The Modern Commando Science of Guerilla Self Defense by Georg

November 19, 2018 | Author: Rob Furnald | Category: Hand, Self Defense, Foot, Arm, Professional Wrestling
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The Modern Commando Science of Guerilla Self Defense...



Guerilla Self-Defense For The Home Front  By GEORGE F. JOWETT

Copyright 1943 By GEORGE F. JOWETT The Modern Commando Science of GUERILLA SELF-DEFENSE For the Home Front By GEORGE F. JOWETT

WHAT would you do if you were confronted by a viciously attacking thug? Would you resort to the expedient of the average man, who says he would "run like Hell, " or would you stand your ground and fight it out? If your enemy was tearing at you with a club, a knife or gun, you probably would think that speed was the best means of defense. But what if your loved ones were with you— What then? That's the all-important all-important question. Most men I have spoken to have said—"What could I do but give my life, or see my loved ones lose theirs?" This has happened thousands of times throughout the country, but there is no reason why you should suffer injury, or forfeit your life, or that of your loved ones, because of your lack of knowledge o f self-defense. "To be forewarned is to be forearmed, " is an old reliable proverb, and the purpose of this course of selfdefense instruction is not only to forewarn you, but to forearm you with a practical knowledge that will make you competently capable of meeting any foe, regardless of his size and strength or the arms he may bear. To teach you, whether you are a man or woman, how to quickly and effectively use the weapons nature gave you to place the attacking enemy at your mercy. Our purpose is to teach you a simple method of attack and defense, free from all the complicated technical movements which so far characterize the many systems placed before the public. For most of these systems, professional wrestlers have been selected to demonstrate their tricks. Men who are heavy, unusually strong, and highly trained in the skill of wrestling; men who have every advantage, and think only in that groove. Even the methods of t he Commandos are impractical for the average person, simply because the average man has not the opportunity nor the time to obtain the severe preparatory training of the famed Commando, who is also well equipped with weapons to meet a foe on an equal footing. These methods are impractical for the average man or woman. You must know methods of defense which you can apply on the spur of the moment, fortified fortified with the strength of confidence in your ability to place a foe hors de combat, regardless of his size or strength, or the weapons he may bear.

That is just what t his course can do for you—teach you simple, effective methods requiring but little practise, which you can try out in your own home with any member of your family, in which case both of you will benefit at the same time. One thing you can depend on, that these methods of defense shown and explained within this course are supremely practical, as proven b y thousands of men and women, many of  whom owe their lives to what is taught you in this course. At the same time, you obtain a degree of fitness that will make your body supple, and coordinative, in an entertaining way which you and your friends will thoroughly enjoy. Psychology in Defense and Attack

The average person is usually over-impressed by the size and arrogance of his possible opponent, who usually uses his thuggish arrogance for all it is worth, seeking to create an effective bluff to frighten, or subordinate your resistance to his apparent superior size and b rutal grimaces, neither of which are positive proof of his ability to subdue you. He works on the common idea that a smaller person is naturally scared by size—but don't be fooled. Pay absolutely no attention to his size, his arrogance, fierce facial contortions, nor his vicious language, they are just psychological aspects that are no criterion as to his actual strength and combat efficiency. They have been effective factors but are no more to those who are willing to learn the value of the old axiom, "The bigger they are, the harder they fall." Size is never a true indication of muscular power and efficiency, as all professional trainers know only too well. The smaller man usually makes up for the balance of power by his greater agility, flexibility, speed of  foot and nervous action. Bear this in mind, and also the very important fact that once you go into action and grapple with an opponent, you must never stop moving. Strive to keep your opponent off balance, regardless of his size. Once you hesitate, or stop, the stronger person has the chance to bring his strength to bear, but never if you keep moving, and particularly faster than he. Your object is always to attack your opponent at his weakest points of vantage, which are mainly gravitational, gravitational, throwing him off balance, and applying such leverage principles so that his body, and the limbs of his body, are used to work towards his own defeat. It is said that nature created everything living with equal facilities for protection as well as for attack. Ordinarily, the average person has only been made familiar with the forms of aggression, and so subtly has it ingrown upon the average mind, that one is apt to entirely overlook the powerful weapons of operational defense with which he is gifted. You should ever bear in mind that the attacker is invariably as unfamiliar with the natural methods of defense as is the average untutored person, therefore his aggression can be used against him with disastrous results. The method by which this is best applied is to work according to your own natural defense impulses when under attack. In other words, the instinctive, natural impulses of defense and attack are studied, so that each hold can become effective in operation with the natural defending act. Thereby, you are relieved from the hesitation caused by confusion of thinking as to whether you can apply a hold or not. T his is the psychological complex that the complicated, technical holds of the professional athlete creates among the weak, or inexperienced. Working with a natural impulse you will be surprized to experience how easily you merge into the complete combative act. This is the supreme value of this natural defense course which is not found in any other system. For instance, if a man is about to strike you with a stick, you instinctively throw up your arm to guard, or if he is striking at you with his fist, you duck. These are the first, and natural impulses of any defending person. Working with such impulses you have the natural head start to follow through with any one of the many defensive tricks pictured in this course. As you learn to know these natural defensive impulses on your part, you also learn to know the natural faults your opponent is invariably inclined to make. Knowing these pointers is to un derstand the psychology of a defense with an attack. For instance, the average person invariably backs away from an attacker, which is ab solutely the wrong thing to do. It places you in the same position as the victim of the attacking boxer who seeks to get his opponent to arm's length with a straight left so he may administer the knock-out blow. Not only do you p lace yourself at the

