The Relationship Between Gender Inequality and Poverty Among Rural Women. a Case of Kabwangasi Sub County

August 7, 2017 | Author: Anthony Okiria | Category: Gender Role, Gender Equality, Ethnicity, Race & Gender, Stratified Sampling, Violence
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER INEQUALITY AND POVERTY AMONG RURAL WOMEN. A CASE OF KABWANGASI SUB COUNTY, PALLISA DIST...

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER INEQUALITY AND POVERTY AMONG RURAL WOMEN. A CASE OF KABWANGASI SUB COUNTY, PALLISA DISTRICT

BY

ADONG BETTY 13/2/308/E/013

A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF A BACHELOR IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES OF NDEJJE UNIVERSITY

JULY, 2016

DECLARATION I ADONG BETTY (13/2/308/E/013) of Ndejje University declare that this report is my original work and has never been submitted to any university or any institution of higher learning for any academic award. SIGNATURE ……………………………….. DATE ………………………………………...

APPROVAL

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This research proposal is ADONG BETTY’s work and has been done under my supervision. Signature ………………………….. Date ……………………………….. DR. SAIDA MBOOGE NAJJUMA (University Supervisor)

DEDICATION This research report is dedicated to my beloved parents; father Mr. Okiria Louis and mother Ms. Amolo Immaculate, may the Almighty Lord bless you abundantly. 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost I would like to acknowledge the Almighty God for the support and guidance He has provided me up to this level I have reached now.

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I wish to express my sincere heart gratitude and appreciation to my father Mr. Okiria Louis and mother Ms. Amolo Immaculate, Afai Sylvano and Adong Goretti for their guidance and support financially, emotionally and spiritually. May God grant them all their hearts desire. I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Dr. Saida Mbooge Najjuma for the guidance and reviewing my report during the process of my proposal writing. I would also like to acknowledge my other family members and relatives; Atenu Isaac and Akurut Petwa.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION.........................................................................................................................i APPROVAL...............................................................................................................................ii 4

DEDICATION..........................................................................................................................iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT........................................................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................................viii ABSTRACT..............................................................................................................................ix CHAPTER ONE........................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1 1.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................1 1.2 Background of the Study......................................................................................................1 1.3 Statement of the Problem.....................................................................................................3 1.4 General Objective.................................................................................................................4 1.5 Specific Objectives...............................................................................................................4 1.6 Research Questions..............................................................................................................4 1.7 Scope of the Study...............................................................................................................4 1.8 Significance of the Study.....................................................................................................5 CHAPTER TWO........................................................................................................................6 LITERATURE REVIEW...........................................................................................................6 2.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................6 2.2 The causes of gender inequalities among rural women.......................................................6 2.3 The effects of gender inequality on rural women.................................................................7 2.4 The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women................10 CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................13 METHODOLOGY...................................................................................................................13 3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................13 3.2 Study Design......................................................................................................................13 3.3 Area of the Study................................................................................................................13 3.4 Study Population................................................................................................................13 5

3.5 Sample Size........................................................................................................................14 3.6 Sampling Procedure...........................................................................................................14 3.7 Data Collection Methods....................................................................................................14 3.7.1 Questionnaire..................................................................................................................14 3.7.2 Interviews........................................................................................................................14 3.8 Procedure to be Followed...................................................................................................15 3.9 Ethical Consideration.........................................................................................................15 3.10 Data Processing, Analysis and Presentation.....................................................................15 3.10.1 Data Processing.............................................................................................................15 3.10.2

Data Analysis.........................................................................................................16

3.11 Anticipated Limitations....................................................................................................16 CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................18 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA........................................................18 4.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................18 4.2 Biographical data...............................................................................................................18 4.2.1 Gender of the respondents...............................................................................................18 4.2.2 Age group of the respondents..........................................................................................19 4.2.3 Marital status of the respondents.....................................................................................19 4.2.4 Religious affiliation of the respondents..........................................................................20 4.2.5 Education level................................................................................................................21 4.3 The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district.......................................................................................................................................22 4.3.1 Respondents’ understanding of gender inequality among rural women.........................22 4.3.2 The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County,....23 4.4 The effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district.......................................................................................................................................24 4.5 The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district.................................................................................24 6

4.5.1 The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among women in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa District..................................................................................................24 4.5.2 Who is implementing these strategies in Kabwangasi Sub County................................25 CHAPTER FIVE......................................................................................................................27 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................27 5.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................27 5.2 Discussion of Findings.......................................................................................................27 5.3 Conclusions........................................................................................................................28 5.4 Recommendations..............................................................................................................29 5.5 Area of further study..........................................................................................................30 REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................31 APPENDICES..........................................................................................................................33 APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE.........................................................................................33

LIST OF TABLES Table 1: The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district...........................................................................................................................23 Table 2: The effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district.......................................................................................................................................24 Table 3: The solutions to gender inequalities in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district. .25 7

Table 4: Who is implementing these strategies in Kabwangasi Sub County...........................25

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Showing the gender of the respondents....................................................................18 Figure 2: Showing age groups of respondents.........................................................................19 Figure 3: Showing marital status of the respondents...............................................................20 Figure 4: Showing religious affiliation of the respondents......................................................21 Figure 5: Showing education level of the respondents............................................................22

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ABSTRACT The study focused on the relationship between gender inequality and poverty among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. The main objectives were; To examine the causes of gender inequalities among rural women, the effects of gender inequality on rural women and the strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District.

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The researcher employed various data-gathering strategies, depending upon the thrust or approach of her research such as use of in-depth interviews, structured and non-structured interviews, focus groups, narratives, content or documentary analysis, participant observation and archival research. The study targeted population of respondents included administrators, local council leaders, community members, NGO leaders. The sample size was selected from study population with the help of stratified random. Sampling, the sample size was 50 which included 20 youths, 10 men, 10 women, 5 local leaders, and 5 elderly. While carrying out the study, the study employed a variety of methods among which included questionnaires, interviews and observation. Data collected was edited for accuracy and completeness which was mostly done manually. This was done by translating the answer in questionnaire into a form that can be manipulated to produce statistical data and this involved editing, tabulation among others.

