixer Casting bay Shake out areas Machine moulding

14 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

Em

UGRL

Ra

50 150 300 500 500 500 1000 750 300 300

28 25 19 22 22 16 19 25 25

20 40 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80

300 500 750 300 300

25 22 19 25 25

80 80 80 80 80

300 500 750 1000 1500

25 22 19 16 16

80 80 80 80 80

200 200 200 200 200 300

25 25 25 25 25 25

80 80 80 80 80 80

500

25

80

300 500 500 500 1000

25 22 22 19 16

80 80 80 80 90

50 100 200 200 200 200 200 200

25 25 25 25 25 25 25

20 40 80 80 80 80 80 80

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Hand and core moulding Die casting Model building Hairdressers Hairdressing Jewellery manufacturing Working with precious stones Manufacture of jewellery Watch making (manual) Watch making (automatic) Laundries and dry cleaning Goods in, marking and sorting Washing and dry cleaning Ironing, pressing Inspection and repairs Leather and leather goods Work on vats, barrels, pits Fleshing, skiving, rubbing, tumbling of skins Saddlery work, shoe manufacturer, stitching, sewing, polishing, shaping, cutting, punching Sorting Leather dyeing (machine) Quality control Colour inspection Shoe making Glove making Metal working and processing Open die forging Drop forging Welding Rough and average machining: tolerances ≥ 0.1mm Precision machining, grinding: tolerances < 0.1mm Scribing, inspection Wire and pipe drawing shops, cold forming Plate machining: thickness ≥ 5mm Sheet metalwork: thickness < 5mm Tool making, cutting equipment manufacture Assembly • Rough • Medium • Fine • Precision Galvanising Surface preparation and painting Tool, template and jig making, precision mechanics, micromechanics Paper and paper goods Edge runners, pulp mills Paper manufacture and processing, paper and corrugating machines, cardboard manufacture Standard bookbinding work e.g. folding, sorting, gluing, cutting, embossing, sewing

Em

UGRL

Ra

300 300 500

25 25 22

80 80 80

500

19

90

1500 1000 1500 500

16 16 16 19

90 90 80 80

300 300 300 750

25 25 25 19

80 80 80 80

200 300 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500

25 25 22 22 22 19 16 22 22

40 80 80 90 80 80 90 80 80

200 300 300 300 500 750 300 200 300 750

25 25 25 22 19 19 25 26 22 19

60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60

200 300 500 750 300 750 750

25 25 22 19 25 25 25

80 80 80 80 80 80 80

200 300 500

25 25 22

80 80 80

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 15

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Power stations Fuel supply plant Boiler house Machine halls Side rooms e.g. pump rooms, condenser rooms, etc., switchboards (inside buildings) Control rooms Outdoor switch gear Printers Cutting, gilding, embossing, block engraving, work on stones and platens, printing machines, matrix making Paper sorting and hand printing Type setting, retouching, lithography Colour inspection in multicoloured printing Steel and copper engraving Rolling mills, iron and steel works Production plants without manual operation Production plants with occasional manual operation Production plants with continuous manual operation Slab store Furnaces Mill train, coiler, shear line Control platforms, control panels Test, measurement and inspection Underfloor man-sized tunnels, belt sections, cellars, etc. Textile manufacture and processing Work places and zones in baths, bale opening Carding, washing, ironing, devilling machine work, drawing, combing, sizing, card cutting, pre-spinning, jute and hemp spinning Spinning, plying, reeling, winding Warping, weaving, braiding, knitting Sewing, fine knitting, taking up stitches Manual design, drawing patterns Finishing, dyeing Drying room Automatic fabric printing Burling, picking, trimming Colour inspection, fabric control Invisible mending Hat manufacturing Vehicle construction Body work and assembly Painting, spraying chamber, polishing chamber Painting, touch-up, inspection Upholstery manufacture (manned) Final inspection Wood working and processing Automatic processing e.g. drying, plywood manufacturing Steam pits Saw frame Work at joiners bench, gluing, assembly

16 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

Em

UGRL

Ra

50 100 200 200 500 20

28 25 25 16 -

20 40 80 60 80 20

500

19

80

500 1000 1500 2000

19 19 16 16

80 80 90 80

50 150 200 50 200 300 300 500 50

28 25 25 25 22 22 -

20 40 80 20 20 40 80 80 20

200

25

60

300

22

80

500 500 750 750 500 100 500 1000 1000 1500 500

22 22 22 22 22 28 25 19 16 19 22

80 80 80 90 80 60 80 80 90 90 80

500 750 1000 1000 1000

22 22 19 19 19

80 80 90 80 80

50 150 300 300

28 28 25 25

40 40 60 80

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Polishing, painting, fancy joinery

Em

UGRL

Ra

750

22

80

Work on wood working machines e.g. turning, fluting, dressing, rebating, grooving, cutting, sawing, sinking

500

19

80

Selection of veneer woods Marquetry, inlay work

750 750

22 22

90 90

Quality control, inspection

1000

19

90

Offices Offices Filing, copying, etc. Writing, typing, reading, data processing Technical drawing CAD work stations Conference and meeting rooms Reception desk Archives

300 500 750 500 500 300 200

19 19 16 19 19 22 25

80 80 80 80 80 80 80

Retail premises Retail premises Sales area Till area Wrapper table

300 500 500

22 19 19

80 80 80

100 200 200 300

22 25 22 22

80 80 80 80

300 500 200 300 500 100

22 22 22 22 19 25

80 80 80 80 80 80 80

300

22

80

300

22

80

200 500 500

19 19 19

80 80 80

300 75 75 75 300

25 25 25 19

20 20 20 20 80

Places of public assembly General areas Entrance halls Cloakrooms Lounges Ticket offices Restaurants and hotels Reception/cashier desk, porters desk Kitchen Restaurant, dining room, function room Self-service restaurant Buffet Conference rooms Corridors Theatres, concert halls, cinemas Practice rooms, dressing rooms Trade fairs, exhibition halls General lighting Libraries Bookshelves Reading area Counters Public car parks (indoor) In/out ramps (during the day) In/out ramps (at night) Traffic lanes Parking areas Ticket office

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 17

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Educational premises Nursery school, play school Play room Nursery Handicraft room Educational buildings Classrooms, tutorial rooms Classroom for evening classes and adult education Lecture hall Black board Demonstration table Art rooms Art rooms in art schools Technical drawing rooms Practical rooms and laboratories Handicraft rooms Teaching workshop Music practice rooms Computer practice rooms (menu driven) Language laboratory Preparation rooms and workshops Entrance halls Circulation areas, corridors Stairs Student common rooms and assembly halls Teachers rooms Library: bookshelves Library: reading areas Stock rooms for teaching materials Sports halls, gymnasiums, swimming pools (general use) School canteens Kitchen Health care premises Rooms for general use Waiting rooms Corridors (during the day) Corridors (at night) Day rooms Staff rooms Staff office Staff rooms Wards, maternity wards General lighting Reading lighting Simple examinations Examination and treatment Night lighting, observation lighting Bathrooms and toilets for patients

18 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

Em

UGRL

Ra

300 300 300

19 19 19

80 80 80

300 500 500 500 500 500 750 750 500 500 500 300 300 300 500 200 100 150 200 300 200 500 100 300 200 500

19 19 19 19 19 19 19 16 19 19 19 19 19 19 22 22 25 25 22 19 19 19 25 22 22 22

80 80 80 80 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

500 750 200 200 50 200

22 22 22 22 22 22

80 80 80 80 80 80

500 300

19 19

80 80

100 300 300 1000 5 200

19 19 19 19 22

80 80 80 90 80 80

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Examination rooms (general) General lighting Examination and treatment Eye examination rooms General lighting Examination of the outer eye Reading and colour vision tests with vision charts Ear examination rooms General lighting Ear examination Scanner rooms General lighting Scanners with image enhancers and television systems Delivery rooms General lighting Examination and treatment Treatment rooms (general) Dialysis Dermatology Endoscopy rooms Plaster rooms Medical baths Massage and radiotherapy Operating areas Pre-op and recovery rooms Operating theatre Intensive care unit General lighting Simple examinations Examination and treatment Night watch Dentists General lighting At the patient Operating cavity White teeth matching Laboratories and pharmacies General lighting Colour inspection Decontamination rooms Sterilisation rooms Disinfection rooms Autopsy rooms and mortuaries General lighting Autopsy table and dissecting table

Em

UGRL

Ra

500 1000

19 19

90 90

300 1000 500 750 300 1000

19 16 22 19 -

80 90 90 80 80 90

300 50

19 19

80 80

300 1000

19 19

80 80

500 500 300 500 300 300

19 19 19 19 19 19

80 90 80 80 80 80

500 1000

19 19

90 90

100 300 1000 20 200 500 1000 5000 5000

19 19 19 19 25 19 -

90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90

500 1000 300 300 300

19 19 22 22 22

80 90 80 80 80

500 5000

19 -

90 90

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 19

4.1 Indoor workplaces (continued) Type of task or activity Transportation areas Airports Arrival and departure halls, baggage claim areas Connecting areas, escalators, travolators Information desks, check-in desks Customs and passport control desks Waiting areas Luggage store rooms Security check areas Air traffic control tower Testing and repair hangers Measuring areas in hangers Railway installations Covered platforms and passenger subways Ticket hall and concourse Ticket and luggage offices and counters Waiting rooms

20 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

Em

UGRL

Ra

300

22

80

200 150 500 500 200 200 300 500 500 500

22 22 19 19 22 25 19 16 22 22

80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

50 200 300 200

28 28 19 22

40 40 80 80

4.2 Outdoor workplaces Type of area, task or activity

Em

General circulation areas Walkways exclusively for pedestrians Traffic areas for slowly moving vehicles (max 10km/h) e.g. bicycles, trucks and excavators Regular vehicle traffic (max 40km/h) Pedestrian passages, vehicle turning, loading and unloading points

5

20

0.25

50

10

20

0.40

50

20 50

20 20

0.40 0.40

45 50

20 30 50 50 200

20 40 40 40 60

0.10 0.20 0.20 0.40 0.50

55 50 50 50 45

50 20 50

20 20 20

0.25 0.40

55 50

Airports Hanger apron Terminal apron Loading areas Fuel depot Aircraft maintenance stands Building sites General lighting at building sites Clearance, excavation and loading Drain pipes mounting, transport, auxiliary and storage tasks

Ra

Uo

GRL

Framework element mounting, light reinforcement work, wooden mould and framework mounting, electric piping and cabling

100

40

0.40

45

Element jointing, demanding electrical, machine and pipe mountings

200

40

0.50

45

Canals, locks and harbours Waiting quays at canals and locks Gangways and passages exclusively for pedestrians, waiting areas Outport embankment ballasting at canals and locks Lock control area Cargo handling, loading and unloading Passenger areas in passenger harbours Coupling of hoses, pipes and ropes Dangerous part of walkways and driveways (see also parking areas)

10 10 20 20 50 50 50 50

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40

50 50 55 55 55 50 50 45

Farms Farm yard Equipment shed (open) Animals sorting pen

20 50 50

20 20 20

0.10 0.20 0.20

55 55 45

5 20 50 150

20 20 20 20

0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40

50 45 45 45

0.40

45

Fuel filling service stations Vehicle parking and storage areas Entry and exit driveways – dark environment Entry and exit driveways – light environment (i.e. urban) Air pressure and water checking points and other service areas Meter reading area

150

20

Industrial sites and storage areas Short term handling of large units and raw materials, loading and unloading of solid bulk goods

500

80

20

20

0.25

55

50

20

0.40

50

Continuous handling of large units and raw materials, loading and unloading of freight, lifting and descending location for cranes, open loading platforms Reading of addresses, covered loading platforms, use of tools, ordinary reinforcement and casting tasks in concrete plants

100

20

0.50

45

Demanding electrical, machine and piping installations, inspection

200

60

0.50

45

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 21

4.2 Outdoor workplaces (continued) Type of area, task or activity Off-shore gas and oil structures Drill floor and monkey board Rotary table Regular vehicle traffic (max 40km/h) Pedestrian passages, vehicle turning, loading and unloading points Derrick Mud sampling room Test station, shale shaker, wellhead Process areas Pumping areas Crude oil pumps Treatment areas Ladders, stairs, walkways Plant areas Boat landing areas transport areas Life boat areas Sea surface below the rig Helideck Parking lots Light traffic e.g. parking areas of shops, schools, churches, terraced and apartment houses Medium traffic e.g. parking areas of department stores, office buildings, sports and multipurpose building complexes Heavy traffic e.g. parking areas of major shopping centres, major sports and multipurpose building complexes

