The Writing Process
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The Writing Process Writing is a way of thinking and learning. Writing is a way of discovering. Writing creates reading. Writing ability is needed by educated people. Pre-writing – also called “invention”
a. Finding a Topic Brainstorming – is the process of stimulating creative thinking by letting your mind wander freely over a subject. It means making a list of all the ideas that come to mind associated with a topic. The ideas can be listed as words or phrases. Clustering – is an interesting and unusual version of brainstorming. It is also called “mapping” or “webbing”. Freewriting – means writing down whatever comes into your mind: thoughts, half-thoughts, words, fragments, in the form an the language that they come to you, without stopping to worry about grammar, punctuation, or style. I don’t know exactly when and where and how to start but anyhow I need to write something things seem so complicated to me lately I agree that one must have control over things I see I can write something about the problems I am facing right now at home about misunderstanding what about misunderstanding about my parents who quarrel oftentimes about finances dad being a gambler and drinker and mom having to meet both ends with very limited family income and resources what makes me upset about their quarrel is that they seem not able to compromise and resolve the problem peacefully. Journal Writing – is a source of ideas for future writing, a storehouse of personal reactions and impressions of people, places, new experiences, and ideas. Keeping a journal can help you in three ways. First, writing every day gives the habit of productivity. Second, a journal instills the habit of close observation and thinking. Third, a journal serves as an excellent source of ideas when you need to write in response to assignment. b. Restricting the Topic • Choose a topic that is suitable, that can be presented and developed well. • When choosing a topic on your own, be careful not to use a very narrow one or too broad to be discussed in a single paragraph. • Keep in mind the writing situation: purpose, audience, and special requirements.
a. Determining Purpose and Audience • Writing is often defined by its purpose. Writing purposes have to do with goals, often referred to as aims of writing or writing intentions. Purpose refers to what the writer seeks to achieve. Purposes for writing, though varied, can be categorized into four major groups: General Purposes: to express yourself to provide information for your reader to persuade your reader to create a literary work Specific Purposes: 1. expressive function of language: express your own feelings, attitudes, wishes, and intentions, to condemn, approve, praise, rebuke, or celebrate 2. directive function: influence other people’s actions, emotions, beliefs, and attitudes, to persuade, advise, order, threaten, warn, encourage, or exhort. 3. Informative function: convey information, to inform, report, describe, assert, declare, announce, confirm, or refute 4. Poetic function of language: connect directly with the readers’ emotions by the use of devices such as intonation, sound, rhythm, imagery, and so on to communicate meaning that could not be otherwise conveyed. Argumentative purpose – a research paper that primarily intends to persuade the reader of the author’s viewpoint about a topic Persuasive writing called argumentative because it argues a position, seeks to convince the reader, to change the reader’s mind, to bring the reader’s point of view closer to the writer’s and focuses on the reader, whom the writer wants to influence. Informative purpose – one that minimizes expression of the author’s ideas and seeks mainly to present information for the reader’s benefit. Informative Writing seeks to give information and, when necessary, to explain it. This writing is known also as expository because it expounds on, or sets forth, ideas and facts. Informative writing focuses on the subject being discussed. Informative writing includes reports of observation, ideas, scientific data, facts, and statistics. It can be found in textbooks, encyclopedias, technical and business reports, nonfiction books, newspapers, and magazines. Checklist for Informative Essay 1. Is its major focus the subject being discussed? 2. Is its primary purpose to inform rather than persuade? 3. Is its information complete and accurate? 4. It its information verifiable? 5. Is its information arranged for clarity? 6. Is it interesting to read?
Persuading writing seeks to convince the reader about a matter of opinion. This writing is sometimes called argumentative because it argues a position. Persuasive writing focuses on the reader, whom the writer wants to influence. Examples of persuasive writing include editorials, letters to the editor, reviews, sermons, business or research proposals, opinion essays in magazines, and books that argue a point of view. Checklist for Persuasive Essay 1. Is its major focus the reader? 2. Is its primary purpose to convince rather than inform? 3. Does it offer information or reasons to support its point of view? 4. Is its point of view based on sound reasoning and logic? 5. Are the points of its arguments arranged for clarity? 6. Does it motivate the reader to action or otherwise evoke the intended response? •
Good writing is often judged by its ability to reach its intended audience.
a. Choosing a Point of View • A point of view is the position from which a writer looks at his subject. While pertaining specifically to description, point of view is necessary in all writing in order to stay within a context that will insure unity in the paragraph of essay. I.
Writing a. The Draft
Focused Freewriting – involves concentrating on a predetermined topic. Well, the assignment says a problem. Let’s see if I’m going to write a lot of old junk about things. War. War. War is stupid. Unemployment lines and trying to find a job on this campus. Nuclear energy is too frightening to think about. Anyway, I don’t know enough to write about. I really want to think about divorce. The big D. Why bother getting married if I only have 50-50 chance of making it. But many of my friends are not making it. Lives ripped apart. Writing like this gets tiring of my hand. Keep moving, keep moving. Sounds like a movie theater usher. My parents had a great marriage. Since my dad died my mother has had a hard time. She has to live alone now that I am out of the house. It isn’t easy for her to get used to a new lifestyle. Rough Outline An outline is a listing of the main points of a book, a composition, or any piece of writing that provides a visual guide and checklist. It is especially useful for informative and persuasive writing because it can clearly reveal flaws – missing information, undesirable repetitions, digression from the thesis.
Two Types of Outline 1. Informal Outline – is constructed before the writing begins, and it often changes as the writing progress. It does not have to follow all the formal conventions of outlining. It lists
the main ideas of an essay - the major subdivisions of the thesis statement. It also lists subordinate ideas and details, but without attention to levels of generality. Thesis Statement: Rain forests must be preserved because they offer the human race many irreplaceable resources. Definition of Rain forest 80 inches rainfall a year Tropical regions (warm temperatures) Lush, dense vegetation Canopy Branches overlap As high as the trees (I think about 98 feet) Evergreens Plant and insect life thrive Biomedical Uses Over 1,400 plants and animals Compounds for medicines Parkinson’s Mental illnesses Anticancer Natural balances Level forest→birds leave→insects are no longer eaten by birds→insects overgrow and eat crops→hunger Level forest→native displaced→become dependent on government→more pressure on national debt 2. Formal Outline – shows exactly what points the writer covers. It follows conventions concerning content and format. The formal outline uses Roman numerals (I, II, III), capital letters (A,B,C), and Arabic numbers (1,2,3) to show the relationships of major and minor ideas in the paper. All the headings in a formal outline share a similar grammatical structure. In a sentence outline, each point, major or minor, is stated as a complete sentence; in a topic sentence, all the headings are written as words and phrases. These two forms should not be mixed in the same outline.
Pattern for Formal Outline of an Essay Thesis Statement: I. First main idea A. First subordinate idea 1. First reason or example
2. Second reason or example a. First supporting detail b. Second supporting detail A. Second subordinate idea Second main idea
Airplanes I. Airplane Use A. Personal B. Commercial I. Kinds of Airplanes A. Private Planes 1. Size 2. Equipment A. Passenger planes 1. Types 2. Historical development 3. Routes
DISTINCTION AMONG THE LATER PARTS OF THE WRITING PROCESS Drafting – calls for you to write your ideas in sentences and paragraphs. Revising – multiple drafts leading to unedited final draft; calls for you to evaluate your draft and, based on your decisions, rewrite it by adding, cutting, replacing, moving-and often totally recasting material. Editing – final draft with correct surface features; calls for you to check the technical correctness of your grammar, spelling, punctuation, and mechanics. Proofreading – final, edited draft with repaired typographical or handwritten errors; calls for you to read your final copy for typing errors or handwriting legibility.