According to the findings responses given were; Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences, it refers to male dominance over women, Violence by men against women, and many others. It was indicated that majority of the respondents selected community members as the bodies in charge of implementing the strategies for solving gender inequalities in Kabwangasi Sub County. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the that solution to gender inequalities starts with them the community members then other bodies can come in such as NGOs, government to supplement.

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The aim of this chapter was to outline the context within which the study was conducted. The chapter explained the background to the study including aims and objectives of the study. This study was interested in the relationship between gender inequalities and poverty among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. 1.2 Background of the Study Throughout the developing world, rural women engage in multiple economic activities that are critical to the survival of poor households. Rural poor women play an essential role in crop production and livestock care, and they provide the food, water and fuel their families need. This is particularly the case in some of the poorest and most marginal areas characterized by extensive and increasing male migration. In these areas, agriculture has become increasingly feminized. In 1997, in fact, almost 70 per cent of the women of working age in low-income, food-deficit countries were engaged in agricultural work. At the same time, the proportion of woman-headed households continues to grow, reaching almost one third in some developing countries (Pearson et al, 2007). In the Middle East and North Africa, higher female labor force participation rates in the 1990s are estimated to have increased per capita gross domestic product growth rates by 0.7 percent (Klasen and Lamanna 2003). Analysis in India (Esteve-Volart 2004; Besley, Burgess, and Esteve-Volart 2005) indicates that a 10 percent increase in the female-to-male ratio of managers would increase real output per capita by 2 percent, and a 10 percent increase in the female-to-male ratio of total workers would increase real output per capita by 8 percent. The study by Besley, Burgess, and Esteve-Volart concludes that gender inequality in the access to labor markets acts as a brake on development. Moreover, the efficiency costs of such inequality are large. Despite the essential economic and care giving roles they perform, women have significantly less access to financial, physical and social assets than men do; fewer opportunities to improve their knowledge and skills; and less voice in public decision-making. Women own less than 2 per cent of all land, and receive only 5 per cent of extension services worldwide. It is estimated that women in Africa receive less than 10 per cent of all credit going to small 1

farmers and a mere 1 per cent of the total credit going to the agricultural sector. The most extreme manifestation of gender inequality and the disregard of women’s human rights is the fact that at least 60 million girls are ‘missing’, mostly in Asia, due to female infanticide or sex-selective abortions. Added to these are an estimated 5,000 women murdered each year in ‘honour killings’. IFAD (2003) Most studies of poverty in less developed countries focus on household poverty. If gender is introduced at all it is usually to distinguish between male- and female-headed households. This has led to a heated debate on whether female-headed households are poorer and whether there is a tendency toward the feminization of poverty (Costa 2008). But is headship an adequate indicator for the study of gender inequality and poverty? Many researchers find the concept of headship and household-level measures of poverty unsatisfactory since it reduces gender to the sex of the household head and does not allow for analysis of the relative position of men and women within households where adults of both sexes are present. The economic vulnerability of poor African women flows mostly from their weakly defined property rights to major productive assets, such as land or cattle, in the many countries where a combination of custom and laws restrict their ability to own and manage land. Perversely, restrictions on women's rights to land coexist with the reality that women are the main cultivators--undertaking about 80 percent of the work in food storage and transportation, 90 percent of the work of hoeing and weeding, and 60 percent of the work in harvesting and marketing. (IFPRI, 2000.) In Kenya, for instance, women are five percent of registered landowners but 80 percent of the agricultural labor force. Not only does the idea persist, “that money in women’s hands will directly facilitate women into productive economic activity” (Pearson 2007), but also, this activity is seen as an infallible means to convert power hierarchies within households and families. The need to account for intra-household relations, structural positions of men and women and gendered consequences of individual actions has been articulated by feminist economists for a long time. This includes conceiving the market as a gender-neutral momentum (Elson 1993). The lack of accounting for intra-household gender relations in assessments of income-generating activities and empowerment is one of the major criticisms raised by feminist theorists (Pearson 2007). Drawing on Amartya Sen’s concept of ‘cooperative conflict”, Pearson criticises individualistic approaches to women’s empowerment and pleads for a 2

comprehensive perspective in which she is seen within her affective and economic relationships with other family and household members. According to (Pearson, 2007), Sen’s study highlights “the ways in which earning money may extend women’s options, but may also intensify their workload and responsibilities without necessarily increasing their autonomy” (Pearson 2007). 1.3 Statement of the Problem Women of Kabwangasi Sub County face a wide range of challenges including discrimination, low social status, lack of economic self sufficiency, and greater risk of HIV/AIDS infection. In Uganda, as in many African countries, gender discrimination means that women must submit to an overall lower social status than men. For many women, this reduces their power to act independently, become educated, avoid poverty, and/or escape reliance upon abusive men. The Government of Uganda has come up with gender polices to ensure gender equality. The first National Gender Policy (NGP) was approved in 1997. The policy provided a legitimate point of reference for addressing gender inequalities at all levels of government and by all stakeholders. The major achievements of this policy include among others, increased awareness on gender as a development concern among policy makers and implementers at all levels; influencing national, sectoral and local government programmes to address gender issues; strengthened partnerships for the advancement of gender equality and women's empowerment and increased impetus in gender activism (Uganda gender Policy, 2007). The Ugandan Constitution also guarantees both men and women equality before the law The 2005 Gender and Growth Assessment carried out by the World Bank states that: Women are marginalized in business ownership, skills development, access to financial resources, nonagricultural employment, and inheritance rights. There is a marked gender gap in access to and control over productive resources, women comprise a significant share of the work force in agriculture but have unequal access to and control over productive resources, such as land, limiting their ability to move beyond subsistence agriculture, women have lower access to health and education services. So this study looked to find out the relationship between gender inequality and poverty among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District.