Em

Ra

Uo

GRL

300 500 20 50 100 300 200

40 40 20 20 40 40 40

0.50 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.50

40 40 45 50 45 40 45

200 300 100 100 300 100 200 30 100

20 40 40 20 40 20 20 20 20

0.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.40 0.25 0.40

45 45 45 45 40 50 50 50 45

5

20

0.25

55

10

20

0.25

50

20

20

0.25

50

Petrochemical and other hazardous industries Handling of servicing tools, utilisation of manually regulated valves, starting and stopping motors, lighting of burners Filling and emptying of container trucks and wagons with risk free substances, inspection of leakage, piping and packing Filling and emptying of container trucks and wagons with dangerous substances, replacements of pump packing, general service work, reading of instruments Repair of machines and electrical devices Fuel loading and unloading sites

100

40

0.40

45

200 100

60 20

0.50 0.40

45 45

Power, electricity, gas and heat plants Pedestrian movements within electrically safe areas Handling of servicing tools, coal Overall inspection General servicing work and reading of instruments Wind tunnels – servicing and maintenance Repair of electric devices

5 20 50 100 100 200

20 20 20 40 40 60

0.25 0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50

50 55 50 45 45 45

Railway areas Open platforms - small stations, rural and local trains Open platforms - medium size stations, suburban and regional trains Open platforms - large stations, inter-city services Covered platforms - medium size stations, suburban and regional trains Covered platforms - large stations, inter-city services Stairs - small and medium size stations Stairs - large stations Walkways

15 20 50 50 100 50 100 20

20 20 20 40 40 40 40 20

0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.50 0.40

50 45 45 45 45 45 45 50

22 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

20

20

0.25

55

50

20

0.40

50

4.2 Outdoor workplaces (continued) Type of area, task or activity Freight areas Freight track – short duration operations Freight track – continuous operation Open platforms Covered platform – short duration operations Covered platform – continuous operation Railway yards handling areas Railway yards – flat marshalling, retarder and classification yards Hump areas Wagon inspection pit Coupling area Tracks in passenger station areas, including stabling Servicing trains and locomotives Level crossings

Em

Ra

Uo

GRL

10 20 20 50 100 30 10 10 100 30 10 20 20

20 20 20 20 40 20 20 20 40 20 20 40 20

0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50 0.40 0.25 0.40 0.40

50 50 50 45 45 50 50 45 40 45 50 50 45

Saw mills Timber handling on land and in water, sawdust and chip conveyors Sorting of timber on land or in water, timber unloading points and sawn timber loading points, mechanical lifting to timber conveyor Reading of addresses and marking of sawn timber Grading and packaging Feeding into stripping and chopping machines

20

20

0.25

55

50

20

0.40

50

100 200 300

40 40 40

0.40 0.50 0.50

45 45 45

Shipyards and docks Short term handling of large units Cleaning of ship hull Painting and welding of ship hull Mounting of electrical and mechanical components General lighting of shipyard area, storage areas for prefabricated goods

20 50 100 200 20

20 20 60 60 40

0.25 0.25 0.40 0.50 0.25

55 50 45 45 55

Water and sewage plants Handling of service tools, utilisation of manually operated valves, starting and stopping of motors, piping packing and raking plants Handling of chemicals, inspection of leakage, changing of pumps, general servicing work, reading of instruments Repair of motors and electric devices

50

20

0.40

45

100

40

0.40

45

200

60

0.50

45

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 23

4.3 Sports This table contains lighting recommendations for a variety of sports. Lighting requirements may differ according to the level of competition of a sport, and therefore requirements are shown for different lighting classes. There are three lighting classes: Class I

Top level competition that will generally involve a large amount of spectators and may involve long viewing distances

Class II

Medium level competition that will generally involve a medium amount of spectators and may involve medium viewing distances. Professional level training may also be class II.

Class III Low level competition that will generally involve small amounts Level of competition

Lighting Class I II

III

International or national

3

Regional

3

3

Local

3

3

3

3

3

Training

Recreational/education Type of area, task or activity

Class

3 Em

Ra

Uo

200 200/Ev 750

20 60

0.50 0.5/0.8

Class I Class II Class III

500 300 200

60 60 20

0.70 0.60 0.50

Class I Class II Class III

500 200 100

60 60 20

0.70 0.50 0.50

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 300

60 60 20

0.70 0.70 0.70

Aerobics (recreational) Archery (lane/target) Athletics (indoor)

GRL

Athletics (outdoor, all disciplines)

Badminton

24 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

50 55 55

Type of area, task or activity Basketball (indoor)

Class

Em

Ra

Uo

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 200

60 60 20

0.70 0.70 0.50

Class I Class II Class III

500 200 75

60 60 20

0.70 0.60 0.50

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 500

80 80 80

0.80 0.80 0.80

Class I

300

60

0.70

Class II

200

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

GRL

Basketball 50 50 55

Billiards

Boccia (indoor)

Boccia (outdoor) Class I

200

60

0.70

50

Class II

100

20

0.70

50

Class III

50

20

0.50

55

Class I

300

60

0.70

Class II

200

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Class I

200

60

0.70

50

Class II

100

20

0.70

50

Class III

50

20

0.50

55

200

60

Boules (indoor)

Boules (outdoor)

10 pin/9 pin bowling Lanes Pins 25m lane

Ev 1000

Pins 50m lane

Ev 2000

0.50 0.80 0.80

Boxing Class I

2000

80

Class II

1000

80

0.80 0.80

Class III

500

60

0.50

Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.50

Class I

750/500

60

0.70

50

Class II

500/300

60

0.70

50

Class III

300/200

20

0.70

55

Climbing

Cricket (infield/outfield)

Cricket nets Class I

1500

60

0.80

50

Class II

1000

60

0.80

50

Class III

750

20

0.80

55

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 25

Type of area, task or activity

Class

Em

Ra

Uo

300/200

0.70

0.70

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 200

60 60 20

0.70 0.70 0.50

Class I Class II Class III

500 300 100

60 60 20

0.70 0.70 0.50

Curling (target / playing area) Cycling (indoor)

GRL 50

Cycling (outdoor) 50 50 55

Dancing Class I

500

60

0.70

Class II

300

60

0.60

Class III

200

20

0.50

Class I

Eh 200/Ev 750

60

Class II

Eh 100/Ev 500

60

Class III

Eh 50/Ev 300

20

Darts

Fencing

750

60

Class I

Eh 750/Ev 500

60

0.70

Class II

Eh 500/Ev 300

60

0.70

Class III

Eh 300/Ev 200

20

0.70

Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Football (indoor)

Football (outdoor) Class I

500

60

0.70

50

Class II

200

60

0.60

50 55

Class III

75

20

0.50

Class I

500

60

0.70

Gymnastics Class II

300

60

0.60

Class III

200

20

0.50

Handball (indoor) Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Class I

500

60

0.70

50

Class II

200

60

0.60

50

Class III

75

20

0.50

55

Handball (outdoor)

Hockey (indoor) Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.70

Class I

500

60

0.70

50

Class II

200

60

0.70

50

Class III

200

20

0.70

55

Hockey (outdoor)

26 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

Type of area, task or activity

Class

Em

Ra

Uo

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 300

60 60 20

0.70 0.70 0.70

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 200

60 60 20

0.70 0.70 0.50

GRL

Ice hockey (indoor)

Ice hockey (outdoor)

Ice skating Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.70

Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Judo

Kendo / Karate Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Netball (indoor)

Netball (outdoor) Class I

500

60

0.70

50

Class II

200

60

0.60

50 55

Class III

75

20

0.50

Class I

300

60

0.70

Petanque (indoor) Class II

200

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Petanque (outdoor) Class I

200

60

0.70

50

Class II

100

20

0.70

50 55

Class III

50

20

0.50

Class I

750

60

0.70

Racketball Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.70

Roller skating Class I

500

60

0.70

Class II

300

60

0.60

Class III

200

20

0.50

Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

School sports

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 27

Type of area, task or activity

Class

Em

Ra

Uo

200/Ev 750

60

0.5/0.8

Class I Class II Class III

750 500 500

80 80 80

0.80 0.80 0.80

Class I Class II Class III

500 300 200

60 60 20

0.70 0.60 0.50

Shooting (lane/target) Snooker

GRL

Speed skating

Squash Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.70

Swimming Class I

500

60

0.70

Class II

300

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Table tennis Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.70

Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

300

20

0.50

Tennis (indoor)

Tennis (outdoor) Class I

500

60

0.70

50

Class II

300

60

0.70

50 55

Class III

200

20

0.60

Class I

750

60

0.70

Weight lifting Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

Wrestling Class I

750

60

0.70

Class II

500

60

0.70

Class III

200

20

0.50

28 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

4.4 Emergency Illuminance limits (CEN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007) Description of space Escape route Open area High risk task area

Illuminance limits (lux)

Diversity limits (Imin / Imax)

Along centre line ≥ 1.0lx In central band ≥ 0.5lx Across area ≥ 0.5lx

0.025 (1:40)

≥ 10% maintained level but not less than15.0lx

0.1 (1:10)

0.025 (1:40)

Disability glare limits (CEN 1838:1999 and CIE S 020/E:2007) Mounting height above floor level H in m

Escape route and open area (anti panic) lighting maximum luminous intensity Imax in cd

High risk task area lighting maximum luminous intensity Imax in cd

H < 2.5

500

1000

2.5 ≤ H < 3.0

900

1800

3.0 ≤ H < 3.5

1600

3200

3.5 ≤ H < 4.0

2500

5000

4.0 ≤ H < 4.5

3500

7000

4.5 ≤ H

5000

10000

For escape routes and open areas response times and durations are; CEN 1838:1999 50% of the required illuminance within 5s, and 100% within 60s with a minimum duration of 1 hour CIE S 020/E:2007 50% of the required illuminance within 20s, and 100% within 60s (if the visual task or risk to people requires a shorter response time then it should be shortened to 50% of the required illuminance within 5s) with a minimum duration of 1 hour (if the visual task or risk to people requires a longer duration then it should be extended to 3 hours) For high risk task areas response times and durations are; CEN 1838:1999 Either 100% required illuminance permanently or within 0.5s, depending upon the application with a minimum duration covering the time the risk exists CIE S 020/E:2007 Either 100% required illuminance permanently or within 0.5s, depending upon the application with a minimum duration of 1 hour Note that these values may differ across countries. For example; UK (CEN 1838:1999) Escape route along centre line ≥ 0.2lx in central band ≥ 0.1lx Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 29

Escape route and open area duration may be extended from 5s to 15s in premises for the most part likely to be occupied by persons who are familiar with them France (CEN 1838:1999) Certified luminaires only may be used On escape routes maximum spacing of luminaires is 15m For open areas 5lm/m2 (luminaire lumens) is required and luminaires may not be spaced more than 4 times their mounting height apart, with a minimum of 2 luminaires per room Therefore, whilst these values may be used for guidance local regulations should be consulted.

4.5 Roads For road lighting the lighting criteria are selected dependant upon the class of road being lit. The class has a range of sub-classes, from the strictest to the most relaxed, and these are chosen dependant upon factors, such as typical speed of users, typical volumes of traffic flow, difficulty of the navigational task, etc. The basic lighting classes are defined as: ME This class is intended for users of motorised vehicles on traffic routes. In some countries this class also applies to residential roads. Traffic speeds are medium to high. The ME classes go from ME1 to ME6, with ME1 defining the strictest requirements. For wet road conditions the MEW classes go from MEW1 to MEW6.

ME1 ME2 ME3A ME3B ME3C ME4A ME4B ME5 ME6 MEW1D MEW1W MEW2D MEW2W MEW3D

Lm ≥ 2.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.5 cd/m2 ≥ 1.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.0 cd/m2 ≥ 0.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.75 cd/m2 ≥ 0.50 cd/m2 ≥ 0.3 cd/m2 ≥ 2.0 cd/m2 ≥ 1.5 cd/m2 ≥ 1.0 cd/m2

Luminance U0 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.35 ≥ 0.35 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.15 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.15 ≥ 0.40

KEY

UL 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.60 ≥ 0.60 ≥ 0.60

≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥

Emin Em Lm Uo Ul TI SR

- - - - - - -

minimum illuminance maintained average illuminance maintained average luminance overall uniformity longitudinal uniformity threshold increment surround ratio

≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥

SR 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

TI 10% 10% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 10% ≤ 10% ≤ 15%

≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤

MEW3W

-

≥ 0.15

-

≥ 0.50

-

MEW4D

≥ 0.75 cd/m2

≥ 0.40

-

≥ 0.50

≤ 15%

MEW4W

-

≥ 0.15

-

≥ 0.50

-

MEW5D

≥ 0.5 cd/m2

≥ 0.35

-

≥ 0.50

≤ 15%

MEW5W

-

≥ 0.15

-

≥ 0.50

-

30 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

CE This class is intended for users of motorised vehicles in conflict areas such as road intersections, roundabouts, etc. These areas also allow provision for cyclists and pedestrians. The CE classes go from CE0 to CE5, with CE0 defining the strictest requirements.

S



A

This class is intended for cyclists and pedestrians on footpaths, cycle paths, residential roads, pedestrian streets, parking areas, etc. The S class and the A class are for similar situations, but the S class criteria are defined in terms of horizontal illuminance as preferred by certain countries. The S classes go from S1 to S6, with S1 defining the strictest requirements.