strategical disposal of your foe, but you also lessen your opportunity to take advantage of an y opening your opponent might provide. Always remember it takes time to move, and your opponent is not apt to be standing still, in which case the best means of defense in such an instance is NOT TO BACK AWAY, instead CROWD YOUR MAN by pushing close to him, body to body, holding high your elbows, level with your own shoulders, pushing them up high under his arms. In this way you tie up his arms preventing him from striking. He has to back away in order to get the room in which to strike, and at the same time you obtain for yourself an ad vantage to apply a hold on him before he recovers from his befuddling elbow parry. The next effort of your opponent, as with an y person when he is crowded by another, is to push you

How to Break an Assailant's Wrist away, which he naturally tries by placing his hand against your body. This is just made to your order. Let him try to push you, then immediately follow through by grasping his wrist with one hand, and his forearm with the other, holding his hand tightly to your body. At the same time lean heavily forward against his hand which will force it backwards on his wrist. It will immediately bring him to his knees with a yell. If you apply your weight strongly enough as you hold his hand tightly to your body you will most ce rtainly break his fingers, or his hand at the wrist. This is a very effective trick and will bring the strongest man to his knees in pain. A woman can also use this trick as effectively as can a man. In combating a man with your bare hands, you must learn to use your head, knees and feet as well as your hands. The "Crowding" act gives you every opportunity to us e them, for your first act always takes him off guard, being the very opposite of what he expects you to do. If you are about his height, you can deal him a crashing blow by forcibly bringing down your head to smash your forehead on his nose. Whether you bash him on the nose or n ot you will crash him on some part of the face that will deal him a stunning blow and yet not hurt yourself. He will invariably go down, or if not he is too dazed to fight back coherently, placing himself at your mercy for a knockout blow. This can be done by either bringing up your knee sharply into his groin, or bursting him between the thighs with your knee. Another simple method which will severely pain him, and blind his eyes with tears is to ram your first two fingers up his nostrils. This should be done with stiff fingers forcing upward into the nostrils. His head will jerk  back instinctively as he sees, o r senses the driving fingers which makes the act easier to perform, working to his disastrous downfall. As his head goes back, chop him across the throat, right over his Adam's Apple, with the edge of the palm of your other hand. He will go down like a pole-axed ox and will be stricken unconscious if you strike sharply enough. If not knocked unconscious he will be paralyzed beyond resistance, strangling for breath which will take him several minutes to properly recover, during which time he is completely at your mercy. A woman, who usually has long, s harp fingernails can tear his nostrils with the finger thrust, and the ed ge of her hand is just as capable for subduing her opponent, as that of a man. In fact, in these few related defense tricks, speed is more essential than is strength. If delivered sharply enough, the acts are more effective from short range action than is the long range blow of a "Hay-maker."

The stiffened fingers, particularly the fingers of a woman, can be j abbed into the eyes with terrifying effect. Jabbing, chopping and knee b utting always have a psychological effect on an opponent. Any person is naturally fearful of injury to his face or the tend er parts of his body. Even if he sees, or senses the act, it will immediately disconcert him from his intentional act, causing him to change from attack to defense. As this happens he instinctively senses he has b een caught napping, and with his own fear added, he will seek to ward off the defense, but he is ever too late, for by "crowding" him, he has not the room to act with his hands or ar ms.