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1.4 General Objective The main objective was to assess relationship between gender inequality and poverty among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. 1.5 Specific Objectives The specific objectives of this study are: i.

To examine the causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District.

ii.

To identify the effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District.

iii.

To identify the strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District.

1.6 Research Questions The following are the Research Questions: i.

What are the causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District?

ii.

What are the effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District?

iii.

What are the strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District?

1.7 Scope of the Study Content scope; The study focused on the relationship between gender inequality and poverty among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. Geographical scope; The study was carried out in Kabwangasi district in Pallisa district. Pallisa District is bordered to the north by (from west to east): Serere District, Ngora District, Kumi District and Bukedea District. Mbale District lies to the east. Budaka District lies to the southeast, Kibuku District to the southwest and Kaliro District to the west. Pallisa, the 'chief town' of the district, is located approximately 65 kilometres (40 mi), by road, west of Mbale, the largest city in the sub-region. The coordinates of the district are: 01 01N, 33 43E.

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Time Scope; the researcher carried out the research study from June to August of 2016. The study focused on the implementation of the National Gender Policy as regards women participation towards development efforts since 2010 to 2014 covering a period nine (5) years. This period was preferred because it is long enough to analyze formulated policies and their implementation and the eventual impact. 1.8 Significance of the Study The study improved on strategy and guidelines which assisted others for example researchers to establish gender inequalities and poverty among rural women in Kangwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District. The study was added information to existing literature and knowledge about the relationship between gender inequalities and poverty among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County Pallisa District. The study improved on the state of gender inequality practice and lead to empowerment of women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District. The study led to the formulation of proper policies that assisted the Ministry of Labour, Gender and social development and other stakeholders of Uganda in the process of designing programs concerning the gender inequalities. The study benefited the researcher to acquire a degree in development studies which developed her career in the same field.

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter presented the principles and concepts that have been explored and brought up by various scholars in the existing literature on the effect of gender inequality on the welfare of women, how gender inequality reduces poverty among women and the effectiveness strategies put in place to address poverty and gender inequalities. 2.2 The causes of gender inequalities among rural women Many cultures practice patrilocality whereby a married couple lives near or with the husband's parents. When a woman gets married, she essentially ceases to be a member of her birth family and joins her husband's family. Under this system, parents potentially reap more of the returns to investments in a son's health and education because he will remain a part of their family, whereas a daughter will physically and nancially leave the household upon marriage. Co-residence of adult sons and elderly parents is much more common in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa than in Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Americas (Ebenstein, 2014). Within India, the northern region has a much stronger patrilocal (and patrilineal) system than the south, which is one explanation for why gender inequality is more pronounced in the north (Dyson and Moore, 1983). For example, Chakraborty and Kim (2010) examine the 1901 Indian Census and that the sex ratio was less male-skewed in the south, a pattern that continues to hold today. More generally, Ebenstein (2014) shows that the male-to-female sex ratio is positively correlated with the rate of co-residence between adult sons and their parents both across and within countries. Dowry is a payment that a bride's parents make to the couple at the time of marriage. According to Boserup (1970), dowry systems emerged mainly in societies where women played a lesser role in agriculture. Dowry has disappeared in many societies, notably in Europe, but it has persisted in, for example, South Asia. In fact, over the past several decades, the prevalence of dowry has increased in Bangladesh, and the real value of dowry payments has risen considerably in India (Anderson, 2007). In addition, the property rights to dowry as practiced today di er from those seen historically in Europe. In ancient Rome and medieval 6

western Europe, the bride held the rights to the dowry; it was her pre-mortem inheritance from her parents (Anderson, 2007). In this formulation, the dowry system was intended to improve the financial well-being of females. However, in societies where dowry is used today, the groom typically controls the money/dowry is the price of a groom. Dowry is thus a financial cost to parents of having daughters. Evidence on the impacts of the dowry system on women's welfare is mostly anecdotal. This anecdotal evidence points to the dowry system causing pro-male bias. The prospect of paying dowry is often cited as a key factor in parents' desire to have sons rather than daughters in India, for example (Das Gupta et al., 2003). The financial burden of dowry indeed seems to loom large in prospective parents' minds. Concern for women's and girls' safety and \purity" constrains their physical mobility in many developing countries. It is difficult to say how much of the limited mobility is out of genuine concern for women's welfare, aimed at protecting them from harassment and sexual violence, and how much is simply a way to sti e female autonomy. In a cross-country study of mate preferences, men put more weight on their spouse's sexual inexperience at marriage than on physical appearance in India, China, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Iran, while the opposite prioritization was seen in each of the 24 European, North American, South American, and sub-Saharan African countries studied (Buss, 1989). Restrictions on female mobility often seem largely aimed at keeping unmarried women chaste and married women faithful. In any case, they are a proximate cause of reduced female schooling and career opportunities. 2.3 The effects of gender inequality on rural women Visualization is recognizing and being recognized due to certain activities and rewarded materially and also by privilege. Power is the ability to make decisions and force others to do what the power holder prescribes. The deeply-rooted patriarchal culture prevalent in most societies attributes power to men both at home and community level. Such persistent attribution of roles to either sex is referred to as gender stereotyping. Gender stereotyping, and thereby gender inequality the inequality of opportunity, right, responsibility, role, and access to and control over resources is the result of socialization; gender roles are not necessarily determined by sex status. Socialization is defined as “the process by which individuals acquire knowledge, skills and dispositions that enable them to participate as more or less effective members of a group and the society” (Almaz, 1991:2). Thus, differential socialization induces differences in components of gender roles as mentioned above. The 7