This class is intended for cyclists and pedestrians on footpaths, cycle paths, residential roads, pedestrian streets, parking areas, etc. The A class and the S class are for similar situations but the A class criteria are defined in terms of hemispherical illuminance as preferred by certain countries. The A classes go from A1 to A5, with A1 defining the strictest requirements.

ES This class is an extension of the A and S classes for those situations where the identification of people or objects is particularly necessary, for example in high crime risk areas. The criteria are in terms of semi-cylindrical illuminance and are used in addition to the S or A class criteria. The ES classes go from ES1 to ES9, with ES1 defining the strictest requirements.

EV This class is an extension of the CE, A and S classes for those situations requiring good visibility of vertical surfaces, for example toll booths. The criteria are in terms of vertical illuminance and are used in addition to the CE, S or A class criteria. The EV classes go from EV1 to EV6, with EV1 defining the strictest requirements.

CE0 CE1 CE2 CE3 CE5

≥ ≥ ≥ ≥ ≥

Horizontal illuminance Em Emin Uo 50.0 lux ≥ 0.40 30.0 lux ≥ 0.40 20.0 lux ≥ 0.40 15.0 lux ≥ 0.40 7.50 lux ≥ 0.40

Horizontal illuminance Em Emin ≥ 15.0 lux; ≤ 22.5 lux ≥ 5.0 lux ≥ 10.0 lux; ≤ 15.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 7.5 lux; ≤ 11.25 lux ≥ 1.5 lux ≥ 5.0 lux; ≤ 7.5 lux ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux; ≤4.5 lux ≥ 0.6 lux ≥ 2.0 lux; ≤ 3.0 lux ≥ 0.6 lux

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5

Hemispherical illuminance Uo Em ≥ 5.0 lux ≥ 0.15 ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 0.15 ≥ 2.0 lux ≥ 0.15 ≥ 1.5 lux ≥ 0.15 ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 0.15

ES1 ES2 ES3 ES4 ES5 ES6 ES7 ES8 ES9

Semi-cylindrical illuminance Emin ≥ 10.0 lux ≥ 7.5 lux ≥ 5.0 lux ≥ 3.0 lux ≥ 2.0 lux ≥ 1.5 lux ≥ 1.0 lux ≥ 0.75 lux ≥ 0.50 lux

EV1 EV2 EV3 EV4 EV5 EV6

Vertical illuminance Emin ≥ 50.0 lux ≥ 30.0 lux ≥ 10.0 lux ≥ 7.5 lux ≥ 5.0 lux ≥ 0.5 lux

Uo -

Recommendations for Good Lighting

| 31

Recommended lighting levels

When lighting adjacent areas there should not be a difference greater than two comparable classes between the areas, with the area with the highest recommended lighting level being taken as the reference area. To help apply this when adjacent area are lit to different lighting classes the table below shows lighting classes for comparable lighting levels.

CE0

ME1 MEW1 CE1

ME2 MEW2 CE2

ME3 MEW3 CE3 S1

ME4 MEW4 CE4 S2

ME5 MEW5 CE5 S3

ME6

S4

S5

S6

Lighting classes of comparable lighting level

In some countries there is a preference for a particular measure of illuminance over others (for example hemispherical illuminance in preference to horizontal illuminance). The following two tables show comparable alternative lighting classes to aid in designing to local preferences. A class (hemispherical illuminance) compared to S class (horizontal illuminance) Reference class

S1

Alternative class

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

ES class (semi-cylindrical illuminance) and EV class (vertical illuminance) compared to CE and S class (horizontal illuminance) Reference class Alternative class

CE0

CE1

CE2

CE3 S1

CE4 S2

CE5 S3

S4

S5

S6

ES1

ES2 EV3

ES3 EV4

ES4 EV5

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

ES9

32 | Recommendations for Good Lighting

4.6 Amenity There is little standardised information for lighting requirements in amenity areas, and therefore this information should be considered guidance. Local standards and regulations should be checked to ensure compliance. Lighting classes for pedestrian areas in urban centres (see road section above) Traffic flow pedestrians Normal

High

Environmental zone

Environmental zone

E3

E4

E3

E4

Pedestrian only traffic

CE3

CE2

CE2

CE1

Mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic

CE2

CE1

CE1

CE1

Pedestrian zones Em (lux)

Eminimum (lux)

Diversity (Emin/Emax)

Pedestrian precincts

5.0

-

0.08

Squares/open areas

5.0

-

0.10

10.0

-

0.10

-

1.0

Area

Squares (high pedestrian use) Level footpaths Footpaths with steps

-

5.0

-

Outdoor staircase

15.0

-

0.30

Underpass

60.0

-

0.30

Lighting levels for underground, multi-storey and outdoor car parks zones Type Underground and multi-storey excluding roof level

Area Parking bays, access area Ramps, corners, intersections Entrance/exit zones (vehicular) Pedestrian areas, stairs, lifts

Outdoor and multi-storey roof level

Em (lux)

Eminimum (lux)

75

50

150

75

75 night 300 day

-

100

50

60.0

-

Rural zones E1 and E2

15

5

Urban zones E3 and E4

30

10

Multi-storey roof level

30

10

Recommendations for Good Lighting

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4.7 Tunnel For guidance on tunnel lighting you should also refer to section 6.6 on road tunnel lighting. Glare restriction Time of day

Threshold zone

Interior zone

Day-time

TI 70% for the ceiling, >60% for the walls (display boards may lower this to 30-50%) and as high as practical on the floor



Gloss finishes should be avoided as they can cause veiling reflections and glare



Some walls and displays should have accent lighting, to create the effect of directional light that feeling of dappled sunlight through a window for instance



Average supplementary wall illuminance should be around 2/3rds of the task illuminance

The design approach should concentrate on providing ambient, task and accent lighting

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Specific Techniques The basic principle is to achieve a well-balanced lighting environment, with good brightness management, which avoids sharp, distracting lighting contrasts. It is important to remember that while working on PCs, students will probably be receiving information from a teacher at the same time, so providing good vertical lighting on the face, which might be viewed from any position in the classroom, is equally important. In fact, good vertical illuminance is important in all teaching spaces – being able to see the face of the teacher and the facial expressions of other students is a key component of good communication – and is vital to effective learning. About 80% of the information we take in is visual and in a teaching space most of that happens on the desk or within the 40° band (20° above and below the horizontal from the eye).

Fig. 6.16 A  n example of lighting with good vertical illuminance at the board

Get the lighting wrong and it becomes difficult to see the teacher, or the board, for instance. If we can’t see the teachers face because contrast or vertical illuminance is poor, then we may fail to read their body language, or in the case of the hearing-impaired, be unable to lip read. Also consider the colour of the background compared to the teacher’s skin tone. Lighting a light skin tone against a white background presents different problems to a dark skin tone against a white background. Good design will have to cater for all the diverse ethnicities of teaching staff. Using Daylight Good daylighting is also paramount -- artificial lighting makes up 25 per cent of the energy costs of a typical school. Recent research in the US showed that high levels of daylight are associated with improvements in learning rates, increased attendance and 20 per cent higher results in reading and maths. It also can also lead to energy savings of 30-60 per cent (70 per cent if automatic blinds are used). So ecologically and on a human level we cannot ignore daylight. All schools need to use daylight as their primary light source, with daylight factors of 4-5 per cent and a minimum 20 per cent of glazing on external walls. As well as letting in daylight, this allows students and staff to retain a link to the outside weather, environment and changing light conditions throughout the day. This helps to improve morale and concentration and to maintain their circadian rhythms.

136 | Specific Techniques

Fig. 6.17 A  classroom with ample daylight

Specific Techniques 6.4 Emergency lighting Emergency lighting is provided when the supply to the normal lighting fails. It helps people to see their way and move to evacuate quickly to a safe place out of the building. It also avoids panic, restores confidence and enables specific tasks to be made safe. Emergency lighting should be provided in all areas where, when the normal lights fail, there is insufficient daylight or borrowed light available for those people on the premises. A risk assessment should be made to identify the places and routes where people may be at risk and need evacuating in the event of the normal lighting failing. An emergency lighting scheme should be designed with sufficient consideration to the type of premise, size, complexity, kind of activities and type of people involved. Special consideration should be given to places where the elderly and those with disabilities may be present. There are four main points to consider for an effective emergency lighting scheme: 1 – Exit Signage Visible safety signs and signage to indicate the escape route and final exit should be available at all material times (luminance of the sign’s safety colours must be at least 2 cd/ m²). The escape route signs must be located so that occupants from any part of the premises can see and identify the direction for evacuation. 2 – Mandatory Points Emergency luminaires have to be carefully positioned to ensure a compliant emergency lighting scheme. To provide adequate illumination they need to be mounted close to potential hazards on the route, such as stairs, a change of direction or crossings and places requiring emphasis, such as first aid posts, fire fighting appliances and marshalling points. Also for places where people may need reassurance in the event the normal lights failing, such as lifts, toilets or closets.

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Specific Techniques 3 – Illumination levels and infill lighting In addition to the lighting of mandatory points, infill luminaires may be required to achieve the correct lighting levels. An adequate level of illuminance on the floor of escape areas (minimum 0.5 lx) and escape routes (minimum on centre line 1.0 lx) should be made available within 5 seconds of the mains failing to avoid anxiety, and remain operative for at least 1 hour, or longer if required, for safe evacuation. Additionally take care to illuminate the volume of space (from floor up to a height of 2.0m) through which people move during evacuation by mounting luminaires above head height. High-risk task areas should be illuminated to an adequate level (minimum 15 lx) within 0.5 seconds of the normal lights failing for as long as required to complete making the task safe or whilst people pass by if it is by the escape route. Illumination should be carried out with light sources having a colour rendering index of at least Ra 40 so that safety colours in an escape area or on an escape route can be seen and discriminated. Stylish luminaires should be chosen to blend in with the design of the overall lighting scheme, but they must suit the environmental conditions of the location. For example use IP65 emergency lighting luminaires outside the final exit. The luminaires may be dedicated standalone types or integrated into standard lighting luminaires. They can be self-contained or central power fed depending on the size and complexity of the premises, the operation and servicing and practicalities and through life economics of the installation. 4 – Maintenance and testing Once the scheme is installed and commissioned, it is essential that the luminaires are properly maintained and ready to perform in the event of an emergency. To make sure installed emergency products are always fit for purpose, regular testing has to be conducted by the building operator. Therefore consideration should be given at the design stage to the intended method - be it local switch, automatic self-testing or an automatic remote/central controlled testing system. Also assess and plan a schedule for servicing the lamps and batteries at required intervals. Finally, remember the commissioning and certification requirements for both the design and the installed scheme.

138 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques Emergency lighting system considerations Standby lighting is used as an alternative to normal lighting but it can also form the emergency escape lighting solution. When it does it must follow the rules governing escape lighting. Escape lighting covers the need for clearly defined escape routes in the premises formed by corridors or paths indicated by painted lines. Open areas are defined as places where there is no clear route or where the routes are changing such as a large shop, open plan office or multi purpose hall. A high-risk task area is where some uninterruptible activity is ongoing, such as a chemical dip process, or some other process that requires unbroken lighting conditions for safe shut down. In some places where there is high risk of smoke accumulation (airlines, passenger ships) low location way guidance systems are provided to supplement the escape route lighting.

Emergency Lighting

Emergency escape lighting

Escape route lighting

Standby lighting

Open area (anti-panic) lighting

High risk task area lighting

Low location way guidance

Fig. 6.18 Specific forms of emergency lighting

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Specific Techniques Clearly defined escape routes Clearly defined escape routes are taken to be up to 2m wide. Here the horizontal illuminance at floor level on the centre line should be not less than 1 lux, and the centre band of at least 50 per cent of the route width should be illuminated to at least half the centre line value. The diversity of illuminance should not exceed 40:1. Wider routes may be treated as 2m wide strips of escape routes but preferably as open areas. The design illuminance is to be provided within 60 seconds, but preferably within 5 seconds of the supply failure. To avoid dazzling people it is important not to exceed the intensity limits related to the mounting height of the luminaires.

50% of width not less than 0.5 lx

not less than 0.5 lx

not less than 1.0 lx along centreline Fig. 6.19 Escape route plan (up to 2m wide)

Safety signs Strategically placed signs permanently indicating the escape directions from the premises are essential to alleviate anxiety and confusion by the people present. The signs should conform to the graphic design, colour and luminance criteria given in the EN1838 standard. It is important that during an emergency only signs that give a positive indication to the way out should be illuminated and that the signs are mounted high enough (above 2.0m) so that they are not obscured. Open areas Areas where the furnishing or equipment on the floor is frequently reconfigured will not have clearly defined escape routes and are therefore treated as open areas, as defined above. In these the illuminance on the floor should be a minimum 0.5 lux anywhere up to 0.5m from the walls and 50 per cent should be provided within 5 seconds, 100 per cent being provided within 60 seconds of the normal lights failing. The diversity of illuminance should not exceed 40:1. To avoid dazzling people the intensity limits for the luminaire should not be exceeded for the mounting height in the scheme. Exit signs should be located so that they are visible from any part of the space.

