Theories of Personality Reviewer Summary
A summary of most of the chapters in Theories of Personality...
Sigmund F RE UD
Cha pter 2
Levels of mental life
Application of psychoanalytic theory
Freud’s Early Therapeutic Technique Freud’s later therapeutic technique Dream analysis Freudian Slips
Provinces of the mind
Id - (Pleasure)
Dynamics of personality
Stages of development
Infantile period o
Male Oedipus Complex
Female Oedipus Complex
Alfred ADLE R Indiv idual Psychology
FINAL STATEMENT OF INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY 1. The one dynamic force behind people’s behavior is the striving for success or superiority.
The Adlerian theory suggests that psychopathology, a mental or behavioral disorder, results from lack of courage, exaggerated feelings of inferiority, and underdeveloped social interest.
2. People’s subjective perceptions shape their behavior and personality
Enhance one’s courage
3. Personality is unified and self-consistent.
Lessen feelings of inferiority
4. The value of all human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of social interest.
Encourage social interest
5. Personality is unified and self-consistent. 6. The value of all human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of social interest. WHAT DISTINGUISHES THIS THEORY FROM ALL OTHER THEORIES?
“Everybody can accomplish everything.” (With the exception set by heredity.) What people do with what they have is more important than what they have.
1. Behavior is goal oriented – PURPOSIV E NE SS 2. Humans are fundamentally social, with a desire to belong and having a place of value as an equal human being – SOCIAL INTE RE ST 3. And the individual is indivisible and functions with unity of personality – HOLISM People are motivated by mostly social influences and by their striving for superiority or success. STRUCTURE AGGRESSION MASCULINE PROTEST STRIVING FOR SUPERIORITY STRIVING FOR SUCCESS DEVELOPMENT CREATIVE POWER STYLE OF LIFE The tennets of Adlerian theory: 1. The one dynamic force behind people’s behavior is the striving for success or superiority. STRIVING FORCE AS COMPENSATION Two general avenues of striving:
Striving for Personal Superiority
Striving for Success
2. People’s subjective perceptions shape their behavior and personality. FICTIONALISM
PHYSICAL INFERIORITIES 3. Personality is unified and self-consistent. ORGAN DIALECT Unconscious Conscious 4. The value of all human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of social interest. Social Interest GEMEINSCHAFTSGEFUHL IDEAL MOTHER IDEAL FATHER 5. The self-consistent personality structure develops into a person’s style of life. STYLE OF LIFE Psychologically unhealthy individuals Psychologically healthy individuals 3 major problems in life
6. Style of life is molded by people’s creative power. Creative power FREE INDIVIDUAL THREE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS WHICH CAN LEAD TO ABNORMALITY:
Exaggerated Physical Deficiencies
Pampered Style of Life
Adler believed that a warm, nurturing attitude by the therapist would help the patient to expand their social interest to each of the three problems of life:
Adler innovated a method of therapy with problem children by treating them in front of an audience of parents, teachers, and health professionals. Adler didn’t blame the parents for a child’s misbehavior he instead worked to win the parent’s confidence and to persuade them to change their attitudes toward the child.
Neglected Style of life
Carl J UNG
LEVELS OF THE PSYCHE 1. PSYCHE
4 basic approaches to therapy representing 4 developmental stages in the history of psychotherapy o
3. Personal Unconscious 4. Collective Unconscious
Effective for patients who merely have a need to share their secrets.
INTERPRETATION, EXPLANATION, & ELUCIDATION
Used by Freud
Instincts – distinguished `
The patient brings to surface certain contents of the unconscious which the therapist clarifies
Learning the origins of the problems
a. Persona b. Shadow c. Anima d. Animus e. Great Mother f.
Wise Old Man
An approach adopted by Adler
Incorporation of insights into one’s personality in order to adapt to social environment
Includes the education of patients as social beings
Often leaves patients merely socially well adjusted
An interplay between therapist and patient leads to change that move beyond adaptation to environment and towards self-realization
Childhood – Early morning sun 1. Anarchic Phase 2. Monarchic Phase 3. Dualistic Phase
Youth – Mornign sun | puberty – middle life
Middle life – Afternoon sun | 35-40 yo
Old age – evening sun | goal of life
To help neurotic patients become healthy and to encourage people to work independently toward self-realization.
Jung sought to achieve this purpose by using dream analysis and active imagination: 1. To help patients discover personal and collective unconscious material 2. To balance these unconscious images with their conscious attitude
CAUSALITY AND TELEOLOGY
Freud – causality
Adler – teleology
Jung – both and must be balance
A natural concomitant to patients’ revelation of highly personal information.
A therapist’s feelings toward the patient.