socially constructed division of labour results in different rewards, statuses, opportunities and roles (Hirut, 2004). The process of correcting gender disparity in a society leads us to improving the condition and status of women in all spheres (household as well as community level) which is also termed as women’s empowerment. By way of defining this concept, Kishor (2005), cited the works of Dixon (1978) and Mason (1986) who defined women’s status operationally as the degree of women’s access to and control over material resources (including food, income, land and other forms of wealth) and social resources (including knowledge, power and prestige) within the family, in the community, and in the society at large. It is a multidimensional concept, which purports to measure a woman’s ability to control resources, her ability to choose and control different outcomes, and above all to enhanceher self-esteem. It can be examined based on different indicators. Women’s limited access to education, employment opportunity, and media, coupled with cultural factors, reduces their decision making power in the society in general and in a household in particular. Regarding their participation in decision making at national level, though the number of women in national parliaments has been increasing, no country in the world has yet achieved gender parity. According to the millennium indicators data base of the United Nations, cited in the UNFPA (2005), the percentage of parliamentary seats held by women in 2005 was 16% at world level, 21% in developed countries, and 14% in developing countries. This low representation of women in national parliaments could be due, among others, to type of electoral systems in different countries, women’s social and economic status, socio-cultural traditions and beliefs about women’s place in the family and society, and women’s double burden of work and family responsibilities (UNFPA,2005). The socialization process, which determines gender roles, is partly responsible for the subjugation of women in the country. Ethiopian society is socialized in such a way that girls are held inferior to boys. In the process of upbringing, boys are expected to learn and become self-reliant, major bread winners, and responsible in different activities, while girls are brought up to conform, be obedient and dependent, and specialize in indoor activities like cooking, washing clothes, fetching water, caring for children, etc. (Haregewo in and Emebet, 2003; Hirut, 2004).

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Saito (2011) and Byamugisha (2011), the evidence suggests that the improvement in access in enrolment has not been mirrored in an improvement in gender equality in performance. Concerns about gender differences in education have focused primarily on the disadvantage and underachievement of girls, but recently the underachievement of boys in reading has become the focus of some policy attention. ‘In the PISA 2009 reading assessment, girls outperform boys in every participating country by an average of 39 PISA score points – roughly the equivalent of an average school year’s progress’ (Borgonovi and Jakubowski, 2011). These barriers work especially strongly for education above the primary level. The gender gap in primary education has been narrowed significantly in almost all countries, butal though the secondary education gap has been closed for most countries with a high or medium Human Development Index (HDI), there is a significant gap still in the net secondary enrolment ratio for many countries with a low HDI (HDR, 2006). Tertiary education in many high HDI countries appears to be tilted towards more women than men in terms of gross enrolment. This probably reflects a combination of lower returns to secondary education for girls in the job market (requiring them to stay longer in school), as well as higher drop-out rates for boys after high school. According to Rosenthal (1995), women constitute the greater part of most societies; therefore, “if half of the majority does not have full political rights, the society is not democratic”(Inglehart, Norris and Welzel, 2004). Inglehart and Norris (2004) are of the opinion that equal representation in decision-making is an important necessity in democracy. There presentation of women is viewed as a fundamental human right by national, regional and global instruments (Inglehart and Norris, 2004). Thus, one could argue that the representation of women is an issue of fundamental human rights and justice (Norris and Inglehart, 2001). Gendered norms in health manifest in households and communities on the basis of values and attitudes about the relative worth or importance of girls versus boys and men versus women; about who has responsibility for different household / community needs and roles; about masculinity and femininity; who has the right to make different decisions; who ensures that household /community order is maintained and deviance is appropriately sanctioned or

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punished; and who has final authority in relation to the inner world of the family /community and its outer relations with society (Quisumbing and Maluccio, 1999). 2.4 The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women The key commitments of governments and other development partners set in the MDGs include gender equality and women’s empowerment. The commitments include ensuring universal primary education for both boys and girls by 2015; elimination of gender disparity at all levels of education by 2015; and reducing maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Ethiopia adopted these agreements to promote gender equality and improve the lives of women. As a means to implement these global agreements, different policies and legislations have also been enacted. These are the National Policy on Women, National Population Policy, Education Policy, Cultural Policy, and other legal documents. The National Policy on Women, introduced in 1993, was the first policy that is specifically related to the affairs of women (Jelaludin et al., 2001). The objectives of the policy include facilitating conditions conducive to the speeding up of equality between men and women so that women can participate in the political, economic and social life of their country on equal terms with men; ensuring that their right to own property as well as their other human rights are respected and that they are not excluded from both the enjoyment of the fruits of their labour or performing public functions and participating in decision making. Cognizant of the adverse impact of low status of women on the overall economic development in general and on reproductive health issues in particular, the National Population Policy of the country, which was also endorsed in 1993, included in its objectives women’s status and health issues such as reduction of incidence of maternal mortality, improvement of females’ participation at all levels of education and enhancement of the contraceptive prevalence rate (TGE, 1993).‘Our task is to consider men and boys not just as beneficiaries of women’s work or holders of privilege or perpetrators of violence against women, but also explicitly as agents of change, participants in reform, and potential allies in search of gender justice.’ (Connell, 2002, cited in Ruxton, 2004:8). Many men continue to hold power and privilege over women, and seek to safeguard that power. But there are other men who reject fixed gender divisions and harmful versions of masculinity, and who are more open to alternative, ‘gender-equitable’ masculinities. Seeing the effects of gender discrimination on women they care deeply about, or becoming more aware of the benefits of involved fatherhood, for example, may motivate some men to change (Ruxton, 2004). In 10