Quite often these simple acts alone turn an arrogant aggressor into a fearful defender, and being ignorant of  scientific defense, which he is apt to be, he becomes neutralized in his attack, often turning tail. Your very acts and attitude will instantly show your opponent that he is up against something he did not expect, which will cut down his attacking ego over 50%. Even if your defensive attack has not worked 100%, he is still at your mercy because he will be psychologically affected, and be experiencing some degree of p ain that may make him fight back, but his fight is invariably that of a rattled boxer, who strikes wildly, opening the way for other holds that will place him hors de combat. Treading on an opponent's little toe while "crowding" him will cause him great pain, particularly if you grind your heel with a slipping twist off his toes. If your attacker has managed to get you out of range of "crowding" him, and you feel you cannot get in or under fast enough to beat his blow, then resort to kicking. Aim to kick off his knee cap, if you miss you will invariably kick him on the shins, which never feels so good to the one kicked. Stepping on your opponent's foot while "crowd10 ing" him is a neat little trick. It has unexpected results. Naturally, your opponent tries to step back, away from your "crowding, " but if you hold your full bodyweight on his foot, it will be held as though nailed to the floor, and being unable to step back with this foot, he falls backward to the floor. There sometimes comes a time when some people feel they are at the mercy of a superior foe, or let us say, the possibility that your acts have been thwarted and you have no recourse left for effective defense, in such a case, always remember there is one trick left in the bag that can beat him, one which you positively can perform. As he bears upon you, or you struggle within his grasp, jump at him and wrap your arms around his neck, and your legs around his waist, and hang on like grim death. He will be powerless to strike you in any manner that can hurt as you are too close upon him for his arms to apply an y driving blow. Moreover, he will be most concerned with trying to tear you off him, which he cannot do. At the same time you can be very effectively employed biting his nose, mouth, or his ear off. When you are fighting for your life anything goes, and the more primitive you act the better are your chances. While you are in this wrapt up position around him, scream for help in his torn ear. It will drive him frantic, particularly if you use a 11

Grapevine Legs in rear leg hold

little psychology by yelling, "Help, Help. Over Here." "Hit him on the head." Whether it be a footpad you are defending yourself from, or an actual invader, he realizes he is at a disadvantage, and within him there is the animal, instinctive fear of being attacked from behind, whether it be real or imagined. I have seen a strong man driven frantic with fear when his opponent wrapped himself around him like a grapevine. Young, green soldiers, disarmed by a 12 physically superior foe have hysterically fastened themselves around their enemy screaming for help, and the more powerful foe became even more frantic than the one he was trying to detach himself from, but too late, for some Buddy, hearing the call, responded with bayonet or clubbed rifle. So even in this simple, natural act every woman has a powerful defense which will cause the assailant to strive to detach himself  and run, saying nothing of the damage she can do to him with her ripping teeth and fingernails. Another simple defense anyone can employ on an attacker is to grab him by the forelock of his hair as he bears in, and by keeping the hair clutching arm stiff, bear down with your weight, which will force his head down. As you do this, keep backing away pulling vigorously on his hair. He will be powerless both from his position and the pain of his head, but, don't forget, you must keep moving backward, or drag him around in circles, otherwise there is a possibility that he may break your hold. When you have pulled him around to the point where you feel he is fairly well subdued, stop, and step in, driving your knee crashing up into his face as you enforce momentary down pressure on his head. As I have said before, the main thing in defense 13 and attack, is to keep moving. NEVER STOP. It is the best defense even for an accomplished wrestler, because it prevents your opponent from carrying out any preconceived ideas. He is more apt to be kept off  balance, mentally and physically, and at the same time,  you knowing what you are about are ever making new openings for your attack. Especially is this effective with an untutored attacker, or one who is only skilled in the general methods of attack. In this way a n effective moving defense becomes your best method for attack. If you are caught in the enfolding embrace of your attacker, do not struggle in the orthodox way by striving to push yourself away. That only tires you, besides make you an easier victim for a stronger foe. T here are two simple methods of beating the hugging embrace: the one method works with the natural effort of every person; they usually squirm, but in the ordinary way, squirming places you more at the mercy of your opponent, especially if your arms are locked within the embrace; therefore, learn to make your act an

intelligent move in defense. Keep your arms down by your sides and with all your combined might and weight, spin your body around in his folding embrace. Your body will act upon his hugging arms like a fulcrum and will loosen his grip enough so you can break loose. If the embrace 14 is so severe that you cannot do more than loosen the folding arms and not break loose, then as you rotate your body within his arms, suddenly let the body sag, and by bending the knees slip downward out of his embrace. On the other hand, if you are only able to turn your body around so that your back is to his body you can still place him at a great disadvantage. In fact, to the efficient Guerilla, this full turn is all he seeks to become the defensive aggressor. From this position you do one of two things, depending upon the superior strength of your opponent. STOP SQUIRMING, but immediately hook your feet around the outside of his legs, particularly within the fold of his knees. This done sharply enough will make him fall. Nevertheless, he will be powerless to throw you. Actually, the chances are that he will not know what to do. A point of empasse is reached, BUT, the important thing to know is that he is the one who has to make the moves, and the only thing he can do is to loosen his grip, throwing you from him. That is fine for you. If you are smart you will help his throw by forcibly going down to the ground, but as you hit the ground, roll away fast, and spring to your feet, or else grab him by the ankles and pull him down. In all matters of defense and attack, the main thing is to keep your head and never get hysterical, or frantic. Most people, when they feel their arms 15 pinned to the sides of the body from either a front or a bac k hugging fold, feel they are helpless, and become frantic, but always remember, that as long as your arms are pinned by your sides you cannot be effectively hurt, for the arms act as buffers against any crushing onslaught on your chest. Most people struggle to get their arms released, but keep your head and work out of the embrace in one of the methods advised. If you make the full body rotation within the hugging embrace, and your foe does not fall when you hook your feet around his knees, keep in mind that he is virtually helpless, and while in this position, with one foot hooked around the knee, free the other hooking foot and bring the heel of your shoe against his shin. Keep doing this, and as you get in effective kicks, return the foot to hook around the knee again. He will be weakened by the kicks, which if they do not immediately cause him to release you from pain, will sufficiently shock the nerves of  the injured leg, so that your foot hooked around the knee will throw him off balance and bring him down. There is always an exception to any given rule, and quite often we find the following maneuver effective within the embracing arm lock of a strong foe. We have told you to always keep moving in de16 fense as well as in attack, but sometimes you reach an empasse, and when this is reached within the body embrace of a strong person, do not dissipate your strength by struggling; instead, let your bod y go completely limp, but keep your senses alive, for the only thing your opponent can do is throw you down to the ground, at which time you do as advised before, quickly roll away. In many cases, the bod y slump is disconcerting to your foe. It makes him very confident, and in his moment of egotistical superiority, he will pause to gloat as it were. Here is where his downfall begins. He finds that apart from exerting his full strength to embrace you, he requires more power to hold up your bod yweight. This is not so easy for him to do in a motionless position, for your weight throws him out of balance with his natural equilibrium. It is only when one is struggling that he can keep control over his balance from constantly moving. Your additional weight can be the breaking point beyond his power of control. He cannot crush, and hold your bodyweight up at the one and same time as effectively as he can do either one o f the acts singly, therefore he tires, or his grip weakens. The moment you sens e this, spin in his embrace and break awa y. If he tries to throw you, hook your feet around his knees every time he lifts you. This will balk his effort, and likely both 17