Large areas require min 0.5 lx up to border of 0.5m of the perimeter area. Max. to min. illuminance ratio not greater than 40:1.

Exit sign must be visible from all parts of open area Fig. 6.20 Escape route illuminance requirements

140 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques High risk task areas During the failure of the normal lighting supply, emergency lighting is required in places where machinery, plant or other processes may present a hazard if left in operation, and that must be shut down before evacuating the area, In some cases the escape route may be alongside these hazardous tasks and therefore needs to be highlighted. There are also places where the task activity cannot be halted and needs standby emergency light (such as in an operating theatre). The high risk tasks areas should be illuminated as required by the task and in any event the maintained illuminance should be not less than 10 per cent of the required maintained illuminance for that task and should not be less than 15 lux and be available in full within 0.5 seconds. The uniformity should not be less than 0.1. For this a no-break or maintained system should be considered. Power systems for emergency lighting Emergency lighting systems are usually powered from batteries or generators that are automatically triggered by a detection system as soon as the mains system fails. The system duration or category is defined by the period the system is able supply power to the load. Usually given as 60 minutes (1 hour) or 180 minutes (3 hours). The two main types of electrical systems in use are self-contained and central power: Self-contained systems Each luminaire is equipped with battery, charger, indicator and changeover device. These elements may be integral to the luminaire or housed in a separate unit mounted less than 1m from the luminaire. The mains supply charges the battery, which cuts in when the mains system fails. Self-contained systems are easy to install and extend, and require minimal maintenance. The system may include a self- testing facility that can carry out the routine monthly and annual operational tests and give local indications of the status. They can also be connected to a central managed automatic testing system and can give printed report of any defects.

Each luminaire is equipped with batteries and inverter to power one lamp on mains failure

The gear may be remote mounted, if so the box should be within 1m of the luminaire. Fig. 6.21 Self-contained system

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Specific Techniques Central systems Here the power is provided by remote central batteries or generators and is distributed through sub-circuits to a number of slave luminaires. These systems are best suited for large premises. They will require space to house the large battery sets or generator. The wiring of the sub-circuits has to be protected and be of high-integrity. During design due allowance should be made for voltage drops. As part of the high integrity considerations the luminaires with loop-in/out wiring facility must also have protected glands and terminal blocks, alternatively the luminaires may be treated as an individual spur connection to a protected emergency power ring sub-circuit. The system must include monitoring of the mains supply and detection of failure of local circuits in each part of the premises to bring on the emergency lighting.

Fig. 6.22 Central system

Mains mode Em ergency mode Mains Em ergency mode Mainsmode mode Emergency mode Non-ma inta ined Non-ma inta ined Non-maintained (NM) (NM)(NM) Mains mode Em ergency mode Mains mode Em ergency mode lamp off is lamp is on lamp off on lamp isis off lamplamp is onis Non-ma inta ined Maintained Maintained (M) Maintained (NM) Mains mode Em ergency mode Mainslamp mode Em ergenc (M) (M) is on is on lamp is off lamp lamp is on lamp is off lamp is lamp ismode on lamp is on on Non-ma inta ined lamp is on lamp is on Mains Em ergency mode Mains mode Em ergency mode Combined (C) Maintained (NM) Combined Combined Non-ma inta ined Non-ma inta ined (M) lamp is off lamp is on lamp is off lamp i (C) (C) (NM) (NM) lamp is on lamp lamp is on is on lamp is onp is on mains lam p is on emergency lam Maintained mains lam p is on emergency lam p is on mains lamp is on emergency lamp is on lamplamp is offis off lamplamp is onis on Combined (M) Maintained Maintained Fig. 6.23 Summary of modes of operation (C) lamp(M) is on lamp is on lamp is on lamp i Su memergency mary ofmains mode spoper of oper mains lam. 6.21 pSu is m on isp on Fig(M) .Fig 6.21 mary of mode slam oflam ation is onation emergency lam p is on Combined Luminaire mode of operation lamplamp is onis on lamplamp is onis on (C)luminaires can There are a number of ways that emergency Combined Combined operate. In where a battery is present, itisis on charged y ofmains mode s(C) of ation lam palloper iscases, on lam sp of Fig . 6.21 Su memergency mary of mode oper ation mains lam p is on emergency (C) by the mains supply. mains p is onemergency emergency p is on mains lam plam is on lam plam is on

Non-maintained y of mode s of oper(NM) ation Fig . 6.21 Su m mary of mode s of oper ation The lamp is only lit when the mains fail and is operated by an Fig . 6.21 Su m mary of mode of oper Fig . 6.21 Su m mary of mode s of soper ationation emergency power source. Maintained (M) The lamp is lit at all material times and is powered by the mains supply under normal conditions. In an emergency, when the mains fail, an emergency power source cuts in to power the lamp.

142 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques Combined (C) This is a variant of the maintained luminaire in which one lamp is powered by the mains supply during normal conditions. A second lamp operates only under emergency conditions powered by an emergency power source. This type of luminaire provides light at all material times and is best suited for signage. Planning Schemes The lighting calculations involved in emergency lighting are straightforward. It is important to base all calculations on real photometric data for the specific lamp and luminaire, with the output in the worst (minimum) condition. The EN 13032-3 European standard gives the format of the photometric data and defines the critical factors for to be used in calculations. Planning Sequence There is no precise sequence to be followed, but this checklist indicates a possible course. (It is most important that consultation with relevant bodies over the specific plans is carried out early in the design process). 1. Establish licensing requirements 2. Examine building plans 3. Mark exits and final exits 4. Mark escape routes 5. Identify open areas and special locations 6. Mark location of hazards, fire-fighting appliances, and alarm call points. 7. Identify small toilets with no windows and toilets over 8m². 8. Identify closets, control rooms, special plant rooms and lifts 9. Note illuminance and other specification requirements. 10. Select signs and escape luminaires fit for the purpose. 11. Position luminaires at essential locations. 12. Add extra luminaires to complete scheme. 13. Check uniformity and glare. 14. Prepare installations instruction. 15. Prepare commissioning procedure, including illuminance checks. 16. Prepare operation testing service instructions. 17. Prepare logbook. Specific Techniques

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Specific Techniques Inspection and Servicing Regular inspection and servicing of emergency lighting schemes is essential. In the scheme design these matters must be considered and adequately documented. The standards EN 1838 and EN 50172 provide the framework for certification of completion of installation and certification for periodic testing and servicing. The onus for these activities falls on the competent person of the owner/user of premises. Any faults noticed should be recorded in the logbook To verify that adequate emergency lighting is available at all material times the system needs to be inspected and tested monthly and to make full duration tests annually. At the end of each test the circuit is restored to charge conditions and the charge indicator should glow to show that the battery is on charge. The inspection needs to confirm that the luminaires are in place as designed, the lamp in maintained luminaires is functioning and the signs are visible. The testing may be made by automatic systems but these must provide noticeable feedback and warning if action is required. Servicing considerations are straightforward. The batteries or fuel tank for the generator may need topping up. The luminaires need cleaning, failed lamps changing and the batteries in self-contained luminaires replaced at the manufacturers recommended interval. Regular servicing will keep the systems effective and reliable for operation at all material times.

144 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques 6.5 Low mount road lighting When lighting roads there are a number of cases where conventional lanterns do not provide the best solution to the real road situation. Mounting heights may be restricted by structures or local regulations, obtrusive light may be an issue, or maintenance may have to be completed at very high speeds – for example to reduce operators’ exposure to fast-moving traffic, or where downtime for service has to be reduced to the absolute minimum. In situations such as these conventional lighting is often deficient and an alternative solution is to use a luminaire that incorporates flat beam technology, such as the Thorn Orus lantern. A flat beam lantern is designed to satisfy standard lighting criteria in a low height format, and therefore offers engineers a new resource in road lighting. In the case of the Orus lantern a mounting height of 0.9m is standard. Therefore where the use of high columns or other structures is an issue flat beam lanterns can deliver optimised performance without glare for road users.

Fig. 6.24 A  flat beam installation on a road bridge

Specific Techniques

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Specific Techniques The flat beam concept Flat beam technology must address two issues unique to low-level mounting, glare and performance. By positioning the optical light engine below the driver’s eye line the risk of direct glare is reduced, and by projecting light transverse to the road the optical system can offer a very sharp and controlled light distribution, maximising performance. This controlled distribution lights a road surface at ‘grazing’ incidence angles, and drivers perceive higher levels of road lighting because the peak of the reflected beam is roughly in the direction of the eye. This does not mean higher glare because the light distribution is sharply reduced, practically nil when the lantern is installed at the optimum height below the driver’s eye line. Therefore flat beam technology can give road users the benefits of increased perceived ‘brightness’ and visibility. An added benefit is that the low mounting height acts as a good optical and visual guide to the road layout.

Fig. 6.25 A  flat beam lantern mounted on a bridge structure

With conventional luminaires, the ratio of spacing to mounting height is between 3.5 and 5, but with a flat beam lantern the figure is between 10 and 18. Similarly taking the ratio of lit width to mounting height conventional luminaires produce a figure between 0.8 and 1.2, whilst with flat beam technology the figure improves to between 8 and 13. This allows increased spacing of the lanterns, between 8m and 15m for Orus, which is important to prevent a flicker effect from the lanterns. With these spacings the eyes can adjust dependent on speed, meaning that the flicker effect is maintained below 4Hz and in most cases less than 2.5Hz, keeping driver discomfort to an acceptable minimum. Conventional Installation

8m

8m

24m

New concept 0,90m 8m

24m

Fig. 6.26 C  onventional versus low mount lighting

146 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques Application of flat beam technology As mentioned flat beam lanterns can be used where traditional road lighting using columns or façade mounting is not feasible, for reasons such as: • • • • • • •

Ease of access Extreme weather Structural fragility Maintenance difficulties In the vicinity of airfields or other sensitive areas Risk of obtrusive light Other environmental or resource issues

Flat beam lanterns can be specified for use on roads with or without pedestrian traffic. Without pedestrians, the optical design can direct light entirely onto the road. Where pedestrians are present an alternative optical design that creates a ‘circle’ of light around the luminaire helps drivers to detect a pedestrian’s entire body. This option also allows for facial recognition by other pedestrians. Flat beam lighting is also an excellent solution where obtrusive light has to be reduced. For example, it can be specified in certain residential areas, or in areas where the surrounding buildings are illuminated and road lighting should therefore be unobtrusive. Flat beam technology is also suitable for use in parks and gardens. Here the luminaires can spread light at low level without distracting attention from other illuminated features.

8m

10m

8m

10m

Fig. 6.27 F lat beam lighting in road configurations (upper) and pedestrian configuration (lower)

Durability Obviously a potential problem when using flat beam technology is the additional rigors imposed through the lanterns closeness to the road and therefore the harsh effects of road usage, and also the ease of access for vandalism. It is essential that the lanterns are constructed from high quality materials and engineered for low maintenance and a long operating life. Optical components such as the visor need to be strong, UV stabilised and scratch resistant. Tamper resistant screws will be needed and the lantern and mounting will need a suitable IK rating, such as IK10/40 joules. As the lantern is close to the road and therefore the spray caused by road traffic both optic and gear should comply with IP66.

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Specific Techniques Lighting Data for the Thorn Orus lantern When flat beam technology was integrated into Orus, priority was given to the limitation of glare. Calculations show that TI is considerably below 10 per cent while luminance and uniformity exceed relevant standards. The system is designed with a specific lamp burner cap so that direct light cannot reach the eyes of a driver or the rear mirrors of a car when installed at the compulsory height of 0.9m. In a complete installation, Orus offers drivers a unique ‘guidance’ effect which tracks the contours of the road, ahead and behind. Orus can be installed either single-sided, with luminaire spacing between 8 and 15m, or on both sides of the road with the same spacing. In the latter configuration it will cover roads up to 20m wide, giving ample coverage for roads with multiple lanes including cycle lanes and central reservations. The wide choice of lamps – from 35 to 70W HIT-CE G12, or 60W HIT-CE PGZ12 CosmoWhite – gives planners ample scope to adjust Orus to any project. Light output from Orus luminaires is surprisingly resistant to obstruction by queues of traffic. Tests have shown that there is no occultation nor distracting shadows, while light emitted from the system is distributed ahead of, behind and beneath vehicles. It is also reflected by the road surface. Spacing options between 8 and 15m also reduce any ‘pools’ of darkness, while lighting from vehicles further maintains lighting levels. Orus luminaires mix perfectly with classic column mounted systems. Because they use white light they can be used to highlight sections of the highway where care is required, as in a hazard black spot or area of restricted speed.