various settings, small numbers of men and boys are changing their attitudes and behaviour towards women supporting opportunities for women to earn an income outside the home, or speaking out against gender-based violence. ‘For every young man who recreates traditional and sometimes violent versions of manhood, there is another young man who lives in fear of this violence. For every young man who hits his female partner, there is a brother or son who cringes at the violence he witnesses men using against his sister or mother.’ (Barker, 2005:6). Gender-based violence can be defined as any form of violence used to establish, enforce or perpetuate gender inequalities and keep gender hierarchies in place (Lang, 2003). It mostly takes the form of men’s violence towards women and girls, but also includes violence towards men and boys, such as male rape or the abuse of men who have sex with men or transgendered people. A useful strategy for challenging GBV is to help men (the main perpetrators) to see the benefits of rejecting violence such as having more intimate relationships with their partners. Gender-based violence may also be targeted at boys and men, especially those who have sexual relations with other men. This violence is both institutional and interpersonal, and acts as a warning to all men about the penalties of not obeying the gender ‘rules’ of how a man is supposed to behave (Greig in Cornwall and Jolly, 2006). Despite this violence, development interventions to prevent gender-based violence against men are currently few and far between. Focused anti-discrimination activities and awareness raising sessions with the police are an important place to start. Across the world, most acts of violence are carried out by men. Young men are on the frontlines of civil unrest, riots and gang warfare, and account for the overwhelming majority of firearm-related injuries and deaths (Widmer et al., 2006). Largely urban-based, this violence is clearly related to social exclusion, unemployment, and limited educational opportunities, as well as to the dominant ideas about male identity in these contexts (Barker, 2005). For example, one of the most widely held ideas of masculinity is that men are strong and emotionally robust boys don’t cry, they fight (Lang, forthcoming). ‘Like other characteristics of dominant masculinity, no individual can fully live up to the ideals of being strong, decisive and in control at all times. But men and boys are taught to try, and at the same time they are indoctrinated into violence as a means of protecting themselves and

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others, to solve problems and conflicts, and assert their perceived positions over women and weaker men.’ (Lang, forthcoming: 18). In the changing social and economic context of growing male unemployment and underemployment, coupled with rising numbers of women entering the workforce in many countries, some men are feeling increasingly powerless, while at the same time feeling entitled to power (in the form of status, money, a job, women). In such contexts, violence may be about men seeking the power they believe is rightfully theirs (Widmer et al., 2006). For others, participating in conflicts or insurgency may be the only viable economic activity in the context of rural poverty (Barker and Ricardo, 2005). Improving men’s access to alternative livelihoods can therefore be an effective way of helping men to re-build a sense of self-worth, reducing the likelihood that they will channel their frustrations and anxieties into violence. ‘The answer to the youth challenge is not to further marginalise or paint male youth as fearsome security threats. It is, in fact, quite the opposite: Unemployed, undereducated young men require positive engagement and appropriate empowerment, and participatory financial and programme support.’ (Sommers, 2006).

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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter aimed at highlighting the methods the study employed in conducting the study. It included the research design, sample procedures and design study population methods of data collection, analysis among others. 3.2 Study Design The study design was cross sectional research design. Cross sectional is a research design where data was gathered once perhaps over period of days, weeks and months. The qualitative research was used where the researcher serves as the primary data gathering instrument. The researcher employed various data-gathering strategies, depending upon the thrust or approach of her research such as use of in-depth interviews, structured and nonstructured interviews, focus groups, narratives, content or documentary analysis, participant observation and archival research. Quantitative research was also used, this made use of tools such as questionnaires, surveys, measurements and other equipment to collect numerical or measurable data. 3.3 Area of the Study The study was carried out in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district. Pallisa District is bordered to the north by (from west to east): Serere District, Ngora District, Kumi District and Bukedea District. Mbale District lies to the east. Budaka District lies to the southeast, Kibuku District to the southwest and Kaliro District to the west. Pallisa, the 'chief town' of the district, is located approximately 65 kilometres (40 mi), by road, west of Mbale, the largest city in the sub-region. The coordinates of the district are: 01 01N, 33 43E. 3.4 Study Population The study targeted population of respondents included administrators, local council leaders, community members, NGO leaders. This is so because it helped the researcher to generate the required information with the selected respondents. 3.5 Sample Size The sample size was selected from study population with the help of stratified random. Sampling, the sample size was 50 which included 20 youths, 10 men, 10 women, 5 local 13

leaders, and 5 elderly. This sample size was determined by using Krejcie & Morgan table of determining sample size for a finite population that was used in the study. 3.6 Sampling Procedure The study used a stratified random sampling procedure during the study. Stratified random sampling is a process of sample selection which involves dividing the population into none overlapping groups called strata or selecting the sample from each stratum using a simple random technique. The choice was made in order to enable the researcher get adequate representation of the whole population. With a stratified random sampling, the sample can be kept small without losing its accuracy. Besides this, the characteristics of each stratum can be estimated and hence a comparison between the two variables is easily made. This was because it was not possible to survey the entire population due to financial and time constraint. The strata to be used comprised of employees, employees, and the customers/clients. 3.7 Data Collection Methods While carrying out the study, the study employed a variety of methods among which included questionnaires, interviews and observation. 3.7.1 Questionnaire The researcher used questionnaires because they collected information from different respondents in a projected timeframe. All respondents were asked the same questions except in technical circumstances. 50 questionnaires were used to collect data from respondents. Close ended questions were preferred because they were easy to answer and score, while, Open-ended questions intended to give respondents a chance to support their opinions in a free atmosphere in addition to predetermined choices. 3.7.2 Interviews The study conducted formal interviews which mainly were for local leaders such as local councils, religious leaders, traditional leaders, etc. Guiding questions were used for the interviews but during the course, other questions were asked depending on the responses by respondents. Results from interview helped in complimenting information that were obtained from questionnaire.

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3.8 Procedure to be Followed The researcher got an introductory letter from the University introducing her to the authorities and respondents before proceeding to the subject of this study. Data was edited, coded and tabulated for completeness, accuracy, easy interpretation and understanding. The researcher transformed the available information into a more presentable form through presentation of data in either tables or charts in order to number and identify the data for easy interpretation. 3.9 Ethical Consideration The researcher obtained consent from all the respondents. Given the nature of the project anonymity was observed as some people may not want their names and age to be recorded. The researcher observed extreme confidentiality while handling the responses. Information that was availed to the respondents that the researcher would not cause any danger directly or indirectly and that participation was voluntary.