of you will fall together which breaks his hold anyway. Do not forget to use your head either when thus embraced, by dashing your head back into his face you can make it mighty unpleasant for him. If, for any reason, your arms are not locked within his embrace by your sides, be sure to grasp his wrists with your hands. Never try to break his lock by pulling on his ar ms, because this can rarely be done, and you only waste your energy. By holding onto his arms you have a better control over your own weight in this position, and add the force of your weight to combat his resistance. You should learn how to spin your body forcibly into a dancer's pirouette for many reasons. It teaches you how to control your bodyweight in all forms of turning, and side stepping. Spinning, or pirouetting into an attacking foe is a formidable method of defense, not only because it is disconcerting to your opponent, who not being familiar with this mode of attack is momentarily baffled, but it is impossible to strike or grasp a pirouetting body, and invariably you will collide with his body with so much force as will knock the breath out of him. If properly timed, it spins you safely against his body, causing a psychological reaction of bewilderment to your attacker, leaving him wide open for 18

Arm Lock and Heeling with Hand

one of the many disabling holds which this course teaches you. There is one mode of defense which is commonly taught as though it were a very effective weapon, and that is where you step forward to meet your attacker and butt him under the chin with the heel of your hand. To an expert guerilla, it is only half a method, and a weak o ne at that, especially if your opponent is taller, and heavier than you. It does become an effective method, if simultaneously with the act of butting him under the chin with the heel of your 19 palm, you step on his foot. Even if your "hand butting" only half succeeds, your weight on his foot brings him down, from his inability to step back. Another inefficient method generally taught in breaking the embrace of a man is to smash on the boney part of the back of his hand with an object such as a compact, or a match box. Unfortunately, not one man in a million walks around with a matchbox in his hand, even if he has a match box on him at all, neither does a woman walk around with a compact grasped in her hand as a preparation to ward off an attack. Fact is, when you are grabbed from behind your attacker is not going to wait for you to fish for a compact or a

match box, but quickly is going to dash you to the ground. Secondly, no attacker is going to grab you from behind and try to hold you with interlacing fingers. The hands in this position have no holding power whatsoever, and rarely if ever, is an attacker going to embrace you by grasping his one wrist with his other hand, leaving his hands exposed to these advocated matchbox or compact implements of d efense. Nor are his thumbs going to be exposed for you to grab in a thumb breaking defense. HE IS GOING TO HUG YOU WITH ALL HIS MIGHT BY WRAPPING HIS ARMS AROUND YOU, and in 999 cases out of a thousand his fists will be clenched with the 20