148 | Specific Techniques

Fig. 6.28 The Orus lantern

Specific Techniques 6.6 Road tunnel lighting The aim of lighting a tunnel is to create a safe environment that allows road users to pass through the tunnel without any accidents, and the lighting needs to be suitable for both daytime and night-time hours. The most critical requirement is to detect obstacles on the road, especially when you are entering and leaving the tunnel. To help in the design process tunnels are normally divided into five zones, the entrance zone, the threshold zone, the transition zone, the interior zone and the exit zone.

Entrance zone

Theshhold zone

Transition zone

Interior zone

Exit zone

Portal

Exit

Fig. 6.29 The five zones of a tunnel

The entrance zone is the part of the tunnel just before the entrance, and it has a length equal to the stopping distance of a car at the traffic design speed. During daylight hours the driver is adapted to the high luminance outside the tunnel. To avoid the entrance to the tunnel appearing as a black hole and to ensure that a driver approaching the tunnel entrance can detect obstacles on the road, suitable lighting must be installed in the tunnel entrance, the threshold zone. The threshold zone is the first zone inside the tunnel and has a length equal to the stopping distance of a vehicle at traffic design speed. Luminance values (Lth) should be calculated according to the calculation method shown in the document CIE 88:2004 and this is related to the luminance outside the tunnel and the speed of the traffic passing through the tunnel. The road luminance can be reduced after a distance of half of the stopping distance into the tunnel.

Fig. 6.30 The entrance zone

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Specific Techniques Between the threshold zone and the interior zone a number of transition zones occur. In these transition zones the luminance is gradually reduced until it reaches the level of the interior zone. The luminance values can be reduced in steps of 3:1, but the last step from transition zone to interior zone should not be greater than two times the interior zones values. The interior zone is the longest part of the tunnel and the luminance level should comply with the recommendations given in the standard. These recommendations give the luminance level as a function of the stopping distance and traffic flow. For very long tunnels the interior zone may be split into two subzones. The first sub-zone is equivalent to the distance of travel of a vehicle at traffic design speed. The second sub-zone contains the remaining length of the interior zone. The exit zone has to follow the same luminance level as the interior zone, but where additional hazards may occur in the tunnel, or in long tunnels, it is recommended to increase the luminance level immediately prior to the exit.

Fig. 6.31 T he interior zone of a tunnel lit from one side by a continuous row of luminaires

For all zones the lighting levels on the walls is recommended to be at least 60 per cent of the road luminance values of the relevant zone up to a height of 2 meters above the road surface. Uniformity of luminance in the zones must be a ratio of 0.4 (minimum to average on the road and walls up to a height of 2m above the road surface). A longitudinal uniformity of 0.6 is required along the centre of each lane of the road. The perception of flicker can occur in a tunnel. This generally occurs when the luminaires are not mounted in a continuous row when discomfort from flicker occurs due to the luminance changes from that of the bright luminaires to the darker surface between luminaires. The length of the experience, the amount of light (peak value and duration) and flicker frequency has an impact on the experience. To minimise flicker discomfort it should be ensured that the flicker frequency is either below 2.5 Hz or above 15Hz. For example: F or a traffic design speed of 60Km/h (16.6m/sec) and a luminaire spacing of 4m the flicker frequency is 16.6/4 = 4.2Hz.

150 | Specific Techniques

Fig. 6.32 A  tunnel lit using floodlights in an opposite configuration

Specific Techniques Optics for a tunnel The main aim for the lighting is to provide a good contrast between the object and the road. For this luminaires may be placed either above the road surface, or at the side of the road surface. Two main types of luminaire optics exist for tunnel lighting, giving a different distribution. Symmetrical optics This optic type is often placed above the lanes and the light distribution is symmetrical both along the road and transverse to the road. Symmetrical optics may sometimes be placed in the junction between wall and ceiling making maintenance of the luminaires easier and removing the need to close the tunnel during maintenance time.

Fig. 6.33 Symmetrical optics

Counter beam optics This optic type is asymmetrical and main beam is orientated against the traffic, to create a maximum contrast between the object and the road. Luminaires are placed above the traffic lanes To design a complete tunnel lighting installation takes a high amount of knowledge and experience. The international document CIE 88:2004 gives information on designing a tunnel lighting scheme, and local standards should be consulted for relevant national requirements.

Fig. 6.34 Counter beam optics

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Specific Techniques 6.7 Lighting maintenance When a lighting installation is first commissioned conditions are at their optimal, that is the luminaires, lamps and reflective surfaces in the space are new and clean. Through the life of the installation these conditions will deteriorate as age and dirt reduce the effectiveness of the lighting. Consequently when designing a lighting installation it is common to design for a maintained lighting value, that is the lighting level achieved when the luminaires, lamps and reflective surfaces are at their oldest or dirtiest. To calculate maintained lighting levels it is necessary to calculate the light loss at the point when the luminaires, lamps and reflective surfaces are at their oldest or dirtiest. This means that the maintenance cycle for the installation must be defined.

Fig. 6.35 The maintenance cycle

The maintenance cycle consists of three main activities: 1. Cleaning and maintaining the luminaire 2. Cleaning and maintaining the lamp 3. Cleaning and maintaining the reflective surfaces in the lit space. In exterior area lighting the impact of reflective surfaces may be negligible. However in applications such as tunnels and underpasses, and also the lighting of building facades regular cleaning can improve the performance of the lighting scheme.

152 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques An example is shown in Figure 6.35, in which the luminaire is cleaned every two years, and is cleaned and re-lamped and the reflective surfaces are cleaned every six years. In this example the installation maintenance factor is 67 per cent, so at worst case only 67 per cent of the initial lighting level is being realised. Note, the installation will never reach the initial lighting levels achieved when new, as deterioration of some of the components within the luminaire, and of the surface finishes within the space, cannot be fully recovered by cleaning. The main factors that influence the loss of lighting performance through life for an installation are: •

The cleanliness of the environment. In industrial or urban environments airborne dirt will be much higher than in clean room or rural environments. Therefore either the luminaires and reflective surfaces within the space will need cleaning more often or the maintenance factor for the installation will be reduced.



The type of luminaire specified within the installation. In dirty environments using an open luminaire will allow dirt deposition within the luminaire that is very difficult to clean. Using a sealed unit prevents dirt from entering the luminaire and therefore only the external surfaces require cleaning and may be cleaned more vigorously.



The lamp technology used within the installation. Different lamp types have different characteristics with respect to lumen maintenance and lamp life and deciding when to relamp is a compromise between these two factors. Selecting a lamp with good lumen maintenance through life will reduce the light loss due to lamp aging. However, the installation performance also relies on all (or at least the majority) of lamps working. So either a spot lamp replacement system must be used where any failed lamps are immediately replaced, or the installation maintenance factor must include an adjustment for the percentage of broken lamps expected before relamping. Therefore, relamping must be done when the lamp lumens have reached a minimum acceptable value and the number of failed lamps in the installation has reached a maximum acceptable level.

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Specific Techniques The installation maintenance factor is then the product of all the maintenance factors of the installation components.

MFinstallation

= luminaire MF x lamp lumen MF x lamp survival MF x reflective surface MF

Where luminaire MF the amount of light lost due to the luminaire through aging and dirt deposition on the luminaire lamp lumen MF the amount of light lost due to a reduction in lamp flux as the lamp ages lamp survival MF  the amount of light lost due to failed lamps which are not immediately replaced reflective surface MF the amount of light lost due to reduced reflection from surfaces within the installation Data for these factors should be available from manufacturers. However the data will assume the unit is operating within normal conditions as specified by the manufacturer. Operating outside these conditions could (and probably will) alter the characteristics of the unit. For example operating a lamp in a hot environment may increase the lumen output of the lamp, but at expense of lumen maintenance and lamp life. Many lighting design software allow the maintenance schedule to be defined and use this to calculate an installation maintenance factor. However further guidance on calculating and using maintenance factors may be found in publications CIE 97-2006 - Maintenance of Indoor Electric Lighting Systems and CIE 154:2003 - The Maintenance of Outdoor Lighting Systems Standard tables for luminaire and room surface maintenance factors exist in CIE 97 and in the absence of more comprehensive manufacturers data these may be used. They rely on the classification of the environment being lit into very clean, clean, normal or dirty, and classification of the luminaire according to its resistance to the effects of dirt (type A to G).

154 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques Table 6.2 gives help in deciding which environment should be used, along with advice on typical cleaning intervals. Inspection interval 3 years

Environment Very Clean

Activity or Task area Clean rooms, semi conductor plants, hospital clinical areas*, computer centres

Clean

Offices, schools, hospital wards

2 years

Normal

Shops, laboratories, restaurants, warehouses, assembly areas, workshops

1 year

Dirty

Steelworks, chemical works, foundries, welding, polishing, woodwork

Table 6.2 Typical inspection periods for differing environmental conditions *In clinical areas more frequent inspections may be required

Table 6.3 gives guidance on deciding the type of luminaire, which is then used in the luminaire maintenance table to determine the luminaire maintenance factor. Type

Luminaire type

Luminaire description

A

Bare batten

bare lamp luminaires

B

Open top housing (natural ventilated and “self cleaning” types)

Direct-indirect luminaires without cover, direct-indirect luminaires with indirect reflector and closed optical device, wallwashing luminaires (vertical opening), wall mounted luminaires open top and base, downlights with open top

C

Closed top housing (unventilated)

Recessed and surface mounted luminaires (e.g. with louvres), downlights, spotlights

D

Enclosed IP2X

General purpose luminaires with closed covers and optics

E

Dust proof IP5X

Dust proof IP5X (protected, clean room luminaires)

F

Indirect lighting and uplight

Free standing, pendant, wall mounted uplighters with closed base, cove lights

G

Air handling and forced ventilated

Air handling body and optic used with air-conditioning or ventilation systems

Table 6.3 Luminaire type and description

When the environment and luminaire type have been determined the tables shown below may be used to give the luminaire maintenance factor and room surface maintenance factor. The room surface maintenance factor depends upon the downward flux fraction (DFF) for the luminaire, which is defined as DFF = downward light output ratio / total light output ratio.

Specific Techniques

| 155

Specific Techniques Elapsed time between cleanings in years Environment Luminaire type A

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

Any

VC

C

N

D

VC

C

N

D

VC

C

N

D

1

0.98

0.95

0.92

0.88

0.96

0.93

0.89

0.83

0.95

0.91

0.87

0.80

B

1

0.96

0.95

0.91

0.88

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.83

0.94

0.87

0.83

0.79

C

1

0.95

0.93

0.89

0.85

0.94

0.89

0.81

0.75

0.93

0.84

0.74

0.66

D

1

0.94

0.92

0.87

0.83

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.77

0.93

0.85

0.79

0.73

E

1

0.94

0.96

0.93

0.91

0.96

0.94

0.90

0.86

0.92

0.92

0.88

0.83

F

1

0.94

0.92

0.89

0.85

0.93

0.86

0.81

0.74

0.91

0.81

0.73

0.65

G

1

1,00

1.00

0.99

0.98

1.00

0.99

0.96

0.93

0.99

0.97

0.94

0.89

Elapsed time between cleanings in years

0

2.0

Environment Any Luminaire type A 1

2.5

3.0

VC

C

N

D

VC

C

N

D

VC

C

N

D

0.94

0.89

0.84

0.78

0.93

0.87

0.82

0.75

0.92

0.85

0.79

0.73

B

1

0.92

0.84

0.80

0.75

0.91

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.89

0.79

0.74

0.68

C

1

0.91

0.80

0.69

0.59

0.89

0.77

0.64

0.54

0.87

0.74

0.61

0.52

D

1

0.91

0.83

0.77

0.71

0.90

0.81

0.75

0.68

0.89

0.79

0.73

0.65

E

1

0.93

0.91

0.86

0.81

0.92

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.92

0.90

0.84

0.79

F

1

0.88

0.77

0.66

0.57

0.86

0.73

0.60

0.51

0.85

0.70

0.55

0.45

G

1

0.99

0.96

0.92

0.87

0.98

0.95

0.91

0.86

0.98

0.95

0.90

0.85

Table 6.4 Luminaire maintenance factors based upon type and environment

156 | Specific Techniques

0.50/0.30/0.20

0.50/0.50/0.20

0.50/0.70/0.20

0.70/0.30/0.20

0.70/0.50/0.20

0.70/0.70/0.20

0.80/0.30/0.20

0.80/0.50/0.20

0.80/0.70/0.20

reflectances ceiling/walls/floor

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.95 0.91 0.86 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.91 0.97 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

0.96 0.92 0.86 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.91 0.97 0.94 0.89 0.84 0.98 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.92

1.00

very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty

0.97 0.93 0.88 0.81 0.98 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.97 0.94 0.89 0.83 0.98 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.98 0.95 0.91 0.85 0.98 0.97 0.94 0.89 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.93