Progression Regression Both essential Psychological types
Melanie Reizes K LE IN Object Relations Theory
Feeling – valuing
Consistent pattern Of interpersonal relationships
Maternal: Intimacy and nurture
Paternal: Power And control
Prime motive of human behavior
Human contact And relatedness
Reduce tension Achieve Pleasure
Psychic Life of the Infant
Resistive to the notion of childhood psychoanalysis
Claimed that young children could not profit from psychoanalytic therapy Melanie Klein BELIEVED: both disturbed and healthy children should be psychoanalyzed •
FREUDIAN DREAM ANALYSIS & FREE ASSOCIATION
BELIEF: Young children express unconscious and conscious wishes through play therapy AIM reduce depressive anxieties and persecutory fears and to mitigate the harshness of internalized objects Procedure
Re-experience early emotions and fantasies, with the therapist pointing out differences between reality and fantasy, between conscious and unconscious
Psychic Defense Mechanisms
Oedipus Complex o
- Less persecuted by internalized objects - Reduced depressive anxiety - Project previously frightening internal objects into the outer world
Karen HORNE Y Psychoanalytic Social Theory
Introduction to Psychoanalytic Social Theory
to help patients grow in the direction of self-realization
Horney and Freud Compared
1.) therapeutic practice. 2.)
Objected to Freud’s ideas on feminine psychology.
Psychoanalysis should emphasize the importance of cultural influences.
FREUD - Pessimistic (innate instincts & stagnation of personality) KAREN - Optimistic (cultural forces that can change) The Impact of Culture The Importance of Childhood Experiences Basic hostility Repressed hostility Basic anxiety Basic hostility Repressed hostility Basic anxiety 4 defense against basic anxiety 1.)
Power, prestige or possession
Compulsive drives Neurotic needs 1.
The neurotic need for affection and approval
The neurotic need for a powerful partner
The neurotic need to restrict one's life within narrow borders
The neurotic need for power
The neurotic need to exploit others
The neurotic need for social recognition or prestige
The neurotic need for personal admiration
The neurotic need for ambition and personal achievement
The neurotic need for self-sufficiency and independence
10. The neurotic need for perfection NEUROTIC TRENDS Basic conflict
Moving Toward People
Moving Against People
Moving Away From People
Intrapsychic Conflicts Idealized self-image Sense of identity Compliant people Aggressive people Detached people 3 aspects: •
Neurotic search for glory
Self-hatred Feminine Psychology Erich F ROMM Hum anistic Psychoanalysis
Fromm’s basic assumptions
Aim of therapy: Patients to come to know themselves
most basic assumption
Without knowledge of ourselves, we cannot know any other person or thing
Patients come to therapy seeking satisfaction of their basic human needs
Individual personality only in the light of human history HUMAN DILEMMA
Dream symbols are not universal
human ability to reason -
existential dichotomies -
Life and death
Humans are capable of conceptualizing the goal of complete selfrealization, but we also are aware that life is too short to reach that goal.
People are ultimately alone, yet we cannot tolerate isolation.
Human Needs (Existential Needs)
Respect / knowledge
nonProductive strategy o (fixation)
sense of identity
frame of orientation
the burden of freedom
Mechanisms of Escape Authoritarianism
nonproductive orientations o
productive orientation o
Productive love - biophilia
Syndrome of decay
Patients are asked to associate their dreams
Syndrome of growth Erik E RIK SON
3 interrelated aspects of ego: 1.
“the study of individual and collective life with the combined methods of psychoanalysis and history”
Used toys to construct elongated objects
Girls arrange toys in low and peaceful scenes
Society’s influence Inborn capacities & society
CONCEPT OF HUMANITY
Limited free choice
Motivated by past experiences
Either conscious or unconscious
Both optimism and uniqueness of individuals
Views on Motivation
Aim : Embrace B-values
Holistic approach to motivation
Free dependence from others
Motivation is usually complex
People are continually motivated by one need or another
Healthy relationship between client and therapist
All people everywhere are motivated by the same basic needs
Needs can be arranged on a hierarchy
Satisfy love and belongingness need
Epigenetic principle Stages of Development -
stage 1 Infancy
Psychosexual Mode Oral-Sensory Mode
2 Early Childhood 2-3 y. o. 3 Play Age 3-5 y. o. 4 School Age 6-13 y. o. 5 ADOLESCENCE
6 Young Adulthood 19-30 7 Adulthood 31 - 60 8 Old Age
Genital-Locomotor Mode Latency
Psychosocial Crisis Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt
Basic Strength HOPE
Core Pathology Withdrawal
Initiative vs Guilt Industry vs Inferiority Identity vs Identity confusion INTIMACY vs ISOLATION
GENERATIVITY vs STAGNATION INTEGRITY vs DESPAIR
9 Very old age (Was not finished)
Abraham MASLOW Holistic-Dynam ic Theory