DEFINITION OF RESEARCH
➢ searching for a theory (a scientifically acceptable general principle
offered to explain observed facts). For testing a theory, or for solving a problem. ➢
a SYSTEMATIC, CONTROLLED, EMPIRICAL, and CRITICAL investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena (Kerlinger, 1973) SYSTEMATIC – follows steps or stages that begin with identification of the problem, relating of this problem with existing theories, collection of data, analysis, interpretation of these data, drawing of conclusions, and integration of these conclusions into the stream of knowledge. CONTROLLED – is so planned every step of the way that fancy and guess work do not set in. The problem is defined thoroughly, variables identified and selected, instruments carefully selected or constructed, conclusions drawn only from the data yielded, and recommendations based on the findings and conclusions. EMPERICAL DATA – will form the bases for conclusions. Everything is so controlled that any observer of the investigation will develop full confidence in the results. CRITICAL ANALYSIS – is done by a panel of judges that passes judgment on the entire research. ➢ an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS ORGANIZED – involves a structure or method in going about doing research. It is planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope.
SYSTEMATIC – follows a definite set of procedures and steps. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results. FINDING ANSWERS – is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypothesis or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer. QUESTIONS – are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose.
DEFINITION OF A RESEARH PAPER A RESEARCH PAPER ➢
sometimes called a term paper or library paper, an ordinary critical essay or the more daunting thesis (an essay embodying results of original research especially one written for an academic degree or dissertation (an extended usually written treatment of a subject especially one submitted for a doctorate)
reports the writer’s research findings.
involves “searching again” through what others have written about the subject.
is primarily characterized by its use of data gathered from a wide range of sources to clarify, analyze, expound on, discover, discuss, and debate an idea.
entails understanding a scholarly endeavor and acquainting yourself with the variety of materials at your disposal (e.g., the library, various institutions, field interviews, questionnaires, the internet, email, and the like) to support your claims.
TWO APPROACHES (1) a summary of information from many resources If the paper summarizes research, it reports the reading a single source or, more likely, from many sources.
(2) an evaluation of research information If the paper evaluates the research information, it considers why or how and is frequently either a comparison paper or a causeeffect paper. The evaluation paper requires the use of numerous sources and assumes the writer’s ability to show originality and imagination.
CHARACTERISTICS An effective research paper fulfills these requirements: ➢ indicates careful, comprehensive reading and understanding of the topic
➢ establishes, in its introduction, a thesis to be developed in the course of the paper ➢ follows a clear organization ➢ employs the principles of good composition ➢
includes direct quotations, paraphrases, or precis that supports the thesis
➢ includes documentation in the form of parenthetical notes, endnotes, or footnotes ➢ includes a list of works cited ➢ exhibits careful, thorough documentation o sources of ideas ➢ follows a carefully prescribed format ➢ is almost always typed or, if prepared on a computer, printed on a letter-quality printer REMEMBER! A research paper A research paper is not a * uses documentation * piece of expository writing * analyzes, discusses, and debates ideas * personal essay * acquaints you with a cross section of * reflection paper materials * review of academic literature * engages you in critical, not creative, * mere reporting of facts and/or reading and writing opinions THE RESEARCH WRITING PROCESS Almost all materials on research paper writing summarize research writing as a matter of completing a series of step. As the English 112 course outline delineates, writing a research paper conventionally entails the following steps:
Step 1: Choosing a Research Topic Step 2: Developing a Research Strategy Step 3: Evaluating and Compiling a Preliminary Research Bibliography Step 4: Taking Good Notes Step 5: Conducting Interviews and/or Surveys Step 6: Writing the Data Commentary Step 7: Writing the First Draft Step 8: Revising the Research Paper Step 9: Preparing the Final Research Paper for Submission THE YO-YO APPROACH Rather than completing one step of the research/writing process and moving neatly on to the next step, you will find that you confront problems that cause you either to go back to a previous step or to think ahead to the next step.
STEP 1: CHOOSING A RESEARCH TOPIC Key Steps in Choosing a Research Topic 1. Choose General Subject Area 2. Narrow the Topic 3. Select Focused Topic from General Subject Area 4. Verify Topic with Instructor 5. Research Available Information 6. Start Research SOURCES OF A PROBLEM FOR INVESTIGATION 1. personal or friends’ experiences, observations, and knowledge 2. the vast amount of literature (the production of written works having excellence of form or expression and dealing with ideas of permanent interest) in your own field 3. courses that you have taken
4. journals, books, magazines, or abstracts 5. theses and dissertations 6. your professors, librarians, and classmates SHARPENING SKILLS FOR DISCOVERYING AND IDENTIGYING A PROBLEM 1. Reading a lot of literature in your field of interest and being critical of what you read. 2. Attending professional lectures. 3. Being close observant of situations and happenings around you. 4. Thinking out the possibility of research for most topics or lessons in content courses. 5. Attending research colloquia or seminars. 6. Conducting mini-researches and noting the obtained findings closely. 7. Compiling researches with special emphasis on content and methodology. 8. Visiting various libraries for possible discovery of researchable topics. 9. Subscribing to journals in your field and in research. 10. Building-up a library of materials in your field. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A RESEARCH TOPIC 1. The topic should be of great interest to you. 2. It should be within your abilities. 3. It should be manageable and achievable in terms of: a. Length of research paper b. Duration of research project c. Availability of research resources(necessary equipment, subjects/participants, and sufficient library facilities) 4. The topic should be interesting and intelligible to the general reader and can meet the general reader’s needs and expectations. 5. It should be of importance and of significance.
6. It is useful for the concerned people in a particular field. TOPICS TO AVOID 1. Too narrow, too broad, or to recent for discussion and for adequate use of a cross-section of research materials or resources. 2. Too ordinary, standard, popular topics commonly chosen for student research papers. 3. Too hard to investigate and to distasteful or uninteresting to you. 4. Philosophical topics or those based on personal belief. 5. Strictly biographical topics—Abraham Lincoln as a father—that are already discussed fully in book-length studies. 6. Highly technical or specialized. 7. Too sensitive or too controversial and topics that carry ethical or more impediments. STRATEGIES TO NARROW A RESEARCH TOPIC 1. Conducting preliminary library research Sources for preliminary research include encyclopedias, various readers’ guides and indexes, books, magazines, newspapers, and other reading materials. a. Consult an encyclopedia. An encyclopedia is a good starting point for students who have no idea what they can write about. Encyclopedias contain general information (often about broad subjects) that you can use as triggers for possible topics. b. Search an Index. You can also go through the computerized card catalog of your library and get ideas for your research paper.
c. Surf the net. The internet is a rich source of possible topics. It has been used by scholars to exchange information and discuss development in their fields. d. Go through books, magazines, newspapers, and other reading materials. A news item or a feature article may spark your curiosity and trigger you to ask questions. 1. Freewriting This strategy involves writing continuously about the general topic for a specified time---usually ten minutes, without rereading, pausing, or editing and without restrictions. Steps to Follow in Freewriting 1. Start by setting a time limit or a number of pages that you have to fill up. 2. Then write without stopping (with a pen, a pencil, or at a computer) all your thoughts on a subject. Write what you think and fell about the topic, questions that occur to you, images that arise, statements you’ve heard others make, whatever comes in the allotted time. If you have trouble getting started with freewriting, try focusing with introductory phrases that will launch you directly into discussion of your research subject. Start freewrting with introductory phrases like the following: One unsettled question about (subject) is…. (Subject) is important today because…. (Subject) should (or should not) be… I am interested in (subject) because…. If you cannot think of anything at the moment, then write this down. Just write or type away, and ideas will come to you eventually.
