Thesis on Smoking (English)
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St. Rita’s College of Balingasag Balingasag, Misamis Oriental S.Y.: 2010-2011
SMOKING Project in English
Submitted by: Francis Ernesto C. Rojas
Submitted to: Ms. Arleen Jay Abucay
Acknowlegement For almost two weeks of timeless search in every section of the library and the overtime surf in every corner of the internet in this project; sweat that flows in my face just to finding the right idea and words that will fit to my description, eye bags bulging below my eyes of those nights that I had been encountered. I think it’s worth it for this “Thesis” that gives you knowledge and vision in the future. To those people who help, guide, and accompanying me all this way especially to:
To our God, who give me the strength and clear mind, to accomplished all the task thet had been given to me.
Ms. Arleen Jay Abucay, the one who give this project and guide me on what to do, who indefatigable check all those papers if I am on the right path or not.
To my friends a fortiori to William Paul Jamito, Jessie Gamolo, Bryson Miole, Kathy Suazo, Allan Bernales, Jonnie Rulida and Princess Mae Bacor who accompany me all the way from the star up to now.
To my Parents who unwearied support me in my expenses and for providing me the things that I needed in this project (computer, internet and their love) and also their trust that never fade after all those years.
Your presence becomes a great help in accomplishing my project. From the bottom of my heart I want to express my heartfelt gratitude Once again thank you!
Table of Contents Acknowledgement I. Introduction
II. Review related literature
IV. Findings & Summary Bibliography
Some governments have banned smoking in all public places. Smoking has been proven to be very dangerous to health. Nonetheless 40 % of the population smokes. Actually I am a non smoker. Most people try out smoking when they are young ; many youths think smoking is a good grown-up habit. Furthermore many young people begin smoking as an act of rebellion and independence. Young smokers start smoking at their age of 12 or 13 just to get a taste of, what it is like. Some of them find it disgusting and unhealthy and some of them find it cool. Results of a recent study suggest that rebellious, risk-taking kids as young as 11 are more likely to smoke by the time they reach high school. According to the report, children who demonstrate these personality traits in the 5th grade are most likely to smoke in the 12th grade. Targeting smoking in high school students is important since studies have shown that adolescents who smoke daily in the 12th grade are likely to become established smokers as adults. Results of the study, published in the March issue of Preventive Medicine, show a strong association between rebelliousness in males in the 5th grade and daily smoking in the 12th grade. For example, the most rebellious males were three times more likely to become smokers than the least rebellious males. Risk-taking most strongly correlated with smoking among females, the investigators found. To be sure, a youngster who is a rebellious risk-taker is not necessarily destined to become a smoker. While these children may be may be more likely to smoke than their more conventional peers, the influence of family and peers
also plays a role. The risk of smoking for a rebellious individual may either increase or decrease depending on whether his or her social environment also involves smoking parents, siblings, or peers. About 19% of 12th-grade students are daily smokers. Despite efforts to reduce the prevalence of smoking among adolescents, rates have climbed over the past decade. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased propensity for intracoronary thrombus formation that is mainly related to platelet activation. Because platelet activation and aggregation are crucial events in the path physiology of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), substantial proportion of patients with ACS are current or former cigarette smokers. In some areas the average life expectancy is as low as 54 years old for men. A major cause of this is smoking. With the young in particular smoking is much more popular than it used to be. In October 2008, it was estimated that one third of 16-24 year olds smoke. This figure is at a 10 year high. In between the ages of 16-19 it is found that girls are more likely to smoke than boys.This has been recognized as a major issue for the country and there are several things being done to try to stop it, such as the smoking ban in public places which was enforced on March the 26th 2006. It is now illegal to smoke in pubs, clubs and enclosed places.
Review related literature I. Definition of smoking: Smoking becomes a practice, a tradition and considered to be a recreational activity. But what is smoking? When and where it begun? Question that continuing clouding up your mind. According to Gloriers Encyclopedia of knowledge Smoking refers to inhaling of smoke from the burning tobacco in a pipe, a cigar, or, most commonly cigarette. Furthermore, according to Charlotte Herrick tobacco is plant that was domesticated, cultivated, and used by Native Americans for at least the past 5000 years, long before Columbus arrived in America. Tobacco is the fastest spreading plant in history. From the Americans, the Spanish conquistadors and early Europeans explorers carried it to Europe where it’s cultivated rapidly and spread in Asia. II. Why do people use tobacco? Many people smoke with their different reasons. Based on the book of Marian Mitchell, author of “100 questions and answer about how to quit smoking”, Tobacco is clearly valued for its psychoactive effects. This means that it has several actions on the mind that depend upon the dose used. It can be used to stimulate the mind, relieve anxiety, or create visions or hallucinations. All of these properties can be pleasurable Native Americans tribes; tobacco was traditionally used for religious or shamanistic purposes. Traditionally, tobacco was reserved primarily for shamans and priests because of its hallucinogenic properties.