0.50 room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

0.00

environment

time/yrs

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

5.00

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

5.50

0.95 0.91 0.85 0.80 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.85 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.81 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.92

6.00

Specific Techniques

Table 6.5 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=1.0 (direct luminaires)

Specific Techniques

| 157

158 | Specific Techniques

Table 6.6 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=0.5 (direct/indirect luminaires)

0.50/0.30/0.20

0.50/0.50/0.20

0.50/0.70/0.20

0.70/0.30/0.20

0.70/0.50/0.20

0.70/0.70/0.20

0.80/0.30/0.20

0.80/0.50/0.20

0.80/0.70/0.20

reflectances ceiling/walls/floor

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.94 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.84 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

0.94 0.88 0.78 0.67 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.73 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.79 0.94 0.89 0.80 0.69 0.96 0.91 0.84 0.75 0.97 0.93 0.88 0.80 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.79 0.97 0.95 0.90 0.84

1.00

very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty

0.95 0.90 0.81 0.70 0.96 0.93 0.85 0.76 0.97 0.94 0.89 0.81 0.96 0.91 0.83 0.72 0.97 0.93 0.87 0.77 0.98 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.97 0.93 0.86 0.76 0.97 0.94 0.89 0.81 0.98 0.96 0.92 0.85

0.50 room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

0.00

environment

time/yrs

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

5.00

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

5.50

0.93 0.87 0.77 0.67 0.95 0.90 0.82 0.73 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.78 0.93 0.88 0.79 0.69 0.95 0.91 0.83 0.75 0.96 0.93 0.87 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.83 0.74 0.96 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.84

6.00

Specific Techniques

0.50/0.30/0.20

0.50/0.50/0.20

0.50/0.70/0.20

0.70/0.30/0.20

0.70/0.50/0.20

0.70/0.70/0.20

0.80/0.30/0.20

0.80/0.50/0.20

0.80/0.70/0.20

reflectances ceiling/walls/floor

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.90 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.92 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.82 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.87 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

0.91 0.82 0.67 0.50 0.93 0.85 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.68 0.51 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.56 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.92 0.84 0.70 0.52 0.93 0.87 0.74 0.57 0.95 0.89 0.78 0.62

1.00

very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty very clean clean normal dirty

0.93 0.86 0.72 0.54 0.94 0.88 0.76 0.59 0.96 0.90 0.80 0.64 0.93 0.86 0.73 0.55 0.95 0.89 0.77 0.60 0.96 0.91 0.80 0.65 0.94 0.87 0.75 0.57 0.95 0.90 0.78 0.61 0.96 0.91 0.81 0.66

0.50 room surface maintenance factors – utilisation plane

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

0.00

environment

time/yrs

0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

5.00

0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

5.50

0.89 0.81 0.66 0.49 0.91 0.84 0.71 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.90 0.81 0.67 0.50 0.92 0.84 0.72 0.55 0.93 0.87 0.75 0.60 0.91 0.83 0.69 0.52 0.92 0.85 0.73 0.57 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.61

6.00

Specific Techniques

Table 6.7 Room surface maintenance factors for DFF=0 (indirect luminaires)

Specific Techniques

| 159

Specific Techniques To determine the lamp lumen maintenance factor and lamp survival factor data published by lamp manufacturers should be used. Examples are shown below. Lumen maintainance FH/FQ and FC 120

100

Maintainace %

80

60

40

20

0 100

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

14000

Lifetime hours

16000

18000

FC

20000 FH/FQ

Figure 6.36 Example lumen maintenance curve (courtesy Osram) Lumen maintainance T5 FQ HO, FH HE and FC 120

100

Maintainace %

80

60

40

20

0 100

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000 Lifetime hours

Figure 6.37 Example lamp survival curve (courtesy Osram)

160 | Specific Techniques

12000

14000

16000 FC

18000

20000 FH/FQ

Specific Techniques For example, a closed top recessed louvred luminaire with an upward light output ratio of zero uses 14W T16 lamps (Osram FH), and is installed in an office with surface reflectance’s of ceiling:70%, walls:50% and floor:20%. The room and luminaires are cleaned every three years, and the lamps are replaced every 8000 hours. Therefore: Luminaire maintenance factor (LMF) Luminaire is a closed top recessed louvred fitting, which is type C. As the luminaire is installed in an office this is a clean environment. Therefore, from Table 6.4 for a cleaning interval of three years the luminaire maintenance factor is given as 0.74. Room surface maintenance factor (RSMF) As the luminaire has an upward light output ratio of zero the downward light output ratio must be the same as the total light output ratio, and therefore the DFF equals one. Using Table 6.5 for reflectance’s 0.80/0.50/0.20 gives a room surface maintenance factor of 0.94. Lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF) From Figure 6.36 when the lamp has been running for 8000 hours the lamp lumens has reduced to 92% of the original output (red curve). Lamp survival factor (LSF) From the red curve on Figure 6.37 when the lamps have been operating for 8000 hours 96% of the lamps will still be functional (e.g. 4% of the lamps will have failed). Thus the maintenance factor is: MF =

MF *

RSMF * LLMF *



=

0.74 *

0.94 *



=

0.614

LSF

0.92 * 0.96

Specific Techniques

| 161

Specific Techniques 6.8 Control of obtrusive light Obtrusive light is the light that does not illuminate a task or reference area but spills onto other non-related areas. This not only reduces the efficiency of the lighting installation as a proportion of the light produced is being wasted, but can also cause inconvenience or damage in the surrounding areas. Obtrusive light may be thought of as having three components; •

Spill light, which is light emitted by a lighting installation that falls outside the boundaries of the property for which the lighting is designed.



Sky glow, which is light that contributes to the brightening of the night sky.



Light trespass, which is a special case of spill light when light spills onto surrounding properties. An additional form of light trespass is when the direct view of bright luminaires from normal viewing directions causing annoyance, distraction or discomfort.

Fig. 6.38 A  n example of an installation producing sky glow

Waste light ULOR

Waste light

Sky glow direct and reflected flux

DLOR

Spill light

Light trespass

Reference area

Immediate surrounds

Surrounds

Fig. 6.39 The components of obtrusive light

162 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques A selection of lighting technical parameters are used to define limits for obtrusive light, depending upon the type of obtrusive light being experienced or measured. All the parameters depend upon the environmental zone the installation is within, which effectively defines the amount of background brightness from the surround area. The environmental zones are shown in Table 6.8. Zone

Surrounding

Lighting Environment

Examples

E1

Natural

Dark

National parks and protected sites

E2

Rural

Low brightness

Industrial or residential rural areas

E3

Suburban

Medium brightness

Industrial or residential rural suburbs

E4

Urban

High brightness

Town centres and commercial areas

Table 6.8 Definitions of environmental zones

The lighting technical parameters used to define limits for obtrusive light are; •

ULR, the upward light ratio. This is the proportion of light that is emitted at or above the horizontal when a luminaire is mounted in its installed position. For an installation it is the sum of individual luminaire upward light ratios in their installed orientation and this indicates the contribution of an installation to sky glow.

Environmental Zones

Light Technical Parameter

Application Conditions

Upward Light Ratio (ULR)

Ratio of luminous flux incident on horizontal plane just above luminaire in its installed position, to total luminaire flux.

E1

E2

E3

E4

0

0–5

0 – 15

0 – 25

Table 6.9 Upward light ratio limits

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Specific Techniques •

Ev, the vertical illuminance on surrounding properties. Limits apply to nearby dwellings and special attention should be taken to vertical illuminance on windows. If land has been designated for dwellings but no construction has occurred these limits still apply for the potential dwellings.

Environmental Zones

Light Technical Parameter

Application Conditions

Illuminance in vertical plane (Ev)

E1

E2

E3

E4

Pre-curfew:

2 lux

5 lux

10 lux

25 lux

Post-curfew:

0 lux

1 lux

2 lux

5 lux

Table 6.10 Vertical illuminance limits on properties



I, the maximum intensity of a luminaire in a designated direction. Limits apply to every luminaire in an installation, and are evaluated from every direction where views of bright surfaces of luminaires are likely to be disturbing to residents. Mind you, this only applies where the viewing direction is not short-term, but is likely to be maintained.

Light Technical Parameter Luminous intensity emitted by luminaires (I)

Environmental Zones Application Conditions

E1

E2

E3

E4

Pre-curfew:

2500 cd

7500 cd

10000 cd

25000 cd

Post-curfew:

0 cd

500 cd

1000 cd

2500 cd

Table 6.11 Luminous intensity limits in a designated direction

164 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques •

TI, the value of threshold increment. Threshold increment is a measure of the loss of visibility caused by the disability glare from a luminaire installation. The limits apply where users of a transport system are subject to a reduction in visibility caused by a non-transport installation, and limiting values are for positions and viewing directions relevant to the direction of travel for users of the transport system. Road classification (see section 4.05)

Light Technical Parameter

No road lighting

M5

M4 / M3

M2 / M1

Threshold Increment TI

15 % based on adaptation luminance of 0.1 cd/m2

15 % based on adaptation luminance of 1 cd/m2

15 % based on adaptation luminance of 2 cd/m2

15 % based on adaptation luminance of 5 cd/m2

Table 6.12 Threshold increment limits



Lb, the luminance of a building façade. This is the average luminance of the building façade, and may be approximated using

Eav x  Lb = 

Where Eav is the average illuminance of the building façade and  is the reflectance of the building façade.



Ls, the luminance of a sign. This is the average luminance of a sign and may be approximated similar to that described above, using the average illuminance and reflectance values for the sign.

Light Technical Parameter

Environmental Zones Application Conditions

E1

E2

E3

E4

Building Facade Luminance (Lb)

Taken as the product of the design average illuminance and reflectance factor divided by .

0

5 cd/m2

10 cd/m2

25 cd/m2

Sign Luminance (Ls)

Taken as the product of the design average illuminance and reflectance factor divided by , or for self-luminous signs the average luminance.

50 cd/m2

400 cd/m2

800 cd/m2

1000cd/m2

Table 6.13 Luminance limits for building facades and signs

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Specific Techniques To control obtrusive light various strategies may be used depending upon the application; •

Using floodlights that have a tightly controlled beam allows more precise control of the light. Therefore the best level of beam control for the application should be used.



Using floodlights that allow the luminaire to be aimed close to the vertical (i.e. with the face of the floodlight nearly horizontal and pointing downwards) reduces the impact on sky glow due to reduced upward light. Applications which can use specialist “flat-glass” floodlights (which are designed to be mounted with the front face of the floodlight horizontal) should do so, as these are ideal for controlling obtrusive light.



A higher mounting height can allow floodlights to be aimed closer to the vertical, and can allow floodlights with tighter beam control to be used. This allows better control of glare and spill light. However, the structures will be more intrusive during daylight hours.



Similarly the closer a column is to the area to be lit the better the control of the lighting as this allows floodlights to be aimed closer to the vertical and floodlights with a wide distribution can be used with simplified shielding (such as a visor).



Using luminaires with lamps that have a lower lumen output leads to a reduced mounting height, which helps reduce spill light. However, more luminaires will be required which may reduce the efficiency of the installation (but consider that if the control of light is better then more of the light is being usefully utilised within the scheme, therefore less light overall may be required. This is because a scheme that has less light control is over lighting to compensate for the spill light).

Relevant publications for further reading are CIE S 015/E:2005 Lighting of Outdoor Work Places EN12464-2:2007 Lighting of workplaces – part 2: outdoor work places

166 | Specific Techniques

Specific Techniques 6.9 Lighting for crime prevention A firm body of evidence now exists to support the theory that lighting can have a positive effect on crime prevention. With the increasing prevalence of CCTV cameras in shops and public spaces lighting also has an important role in aiding the authorities in identifying suspects. These benefits however have to be designed into a lighting installation, and it should be accepted that improvements in lighting cannot overcome bad design of structures or of a space. (For example the pedestrian tunnel shown has untended shrubs, a perfect hiding place, and an overhang ideal for a person to hide on, even before the pedestrian has entered the blackness of the tunnel). Lighting can be used to affect two aspects related to crime •

Actual crime. This is the act of a criminal event occurring. Lighting can either inhibit crime, or aid in the identification of a suspect.



The fear of crime. This is the mental worry of a criminal act occurring. Fear of crime tends to be more prevalent than it used to be due to improved communications. Knowledge of crime that occurs in a different geographical area can induce fear of crime in a totally unrelated area, however irrational. Lighting can be used to create a safe and reassuring atmosphere.

Fig. 6.40 A  forbidding entrance to a pedestrian tunnel

It is important to understand that when considering lighting for a space it is not always possible to understand the problems of the space without seeing it in all conditions. Frequently the daytime appearance is completely different to that at night. How can lighting be used as a tool in the fight against crime? Some general points can be made. For exterior areas, including car parks, light fixtures and fittings should incorporate vandal resistant features such as polycarbonate or reinforced glass fittings with sources positioned out of reach. The effect of lighting should not be restricted, either by internal fixtures and furnishings or by exterior structures or landscaping. Lighting columns/fixtures should not aid access, for example over perimeter fencing/walls. And cables and wiring serving lighting systems should be enclosed to restrict accidental damage or criminal attacks.