3. When something hits you, write everything that is in your mind. If your mind wanders off to another topic, pursue this new direction and just write. Do not worry about leaving the earlier topic “undeveloped”. Remember, you are still exploring possible topics for your research paper, and you should not expect to come up with an elaborate description of your topic free writing. 4. When you have reached your time or page limit, stop. Then go back to what you have written. Highlight any statements or questions that strike you as particularly interesting. List down all the topics you have developed through free writing and choose a phrase or sentence that seems to be potentially promising for a research topic. Subject : Censorship in the schools Sample Free writing: Censorship only makes the books censored more popular, trying to suppress ideas doesn’t work; on the other hand. Maybe some books harmful, maybe some ideas distorting, giving kids the wrong picture. Is censorship based on values or fear? Fear of what? If values, what are we trying to exclude and why? Whose taste, whose reality, whose definitions? Is censorship ever justified? Is it necessary in education to censor certain books? 3. Clustering or webbing This technique is nonlinear brainstorming activity that generates ideas, images, and feelings around a stimulus word that represents the general topic. Mind mapping is a term often associated with clustering or webbing. It is used more often to organize material that students have brainstormed earlier.
4. Listing This method is a variation of brainstorming, which involves listing all the topics you can think of that fall under your general subject. Then cross out the ones that are too broad or inappropriate and check those that might be a good starting point for your preliminary research. Select the one that you find the most interesting. General Topic: Censorship 1. First Amendments rights (too broad) 2. Role of free thought in democracy (too broad) 3. Criteria for censorship who sets them, do they change with the times? (not interesting to me) 4. Censorship and education (too broad) 5. Enforcing censorship---can it be done? (mildly interesting) 6. Censorship as free publicity for groups, books, material (interesting) 7. Self-censorship on part of the press---what do they agree not to print and why? (research this one) 1-government secrets? 2-misconduct of officials? 3-foreign affairs blunders? 4-military errors 5-misconduct of certain groups? 5. Brainstorming This technique is intended to generate as many ideas as possible about a subject. Steps to follow in Brainstorming
1. Begin by making a list of what you know and what you are interested in knowing about each of the following categories: people, place, events, trends, controversies, developments. People
*Gloria *Afghanistan *Outbreak Macapagal of SARS -Arroyo *North Korea *Call *Efren centers “Bata” *West Bank Reyes of the Gaza *September Strip (Israel) 11 bombing *Manny of the world “Pacman” *Mindanao Trade Pacquiao Center* *Iraq *George *Scandals in W. Bush the Catholic Church *MILF
*Estrada plunder case
*Reality television shows
Developments *Genetic engineering *Robotics
*North * Cloning *Korean Korea’s Telenovelas nuclear arsenal *Orange and Lemon *MMDA and other drive to solve rock bands the traffic problem
*Random *Al Qaeda drug testing in schools 2. Go back to your list. For each category, identify an entry that seems interesting. For each entry you have chosen, write down what particular aspect about this topic you would want to know more about. For example: ➢ ➢
➢ ➢ ➢ ➢
Manny “Pacman” Pacquiao: techniques in boxing Afghanistan: after the fall of the Talibon Call centers: the proliferation of call centers in the country Reality television shows: what makes them sell MMDA drive to solve the traffic problem: legal or not? Genetic engineering: bane or boon?
3. When you have identified a particular angle you are interested in exploring, check if this is researchable. Make sure you choose an angle which has not yet been exhaustively written about. Topic Important Interesting Interesting to to you? to general general reader? reader?
Verifiable Relatively Manageby a New? able? variety of sources and references
FUNCTIONS OF A RESEARCH TITLE Summary of the content of the entire study Frame of reference for the whole research paper Researcher’s claim of ownership Other researcher’s reference for possible survey of theory Preparing a good title means: having the most important words appear toward the beginning of your title, ➢ limiting the use of ambiguous or confusing words, ➢ breaking your title up into a title and subtitle when you have too many words, and ➢ including key words that will help researchers in the future find your work. ➢
Things to remember in writing the research title
1. You should write the title clearly and specifically. 2. The main concepts should be included. 3. The title should contain three things: (1) the variables you will study, (2) the relationship among the variables, and (3) the target population. 4. The title should not exceed 20 substantive words, function words not included in the counting (Baker & Schutz, 1972) Examples of RESEARCH TITLE Sample 1 A Study of the Relationship between IQ, Socio-Economic Status, Personality, Work Values, and Career Preference (incomplete) IQ, Socio-Economic Status, Personality, Work Values, and Career Preferences Among Fourth Among Fourth Year High School Students of Metro Manila (better) Sample 2 The Relationship of Parental Behavior and Personality to Problem Behavior (incomplete) Factors in Parental Behavior and Personality as Related to Problem Behavior in Children (better) Sample 3 Smoking Behavior of Fourth Year High School Students (incomplete) Peer and Other Influences on Smoking Behavior among Fourth Year High School Students in Cainta, Rizal (better) Sample 4 A Comparison of Grade IV Gifted and Non-Gifted Children (incomplete)
Self-Concept and Parent Identification Among Grade IV Gifted and Non-Gifted Children in the Division of Isabela (better) Sample 5 Verbal Creativity Among Senior High School Students (incomplete) Sex and Mental Ability Differences in Verbal Creativity Among Senior High School Students in Selected Schools in Lipa City (better) WHAT IS A THESIS STATEMENT? It is the point, gist, or condensation of the paper. It is a one- or two-sentence summary of the entire text, whether an argumentative position or an analytical exploration of issues. Why should your paper contain a thesis statement? 1. To establish a point in the paper. 2. To ensure that you have a clear grasp of the subject matter. 3. To provide a framework for the organization and development of your arguments or analyses. 4. To prepare and guide your reader in the reading of your paper. Writing a thesis statement 1. A thesis statement is always expressed as a complete sentence. 2. A thesis statement takes a position (or makes a stand) on a topic. 3. A thesis statement uses specific language. 4. A thesis statement makes an assertion based on clearly stated support. Helpful hint: Clear and effective thesis statements are usually introduced by because, since, so, although, unless, in order to and however (when used with a semi-colon). Example: Thesis statement: In order to address the problems associated with the deteriorating reading, writing and mathematical skills, a revised basic curriculum is needed to ensure that our students receive quality education.
THESIS STATEMENT • asserts the main idea controlling your paper’s content and organization. • has two primary characteristics: it states or suggests the paper’s main topic, and it states or implies the order in which the ideas will appear. • states your main idea or purposes and lets your reader recognize the relationship among ideas and the emphasis of your paper. Basic Requirements for a Thesis Statement
1. 2. 3. 4.