applied force of his embrace. Therefore, if you depend upon either of the two named methods for protection, you are most likely to be badly disillusioned. The advocated methods explained herein, are b y far the most practical and effective, as any man knows who has had to fight against such an attack. With these inefficient methods exploded, and with the modes of defensive attack as already explained fixed in your mind you will begin to think that the rear hug hold of an opponent is a weak weapon to employ even for you to attack a person. But this is not so, because the skilled attacker knows how to beat all this. The moment a skilled Guerrilla hugs you he will throw himself  backwards, dragging you with him, and while holding you tightly in his embrace, roll on top of you as quickly as you both hit t he ground. You are immediately at his mercy; however, you need have no fear of this, for no person— outside of the Guerilla Self Defense System—is apt to apply this demoralizing embrace. Yet, I can hear you say, suppose I do run up against the unexpected —a man who does employ this trick either by accident or design—what then. You have two methods of defense open. If you are a man, or a woman with weight, then as you both hit the ground and you feel him prepare to roll on top of you, you go 21 with him. That is, you throw your bodyweight in the same direction as he rolls. This unexpected compliance with his resistance will throw him off balance, but do not stop with the first rolling surge of your body. While he is still off balance keep rolling with him, the momentum will keep you both rolling, roly poly fashion, which will invariably break his hold as he sees his mode of attack defeated. Particularly is this true if you grasp his wrists with your hands, and pull apart as you roll. The impart of the sudden counter roll will always loosen the grasp of your opponent to a certain extent, enough so that you can either break  from his hold, or grab his thumb or little finger and break. If you are too weak to apply the counter-roll, or lack the bodyweight to get the counter momentum, then lay within his embrace. He has to release one hand to strike you, or maybe both, but always one. Watch for this opening, and as his arm is released to strike, you are free to roll out of his hold by rolling away on the free side of his released hand. Roll fast, with all your force, and the chances are sure you can get to your feet at least as quickly as he can. What if you are unable to get up first. Naturally, you will still feel you are at his mercy, but far from it. Sit on your buttocks with your hands braced on 22 the ground behind you. He would be a foolish incompetent if he tried to jump on top of you, for in this position you have adopted the most capable stance to spin on your buttocks, or roll out of his attack. Invariably, he runs around you looking for an opening, and will try and rush you, but you can baffle him completely if you will spin on your hips, following him with your legs as he runs about you. As he rushes in, throw yourself back and strike out with your feet. Watch that he does not grab your foot. As he reaches for it, strike at his hand with your foot in a side chopping movement. Don't ever be in a hurry to get up, particularly if your opponent is heavier and stronger stronger than you. As long as you remain in this position you are normally safe from any dangerous attack. Yo u will realize this the more proficient you become in the art of Seat Spinning, and know the disadvantages your opponent is placed by your knowledge and efficiency in applying the various forms of leg defense.

With efficiency comes confidence and self reliance. You will learn that in the Seated position, you can rest calmly, exerting no physical strength only when your opponent attacks, while he is more or less keyed up to follow through with his attack. You can keep him busy hopping around, which naturally tends to deplete his energy, while you conserve yours. More23 over, by study and practise of the seat-spinning positions you master the control of rising quickly into a crouch, or an upright position, and quickly returning to the Seat Spin as occasion demands. It is an intriguing method of defensive-attack, which has its psychological effect on your opponent, who will be baffled and bewildered in his efforts to defeat you. The positions of Seat Spinning, and its auxiliary movements, place you in a very advantageous position to kick him in the body, the groin, the shins, and even in the face. Learn to use your heels as much as your toes and feet, for the down-thrashing blow of the heel is a terrible weapon. By knowing how to quickly and smoothly rise into the crouch from the Seat Spinning position, gives you superb opportunity to dive at his legs and bring him down. An opponent generally expects you to stand up, and waits to catch you as your hands leave the ground in order to rush you while off your balance, but that is where you can fool him by diving for his legs. Your rise to the Crouch position s hould be similar to that of the sprinter's starting position, when his bodyweight is so balanced he leaves the mark like a flash and is immediately in his stride; by the same placement of position relative to bodyweight you are taught how to make your Dive just as speedy. 24

Of course you will realize that while you are down, your opponent is going to rush you, and the possibilities are that your kicking tricks will not always work. Of course you have to be alive to this fact, and expect it. Never overlook a single thing as to what you think your opponent may do. Kicking is great defense as he rushes you, but do not wait for this. Draw your knees partially up to your buttocks, which will entice your opponent to draw closer, which is what you are angling for. As he co mes nearer, slash out with one leg, bringing it down in a side-slashing stroke on the outside of his calf about the area of the ankle. This has the effect of chopping his leg from under him, bringing him down. Your other leg you should keep partially drawn to the buttock, with the foot flat on the floor, and the hands maintaining the braced position behind you in order to keep your balance and control over all your foot kicking, and slashing acts. If your opponent determines to jump on your body with his heels, you can easily forestall that by making a complete body roll which carries you out of his range, and bring you right back  to the Seat Spinning position. The main object for you to do as soon as you hit the floor on your hips, is to keep the legs moving, bicycle fashion, in order not only to disconcert him but to make you more efficient in your attack. It 25

gives you striking momentum, which can d ynamically put your legs into action in a flash. Remember what I have said before—KEEP MOVING! The arms of a boxer are never still for the same reasons as I have just given. The moment they are stilled he is at a disadvantage, because when he prepares to strike a blow he "telegraphs" it by his starting arm movement, and his opponent finds it easy to block the blow, and deliver a faster one in return. When the arms or legs are moving, there is no " telegraphing, " the constant motion leaves no reason for your opponent to know how, when and where you are going to strike. It is for this same reason I have advised you to keep moving while "crowding" your foe. Now let us consider the all important fact if your opponent after trying all his wiles, has failed, even to  jumping on you, and he is successful in rushing through your leg guard. T here is a very effective defensiveattack to such a move, and that is to throw yourself back on your shoulders, drawing one knee into your stomach, and thrusting it out straight up so that the foot—with a bent knee—is placed right in the pit of his

