The Human Figure

July 29, 2017 | Author: Springville Museum of Art | Category: Figure Drawing, Drawing, Self-Improvement, Emotions, Paintings
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An excellent lesson plan packet for visual arts instructors. The lessons focus on improving technique, practicing sketch...


The Human Figure An Evening for Educators at the Springville Museum of Art



Table of Contents Artist List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 1 Gesture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 2 Nudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 4 Portraits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 6 Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 9 Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 11 Figure Drawing for Beginners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 13 Face Mapping for Beginners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 15 Additional Ideas: “Some Parts Move, Some Parts Don’t” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 16 Blind Contour Drawings—Elementary Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 17 “Hands On Drawing” Blind Contour and Contour Drawings of Hands—Secondary . . . . page 21 Figure and Portrait Drawing—Elementary through Secondary Drawing Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 23 Expressive Self-Portraits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 26 80/20 Drawing—An Expressive Way to Draw—Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 29 Rubric for Scoring Artworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 34 Sketching the Body: Nude Art in the Classroom—Elementary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 35 Nudity as a Symbol—Secondary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 39 George Segal Tape Sculptures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 45 A Matter of Identity: Exploring Self-Portraits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 51 Additional Ideas for Lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 57 Fashion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 59 So What if You Can’t Draw? Painting the Human Form Through Character Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 67 Artist Biographies Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 69 Howard L. Kearns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 69 Joseph V. De Santis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 70


Artist List Gesture John Held Jr., Dancin’ in Jazz Age (1920) gouache, 8-1/2” x 9” SMA Franz M. Johansen, Resurrection: Restored 2 Nephi 2:12 (1995) bronze, 34-3/4” x 19-5/8” x 10” SMA Gary E. Smith, Youthful Games (1984) oil on canvas, 48” x 48” SMA Minerva K. Teichert, Love Story (1935 ca.) oil on masonite, 36” x 48” BYU, MOA Mahonri M. Young, Grecian Women Dance, ink on paper, 4” x 7” BYU, MOA Mahonri M. Young, Hopi Snake Dance I (1930 ca.) oil on canvas, 22” x 18” BYU, MOA Mahonri M. Young, Da Winnah! (1927) bronze, 34-5/8” x 35-1/2” x 18-3/8” SMA Mahonri M. Young, Sketch of Boxers Fighting, graphite, 5” x 8” BYU, MOA Mahonri M. Young, Sketch of Shot Put, graphite, SMA Nudes Shauna Cook Clinger, Prayers: Imploring, Resistance, Crucifixion, and Surrender (1993) oil on canvas, 76” x 144” SMA Avard T. Fairbanks, Rain (1932) bronze, 41-1/2” x 23-1/4” x 16-1/2” SMA James T. Harwood, Exhausted Dancer (1924) oil on canvas, 24-1/2” x 16-1/2” SMA James T. Harwood, Male Figure Study (1889) oil, 31-5/8” x 19-1/2” Namdi Okonkwo, Repentent Magdalene (1995) bronze, 16-1/4” x 10-1/4” x 7-3/8” SMA Trevor J. Southey, Eden Farm (1976) oil on board, 48” x 72” SMA Trevor Southey, Flight (1981 ca.) oil, 27” x 21” Trevor J. Southey, Pieta (1983) bronze, 11-1/4” x 7-7/8” x 31” SMA Mahonri M. Young, Adam (1925 ca.) pastel, 20” x 13” BYU, MOA Dmitri D. Zhilinski, The Bridge Builders (study) (1959) oil, 16-1/2” x 34-1/4” SMA Portraits Lee Udall Bennion, Self in Studio (1985) oil on canvas, 48” x 22” SMA Connie M. Borup, A Compromise of Freedom and Control: Self-Portrait (1986) pastel, 28” x 22” SMA Alex B. Darais, A Hill to Climb (1978) mixed media, 28” x 22” SMA Avard T. Fairbanks, Lincoln the Railsplitter (1941) bronze, 54” x 26” x 23” SMA Thomas S. Hoffman, Mini-Me (2001) oil on canvas, 18” x 14” SMA Howard L. Kearns, Self-Portrait (1930) oil on board, 18” x 14” SMA Beverly W. Mastrim-Miller, Self-Portrait (1958) oil, 19-3/4” x 13-3/4” SMA George M. Ottinger, Self-Portrait as Fire Chief (1877) oil on paper, 21-1/4” x 18” SMA Bruce H. Smith, Amanda (1981) oil on canvas, 48” x 51-1/2” SMA Gary E. Smith, Self-Portrait: Divine Symmetry and Sacred Geometry (1970) oil on canvas, 23” x 19-1/2” SMA Trevor J. Southey, Johnny’s Apron (1974) pen and ink, 12-3/4” x 18” SMA William F. Whitaker, Ruth: the Listener (1985) oil, 40” x 56” SMA Style Carlos J. Andreson, Curtain Time (1940) lithograph, 12-1/4” x 17-3/4” SMA Robert T. Barrett, Camille, Seated (2002) charcoal, 22” x 30” SMA Donald Beauregard, Artist’s Father Clearing Sagebrush (1907) oil on canvas, 15” x 22” SMA Elzy J. Bird, The Gossips (1940) oil on canvas, 38” x 40” SMA Cyrus E. Dallin, Appeal to the Great Spirit (1903) bronze, 26” x 23” SMA Joseph V. DeSantis, Head of Woman (Opus) (1930) Stone, 11” x 8-1/2” x 9” SMA Irene T. Fletcher, Laid Off (1938) oil on board, 24” x 18” SMA James T. Harwood, Harvest Time in France (1890) oil on canvas, 17-3/8” x 31” SMA 1