States the paper’s main idea Reflects the paper’s purpose Includes a focus Briefly states the major subdivision(s) of your topic
Suitable subject: Possible Subtopics:
Teenagers Coping with Alzheimer’s Patients Alzheimer’s Symptoms Disease progression Patient’s behavior Home care Caregiver’s problems Other family members’ concerns Patient’s frustration Sources of patient/family frustrations Reducing everyone’s frustration Treatments Daily routine Communication with patient Nutrition Support groups for family Support groups for teens Day care Nursing home - if? When? Teen’s social life Teen’s school life (homework, extracurricular activities)
Broad Categories Patient’s emotions are probably the result of Alzheimer’s symptoms and the disease’s progression. The emotions affect the patient’s behavior Frustration probably best describes the emotions. Patient’s emotions form one main idea, then it’s logical that family emotions make up another main idea. The topic includes the ideas of caregiver’s problems, family members concerns, family frustration; decision about a nursing home, teen’s schools and social life. The remaining ideas fit loosely into the category of reducing frustration—either those of the patient or of the family. Preliminary Thesis Statement: Understanding the emotions of both the patient and the family will help reduce everyone’s frustrations. Main points in implied order: Patient’s emotions Family member’s emotions
Reduction of patient’s frustrations Reduction of family member’s frustrations Final Thesis statement: Teenagers face a tough challenge both to understand and to deal with a loved one afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease as he or she regresses through cognitive deterioration, communication impairment, and behavior problems.
Topic: Preliminary: Final:
Houseplants are harmful. Certain seemingly household plants can cause serious health problems, even death.
Houseplants Topic: Preliminary: Final:
Topic: Preliminary: Final:
Science Fiction There are many types of science fiction Science fiction novels range from stories with scary creatures to stories that make serious comments about modern society. The history of American architecture The history of American architecture is varied. American architecture has gone through major phases: from colonial to federal to Victorian to modern.
Weak (summarizes known facts) AIDS is usually fatal disease in which the body’s immune system fails to resist infection. Better People with AIDS should have legal access to promising new drugs without having to wait for their approval by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Weak (too general) The drug problem is something we need to solve. Better Anti-drug campaigns are most effective when designed and targeted for specific local populations. Weak (intention only) This paper will show that the moral content of children’s cartoons is too ambiguous to present acceptable behavior models. Better The moral content of children’s cartoons is too ambiguous to present acceptable behavior models.
STEP 2: DEVELOPING A RESEARCH STRATEGY
Once you have narrowed your topic significantly and have verified your topic with your teacher, you are ready to develop an appropriate research strategy to make sure there is enough information available on the topic to complete your paper. In this stage, you are searching for books, articles, reviews, essays, and other information specifically related to the topic you have selected. Planning a Research Schedule A Research Schedule is a calendar of all steps necessary for completing a successful research paper on time. It lists the paper’s due date and includes the major research steps in the research process. A Research Schedule is a Time Schedule that includes time allocation for different stages of research writing. This time schedule may be used as a guide. To begin, make a research plan. Use the following guidelines, recognizing that a week represents five working days. You choose the days. If your final research paper is due in 10 weeks, spend 4 days choosing a topic 6 days doing preliminary work 12 days taking notes 8 days gathering the data 9 days writing a first draft 4 days revising 6 days documenting and polishing 1 day proofreading Stevens, Mark English 112
RESEARCH PAPER SCHEDULE November 10 November 13 November 17 November 20 November 24 December 4 December 11 January 8 January 22 January 29 February 5 February 12 February 19 February 26 March 3
Begin thinking about research topic. Start research notebook.
Review general sources on possible research topic. Search the index, surf the net, read encyclopedia, Books, and other reading materials. Select research topic and verify it with instructor. Formulate research questions. Write the statement of the problem. Devise a research strategy to locate information. Compile a preliminary bibliography. Turn in preliminary bibliography Start preliminary reading and note taking. Start writing the different sections of the Research Proposal. Turn in the Research Proposal. Start collection of data. Analyze research data. Write the first draft. Prepare the final paper. Revise, edit, and proofread the final paper. Final research paper due!
Keeping a Research Notebook A Research Notebook is any handy-size spiral-bound notebook that you can literally carry with you everywhere and make a habit of using throughout the research process. Suggestions in Setting up a Research Notebook 1. Keep a particular notebook reserved especially for your research notes and writing.
2. Use a pencil or ink to record ideas and information. While you do not need to worry about neatness, write legibly and make complete entries. 3. Record names, titles, and other bibliographic data accurately and fully to avoid errors in your final paper. 4. Use as many headings or subtitles in the notebook as necessary to keep your entries organized. 5. Date each entry in the research notebook. This will help you see a pattern to the research as well as provide an occasional nudge when you have ignored something for too long. Kinds of Entries in a Research Notebook 1. Your research schedule: Having your research schedule readily available will keep your efforts organized and give you direction. Make it the first item you put in your notebook. 2. Ideas about your research topic: Jot down spontaneous insights before you forget them. If you find yourself writing a lot, keep going. What you write could become valuable material for the final paper. 3. Research questions: Keep track of the questions you need to answer for yourself about the paper’s topic as well as those questions you will need to ask others. 4. Sources to follow up on: Record author’s names, source titles, libraries, data services, and other information you may need for your paper.
Doing Library Research When it comes to doing research work, nothing beats the traditional approach of leafing through printed pages. A good library is a goldmine of resources if you know how to use it.
Practical Tips to Consider in Doing Library Research 1. Move from general to specific references. 2. Learn to use bibliography/reference lists. 3. Know how to evaluate a source. Doing Internet Research The internet has a wider reach across a variety of sources – academic, professional, government, and commercial as well as individual sources and provides an easier transfer of information to electronic format. However, the internet is simply a research tool; it is not a substitute for the rigorous discipline of scholarly research. Use and Advantages of Internet 1. Use the internet to build basic background information. 2. Use the internet to be up-to-date on the latest discoveries regarding your topic. 3. Use the internet only if you have time.
STEP 3: EVALUATING AND COMPILING A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY A bibliography is a systematic and comprehensive listing of works (e.g, books, periodicals, newspapers, and other documents) cited or consulted for the study, including book-length compilations of bibliographical entries on a given subject.
Functions: 1. It enables the reader to verify the documentation provided in the paper. 2. It provides the reader with a list of further readings on the subject. 3. It enables the reader to estimate the probable value of the paper on the bases of the range, up-to-dateness and reliability of the sources used. Basic Kinds of Source Materials 1. Primary Sources—include first-hand accounts of experimentation and investigation (articles in professional journals, monographs, doctoral theses, interviews, and questionnaires), original works (letters, diaries, eyewitness accounts, poems, novels, autobiographies, and other literary works), reports(proceedings of Parliament, court testimony, reports of government departments and agencies, annual reports, laboratory reports, field observations, and minutes), and the researcher’s own experiences. 2. Secondary Sources—are summaries of information gathered from primary sources. These secondary sources include translations, summaries, and reviews of research (for example, encyclopedia articles), abstracts, guide books, magazines, journals, newspapers, pamphlets, indexes, computer databases, and other publications containing information, commentaries, and so on. 3. Tertiary Sources—include textbooks, since these are generally compiled from secondary sources. Tertiary sources of information can be useful in providing an overview or broad summary of a field. They may even be acceptable as references because some textbooks become acknowledged as authorities. Different Kinds of Bibliography
Works Cited—comprises a list of sources that has been referred to in the text or footnotes of a paper. It is the most common form of bibliography, although the heading Bibliography or References or List of References is normally substituted for Works Cited. The term Reference is the most commonly used of these terms across different disciplines. 2. Sources Consulted—is a broader kind of bibliography and consists of a comprehensive listings of works consulted, including those that are not quoted from, referred to or strictly relevant to the subject of a particular paper. 3. A Selected Bibliography—contains those sources cited, together with the more relevant of the works that have been consulted. 4. A Brief Annotated Bibliography—is a list of references, at least some of which are followed by a note on the content and usefulness of the references. 1.