Hierarchy of needs Conative need Self-actualization Esteem Love & belongingness Safety Physiological
Other categories of needs Aesthetic needs Cognitive needs Neurotic needs General discussion of needs -
low level need satisfied =
emergence of next level need
May emerge gradually
Simultaneous motivation of needs
Reverse order of needs Unmotivated behavior Expressive behavior Coping behavior Deprivation of needs Instinctoid nature of needs Instinctoid needs -
Frustration of need pathology Persistent For psychological health Species-specific Can be molded, inhibited, or altered by environmental influences Many needs are weaker than cultural forces
Frustration of need no pathology Temporary Not prereq for health
Criteria for self-actualization -
They were free from psychopathology
Self-actualizing people had progressed through the hierarchy of needs
Embrace the B-values
Fulfilled their needs to grow, to develop, & to increasingly become what they are capable of becoming
Values of Self-actualizers B-values -
Wholeness / the transcendence of dichotomies
Aliveness / spontaneity
Justice & order
Richness / totality
Playfulness / humor
Self-sufficiency / autonomy
Characteristics of self-actualizing people -
We all have the potential to be self-actualizing people
Satisfy other needs
More efficient perception of reality
Accepting of self, others, and nature
Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness
The need for privacy
Continued freshness of appreciation
The peak experience
Profound Interpersonal Relations
The democratic character Structure
Discrimination Between means and ends
Philosophical sense of humor
Resistance to enculturation
Love, Sex, and Self-actualization Self-actualizer The Jonah Complex Carl ROGE RS Person-Centered Theory
Basic Assumptions -
Actualizing Tendency Self- actualization
Love and belongingness
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
PROCESS Stage 1 -
Unwillingness to communicate anything about oneself.
They do not recognize any problems and refuse to own any personal feelings or emotions.
Psychological growth requirements:
Clients become slightly less rigid.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Clients may talk about personal feelings as if such feelings were objective phenomena.
The Self and Self-Actualization
Clients freely talk about themselves more, still as an object.
Talk about feelings and emotions in the past or future tense and avoid present feelings.
Deny individual responsibility for most of their decisions.
Perceived self =/= organismic self
Stage 4 -
They begin to talk of deep feelings but not ones presently felt.
Accept more freedom and responsibility than they did in stage 3.
Levels of Awareness
Allow themselves to become involved in a relationship with the therapist.
Ignored / denied
Denial of Positive Experiences
Stage 5 -
They have begun to undergo significant change and growth.
They begin to make their own decisions and to accept responsibility for their choices.
Becoming a Person Barriers to Psychological Health
Conditions of Worth o
They have begun to undergo significant change and growth.
They begin to make their own decisions and to accept responsibility for their choices.
Anxiety and Threat
Anxiety and Threat
Stage 7 -
They become fully functioning "persons of tomorrow"
They become congruent, possess unconditional positive self-regard, and are able to be loving and empathic toward others.
Theoretical Explanation for Therapeutic Change -
They are freed to listen to themselves more accurately.
To have empathy for their own feelings.
Their perceived self becomes more congruent with their organismic experiences.
Congruent client who is less defensive and more open to experience.
Become more realistic.
They become more accepting of others, make fewer demands, and simply allow others to be themselves.
Person of Tomorrow Rollo MAY Existential Psychology
BACKGROUND OF EXISTENTIALISM
Should make people more human; that is, helping them expand their consciousness so that they will be in a better position to make choices
that existence take precedence over essence
The purpose is to set people free
existentialists oppose the artificial split between subject and object.
search for meaning in their lives.
Must be concerned with helping people experience their existence, and that relieving symptoms are merely a by-product of that experience
each of us is responsible for who we are and what we will become.
most take an antitheoretical position, believing that theories tend to objectify people
Must establish a one-to-one relationship that enables patients to become more aware of themselves and live more fully in their own worlds
Have empathy for the patient’s experience and is open to the patients subjective world
“Our task is to be guide, friend, and interpreter to persons on their journeys through their private hells and purgatories... Our patients often, toward the end, are understandably frightened by the possibility of freely deciding for themselves...”