stomach. At this time he will be falling upon you, so grab his arms, and stiffen your leg, heaving him over your head. His momentum will carry him to a fall, and this counter can be made 26 very destructive to your enemy if you put plenty of effort into the act. Notice that the free leg is planted firmly on the floor. This is to prevent your body from rolling, and will act as a strong prop to your acting leg to toss him over your head. T he moment he is tossed, do not attempt to rise to your feet, instead, roll with him, as you partially will with the force of your heave, but roll onto your stomach, holding onto one of his arms, and with your free hand chop him with the edge o f your hand across his throat, sharply and strongly, and he will go out like a light. In the method of defensive attack given here where you are the man down, it is very important that you pay strict attention to your position, as explained. Actually, you adopt a natural, relaxed position, which if you function with, will give you every advantage over your stood-up foe. When you rise to the erect position, usually the first thing your foe attempts is to rush you (which you can counter with a leg dive), or tries to kick you. Watch for the leg always, and as he kicks, grab the kicking foot by the heel a nd toe with your hands. As you get this foothold, pull towards you, and at the same time twist the foot with all your might. This will spin him around, and throw him. If you put enough pep into the hold you will easily break his ankle. 27 It matters not whether you twist to the right or to the left, either twist has the same results. The main thing to do is see that you pull his leg towards you as you grab it. This straightens out his leg, helps to throw him off balance, but the main thing is it prevents him from yanking his leg back to shake you off, or repeat the kick. Here is another disastrous method of defeating a kicking foe, which you should always bear in mind in the event you have missed to grab his foot as just explained. Try to side step the kick, and catch his foot with either arm. As this is done, hurl your weight right over his knee. You may break his leg, but anyhow, the shock and pain is so excruciating he will go down like a pole-axed ox. Carefully study how this is done. It is an easy hold to get, and both the holds just explained can be performed as effectively by a woman as by a man. Now, let us assume that you are attacking a man who is down, and possibly Seat Spinning, and kicking. The foot hold first explained is the best, but here you have to be doubly sure that you pull his leg straight before twisting the foot on the ankle. In most cases, particularly where your foe is unfamiliar with the tricks of Seat Spinning, you will be able to apply the foot twist right off as soon as you grab his foot, but it is always best to be sure. 28

By pulling him, you deprive him of his arm support on the floor, and if you cannot i mmediately secure the foot twist by reason of his resistance, keep pulling on the foot with both your hands, leaning well backwards with your bodyweight, and also step backwards. He then is helpless to kick as he is being dragged on the ground. Your opportunity to twist his foot quickly comes, and when it does, be sure to twist  his foot towards his other leg. That is twist towards his body. If you make the mistake of twisting his foot outwards, then as his body is twisted, he is likely to hit you hard with his other foot. He does not do it intentionally. You make him do it because of twisting his foot in the wrong direction. The outside foot twist  works on an opponent who is stood up, but not so well on one who is already down, as you will quickly see from practising the hold in both po sitions. After an opponent has been placed at your mercy, the natural instinct is to strike him with the fist. This can be very effective if he is so situated as to enable you to deliver a telling blow, but you must know how to strike and where. The average person tries to follow out the ultimate object of the boxer, with a blow to the chin, but not many boxers are successful in getting in this paralyzing blow. Often when the opportunity presents itself for a drive to 29