Procedure in Compiling a Research Bibliography 1. Consult bibliographical guides. 2. Consult an encyclopedia article on your topic. 3. Consult standard reference materials such as atlases, handbooks, and dictionaries. 4. Consult the computer/card catalogue. 5. Consult a guide to these and dissertation. 6. Consult periodical and newspaper indexes. 7. Consult the vertical files. Critically Evaluating Sources ○ Fairness: Does the author demonstrate knowledge and consideration of the other viewpoints and research in the field? Is there discussion of opposing viewpoints as well as application and citation of other works or authorities? ○ Logic: Has the author supported his or her ideas with valid evidence? Is the presentation logical, and has the author avoided bias and common fallacies of logic?
○ Evidence: Do the examples and other evidence presented fairly reflect current data? Is there a clear separation of fact and opinion? ○ Authority: Does the author refer to qualified experts or establish his or her own credentials to speak with authority on the subject? Evaluating Information Is the Publication Useful to You? ✔ Can you understand the material? ✔ Is it too theoretical, too general, too specific? ✔ Does it contain illustrative material to clarify information? ✔ Can you use it as a source for your notes? Is the Material a Primary or Secondary Source? ✔ Include a balance of primary and secondary materials in your paper to cross-check information and to gain some idea as to the usefulness and accuracy of primary and secondary work. How Recent is the Source? ✔ Check the publication date of your books, articles and other sources to make sure you have the latest information on your topic. Is the Writer an Authority or Reliable Scholar in the field? ✔ Look up the author’s credentials (necessary expertise, training or expertise to write completely about the subject) in biographical sources Does the Writer Cite Sources?
✔ Notice not only the number of sources listed but the quality of primary and secondary sources. Does the Writer Have Biases or Prejudices? ✔ Does the writer have some personal motive for writing for or against a topic? ✔ Is the language filled with emotional adjectives and adverbs that color the facts? ✔ Are the facts loaded on one side or another of an issue? ✔ Does the author present both sides accurately, and are the facts substantiated by other sources? Has the writer Defined Terms and Major Concepts? ✔ Are the definitions too personal or too vague to be useful?
Making Bibliography Cards To make a bibliography card for a text, use a 3”x5” index card and write only one bibliography entry on one side of the card.
Advantages of Working or Preliminary Bibliography on index cards: 1. Cards allow for quick organization and sorting of bibliographic sources. 2. Unwanted cards can be easily discarded or new ones conveniently added. 3. Information from the cards can be easily transferred to a computer file and then serve as a back-up to the file. 4. Because they cam easily be shuffled and arranged alphabetically, the cards will later provide bibliographic information in the order needed for preparing the list of References.
References: All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper. A. Pagination: The references section begins on a new page. B. Heading: References (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header) C. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have three components: 1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use et al. for remaining authors. Id\f no author is identified. The title of the document begins the reference. 2.
Year of Publication: If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parentheses following the authors.
3. Source of Reference: Include title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publication (for book). Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers. Some General Rules for APA Reference Pages
Begin the reference list on a new page. The page begins with the word References )Reference if there is only one), centered in the top, middle of the page, using both upper and lower case. If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type the word Reference on sequential pages. Simply continue your list
Use one space after all punctuation.
The first line of the reference is flush left. Lines thereafter are indented as a group, a few spaces, to create a hanging indention. Double space between citations. The italics for titles of longer works such as books, newspapers, magazines, and journals.
Reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
Give in parentheses the year the work was published. For magazines and news papers, give the year followed by the month and date, if any. If no date is available, write n. d.
Give volume numbers of magazines, journals, and newsletters. Include the issue number for journals if and only if each issue begins on page 1.
Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
When referring to any work that is NOT a journal, such as a book, article, or web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the last names of the first author of each work. Personal communications, such as email messages to you. Private interviews that you conducted with another person, speeches, and telephone conversations should not be cited in your reference list because they are not retrievable sources for anyone else. You should make reference to these sources in your in-text citations.
If you have more than one article by the same author(s), singleauthor references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed by the year of publication, starting with the earliest. Example: Bernt, T. J. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Bernt, T. J. (2002). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), religion and mental Health (pp.70-84). New York: Oxford University. Murzynski, J., & Degelman (1998). Body language of women and adjustments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. Murzynski, J., & Degelman (2000). Publication manual of the American psychological association (5th ed.) Australia: John Wily & Sons. When an author appears both as a sole author and, n another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first. Example: Murzynski, J. (1998). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. Murzynski, J., & Degelman (2000). Publication manual of the
American psychological association (5th ed.) Australia: John Wily & Sons.
References that have the same first author and different second and/or third authors are arranged alphabetically by the last name of the second author, or the last name the third if the first and second authors are the same. Example: Manlapaz, E.Z., Francisco, M. E. N., & Manlapaz, R.L. (1995). The anvil guide to research paper writing: A step-by-step guide. Pasig City: ANVIL. Manlapaz,E. Z, Sevilla, C. G., Punzalan, T. G., Regala,B. P., & Uriate,G. G. (1992). Research Methods (Revised ed.). Manila: Rex Book Store.
• If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize then in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Example: Sue Baugh, L. (1997). How to write term paper and reports (2nd ed.). Illinois: VGM Career Horizons. Sue Baugh, L. (1997b). Writing the modern research paper (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Examples of Sources Stand-alone Web Document (no date)
Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. RetrievedAugust3,2001,from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm Stand-alone Web Document (no author, no date) Gender and society. (n.d.).Retrieved December 3, 2001, from http://trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html Journal article from database Hien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug abusematernal aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved May 20, 2000, from ProQuest database. Abstract from Secondary Database Garrity, K. & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168172. Abstract retrieved July 23, 2001, from PsycINFO database. Entry in an Encyclopedia Imago. (2000). In World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 10, p. 79). Chicago: World Book Encyclopedia.
TAKING GOOD NOTES
Objectives of Note Taking 1. To record the main ideas that will form the backbone of your research report. 2. To gather specific evidence to support your main ideas. 3. To record the exact wording of sources you may want to quote in your paper. Unavoidable Difficulties of Taking Notes 1. You cannot tell ahead of time exactly what information you will need.
2. You cannot copy down everything you read. Secret of Taking Good Notes 1. Develop a system and stick to it. 2. Know what not to take notes on as well as what to write down. Note Content 1. Background information that you need to understand the research topic better. 2. Summary of general ideas supporting your preliminary thesis statement. 3. Explanatory such as histories, definitions of terms, plot summaries, biographical data, and other material that you may need to provide for your reader. 4. Quotations, examples, and anecdotes that will illustrate or support your ideas in the paper. 5. Little known facts or questionable and controversial ideas about your topic . 6. Statistical figures, such as percentages, weights, amounts of money, ratios, and dates that are not commonly known, as well as the sources in which you found them. Guidelines for Taking Effective Notes 1. Use phrases instead of complete sentences. 2. Avoid using unusual abbreviations as a form of shorthand in note taking. 3. Identify facts and opinions as you take notes. 4. Facts of common knowledge (e.g., the bombing of Pearl Harbor) do not have to be documented. Unusual or little-known facts (e.g., how many civilians were killed in the surprise attack) do need to be documented. Make sure you include your source on the note card. 5. When copying quotations, use ellipses if you omit a few words. Otherwise, you may not remember that you condensed the quoted material.