3.10 Data Processing, Analysis and Presentation 3.10.1 Data Processing Data collected was edited for accuracy and completeness which was mostly done manually. This was done by translating the answer in questionnaire into a form that can be manipulated to produce statistical data and this involved editing, tabulation among others. Editing this was done to make sure that the information that was given was accurate and consistent. This checked the inconsistencies in responses. Selected responses on the questionnaires after editing were coded. In case where it was impossible to predetermine the certain response to particular questions the researcher used the code among others. Tabulation was carried out as the rest sub process in the whole task of data processing after editing and coding, where by the data process involved counting and adding up all responses. The whole process of tabulation was done manually by relating all the questions on each schedule with the already formulated coding frame for every question. The tally system was applied to avoid memory loss. Data was edited, coded, tailed and rented. Computation was done to determine the percentage.

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Frequency of each response was determined at the end of it all, tables were compiled from the coded answers by setting the number of respondents for each response category and the corresponding percentage in order to compare various responses.

3.10.2 Data Analysis Data was analyzed by use of numbers and percentages using Microsoft excel charts and tables at the end of the research study. The researcher proceeded to interpret the findings and the responses were critically analyzed for accuracy and relatedness. 3.11 Anticipated Limitations Problems that the researcher anticipates include the following;Financial constraints. A lot of money in terms of transport, stationary, eats and drinks were needed in conducting of the research. However the researcher carried out the research/study in phases and with in an area of proximity. A lot of time was wasted in movement due to poor appointments with people of high authority. The researcher however tried to make appointments with the high authority on particular days and time frame. Some people, staff members were not willing to release information due to suspicion and however much they release it, some of the information were lies. With the informants and also build trust in them so that they could avail the needed information. The research also asked other people to compare and contrast their responses. The researcher was threatened by the fluctuating weather conditions and anticipates that these affected his field study. The researcher purchased a portable umbrella, raincoat to enable her do the research amidst all weather conditions. The researcher was affected by time constraints since the research was carried out at the same time attending lectures yet a limited time frame is given to submission of the reports.

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CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1 Introduction This chapter presents the findings arising from the study that analyzed the relationship between gender inequality and poverty among rural women. A case of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District. The findings are presented in line with the specific objectives outlined in chapter are of this report.

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4.2 Biographical data This section presents the biographic data of the study and it specifically highlights the gender, age group, marital status, religious affiliation, and education level of the respondents. 4.2.1 Gender of the respondents. The researcher sought of find out the gender of the respondents in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa District to know the percentage of male and female respondents, and below are the findings. Figure 1: Showing the gender of the respondents

GENDER

Female; 48%

Male; 52%

Source: Primary Data The results in the figure 1 above show that most of the respondents (52%) were male and (48%) of the respondents were female. This therefore, implied that majority of the respondents in the study were male with a very small difference from the percentage of the female. This therefore indicated that there was gender balance in the selection of the respondents.

4.2.2 Age group of the respondents The researcher was interested in finding out the different age groups of the respondents in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District, and below are the findings. Figure 2: Showing age groups of respondents 18

Age group 36 and above years

32%

26-35 years

28%

18-25 Years

40%

Source: Primary Data According to the findings in figure 2 above, 40% of the respondents were between 18-25 years, 28% of the respondents were between 26-35 years, 28% of respondents were between 36 years and above. Therefore, this therefore implied that the majority of the respondents were between 18-25 years. This meant that the respondents were of adult age, therefore the information they provided was of relevance to the study.

4.2.3 Marital status of the respondents The investigator also sought of findings out the marital status of the respondents in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. The findings are represented in figure 2 below;

Figure 3: Showing marital status of the respondents

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MARITAL STATUS MARITAL STATUS

Divorced

14%

Married

Single

56%

30%

Source: Primary Data The results in the figure 3 above show that most of the respondents 56% were married, followed by 30% who were single and 14% who were divorced. This therefore, implied that majority of the respondents in the study were married with a 56% response.

4.2.4 Religious affiliation of the respondents Under here, the researcher also sought of identifying the religious affiliation of the respondents in Katanga suburb, and below were the findings.

Figure 4: Showing religious affiliation of the respondents

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Religious affiliation 46% 30% 24%

Catholic

Protestant

Moslem

Source: Primary Data From the study findings in figure 4 above, it is indicated that (30%) of the respondents in the Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa District were Catholics, (46%) respondents were Protestants, and (24%) were Moslems. This implied that majority 46% of the respondents were Protestants. Therefore the findings indicate that most of the religions in the area were represented in the study selection hence eliminating bias.

4.2.5 Education level Below here, the researcher investigated the education level of the respondents, and the findings are in figure 5.

Figure 5: Showing education level of the respondents 21

EDUCATION LEVEL Never went to school Univeristy EDUCATION LEVEL Tertiary Level Secondary Level Primary Level 0%

10% 20% 30% 40%

Source: primary data According to the study findings in figure 5 indicate that 8% of the respondents had never gone to any schools at all, 38% had gone up to university level, 24% had reached up to tertiary level, 26% had reached up to secondary school and 4% had reached primary level. This therefore implied that majority of the respondents had gone up to university level hence showing that they were educated enough.