During the Colonial era, tobacco was used as a commodity for bartering, nd it was exported to Europe in exchange for manufactured products. Starting with the World War I, cigarettes became popular among Americans. Snuff, chewing, tobacco, cigars, pipes, and cigarettes are all used for pleasure. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredients of tobacco, can act as both a stimulant to enhancing the ability to think clearly and improve alertness, and as a relaxant to relieve anxiety, so that the smoker “feels good”. III. Effects of smoking While you smoke you didn’t realized that you shorten your life by inhaling those harmful chemicals that may caused to different kind of diseases. A. Harmful chemicals that smoking released and their effects Based on Quit-smoking-stop-.com the chemicals in cigarettes and tobacco smoke make smoking harmful. Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 different chemicals.At least 50 are known carcinogens (cause cancer in humans) and many are poisonous. Cigarettes are one of few products which can be sold legally which can harm and even kill you over time if used as intended. There are ongoing lawsuits in the USA which aim to hold tobacco companies responsible for the effects of smoking on the health of long term smokers. Here are the lists of the harmful chemicals: 1. Benzene (petrol additive)
A colorless cyclic hydrocarbon obtained from coal and petroleum, used as a solvent in fuel and in chemical manufacture- and contained in cigarette smoke.
It known Carcinogen associated with leukemia.
2. Formaldehyde (embalming fluid)
A colorless liquid, highly poisonous, used to preserve dead bodiesalso found in cigarette smoke.
Known to cause cancer, respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal problems.
3. Ammonia (toilet cleaner)
Used as flavouring, frees nicotine from tobacco turning it into gas.
Often found in dry cleaning fluids.
4. Acetone (nail polish remover)
Fragrant volatile liquid ketone, used as solvent for example nail polish remover.
Found in cigarette smoke
5. Nicotine (insecticide/addictive drug)
One of the most addictive substances known to man, a powerful and fast-acting medical and non-medical poison.
This is the chemical which causes addiction.
6. Carbon Monoxide (CO) (car exhaust fumes)
An odourless, tasteless and poisonous gas, rapidly fatal in large amounts
The same gas that comes out of car exhausts
The main gas in cigarette smoke, formed when the cigarette is lit.
* Arsenic (rat poison)
* Hydrogen Cyanide (gas chamber poison)
B. Health effects Online Health.com states some effect of smoking in our health 1. Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, are largely due to smoking. Heart disease, which includes coronary artery disease, heart attack and stroke are far more common in smokers. One of the effects of nicotine is constricting the blood vessels, which in turn causes high blood pressure. 2. The inhaled smoke contains many harmful substances, such as tar, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, heavy metals and free radicals. Each of these damages the body in various ways. Tar is sticky and brown, containing many chemicals known to be carcinogenic, including benzopyrene. 3. Smoking adversely affects the reproductive system, especially in women. Many female smokers experience irregular or absent periods.
compromised, and menopause occurs one to two years earlier. The risk of cervical cancer is increased. For women over 35 taking oral contraceptives, there is a significantly increased risk of stroke or heart attack if they are smokers.
Men, experience lower sperm count, more abnormal sperm with
decreased motility. There is also an effect on the man’s level of sex hormones. Decrease circulations also predispose male smokers to impotence as a result of overall compromised circulation and damage to the blood vessels in the penis. . Smoker’s immune systems are impaired, leaving the smoker vulnerable to a host of minor infections. A smoker needs more time to recover from infections than a non-smoker. 4. Cigarette smoking decreases bone density, promoting osteoporosis. Skin becomes dry and loses its elasticity as a result of poor circulation.
C. Environmental effects According to Aboutmyplanet.com, an environmentalist website, concerning on the wellness of mother earth state the environmental effects of smoking. 1. Smoking pollutes the air and quite often the ground. However, it is not always obvious how or how much smoking pollutes. Cigarettes contain over 4000 chemicals which are exhaled and released into the air and the atmosphere. 2. The pollution caused by cigarettes does not stop in our bodies or the air; it also affects the land we live on and the water that we drink.
3. Probably the most impacting aspect of cigarettes is actually producing them. There is the land used to grow the crops all over the world that could be put to better use by planting more trees or food for starving children in third world countries. 4. The tobacco industry is quite unwilling to use better technology to reduce the impact they are having on the environment because it would take up too much of their billions of dollars in profit every year. IV. Risk factors contribute to people in smoking Risk factors are the characteristics that increase the chances of developing a diseases or disorder. According to Marian Mitchell, author of 100 questions and answer about how to quit smoking, pointed out the list of risk factors associated with the development of nicotine dependency, here are the list:
Age: It appears that teens become addicted more quickly because of developmental and biological factors.