the point of the chin, the blow does not land on the vital spot, and then there is no knock-out. If this is difficult for an experienced boxer, it certainly is less practical for the average person. A punch on the jaw, the nose or the mouth, apart from being messy is rarely effective enough to defeat a person. Then again, the hands and wrists of the average person are not conditioned to absorb the impact of a forcible blow, with the result that they often suffer a broken hand, or have the painful experience of a dislocated thumb. So you must know how and where to strike. However, I will explain to you the boxer's knockout blow with a punch to the point of the chin, so you can practise, or at least familiarize yourself with the blow. The blow is not a straight, direct blow on the point of the chin, it is a sharp "hooking" blow delivered on the side of the point of the chin. Being a side blow t he object is to drive the lower jaw sideways across the face. If correctly performed, the sudden blow causes an impingement upon a small artery that crosses the ja w on its path to the brain. The sudden impingement temporarily stops the flow of blood to the brain, which immediately causes a temporary unconsciousness. The length of time during which the knocked out person remains uncon30 scious depends upon the severity of the arterial impingement. It can kill a highly nervous, or sensitive person. Not until the blood is able to resume its normal flow does consciousness return. The blow must be struck with the large knuckles of the hand, with the hand bent  slightly forward on the wrist. The blow is designed to describe a short arc, and the bent hand is needed to deflect the concussion of the blow on the wrist, thus avoiding breaking the hand. The average person generally goes in for "hay makers, " that is, a long, wide range swing of the arm. This takes time. The experienced boxer strikes from the body where he gets the force of his body-weight behind the blow at short range. Avoid "hay makers, " you may break your arm if the fist misses its mark, if your hand or arm hits the head, or shoulder. The best blow for the average person is to drive from the body, placing all your weight behind the blow, and strike for the temple of the head. When you hit, do so with the large knuckle of the index finger crashing onto the temple. This safeguards your hand, thumb and wrist from injury, and at the same time gets in a devastating blow. Any part of the temple is deadly to strike, and if your blow should glance off the temple, your knuckle is apt to strike the bony edge of the eye socket and knock out his eye. 31 Another vulnerable place is to strike behind the ear. Nevertheless, the most effective blows are placed b y chopping with the edge of the ha nd as explained before. When striking an erect opponent, you are not going to be able to chop him directly across the throat, although your arm "crowding" does often Open this opportunity to you. But, when exchanging blows, apart from the smash on the temple, chop your opponent with the edge of your hand sideways on the throat. The effect of the blow from this angle is caught upon the Carotid artery, or the Jugular, either one struck will paralyze your foe. The edge of the h and striking directly across the throat temporarily paralyzes the action of the windpipe, strangling your opponent from lack of air. The jugular vein is also affected. If your opponent is thrown to the ground, face down, chop him sharply with the edge of your hand across the back of the neck at the base of the head. It should be a forward driving blow, but failing this point, if the blow is delivered anywhere at the bas e of  the head his nervous system, and the brain, is going to be disastrously affected. You can easily kill a man with this simple blow, more readily than will a chop across the throat. 32 Breaking the Strangler's Grip

The stealthy foe, the footpad or rapist, instinctively goes in for strangling, particularly particularly women. Even the tutored Defensive fighter will frequently make this mistake, for a mistake it is, and a bad one for any person to make, especially when up against an experienced opponent.

The Front Strangle Hold, and the Back Strangle Hold are among the easiest offensive acts to defeat. What usually defeats most attacked people is their own panic. They feel so helpless, and certainly they are if untaught. But the experienced battler does not s truggle to tear the hands from around the throat; there is a simple, and more effective way. Let us say you are practising a front strangle hold On a friend, you will notice that the little fingers are never engaged in the grip. It is impossible for them to be effectively engaged. Noting this, your object— if you are the defensive partner—is to reach for each little finger, and with all your might bear do wn on them, forcing them out from the hand and breaking them. They are easy to break. A woman can break the little fingers of the strongest hands without exerting much strength. Once the fingers are broken, the hands are paralyzed from nervous sho ck, apart from the physical incapacity caused from the finger break. 33

Breaking the Fingers on the Choke Hold

You will notice the same condition exists as you practice the Strangle hold standing from behind. The little finger is never engaged. As you break the fingers of a Strangle Hold gained from behind, kick your one heel savagely onto his shin bone. If you are breaking a front Strangle Hold, as you break the little fingers, drive your knee into his groin, and for good measure kick him on the shin bone with the shoe toe. * * * 34

Coat Trick Imprisoning Arms from Behind

One of the most i mmediately effective effective tricks to employ against an attacker is to place him helpless by the use of his own coat. This is a favorite trick of mine with which I have made many men change their aggressive attitude. If a friend of yours has become belligerent with a little too much liquor, you can hold him helpless without hurting him, as you talk him out of his foolishness. If it is a truly belligerent thug, you have him at such a disadvantage you can do anything to him. Butt him with your knee in the groin—kick  his shins off, or butt him in the face with your head until it is reduced to a pulp, or you can march him to the police station. As he comes in to attack you, do not back away, but meet him, and grasp the lapels of his