6. Keep all your note cards until your paper has been graded. Your instructor may ask to see your notes or may have questions about a fact in your work. Note-Taking Techniques 1. Keep notes in a flexible and convenient form, so that they can be sorted out, arranged or shuffled to suit any order you need and to add or take out cards as your research progresses. 2. Use a uniform size of index cards (4” x 6”). Resist the temptation to write on odds and ends of paper, since these are easy to loose. 3. Keep the cards bound with an elastic band and store them in a portable case, preferably in a strong envelope. 4. When taking notes, use only one side of the card. 5. Use a separate note card for each idea from each source. 6. Write only one entry—items of information constituting a single point—per card, regardless whether the note is brief or not. If the notes you need to take cannot be contained on one side of the note card, use another note card but take care to (1) write down the source on the second and subsequent cards, and (2) indicate that it is the continuation of the preceding note cards, and clip or staple the cards together. 7. Take notes in your own words. You may use phrases, lists, key words, sentences, or paragraphs. 8. When you find a particularly poignant passage—perhaps a phrases or even a whole sentence or two—then copy it on your note card exactly as it appears, comma for comma, letter for letter. Enclose the passage in quotation marks. 9. If a word is misspelled or misused in the quoted passage, clarify your accuracy in quoting by inserting the word sic (meaning thus, to clarify that the error is not yours), in italics (because it is a foreign word), and enclosed in brackets. Example: “The recipient hereby expresses his hartfelt [sic] thanks for the commendations.”
10.If you omit words or phrases or choose not to quote a complete sentence, show the omission by using ellipsis points. Use three points for the omission of a word or phrase; use fourth point to represent a period at the end of a sentence. Full text quoted: “You can reinforce your verbal message with nonverbal ones by pointing, gesturing, and using ‘body language’ to convey your pleasure or displeasure with your relative’s behavior.” Partial text quoted; three ellipsis points “You can reinforce your verbal message with nonverbal ones… to convey your pleasure or displeasure with your relative’s behavior.” Partial text quoted; four ellipsis points “You can reinforce your verbal message with nonverbal ones by pointing, gesturing, and using ‘body language’ to convey your pleasure or displeasure….” 11.Use brackets to enclose words you add to quoted material [to clarify or to refine style]. Example to clarify “You can reinforce your verbal message with nonverbal ones by pointing, gesturing, and using ‘body language’ to convey [your reactions to] your pleasure or displeasure with your relative’s behavior.” Example to refine style “[One] can reinforce [his] verbal message with nonverbal ones by pointing, gesturing, and using ‘body language’ to convey [one’s] pleasure or displeasure with [a] relative’s behavior.” Mechanics of Note—Taking
a. Before anything else, write down the source of your note preferably at the bottom of the card remember to use the same method of citations you chose for writing down your bibliography notes. If you are making only one note from the source, be sure to write down its full bibliographical description. If you are planning to make several note from the same source, write down the full bibliographical description only on the first note card and use the abbreviated form for the rest. e.g., First Note card: Harrison, P. (1980). The third world tomorrow. New York: Penguin Books, p. 25. Second Note Card Harrison, Third world, p. 28. b.
Write the subject, called the Slug, on the top line, upper left hand corner of the note card. This slug line gives you the main idea of the card and helps you arrange your cards by main point. This topic heading will save you much time later when sorting out your cards.
Write only one idea per card and on only one side of the card. c. Write out the note itself Potential Pitfalls in Note—Taking 1. Do not rely too heavily on one source. In general, you should have about an equal number of note cards from each source. 2. If your subject permits, try to use book and periodical references and other sources. However, the topic ultimately determines the appropriate sources.
Be sure to check nonprint media sources, which can provide additional perspectives. Television documentaries, public—radio talk shows, films, lectures—all are legitimate research sources. 4. Do not overuse direct quotations. You can usually summarize ideas in fewer words. Probably less than one-fourth of your cards should quote directly. 5. Make absolutely certain that you put quotations marks around any words not your own. 3.
Different Types of Notes 1. Paraphrase A paraphrase is a restatement of another person’s ideas or the author’s material in your own words, retaining the basic meaning of the original. It involves simplification, with some of the details being omitted. Paraphrasing is not simply changing a word here and there in a sentence. A good paraphrase usually Reflects your own words, your own style of writing but retains the senses of the original Reduces the original only slightly, usually by less than onefourth Displays careful reading of the original Represents the original idea accurately and completely, without reflecting personal bias Recasts original language for better clarity and readability Uses clear, effective sentences as well as good mechanics, usage, and grammar. Point to Consider:
a. One should always acknowledge the source of his facts and ideas (except for facts and ideas which are common knowledge) in order to avoid the “sin” of plagiarism. b. When paraphrasing, do not merely substitute synonyms for the original words while maintaining the same sentence pattern; similarly, do not merely alter the sentence pattern while using the same words. c. Avoid the “mosaic” which merely lifts phrases from the original text and patches them together in new patterns. d. In cases where one wishes to retain a particularly striking or apt term, phrase or expression, you can do so properly by enclosing it within quotation. e. Be careful to retain the sense of the original; otherwise, you run the risk of misinterpreting or distorting the idea. To reduce the risk, mentally digest the material before you take down any notes.
Example: Original Version The Weather in Hawaii Hawaii has mild, tropical weather year round. There is almost never a time when it is too cold to swim or wander around enjoying the outdoors. However, there are some variations. In summer, it may be hot, with occasional afternoon rains. In Winter and spring, you just might catch a Kona storm, but the rain is so gently warm that it is kind of fun to wander around it, wearing as few clothes as the law allows. Fall is the driest time of the year. From Sunshine Magazine, March 1976, p.23
Paraphrased Version According to Sunshine Magazine (1976), Hawaii’s tropical weather is so mild that one can go swimming and enjoy the outdoors all year round. But the weather does vary somewhat according to the season. In summer, it sometimes gets hot, with occasional shower in the afternoon. In winter and spring, there are a few rainstorms, which are known as “Kona” storm. However, the rain is so “gently warm” that most people enjoy walking around wearing just a minimum clothes. The article also reports that it hardly ever rains in the fall.
Original Passage Recent research has determined that humans tend to fall into one of four quadrants according to their learning styles. Quadrants one learners tend to be divergent thinkers and need personal and emotional involvement in order for learning to take place. As idea people, they function through social integration and strive to bring unity to diversity. Quadrant two learners are assimilators, needing systematic learning via a logical and intellectual approach. As analytic learners, they reflect on ideas to create concepts and models. Quadrant three learners tend to be convergent thinkers who are practical, problem-oriented people. Pragmatic decision makers, they restrict judgment to concrete things. Quadrant four learners are accommodators needing random patterns of learning. They aim to bring action to concepts and exercise authority through common vision, hesitating to make decisions affecting others.