Gender: A higher percentage of teen smokers are males. More white females smoke than another ethnic group. Adult males where likely to smoke, but has changed now that more women are joining the work force and exposed to other smokers. Females have more difficulty quitting in smoking.
Ethinicity: higher rates of smoking are found among Caucasians and Native American.
Geographical area in the United States: Higher rates of smoking are found in the southern tobacco-growing states and the Midwest as well as Nevada; the lowest rates of tobacco use are in the west, namely Utah (The Mormon Religion forbids smoking)
Mental illness: A higher percentage of mentally ill are heavy smokers.
Children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric disorders: Higher rates of smoking are seen in young people diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders.
Alcoholism: There is a strong association between the two addictions. If you attend an alcoholic’s anonymous meeting, most likely you will find yourself in a smoke-filled room.
Living in a developing country: Smoking rates are higher in developing nations.
Parental and peer smoking: Role modeling is a powerful learning tool. Rates of smoking increase in families where the parents smoke. An even stronger influenced is the peer group. Teens are far more likely to smoke if their teenage peers smoke than if their parents smoke.
Findings This study is an attempt to know the feelings, insights and knowledge regarding on Smoking. Then, I found out the brief history of smoking that was about 5000 B.C. ago. And the dangerous chemicals that may cause to different kinds of cancer (e.i. benzene, Formaldehyde, Ammonia Acetone and etc.), smoking is the major cause of air pollution and the risk factors contributing on smoking. Recommendation In every problem there’s always a solution. In this chapter you are going to find out ways on how to stop smoking. According to a blog of FFSKGIRL. One way students use to show that they’re more mature than they really are, is to smoke cigarettes. For some students, this “habit” will last for only a few minutes or several days as they discover that tobacco irritates their lungs and makes them cough. For others, cigarette smoking has the potential to become a long term problem. The best way to keep students from smoking is to make sure they don’t start to begin with. Fortunately, schools are evaluating a new program in the United Kingdom that may help to keep students away from cigarettes entirely. This novel approach might be one that could be implemented in schools in your local area to keep kids from smoking in the first place. Although many schools have designed programs to teach students about the dangers of smoking, these programs are not always effective at curbing the growing
smoking habit among students and teens. The schools choose the most popular and influential students at each location and gave them a two day anti-smoking training course. During the two days, the students are taught the dangers of smoking as well as how to talk to other students about those dangers. According to ezinearticles.com, a websites who introduce the smoking cessation, Smoking Cessation is a process, where you the smoker have to take certain actions to help you quit smoking. The smoking cessation process is no secret and all it will cost you is the time it takes you to understand the process. Up to now you would most likely have thought that you loved to smoke and hence, you would hate to stop it, because you believe that a lot of the things you enjoy with a cigarette will no longer be enjoyable without the cigarette and you will miss the enjoyment. This is why people like you who contemplate
consequences of quitting. Based on the The tobacco dependence treatment handbook: a guide to best practices by David B. Abrams, Raymond Niaura, Michael G. Goldstein, Richard A. Brown. An important treatment planning principle is emphasis on a collaborative approach to treatment that empowers the smoker to be full partner in developemant of the treatment plan (patient- or client-centered counseling.). this approach encourages joint responsibility, improves adherence, and provides the kind of relationship that is central to long-term community care. This philosophy mirrors the treatment of other chronic conditions such as diabetes or schizophrenia. An open, trusting relationship between you and the smokers creates the best climate for success. This principle also permits care to be delivered over relatively long time periods (as long as is necessary
until the smoker quit), and the plan can include continuous quality improvement via a self-correcting process by which setbacks (e.g., relapse) can be reframed as a part of a learning experience on the pathways to permanent cessation rather than failure. In other words, if an initial treatment is unsuccessful, then you can revise the prior treatment plan and try again.
Bibliography: Gloriers Encyclopedia of knowledge, MCMXCV. Vol. 17,”smoking,” pp.132-133 Websites: http://ezinearticles.com/?Smoking-Cessation-will-Solve-the-Problems-Associated-WithQuitting-Smoking&id=3488785 http://www.aboutmyplanet.com/environment/smoking-affects/ http://www.quit-smoking-stop.com/cigarette-facts.html http://books.google.com/books?id=VYwVuDlutWcC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q &f=false http://books.google.com/books?id=OL1MBIRuE00C&pg=PA20&dq=Cognitivebehavioral+therapy+for+smoking+cessation:+a+practical+guidebook+to+the+most+effe ctive+treatments&hl=en&ei=drxnTeL3E5OjcfKluZAM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&r esnum=4&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false