Specific Techniques

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Specific Techniques When lighting for crime prevention the main requirement of lighting is to ensure a high level of visibility and modelling. It must be understand that whilst precisely targeted increases in lighting generally have crime reduction effects, more general increases in lighting seem to have crime prevention effects but this outcome is not universal. However, even untargeted increases in lighting generally make people less fearful of crime and more confident of their own safety. To increase visibility and modelling requires consideration to the illumination on the vertical or semi-cylindrical planes. Pedestrians need to be able to see other people clearly at a maximum distance, to be able to perceive any possible threat, either from facial expression, posture or objects carried (such as a knife) allowing them sufficient time to react to the threat. When considering street lighting a change in design approach is required. Generally street lighting is designed for maximum efficiency, using the fewest lanterns/columns and switching lanterns dependant on time. However, lighting should be designed for both road users and pedestrians, either by using lanterns that have a high level of performance in lighting both the road and paths, or with combined lighting units (Figure 6.41), or by separate lighting units for each task. Lighting should provide maximum quality and reduce shadows. Hence, lower wattage lamps spaced closer together are preferable, and lamp type should be chosen carefully to ensure a good colour of light and colour rendering (white light has been shown to increase peoples feelings of security, whilst a lamp that obviously renders colour incorrectly reduces a person’s confidence in the lighting). If lighting units are dimmed or switched off during the night high levels of maintenance are essential as the failure of a lighting unit will have a larger effect if only some of the lighting units are lit compared with the case if all the lighting units were on. When lighting footpaths and cycle paths they should be lit in a manner that shows the direction that the path takes. Care should be taken where necessary to illuminate beyond the boundaries of the path in order to increase the visual area and provide more confidence to people using those routes. It should

168 | Specific Techniques

Fig. 6.41 C  ombined lighting units with high mount lanterns and bollard height lighting

Specific Techniques be recognised that steps and changes in level are also part of the path and they should not be considered as independent areas. In urban areas it is important not to rely on lighting from commercial premises to supplement the amenity lighting as if the commercial lighting is switched off heavy shadows may occur. Lighting of commercial buildings should be controlled to prevent high levels of illumination resulting in adjacent areas appearing gloomy or dark (as shown). For open areas such as parks or large pedestrian spaces the lighting should give guidance on the configuration of the space. A specific hazard for footpaths are pedestrian tunnels. These generally have two problems, dark inside and light outside during the daytime, or light inside and dark outside during the night. This has implications for visibility as the eye has to adjust to the different conditions which takes time, especially when passing from relatively bright light into darkness. The lighting needs to be controllable to adjust to the different lighting requirements (e.g. higher light levels during the day and lower light levels at night with lighting outside the tunnel matched to the light levels inside the tunnel). As lighting units in pedestrian subways are generally accessible by the public they should be vandal-resistant and maintained to a high standard.

Fig. 6.42 F açade lighting creating areas of deep shadows

Car parks should also be considered as pedestrian areas. N.B.; •

Cars are generally stationary at entrance and exit points. Therefore these areas need higher lighting levels.



Special consideration should be given to stairwells, lift areas and areas with payment machines.



If possible light coloured surface treatments should be applied to ceilings, columns and walls to maximise and reflect the effect of the lighting system

Specific Techniques

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Specific Techniques When lighting for CCTV cameras additional points need consideration. To aid in the production of a good image the following ratios should be checked; Ratio 1 =

Upward horizontal illuminance



Downward horizontal illuminance

Ideally Ratio 1 > 0.3

Ratio 2 =

Downward horizontal illuminance



Vertical illuminance towards camera

Ratio 3 =

Average luminance of subject

Ideally Ratio 3 > 0.3



Average luminance of background

and < 3.0

Ratio 4 =

Vertical illuminance left

Ideally Ratio 4 > 0.3



Vertical illuminance right

and < 3.0

Ratio 5 =

Vertical illuminance to the back

Ideally Ratio 5 0.7, UGR 80, Lighting quality class – medium (two star) Lighting solution – 230 off Primata II 2x49W T16 lamps battens with slotted white reflector optic and DALI controlled dimmable HF ballast linked daylight detection and auto off control 30 off as above but with E3 emergency lighting capability 6 off 1x18W T26 Exit signs Required data – Circuit watts of the Primata II luminaire – 106 W Charge power for Primata II emergency lighting circuit – 3.5 W/luminaire Standby power for DALI ballast in the Primata II – 0.4 W/luminaire Charge power for Exit sign luminaires – 10 W/luminaire Estimations Pem – {(3.5 x 30 x 8760) + (10 x 6 x 8760)}/(2640 x 1000) = 0.55 kWh/m²/year Ppc – (0.4 x 260 x 8760)/(2640 x 1000) = 0.35 kWh/ m²/year Pn – (106 x 260)/2640 = 10.4 W/m² Fc (constant illuminance control MF = 0.8) – 0.9 Fd (daylight link control medium daylight supply) – 0.8 Fo (presence control manual on/auto off) – 0.9 LENI = (0.9 x 10.4)/1000 x {(2500 x 0.8 x 0.9) + (1500 x 0.9)} + 0.55 + {0.35/8760 x (8760 – (2500 + 1500)]} = (8.4/1000) x (1800 + 1350) + 0.55 + (0.35/8760 x 4760) = (9.36 x 3.15) + 0.55 + 0.19 = 30.22 kWh/m²/year LENI = 30.22 kWh/m²/year Checklists

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Checklists Table 7.1 shows the parameters and results for this project in line B. It shows that the addition of the controls will yield a 21% reduction in the energy requirements. Line A shows the energy requirements if daylight was not admitted into the building and Line C show the Benchmark values for this type of project taken from EN 15193-2007 Annex F Table F1. Building

Q

Pm

Ppc

Quality Parasitic class Emergency kWh/ (m2 x year)

Pload

tD

tN

Fc

FO

Parasitic Control kWh/ (m2 x year) W

h

h

no constant constant illuminance illuminance

FD

Manual Auto Manual Auto -

Manufacture ** A

0.55

0.35

10.4

2500

1500

1

0.9

1

0.9

1

1

** B

0.55

0.35

10.4

2500

1500

1

0.9

1

0.9

1

0.8

** C

1

5

20

2500

1500

1

0.9

1

1

1

1

LENI

LENI

Building

LENI

no constant illumination Manual

Auto

kWh/(m2/year) Manufacture

Table 7.1

190 | Checklists

LENI

constant illumination Manual

Auto

kWh/(m2/year)

Gain %

42.3

38.2

38.2

34.4

10

42.3

33.5

38.2

30.2

21

83.7

83.7

75.7

75.7

0

8 Lamps, LEDs and Circuits 8.1 Choosing the right lamp Part of the expertise of the lighting designer is the ability to find the most suitable combination of lamp and luminaire to light a given environment. Choosing the correct lamp depends upon what is required of the lighting. The relevant key lighting characteristics of lamps are given below. Luminous flux/luminous efficacy The total amount of light generated by the lamp. The rated luminous flux is measured under standard conditions at 25°C in units of lumen (lm). The ratio of luminous flux to electrical power consumption gives the luminous efficacy (lm/W). The system luminous efficiency also includes the power consumption of the control gear. The greater the efficacy for a given output, the lower the electricity cost, and therefore the lower the contribution of the power station to global warming. Rated life The average rated life is normally specified. This is the time by which statistically half of a test sample of lamps are still working (e.g. half have failed) under standardised conditions.

Luminous flux/ luminous efficacy

Rated life

Light colour

Luminous flux maintenance

Lamp power

Colour rendition

Burning position

Warm-up time

Re-start time

Dimming capability

Fig. 8.1 C  onsiderations in choosing a lamp

Light colour The light colour relates to the correlated colour temperature (CCT) of a white light source. This describes the colour impression made by a light source; from relatively warm (low colour temperature with predominant red) to cool (high colour temperature with predominant blue). Colour rendition The spectral components present in light produced by a lamp determine how well the lamp reproduces object colours. The higher the colour rendition index (Ra or CRI), or the lower the colour rendition group number, the better the colour rendition. Ra 90-100 80-89

2

60-79

3

40-59

4

20-39

-

100 hours to ensure lamp stability?

Yes / No

Is the quality of the electrical supply suitable (voltage, current, voltage surges or dips, harmonics)?

Yes / No

For high-pressure discharge lamps have they been on for > 20 minutes before measurement?

Yes / No

For fluorescent lamps have they been on for > 4 hours before measurement?

Yes / No

Is the light meter calibrated and does it have adequate accuracy of measurement?

Yes / No

Are the measurements being made at the correct height and orientation?

Yes / No

Are the measurement points correctly positioned?

Yes / No

Interior Is the space empty or furnished and was the scheme calculation for the same condition?

Yes / No

Are the surface reflection factors the same as used in the scheme calculation?

Yes / No

Is the ambient temperature different to that expected and is this affecting the running temperature of the lamps?

Yes / No

Has the protective film been removed from luminaire component such as louvres and diffusers

Yes / No

Outdoor Has the electrical supply cable been correctly sized?

Yes / No

Is the voltage and current supplied to the lamp correct?

Yes / No

230 | Lamps, LEDs and Circuits

Lamps, LEDs and Circuits High intensity discharge luminaire fails to operate correctly Symptom

Possible cause

Lamp does not light but Faulty lamp is visibly intact Faulty lamp holder

Poor light output

Test and remedy Test lamp in a working luminaire and replace if necessary Check that the lamp is properly seated in the lamp holder(s). For high voltage lamps with non-screw thread connection check lamp holders are in sound condition. Lamp holders with pitting or corrosion must be replaced

Supply interruption

Check for voltage at circuit input terminals. Check any fuses and ensure cabling is correctly sized

Open circuit in wiring or ballast

Check for voltage at lamp holder

Circuit misconnection

Check that the circuit is wired in accordance with manufacturers installation instructions

Ignitor fault

For circuits incorporating an ignitor substitute a new ignitor

End of lamp life

Lamp could have developed a high striking characteristic towards the end of life. Check that the lamp has not completed a full life

Insufficient re-strike time

Some high intensity discharge lamps require a cooling period before they will re-ignite

End of lamp life

Test lamp in a working luminaire and relate to lamp usage

Outer of lamp or luminaire dirty

Clean and try again

Low supply voltage

Test voltage applied to luminaire/circuit. Check that the ballast is correctly rated and tapped. For parallel ballast circuits check both ballasts are operating correctly

Outer of lamp broken or cracked

Explosion

Look for obvious signs of misuse/overload on the lamp. Check that the circuit is wired correctly and suitably tapped. Check that voltage is correct. Check ballast for signs of overheating and damage to windings. If in doubt replace ballast and test for impedance before reusing the luminaire

Outer of lamp broken or cracked

Thermal shock

Check for any internal moisture due to luminaire seals failing

Mechanical damage/transit damage

Lamps that have incurred damage during transit may operate for a period of time before failing due to a weakened construction. Damage and deterioration of inner lamp components should be visible after a short period of running if the outer envelope is faulty

End of lamp life

Test lamp in a working luminaire and relate to lamp usage

Low supply voltage

Check voltage applied to the luminaire

Circuit misconnection

Check that the circuit is wired correctly and suitably tapped. Check that there is no fault on the ballast. Check that the power factor capacitor is connected correctly

Lamp holder contact

Check that the lamp is properly seated in the lamp holder(s). Check for any signs of arcing. For high voltage lamps with non-screw thread connection check lamp holders are in sound condition. Lamp holders with pitting or corrosion must be replaced

Supply voltage dip

Lamp extinction could be associated with sudden dips in supply voltage, possibly caused by switching of heavy loads

Lamp orientation

Some lamps are sensitive to burning position. Check lamp is orientated according to manufacturers recommendations

Temperature

Check ballast operating temperature. Ballast may incorporate a thermal cut-out

Light output unstable /fluctuating

Light output unstable /fluctuating

Lamp extinguishing

Lamps, LEDs and Circuits

| 231

Lamps, LEDs and Circuits Fluorescent tube luminaire fails to operate correctly Symptom

Possible cause

Test and remedy

Tube does not attempt to strike – no end glow from tube

Fuse blown

Check for voltage at circuit input terminals

Faulty starter (non-electronic control gear)

Insert starter switch in working luminaire

Faulty tube

Insert tube into working luminaire. NOTE if one or more of the cathodes are broken check for faulty wiring (short circuit to earth or wrong control gear) before inserting a new tube

Open circuit

Test for open circuit on control gear or short to earth between control gear and tube

Crossed leads in twin lamp luminaires

Check that the correct lamp holders are connected to each tube

Short circuit on lamp holder

Test for short circuit across lamp holder lead or for short circuit to earth on wiring

Short circuit on tube

Test for internal short circuits on cathode of tube

Tube fails to strike – bright glow from one end of the tube

Tube does not attempt to strike – bright glow from both ends of the tube

Short circuit on starter switch or Test starter switch in working luminaire. If satisfactory test starter associated wiring (non-electronic switch socket and associated wiring control gear)

Tube flashes on and off – fails to maintain discharge

Faulty tube (end of life)

Test tube in working luminaire. At end of life other symptoms are reduced light output, increased flicker and reddish glow from cathodes

Low voltage

Test voltage at terminal block of luminaire. If low check external wiring for excessive voltage drop

Faulty starter (non-electronic control gear)

Test starter switch on working luminaire

Low temperature

Screen open type luminaires

Crossed leads in twin lamp luminaires

Check that the correct lamp holders are connected to each tube

Ballast overheats

Lack of ventilation

Check installation of luminaire to manufacturers recommendations

Supply volts high

Check supply voltage

Fault in ballast

Replace ballast

It should be noted that some types of electronic control gear will detect fault conditions and prevent any attempt to start the lamp. If the lamp fails to start the lamp, ballast or wiring could be faulty and should be checked.