4.3 The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district The study findings on the causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. 4.3.1 Respondents’ understanding of gender inequality among rural women Below the researcher looked at finding out what the respondents understood by gender inequality among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. According to the findings responses given were; Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences, it refers to male dominance over women, Violence by men against women, and many others. 22

4.3.2 The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District The study findings on the causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district. The results are shown in the table 1 below; Table 1: The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district Causes of gender inequality Cultural beliefs Poverty Domestic violence Religious beliefs Others Total Source: primary data

Frequency 20 17 07 04 02 50

Percentage 40% 34% 14% 08% 04% 100%

According to the study findings in table 1 above, it is indicated that 17(34%) of the respondents indicated poverty to be the cause of gender inequalities among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District, 20(40%) chose cultural beliefs which are in favor of men being superior to women, 4(8%) chose religious beliefs which show that man was created first and women form a man’s rib thereby showing their superiority, 7(14%) chose domestic violence where in most places men dominate and 2(04%) chose other causes such as partner’s attitudes, upbringing which affects a partner’s behavior. This therefore implied that majority of the respondents (40%) chose cultural beliefs. This indicated that the greatest cause of gender inequality in Kabwangasi is cultural beliefs due to the fact that it is a rural setting with diverse cultures such as Bagwere and Iteso. One of the key respondents said; “…women are supposed to be under men. A man is the head of a home therefore women are supposed to follow whatever a man tells her at whatever time.” 4.4 The effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district The study finding on the effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. 23

Table 2: The effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district Effects of gender inequality Domestic violence Poverty Poor development Other(s) Poor education Total Source: primary data

Frequency 21 15 09 03 02 50

Percentage 42% 30% 18% 06% 04% 100%

According to the study findings in table 2 above, it is indicated that 21(42%) of the respondents that domestic violence is the effect of gender inequality, 9(18%) chose poor development, 2(04%) stated poor education, 15(30%) stated poverty and 3(06%) stated that there are other effects. This therefore implied that majority of the respondents were aware of the effects of gender inequality in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district.

4.5 The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district The study finding on the strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County and below is the findings. 4.5.1 The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among women in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa District The study finding on the strategies to gender inequalities among women in Kabwangasi Sub County. Table 3 below shows the findings.

Table 3: The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among women in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district Solutions to gender inequality Sensitization Implementation of the law Advocating for equal rights Other(s) Total

Frequency 30 12 05 03 50 24

Percentage 60% 24% 10% 06% 100%

Source: primary data According to the study findings in table 3 above, it is indicated that 30(60%) sensitization as a solution to gender inequality, 5(10%) stated advocating for equal rights, 12(24%) stated implementation of the law and 3(06%) stated that there are other solutions. This therefore implied that majority (60%) of the respondents selected sensitization of the masses about gender equality. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the solutions of gender inequality in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa.

4.5.2 Who is implementing these strategies in Kabwangasi Sub County The research findings on who is implementing the strategies in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. Table 4: Who is implementing these strategies in Kabwangasi Sub County Who is implementing the strategies Government NGOs Community members Cultural leaders Other(s) Total Source: primary data

Frequency 15 05 17 10 03 50

Percentage 30% 10% 34% 20% 06% 100%

According to the study findings in table 4 above, it is indicated that 15(30%) selected government, 5(10%) selected NGOs which provide a platform for sensitization of victims on their rights and who to report to, 17(34%) selected community members who can influence and implement gender equality among themselves, 10(20%) selected cultural leaders who can sensitize people of Kabwangasi Sub County about gender equality during cultural meetings and act as examples to the rest of the community people and 3(06%) selected others. This therefore implied that majority (30%) of the respondents selected community members as the bodies in charge of implementing the strategies for solving gender inequalities in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the that solution to gender inequalities starts with them the community members then other bodies can come in such as NGOs, government to supplement.

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CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduction This summarizes the findings that were presented, discussed, analyzed and interpreted in the presentation and discussion of findings. It also presented the conclusion and recommendation below. 5.2 Discussion of Findings The discussions were based on the objectives of the study.

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According to the findings responses given were that gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences, it refers to male dominance over women, Violence by men against women, and many others. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the meaning of gender inequality. According to the study findings in table 1, it was indicated that majority of the respondents (40%) chose cultural beliefs. This indicated that the greatest cause of gender inequality in Kabwangasi is cultural beliefs due to the fact that it is a rural setting with diverse cultures such as Bagwere and Iteso. The choice of cultural beliefs was an indication that due to the fact that this is rural setting, culture is mostly followed by the community members. This is further emphasized by Ebenstein, (2014) who said that many cultures practice patrilocality whereby a married couple lives near or with the husband's parents. When a woman gets married, she essentially ceases to be a member of her birth family and joins her husband's family. According to the study findings in table 2, it was indicated that majority (42%) of the stated that domestic violence is the effect of gender inequality. Therefore, this therefore implied that majority of the respondents were aware of the effects of gender inequality in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa. Domestic violence in the area is due to the fact that men take alcohol and tend to order around their wives and this encourages male chauvinism. Inglehart and Norris (2004) are of the opinion that equal representation in decision-making is an important necessity in democracy. There presentation of women is viewed as a fundamental human right by national, regional and global instruments According to the study findings in table 3, it was indicated that majority (60%) of the respondents stated sensitization as a strategy put in place to stop gender inequality. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the strategies to put in place to solve gender inequality in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa district. Different respondents were aware that majority of the community members were not aware of the laws against gender inequality, they therefore stated that sensitization of the masses is the best strategy to solve gender inequality in the area.

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According to the study findings in table 4, it was indicated that majority (34%) of the respondents selected community members as the bodies in charge of implementing the strategies for solving gender inequalities in Kabwangasi Sub County. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the that solution to gender inequalities starts with them the community members then other bodies can come in such as NGOs which are in position to bring in these victims and sensitize them, treat the injured and follow up on the law breakers, government to supplement, government is in charge of creating, implementation of the laws against gender inequality.