Paraphrase As learners, we fall into four groups. The first kind of learner needs to be caught up in an idea physically and personally. His personal involvement and concern for others make him seek harmony. He’s emotional. The second kind of learner absorbs all the information around him, categorizes it, and reasons out the results. The third king of learner is opposite the first. He tends to be less emotional, more utilitarian. His thorough analysis results in a valid decision. He’s practical. The fourth kind of learner needs numerous approaches to learning something new. As an opposite to the second kind of learner, he relies more on instinct than on logic. When decisions must be made, he doesn’t like to interfere with other’s lives. He’s an accommodator.
1. Summary Like a paraphrase, a summary, also called as précis, is a restatement of the written passage. Unlike a paraphrase, however, it is shorter than the original material—usually about one third as long. Generally, it is a condensation of the main points of a piece of writing. A paragraph or two can often be summarized in a single sentence, and a three- or four- paragraph passage can usually be summarized in a single paragraph. A summary of one page may well reduce the points presented in twenty-five pages of carefully supported detail. Similarly, a summary of a hundred words may restate what an author explains in three pages. A summary usually Omits details, illustrations, and subordinate ideas, presenting instead the major ideas.
Reduces the original passage by two-thirds Indicates careful reading of the original passage Portrays the original author’s concept accurately, without adding bias Follows the guidelines of standard grammar, usage, and mechanics by using strong, effective sentence structure. How to Summarize: 1. Read the material thoroughly. 2. Determine the author’s organization of ideas by dividing the material into different parts and labeling each section. This is similar to creating an outline of the material and identifying the major sections and headings of the material. 3. Construct one-sentence summaries of each of the sections. 4. Read the mini-summaries you made and then determine the central idea of the entire material. State this in a thesis statement of 1-2 sentences. 5. Combine your mini-summaries with your thesis statement. 6. Compare your summary with the original to make sure that you accurately expressed the author’s ideas and that you did not use the author’s exact words. Remember to indicate the source of the material/passage you are summarizing. 7. Edit for language and coherence. Example: Original Version Patients Sometimes Die Because of Unqualified, Untrained Technicians by A.Gribben A 23-year-old college student was playing touch football with some school chums. While running for the ball, he fell and whacked his
head, hard. Hours later, he complained of a “bad” headache. The young man was taken to a major West Coast Hospital where doctors examined him and diagnosed brain hemorrhaging. A team of surgeons operated on the injured man at once. A short while later, the surgery was declared a complete success. But unfortunately, the young man died. An uncertified, poorly trained respiratory technician tending the patient bumbled during an emergency in the recovery room. The National Observe, April 21, 1973
Summarized Version According to Gribben (1973), a college student sustained a severe head injury while playing touch football. Later, the young man was taken to a hospital where doctors diagnosed brain hemorrhaging and performed a successful operation. But the patient died in the recovery room at the hands of an unqualified respiratory technician. Original Passage Wood is a universal material, and no one has ever been able to make a satisfactory count of its many uses. The Forest Products Laboratory, a research institution of the United States Forest Service, at Madison, Wisconsin, once undertook to make an official count of wood uses. When last announced, the number was mote then 5,000 and the argument had only started over how general or how specific a use had to be to get on the list. Just one well-known wood-cellulose plastic, including its conversion products, claims 25,000 uses—among them such different items as doll’s eyes and advertising signs. The use of wood fiber as the basis for such products is increasing every day.
Another important use of wood is paper for printing our books, magazines, and newspapers. A high point in our culture came less than a century ago with the discovery that wood fiber could take the place of cotton or linen in paper manufacture. Today we use more than 73 million of paper and board each year. Of this amount each person’s annual share of all kinds of paper and board is about 660 pounds. When paper was made chiefly of rags, each person’s annual share was less than 10 pounds. Container board accounts for about a fourth of our paper and board use. Newsprint accounts for an additional 17 percent of paper use. The rest is used in a myriad of forms—writing paper; sanitary cartons for prunes, cereals, butter, ice cream, paper cups, plates, disposable napkins, towels, handkerchief, wrapping paper for groceries, meats, dry goods. Summary The Forest Products Laboratory, a research institution of the U.S. Forest Service, suggests over 5,000 uses for wood, but admittedly no one knows how to set the limits of specificity for the list. For instance, some wood fiber products alone can boast over 25,000 uses, including dolls’ eyes and billboards. In another example, wood supplies annually over 73 million tons of paper and board, used for everything form containers to newsprint, amounting to over 40 percent of paper use.
3. Direct Quotation Different Purposes 1.
To capture individual authority or interest: An authority, a well-known person, or another individual should be quoted when his or her own words would be more important or more interesting to your reader.
To ensure accuracy: Exact language is often needed to define special terms, describe conditions, or report results.
The precise language that scientific, medical, and technical sources rely upon for accuracy cannot always be preserved in summary or paraphrase. 3.
To illustrate unique language: Sometimes language is more important for its uniqueness or emotional power than its ability to convey meaning. In discussing a literary work, for instance, a quotation demonstrates the author’s use of language to create meaning and tone.
When to Quote a. Direct quotations should be used only when the original words of the author are expressed so concisely and convincingly that you cannot improve on these words. b. Direct quotations may be used for documenting a major argument where a footnote would not suffice. In this case, quotations are limited in length and comprise only essential passages. c. Direct quotations may be used when you wish to comment upon, refute or analyze ideas expressed by another writer. d. Direct quotations may be used when changes, through paraphrasing, could cause misunderstanding or misinterpretation or would diminish the original text’s significance or rhetorical appeal. e. Direct quotations should be used when citing mathematical, scientific and other formulate. What to Quote a. The exact words of an author or the exact words from an official
publication must be quoted. Exact means using the same words, the same punctuation, the same spelling, the same capitalization. Extreme care must be taken to reproduce quotations exactly. Complete accuracy is important. b. Where quotation is very long, or where you want to use only selected portions, it is permissible to omit sections of an original passage. This procedure is called ellipsis. It should be used with extreme care so that the tone, meaning and intention of the original extract are not altered. To indicate ellipsis, three spaced full stops are inserted.
When using direct quotation, remember the following: 1. Always enclose quotations within quotations marks, remembering to put in the final pair of quotation marks. 2.
If you need to omit certain word or words, phrases or even whole sentences within the quotation, indicate the omission by using an ellpsis (three spaced periods…). For example: Original: What we require to be taught, regardless of whether we are Physics or English majors, is to be our own teachers. Quotation with ellipsis: “What we require to be taught… is to be our own teachers.”
If the omitted material occurs at the end of a sentence, the ellipsis or three spaced periods is naturally followed by a period, thus making for a total of four spaced periods. Thus: Original: There is no answer to the evils of mass employment and mass migration into cities, unless the whole level of rural life can be raised, and this requires the development of an agro-industrial culture, so that each district, each community, can offer a colorful variety of occupations to its members. Quotation with ellipsis at the end of the sentence: “There is no answer to the evils of mass employment and mass migration into cities, unless the whole level of rural life can be raised…” 3.
If you need to insert into a quotation a word or more of explanation, clarification, or correction – known as an interpolation – place it within square brackets, not parentheses.
SAMPLE NOTE CARD FOR EACH TYPE OF NOTES A. Paraphrase
Prohibition encourages drug trade Prohibition throws drug trade wide open to competition and sets up a vicious circle – competition brings down price, which makes drugs more affordable, which encourages consumption. More
people enter drug trade, costs government more to fight greater number of dealers. Hien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved May 20, 2000, from ProQuest database.
Superstition as survival aid Superstition gives subjective sense of control which reduces anxiety. Such feelings of control can help people act more effectively in dangerous situations and increase chances of survival. Dees, R. (1997). The power of superstition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. 29.