232 | Lamps, LEDs and Circuits

9.0 Standards and directives 9.1 Directives Directives are European laws that apply to all EU member states. Directives that follow Article 175 permit member states some local variation, but directives that follow Article 95 apply equally and unaltered to all member states. CE Marking The CE mark signifies that a product conforms to the requirements of relevant EEC directives. The prime purpose of the mark is to assist customs and market inspectors in facilitating the free trading and movement of products within the EEC. Some of the directives appropriate to general lighting products are the Low Voltage Directive (LVD), the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive and the Energy Efficiency (Ballasts for Fluorescent Lighting) Directive. CE marking is compulsory to indicate LVD, EMC and Ballast Efficiency conformity. Low Voltage Directive (LVD) Low Voltage directive for selling safe products. This demands that products are designed, manufactured and tested to give proof of electrical safety. Conformity to EN 60598 guarantees compliance. Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMC) The ElectroMagnetic Compatibility directive requires that the product are designed and operate so that they meet limits of electrical and magnetic interference by emission and conduction with other electrical devices. Also requires that adequate capacity is built in for immunity (rejection) to interference imposed by other electrical devices upon the lighting product. Conformity can be verified by the appropriate IEC standard. WEEE Directive Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is an Article 175 directive and defines requirements and responsibilities for the management of waste lighting equipment within the European Union. This places responsibility for managing waste on the producer, reseller (in cases of re-branded product) or importer of the product. To fulfil these obligations many lighting companies have registered with third party recycling companies who then take on the Standards and directives

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Standards and directives responsibility of handling the electrical waste. If a company has not done this then they are themselves responsible for the recovery and handling of their waste products. Irrespective of the method of waste management, lighting products should be marked with the symbol shown to indicate that it may not be disposed of as unsorted waste. Therefore when purchasing lighting products it is important to ascertain how these products will be managed at their end of life, and when removing lighting units it must be ensured that they are handled separately and the appropriate company is contacted to remove the product. RoHS Directive Directive 2002/95/EC on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment is and article 95 directive, and products purchased within the European Union must conform to these restrictions. However certain exemptions exist including mercury in lamps, lead in the glass of fluorescent tubes and nickel cadmium in batteries for emergency lighting products. However these exempted items are still required to be correctly disposed of. Therefore when purchasing exempted items it is important to ascertain how these items will be managed at their end of life, and when removing exempted items it must be ensured that they are handled separately and the appropriate company is contacted to remove the product. (Note that when removing complete light fittings it is generally not necessary to separate out lamps, batteries, etc. This will be performed within the overall waste management process). Other Directives Other important European energy efficiency directives are; EELP

Energy Efficiency Labelling of Product directive This requires that manufacturers add an energy class label to relevant products (fluorescent lamp and ballast)

EPB Energy Performance of Buildings directive This requires that an estimate of the energy requirements of a building and its services is made. This is displayed using a label with energy details. This applies both for existing buildings and new buildings which must pass design criteria during the planning permission process for approval to build.

234 | Standards and directives

Standards and directives EuP

Ecodesign of Energy-using Products directive The aim of this directive is to reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy, and to minimise environmental impacts of products across the whole of their life cycle. Manufacturers must practice ecodesign, give instruction on correct and efficient product use and limit power consumption including that by stand-by devices

9.2 Standards A variety of documents exist to ensure a product conforms to relevant directives and safety requirements. Some of the relevant standards are listed in Table 9.1. Subject

European Standard

Luminaires – General requirements and tests

EN 60598-1

International Standard

Luminaires – General types

EN 60598 2-1

IEC 60598-2-1

Luminaires – Recessed

EN 60598 2-2

IEC 60598-2-2

Luminaires – Street lighting

EN 60598 2-3

IEC 60598-2-3

Luminaires – Floodlights

EN 60598 2-5

IEC 60598-2-5

Luminaires – with transformers

EN 60598-2-6

IEC 60598-2-6

Luminaires – Air handling

EN 60598 2-19

IEC 60598-2-19

Luminaires – Emergency

EN 60598 2-22

IEC 60598-2-22

Luminaires Track systems

EN 60570

IEC 60570

Photometric Measurements

CIE 24/CIE 27

Photometry and data transfer

EN 10302-1: 2004

Photometry for workplace luminaires

EN 10302-2: 2004

Photometry for emergency luminaires

EN 13032-3: 2007

EMC Emissions-Lighting

EN 55015

CISPR 15

EMC Immunity-Lighting

EN 61547

IEC 61547 ISO 9000

Quality Systems

EN ISO 9000

Emergency Lighting

EN 1838

Electronic transformers for lamps

EN 61347-2-2

IEC 61347-2-2

EN 61047

IEC 61047

Safety isolating transformers

EN 60742

IEC 742

Lighting Columns

EN 40

Safety Electronic transformers for lamps Performance

Standards and directives

| 235

Standards and directives Application Lighting of workplaces – indoor workplaces

EN 12464-1: 2003

Lighting of workplaces – outdoor workplaces

EN 12464-2: 2007

Light and lighting – Sports lighting

EN 12193:1999

Emergency lighting

EN 1838

Emergency lighting – testing and inspection

EN 50172: 2004

Road lighting practice

EN 13201-1/4: 2004

Energy performance of buildings, lighting

EN 15193: 2007

Radiation exposure limits

EN 14255

CIE S 015/E:2005 CIE S 020/E:2007

Maintenance of indoor electric lighting

CIE 97.2

Lighting education

CIE 99

Discomfort glare in interior lighting UGR

CIE 117

Obtrusive light

CIE 150

Maintenance of outdoor electric lighting

CIE 154 Table 9.1 Selection of relevant standards

ENEC Marking For luminaires and lighting components, European harmonisation of national approval marks has been achieved through introduction of the ENEC mark. The ENEC mark may be awarded by any one of the recognised European approval authorities, such as BSI, VDE or SEMKO, in the same way as a national approval mark. ENEC is important however, because it indicates that the product is suitable for use throughout Europe and that all of the most onerous special national conditions of test standards have been complied with. EN40 When designing an exterior lighting installation it must be ensured that the lighting columns are not only strong enough to support the weight of the equipment attached to them but are also strong enough to withstand the more significant loading effect from wind pressure against the project area of the complete structure. In Europe document EN40 is used to check suitability, allowing the structure to be verified against statistical data for a geographical area and thereby ensuring that the column can withstand the wind conditions. The calculation process takes into account variables such as the height of the site above local ground level, the height above sea level, the distance from the coastline and the degree of shelter provided by local obstructions and features as all of these

236 | Standards and directives

12

Standards and directives cause variations in the wind pressure at the location. It must be emphasised that the calculation process is for the complete system, including the column and all equipment attached to it (luminaires, brackets, etc.) so a column cannot be certified in isolation. It should also be noted that a CE mark cannot be applied to a column in isolation, but applies to the complete system.

9.3 Quality and safety marks It is important that a product is suitable for the method of installation, environmental conditions and usage it will encounter. Some safety consideration and markings are given below. Quality Standard Marks (Kite Marks) A third party approval is an independent endorsement that product design is in accordance with published standards, and that controls to maintain quality in manufacture are applied. Many products carry European Test House approvals such as those shown. This can assist wider market acceptance in Europe. Electrical safety classification Class I Luminaires in this class are electrically insulated and provided with a connection to earth. Earthing protects exposed metal parts that could become live in the event of basic insulation failure. Class II Luminaires in this class are designed and constructed so that protection against electric shock does not rely on basic insulation only. This can be achieved by means of reinforced or double insulation. No provision for earthing is provided. Class III Here protection against electric shock relies on supply at Safety Extra - Low Voltage (SELV) and in which voltages higher than those of SELV are not generated (max. 50V ac rms).

Standards and directives

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Standards and directives F mark F mark (mounting surface) Luminaires suitable for mounting on normally combustible surfaces (ignition temperature at least 200°C) are marked with the ‘F’ symbol. F mark (Thermal Insulation Covering) Recessed luminaires suitable for covering in the ceiling void with thermal insulating material (without causing overheating to the luminaire) are marked with this variation of the F mark symbol. Ingress Protection The ingress protection (IP) code denotes the protection against dust, solid objects and moisture provided by the luminaire enclosure. If no code is marked the luminaire is deemed to be IP20. First digit of code denotes protection against dust and solid objects

Second digit of code denotes protection against moisture

IP2X

No entry of standard test finger to live parts

IPX0

No special protection

IP3X

No entry of 2.5mm ø probe to live parts

IPX1

Protection against drops of condensed water

IP4X

No entry of 1mm ø probe to live parts

IPX2

Drip-proof (vertical falling drops of liquid)

IP5X

Dust proof. (no dust deposit around live parts)

IPX3

Rain-proof (rain up to angles of 60°)

IP6X

Dust tight (no dust entry)

IPX4

Splash proof (spray from any angle)

IPX5

Water jet

IPX6

Heavy downpours

IPX7

Temporary immersion

IPX8

Submersion to declared depth Table 9.2 IP Code

ATEX classification The IP rating is not sufficient as a safety criterion in areas with particularly hazardous or explosive atmospheres. Equipment for use in these environments is classified according to the expected conditions using the ATEX group category, as shown in Table 9.3.

238 | Standards and directives

Standards and directives ATEX category

Equivalent zonal classification

Level of protection provided

Environmental conditions for use

1

Zone 0 (gas) Zone 20 (dust)

Very high

 n explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is continuously A present or present for long periods (> 1000 hours/year)

2

Zone 1 (gas) Zone 21 (dust

High

 n explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is likely to be A present (between 10 and 1000 hours/year)

3

Zone2 (gas) Zone 22 (dust)

Normal

 n explosive atmosphere of gas/vapour/haze/dust is unlikely to A occur or could occur for a short period (< 10 hours/year) Table 9.3 ATEX classifications

Ta classification Denotes the maximum ambient temperature in which the luminaire is suitable for use. No ta mark indicates suitable for use in maximum 25°C ambient. 750°/850°/950° hot wire Abbreviation for compliance with glow wire test for plastic parts tested at the stated temperature. Impact Resistance The use of Joules (Newton metres - Nm) has been common for many years. More recently an IK rating normally used for electrical enclosures and cabinets (EN50102:1995) has emerged as manufacturers apply it to their luminaires, as they also enclose electrical circuits. Table 9.4 compares both ratings: IK rating

IK01

IK02

IK03

IK04

Joules of energy

0.15j

0.23j

0.35j

0.5j

IK05 IK06 0.7j

1.0j

IK07

IK08

IK09

IK10

2.0j

5.0j

10.0j

20. 0j

Table 9.4 C  omparison of impact resistance ratings

Standards and directives

| 239

Standards and directives 9.4 Product/corrosion compatibility guide When designing an installation in an area that is potentially harmful due to concentrations of chemicals in the atmosphere care must be taken to ensure that the materials used in the construction of the luminaire are suitable for the environment it is being used in. Different materials have differing tolerances to chemical agents and all materials used in the luminaire need to be considered. Table 9.5 gives information on six luminaires suitable for use in chemically hazardous areas. This information is provided to give guidance about luminaire selection assuming prolonged exposure to potentially aggressive chemicals or atmospheres. Occasional exposure to low concentrations of potential aggressors is unlikely to be harmful to any of these luminaires. The risk of damage to the luminaires is dependent on the concentration of the aggressor, the duration and frequency of exposure and environmental conditions. If there is any doubt about the suitability of a luminaire for a particular application please enquire with details of the chemicals that will be present and the conditions of use.

240 | Standards and directives

Standards and directives Chemical Type

Acids

Salts

Organics (Aliphatics)

(aromatics) Foodstuffs, cooking products drinks, beverages

Gases

Chemicals Specific

acetic
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