May was more likely to ask questions, to delve into a patient’s early childhood, and to suggest possible meanings of current behavior
Being in the world o
simultaneous modes in their being in the world
The Case of Philip Anxiety
Guilt Forms of ontological guilt
Intentionality Care, Love, and Will Will vs wish Personality Types
Neo-Puritan - will & x wish
Infantile - wish & x will
Creative - will & wish
Union of love and will Forms of love
Freedom and destiny Freedom
Destiny The power of myth Myths The Oedipus myth
Gordon ALLPORT Psychology of The Indiv idual
Separation or exile from parents and home
Sexual union with one parent and hostility toward the other
Assertion of independence and the search for identity
What is Personality? -
behavior and thought
What is the Role of Conscious Motivation? What are the Characteristics of a Healthy Individual? -
Six Criteria for the Mature Personality o
Extension of sense of self
Warm relating of self to others
Emotional security or Self-acceptance
Realistic perception of their environment
Insight and Humor
Unifying principle of life
structure of personality Personal Disposition Common Traits Levels of Personal Dispositions
motivational stylistic dispositions
Proprium non-propriate behaviors Motivation propriate striving
Peripheral motives A Theory of Motivation Functional Autonomy 4 Requirements of an Adequate Theory of Motivation 1. will acknowledge the contemporaneity of motives. 2. It will be a pluralistic theory— allowing for motives of many types. 3. It will ascribe dynamic force to cognitive processes. 4. will allow for the concrete uniqueness of motives. LEVELS OF FUNCTIONAL AUTONOMY
Perseverative Functional Autonomy
Propriate Functional Autonomy
Criterion for Functional Autonomy -
A present motive is functionally autonomous to the extent that it seeks new goals
Processes that are not Functionally Autonomous
Biological drives: Eating, breathing, sleeping
Motive directly linked to the reduction of basic drives
Reflex actions such as eye blink
Constitutional equipment namely, physique, intelligence and temperament
Habits in the process of being formed
Patterns of behavior that require primary reinforcement
Sublimations that can be tied to childhood sexual desires
Some neurotic or pathological symptoms
The Study of the Individual Morphogenic Science Hans Jurgen E YSE NCK Biologically Based Factor Theory
Criteria for Identifying Factors
Psychometric Evidence for the factor’s existence must be established
Must possess heritability and must fit an established genetic mode
Must make sense from a theoretical view: deductive method of investigation
Must possess social relevance
Hierarchy of Behavior Organization
Dimensions of Personality Three Personality Dimensions Four Criteria for Identifying Personality Dimension:
Strong Psychometric evidence exist for each, especially Factors E and N
For each of these three superfactors there are strong biological base
It make sense theoretically
Related to such social issues as drug use, sexual behaviors, criminality.
Extraversion (extraversion/ introversion)
NEUROTICISM (neuroticism/ stable)
PSYCHOTICISM (psychoticism/ superego)
Measuring personality Eysenck evolved 4 personality inventories that measures his superfactors: -
The Maudsley personality inventory
Eysenck personality inventory
Eysenck personality questionnaire
Eysenck personality questionnaire – revised
Biological bases of personality Personality as a predictor Personality and behavior Personality and disease
Albert BANDURA Social Cognitiv e Theory
The ultimate goal of social cognitive therapy is self-regulation
Levels of Therapy
Modeling Processes governing observational learning 1. Attention 2. Representation 3. Behavioral Production 4. Motivation
1. instigation of some changes in behavior 2. generalization of speciﬁc changes 3. maintenance of those changes by preventing relapse Basic Treatment Approaches 1. Overt or Vicarious Modeling
2. Covert or Cognitive Modeling
Consequences as a response
3. Enactive Mastery
Triadic reciprocal causation
Chance Encounters Fortuitous Events Human agency Core Features -
Self-efficacy What Contributes to Self-Efficacy?
Mastery Experiences - PAST PERFORMANCES
Physical and Emotional States
Proxy Agency Collective Efficacy Techniques for Measuring Collective Efficacy Several factors that can undermine collective efficacy Self-Regulation External Factors in Self-Regulation Internal Factors in Self-Regulation
Self-Regulation through Moral Agency Two aspects of moral agency: 1. doing no harm to people 2. proactively helping people Selective activation Disengagement of Internal Control 4 Mechanisms 1. Redeﬁne the behavior 2. Disregard or Distort the Consequences of Behavior 3. Dehumanize or Blame the Victims 4. Displace or Diﬀuse Responsibility Dysfunctional Behavior
Five common reasons for aggressing:
1. enjoys inﬂicting injury on the victim 2. avoid or counter the aversive consequences of aggression by others 3. receives injury or harm for not behaving aggressively 4. lives up to their personal standards of conduct by their aggressive behavior 5. observes others receiving rewards for aggressive acts or punishment for nonaggressive behavior George K E LLY Psychology of Personal Constructs
Kelly’s philosophical position
The rep test
Person as a scientist
Scientist as a person Constructing alternativism Personal constructs Basic postulate Supporting corollaries 1. Construction corollary – similarities among events 2. Individuality corollary – differences among people 3. Organization corollary – relationships among constructs 4. Dichotomy corollary – dichotomy of constructs 5. Choice corollary – choices between dichotomies 6. Range corollary – range of convenience 7. Experience corollary – experience and learning 8. Modulation corollary – adaptation to experience | permeability 9. Fragmentation corollary – incompatible constructs 10. Commonality corollary – similarities among people 11. Sociality corollary – social processes Core role Applications Abnormal development 4 common elements is most human disturbances