5.3 Conclusions Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles as well as biologically through chromosomes, brain structure, and hormonal differences, it refers to male dominance over women, Violence by men against women, and many others. It was concluded that cultural beliefs are the major causes of gender inequality in Kabwangasi due to the fact that the area is in a rural setting with diverse cultures such as Bagwere and Iteso, these different cultures have different beliefs which all are against gender equality. This has favoured gender inequality. The research study found out that domestic violence is the effect of gender inequality. Therefore, this therefore implied that majority of the respondents were aware of the effects of gender inequality in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa. It was concluded that with gender inequality comes with domestic violence which affects the partners and the children in many ways. The respondents also stated that sensitization is a strategy to be put in place so as to solve gender inequality. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the solutions of gender inequality in Kabwangasi Sub County in Pallisa. When the masses know their rights and how to get justice in case of any violation, then gender inequality can be solved in the area. It was stated that community members are the best at implementing the strategies for solving gender inequalities in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district. This therefore indicated that the respondents were aware of the that solution to gender inequalities starts with them the 28

community members then other bodies can come in such as NGOs, government to supplement.

5.4 Recommendations Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made; On the fact that cultural beliefs are the major causes of gender inequality in Kabwangasi due to the fact that the area is in a rural setting with diverse cultures such as Bagwere and Iteso. The study recommends that the cultural leaders should be trained on how to train the rest of their subordinates on the importance of gender equality in the area. The research study found out that domestic violence is the effect of gender inequality. Therefore, the study recommends that domestic violence should be curbed by the government and all those found involved in it should face the law. On the fact that sensitization is a strategy to be put in place so as to solve gender inequality. This study recommends that more sensitization programmes should be drafted and implemented by the stakeholders such as NGOs, government bodies and all other wellwishers. It was stated that community members are the best at implementing the strategies for solving gender inequalities in Kabwangasi Sub County. The study recommends that the government and cultural bodies should be given the mandate to influence the community members on their power to stop gender inequality in the area. 5.5 Area of further study Further research should be done on; 

The role of local government in the development of communities. A case study of Kampala Capital City Authority.



The impact of national education curriculum on development of skills in government schools. A case study of Komuge Primary School.

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REFERENCES Adanech K, Azeb T (1991). Gender Influence on Women’s Health: A Review of the Ethiopian Situation. In: Tsehai Berhane Selassie (ed.) Gender Issues in Ethiopia. Institute of Ethiopian Studies. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.Ahikire. J. 2003. “Gender equity and local democracy in contemporary Uganda: addressing the challenge of womens political effectiveness in local government”, in Goetz, M. And ‟ Hassim, S. (eds). No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics and Policy Making.

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London: Zed Books Almaz E (1991). Perspectives on Gender and Development. In: Tsehai Berhane Selassie (Ed.) Gender Issues in Ethiopia. Institute of Ethiopian Studies. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa. ABC Of Women Worker's Rights And Gender Equality, ILO, Geneva, 2000, p.48. Amadiume I (1987) Male Daughters, Female Husbands: Gender and Sex in an AfricanSociety, Zed Books Ltd London. Balk D (1994). Individual and community aspects of women’s status and fertility in rural Bangladesh. Population Studies, 48 (1): 21-45. Balk D (1997). Defying gender norms in rural Bangladesh: A social demographic analysis. Population Studies, 51:153-172. Berdahl, J. L. 1996. “Gender and leadership in work groups: six alternative models”, in Leadership Quarterly,7(1):21-40.Berg, J. 2006. “Gender attitudes and modernization processes”, in International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 19(1):5-23. CSA (2004). Urban Bi-Annual Employment Unemployment Survey, Addis Ababa. Dixon M (1993). Population Policy and Women’s Rights: Transforming Reproductive Choice. Connecticut: Praeger. Federal Civil Service Commission (2005). Survey on the Status of Men and Women Employees and Strategies for Gender Equality. Main Report. Addis Ababa. Hanssen, K. N. 2005. Towards multiparty system in Uganda: The effect on female representation in Politics. The legal and institutional Context of 2006 elections in Uganda. Norway : CMI Michelsen Institute. Haregewoin C, Emebet M (2003). Towards Gender equality in Ethiopia. A Profile of Gender Relations. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

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Hassim, S. 2006. Paradoxes of Representation: the impact of quotas for women on democratisation. Rough first draft. Paper presented at Yale conference on representation and popular rule, in New Haven, Connecticut.

APPENDICES APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondent, The questionnaire below has been designed by Adong Betty a student of Ndejje University, Kampala Campus on the topic “The relationship between gender inequality and poverty among rural women. A case of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district”. The information you are going to give is purely for academic purpose and will be treated and regarded as confidential. Therefore you are kindly requested to give appropriate responses to the

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questions asked below so as to assist the researcher accomplish her task. Your cooperation will be highly appreciated. SECTION ONE: BIOGRAPHICAL DATA (please tick the most appropriate answer) A. Gender a) Male

b) Female

B. Age group a) 18-25years

b) 25 - 35years

c) 35 – 40

d) 40 and above

C. Marital Status? a). Single

b) Divorced

c) Married D. Religious affiliation a) Catholic

b) Moslem

c) Protestant

E. Education level a) Primary school

b) Secondary

c) Tertiary institution

d) University

e) Never went to school

SECTION TWO: The causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District 1. In your own words, explain what you understand by gender inequality among rural women? ................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................. ...................................................................................................................................................... 2. What are the causes of gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district 33

a) Poverty

b) Cultural beliefs

d) Domestic violence

c) Religious beliefs

e) Any other(s) specify ………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SECTION THREE: The effects of gender inequality on rural women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa district 3. What are some of the effects of gender inequality on women in Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa Ditritc a) Domestic Violence d) Poverty

b) Poor Development

c) Poor Education

g) Other(s) Please specify ……………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………… SECTION FOUR: The strategies put in place to address gender inequalities among rural women of Kabwangasi Sub County, Pallisa District 4. What are some of the solutions to gender inequality in your community? a) Sensitization

b) Advocating for equal rights

c) Implementation of the law

d) Other(s) specify …………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5. Who is implementing these strategies in your area? a) Government

b) NGOs

c) Community members

d) Cultural leaders

e) Other (s) specify …………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… THANKS FOR YOUR COOPERATION

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