C. Direct Quotation Ibuprofen “Ibuprofen is one of several nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs used to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, or reduce fever. All nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs share the same side effects and may be used by patients who cannot tolerate Aspirin.”
Simon, A.J., & Silverman, J.A. (2002). Drug prescription. Illinois: VGM Career Horizons, p. 317.
APA PARENTHETICAL (IN-TEXT) CITATIONS Parenthetical Citations ✔ are citations to original sources that appear in the text of your paper ✔ allow the reader to see immediately where your information comes from ✔ save you the trouble of having to make footnotes or endnotes The APA style calls for three kinds of information to be included in intext citations. The author’s last name and the work’s date of publication must always appear, and these items must match exactly the corresponding entry in the references list. The third kind of information, the page number, appears only in citation to a direct quotation. Three options for placing parenthetical citations in relation to your text. Option 1: Idea-focused Description: Place the author(s) and date(s) within parentheses at an appropriate place within or at the end of a sentence.
Sample Citation: Researchers have pointed out the lack of trained staff is a common barrier to providing adequate health education (Fisher, 1999) and services (Weist & Christodulu, 2000).
Option 2: Researcher-focused Description: Place the date within parentheses. Sample Citation: Fisher (1999) recommended that the health education be required for high school graduation in California. Option 3: Chronology-focused Description: Integrate both the author and date into your sentence. Sample Citation: In 2001, Weist proposed using the Child and Adolescent Planning Schema to analyze and develop community mental health programs for young people. Additional Guidelines • Place citations within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear which material has come which sources. • Use pronouns and transitions to help you indicate whether several sentences contain material from the same source of from different sources.
Sample Citation: Symthe (1990) found that positioning influences ventilation. In his study of 20 ICU patients, he used two methods . . . . However, his findings did not support the work of Karcher (1987) and Atley (1989) who used much larger samples to demonstrate that … GUIDELINES FOR APA PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle is that ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source of reference from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Consider the following sample citation. Wirth and Michell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant. [Note: and is used when multiple authors are identified as part of the format structure of the sentence. Compare this to the example in the following section.] B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons. Consider the following sample citation: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behavior are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gardner, Larson, & Allen, 1991;
Koenig, 1990; Maton & Pargament, 1987). [Note: & (ampersand) is used when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Note also that when several authors are cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authors’ surnames.] C. When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every time the source is cited. When a work has a single or two authors, cite the names and the date of publication whenever you refer to their work in the text. [Exception: Within a given paragraph, do not include the date after the initial citation unless you are citing other publications elsewhere in your paper by the same author(s). Join two co-authors in the text with the word “and”, but within parentheses use an ampersand (&). If authors have the same surname, always include their initials in each citation. D. When the source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author’s surname and “et al.” and the date are used. Consider the following sample citations: Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991). E. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author’s surname and “et al.” and the date are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). F.
Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read (“Grayson” in the following example) that is cited in a source that you have read (“Murzynski & Degelman” in the
following example), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the Reference list: Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability. G. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. Because a personal communication is not “recoverable” information, it is not included in the Reference section. For the text citation, use the following format: B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed…. Quotations: When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year and page number as part of the citation. A. Short Quotation (up to about three lines). A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclose in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into formal structure of the sentence or paragraph framework without disrupting the flow of the text. Adopt the same spacing as the rest of the text. Consider the following sample citations: Patients receiving prayer had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently incubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1998, p.829). As Ferguson (1991, p. 67), chairman of one of the world’s major airlines noted, “by bits and bytes the world has become computerized over the last fifty years”.
B. Long Quotation (usually four or more lines). A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented five spaces (usually 1 cm) from the left margin. Use single line for the quotation and a colon is often added to follow the words of introduction. Consider the following sample citation: The reaction of parents to the experiment was interesting. For a start, all wanted their children to be involved. The class teacher recorded what happened when students took their laptop computers home: It was interesting to hear the reactions of students when they first took their units home. One of the biggest problems was finding time to play with the computer. What started out as a curiosity has been an added bonus, in that parents and families have shown an interest in what their children are doing on the units and have often become more directly involved in their child’s development as a writer. (Cooke, 1986, p. 12) Ellipsis To avoid long quotations that are not completely relevant, or to extract critical sections from a longer extract, it is possible to omit part of a quotation. Sample Citation: Many parents encourage a learning environment at home … and the advertisements of computer companies, often directed at parents, boldly claim better opportunities and higher grades for students who have their own computers (Hancock, 1997, pp. 44-45).
The omission of words is indicated by ellipsis (three full stops). Ellipses can occur at any point within quoted text. If words are omitted at the end of a sentence, the modern practice is to indicate ellipsis again by the three full stops. Sample Citation: The specification of a simple computer programming language consists in specifying three components: (a) a set of primitives … (b) a set of general flow charts; and (c) a computation process … (Barr, 1995, p.7) If ellipsis is used, it is important not to alter the meaning of the original in any way. The omission of not, for instance, by the insertion of … which is very indefinite as to length of omitted material, completely changes an author’s meaning. There are certain ethics of quoting and such omission would seriously violate these.
Special Quotations 1. Quote within Quotes If a quotation occurs within a short extract being quoted, the usual procedure is to enclose the whole quotation within double quotation marks and the internal quotation in single quotation marks. Consider the following sample citation: Hoggart (1983) has depicted vividly the stereotype attributed to the upper-class by the lower-class in terms of “ideas of the group, ‘acting posh’, ‘giving yourself airs’, ‘getting above yourself…” If, however, the quotation is long, it is usual to indent the quotation in the normal way without using quotation marks and to use double quotation marks for any internal quotes. Consider the following sample citation:
In discussing equipment required by an Examinations Agency, Keeves (1996, p.54) notes that: Desk-top publishing equipment is today so versatile, that skilled staff can prepare “camera ready” relatively easily. Moreover, facilities are now available for the drawing of high quality and detailed diagrams using a desk-top computer, and provided the staff have necessary skills. 2. Quoting Poetry The method used to quote poetry depends on the length of the quotation: a shot quotation (a line or part of a line) is enclose in double quotation marks and runs into the text: It is easy to feel the mystique of the songs of Ireland through the sound of “thrush, linnet, stare, and wren” (Keating, 1993, p.28). If two lines are quoted, a slash (/) may be used to separate the lines: Synge (1987) sensed the inevitability of death when he said, “There’ll come a season when you’ll stretch/Black boards to cover me”. 3. Quoting Speech In some instances, there may be a need to quote the actual words of a speaker or the results of a personal interview. Great care needs to be taken to avoid inaccuracies or the possibility or misrepresentation or misinterpretation. If possible, the extracts should be submitted to the author for approval. Professor Olim, in his inaugural address delivered at Charles Stuart University, April, 1995, stated, “There can be little doubt
that modern society is harnessed to an expanding scientific and technological enterprise.” 4. Indirect Quotations or Paraphrases To avoid excessively long quotations, it is sometimes necessary to paraphrase a writer’s words. The ideas are not enclosed in quotation marks but must still be acknowledge. Patrick White was different from ordinary people, and this explains how even his friends often felt inadequate in his company. They could not respond to his needs and in that sense they failed him (Clark, 1991, p.12). In some cases, where a paraphrase contains controversial viewpoints or the starting point for a detailed analysis, a page reference may be included following the author and date, in the same way that page numbers are given for direct quotes.