coat with 35 your hands, and with a quick heave, jerk his coat back over his shoulders, holding it around his elbows. He will be powerless to raise his arms, being as helpless as though his arms were tied to his sides with a rope. If he is violent, and tries to shake you off, use one o f the butting or kicking aids, but if he is a much stronger, or heavier man than you, throw him to the ground by wrapping your one leg around his knee, pulling it forward. As you crash to the floor, butt your head into his face so t hat his head is smashed in with impact with the ground. Of course, if he is violent, you have to watch that he does not butt or kick you—that is all he can do, but that can be more than enough, so get behind him quickly, and by grasping the collar of the coat twist it corkscrew fashion which will cause the coat to bind his arms more securely to his body. Then chop him across the back of the neck, but if he is too violent to get in this whack, twist the coat more tightly and pull him backwards, or keep him moving in a circle, he will then be too helpless to do anything and can easily be put hors de combat, and marched off to the police station by holding the coat tightly twisted in the manner described. Another simple trick to pull off on a threatening attacker, is to hold your hands up about level with your shoulders in a "hands up" attitude, or an as36 sumed frightened gesture, and suddenly grasp the front brim of his hat, pulling it down over his eyes, at the same time step on his foot. The dual act will tend to make him jerk back, and the pressure on his foot will cause him to fall. As the hat is pulled over his eyes you can butt, or kick him, but don't be toe nice. Al ways attack with all your vigor. Leave no possible room for having to repeat any defensive attack. At the beginning of this course I have explained how important your own psychological attitude can work  to your benefit or defeat, and it is well to bear in mind that you can effectively throw an opponent off guard by pretending to be afraid. People are so familiar with the "Stick 'em up" expression, that almost instinctively they throw up their hands when confronted by a thug, whether he has a weapon or not. It is a good attitude to adopt as long as you do not put your hands higher than the level of your shoulders. Time is an important factor in defense or attack, which a professional knife-fighter, like a boxer or wrestler, is rigidly taught. If your arms are by your side, it takes time to bring them up. The moment your opponent sees them move, he also moves, and if quicker than you, or if he has you at a disadvantage, he will beat you to the punch before you get started. From such long 37

Coat Trick Making Arms Helpless

range positions, you "telegraph" your acts, but if you are "on the move" as explained before in this course, or have the hands at what appears a natural position for the occasion, you have lessened the possibilities of 

"telegraphing" your acts, and are able to move in quicker than your foe. Once in a while we are equipped with certain means of defense with which we can operate unusually effectively. Most men smoke, and while they do not always smoke while walking, yet many do, and a time may arise when you are attacked while taking a walk, and enjoying a smoke. Consequently, while holding the hands at the shoulder position as mentioned, you are in a good "moving" position for almost any defensive attack. If you have a cigarette or 38 a cigar in your mouth, you can suddenly snatch it from your lips and thrust the lighted end into your opponent's eyes, his mouth or up his nostrils. Be sure to puff up before you act so you have a good hot end to attack with. The burn that can be inflicted is very punishing on these tender parts of the face. A pipe can also be used to a similar effective advantage, but in this case you jab the stem of the pipe into his eyes, mouth, or up his nostrils with telling effect. Your apparently frightened attitude will help you considerably in these acts. Here is another coat trick, not nearly as effective as the one just explained, but it has its advantages, and can be well employed if you are both engaged in a struggle. Catch hold of the lower sides of your opponent's coat with your hands—each hand grasping the corresponding side of the coat—and with a quick upward pull, drag the coat over his head. Sometimes, if  his coat fits him snugly, you can hold him with the coat wrapped around his head, which ties up his arms and bewilders him. He will bend forward in an effort to get out of the coat. This is the point of advantage you must watch for. As he does this, bring up your knee crashing into his face and knock him out. If the coat is loose on your opponent he 39

Wrist and Arm Break

is apt to wriggle out, though you can offset this by twisting the coat over his head, which, if done quickly enough, positively holds him powerless. The defensive tricks and modes of defensive attack as explained so far have taught you how to work by natural impulse with only the weapons nature has provided you. Also they have familiarized you with the normal psychology of your opponent, and how you can psycho-analyze him to your own benefit. At the same time, you learn how to assume 40

fear for the psychological reaction it will have o n your foe. Coo lness, and confidence in your ability to overpower your adversary, regardless of his size or strength, will always be the foundation for your success in defensive attack. Adopt this attitude in practice and it will grow on you, becoming a part of your

combative stock in trade. Take your time in practicing these tricks, and practice them with the sole object of LEARNING... not to outsmart your partner even in fun by making the acts difficult. It is a common fault among amateurs to see how difficult they can make it for their partner by performing some act of their own which they think makes the hold ineffective. What they do not realize is that beforehand, they know what you are going to do, while an attacking opponent does not know what you know, or what you can do in defending yourself. Each partner should practise the attack and offense act alternately, alternately, so both get the right idea of what has to be done, and how best to do it. In this way you both learn the best points of vantage in every trick. You both will quickly realize how your natural impulses work in attack and defense. As you master these simple defensive Combat tricks, you will be better prepared to learn the more intricate methods of Co mbative Defense that are to follow. Once you and your partner have mastered a number of these 41 tricks, it is a good idea for you both to stage a co mbat as genuinely as you can without hurting each other. Make no plans beforehand, but each adopt the attitude you would if confronted by a real attacking foe. As an advantage presents itself, then is the time to work out what you have learned, acting as swiftly as possible. This method of practise is most valuable to you both, as it will be more difficult simply because because you both, from practising with each other, know as much as the other. This makes you more alert, and faster in thought and action. However, take this precaution. The moment one gets the advantage over the other in any hold— stop, like you would in scoring points. Chalk it up, so to speak, then go to the attack  again. The one point to bear in mind when being attacked by a thug is the fact that the thug has but a one-track  mind. He thinks in but one groove, which is bent on your destruction, rarely considering considering what you can do, in which case you al ways have the psychological advantage on your side. 42

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