Gary E. Smith, Youthful Games

John Held Jr., Dancin’ in Jazz Age

Mahonri M. Young, Hopi Snake Dance I

Minerva K. Teichert, Love Story

Mahonri M. Young, Grecian Women Dance


Franz M. Johansen, Resurrection: Restored 2 Nephi 2:12

Mahonri M. Young, Sketch of Boxers Fighting

Mahonri M. Young, Da Winnah!

Mahonri M. Young Sketch of Shot Put



Shauna Cook Clinger, Prayers: Imploring, Resistance, Crucifixion, and Surrender Avard T. Fairbanks, Rain

James T. Harwood, Exhausted Dancer

James T. Harwood, Male Figure Study

Bottom Left, Namdi Okonkwo, Repentent Magdalene 4

Trevor J. Southey, Pieta

Trevor Southey, Flight

Trevor J. Southey, Eden Farm

Mahonri M. Young, Adam

Dmitri D. Zhilinski, The Bridge Builders (study) 5


Lee Udall Bennion, Self in Studio

Connie M. Borup, A Compromise of Freedom and Control: Self-Portrait

Avard T. Fairbanks, Lincoln the Railsplitter

Alex B. Darais, A Hill to Climb


Thomas S. Hoffman, Mini-Me

Howard L. Kearns, Self-Portrait

Beverly W. Mastrim Miller, Self-Portrait

George M. Ottinger, Self-Portrait as Fire Chief


Gary E. Smith, Self-Portrait: Divine Symmetry and Sacred Geometry

Bruce H. Smith, Amanda

William F. Whitaker, Ruth: the Listener

Trevor J. Southey, Johnny’s Apron



Carlos J. Andreson, Curtain Time

Robert T. Barrett, Camille, Seated

Donald Beauregard, Artist’s Father Clearing Sagebrush


Cyrus E. Dallin, Appeal to the Great Spirit

Elzy J. Bird, The Gossips

James T. Harwood, Harvest Time in France

Joseph V. Desantis, Head of Woman (Opus)

Irene T. Fletcher, Laid Off


The Human Figure Lessons



The Human Figure Figure Drawing For Beginning Students written by Joseph Germaine

then you have an art education to deal with. It may be minamal, but it is still there. It is very difficult for older, more mature students to find their artwork looks similar to beginners at younger ages. The reason most people don’t begin to persue the arts more vigerously when they are older is because the don’t want to look like a beginner. The real issue is undaunted courage. Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of “Action Gestures” by thinking of four different actions and rendering quick scribble gestures of each action from a live model.

Mahonri M. Young, Sketch of Boxers Fighting Brigham Young University, Museum of Art

This is a series of very basic lessons for beginning students to give them a foundation in the rudiments of figure drawing. Notice: These lessons are not necessarily for young students but for beginning students at any age. Very young art student work has a certain look not because of their age, for the most part, but because they are beginners. If a child starts art instruction at age 6, the child’s work looks a lot like that of a beginning student. If an individual begins art education (institutional, informal or self-taught) at age 10, age 15, or age 25 or 35 or 45, the person’s work looks a lot like that of a beginning student because in spite of their age, they are all beginners. What we often mistake as child art is actually beginner art. While it is true that there are issues of eye-hand coordination, visual aquity, and thinking strategy maturity; most of these issues are irrelevant by about the fourth grade and then the issue is “education.” Older students may start out with a little more maturity because they have experienced some art education through their environment without ever being aware of it. If you have ever looked at artwork or watched someone making art,

Materials: Paper, Pencil, and a willing model. Image of Mahonri M. Young’s Sketch of Boxers Fighting Process: For beginning and very young students, it is always good to give a vocabulary word as a pneumonic device to hang more information on about the subject and related subjects. The vocabulary word may give a young student a place to store and retreive this information. The word here is, GESTURE. Random House suggests that a Gesture is the movement of the body (head, arms hands, or face) that is espressive of an idea, opinion or emotion. This works for me. With the young art students (K-3) a short one- or two-word definition works best. Gesture means ACTION or perhaps the way an action looks. Have students brainstorm all the action words the class can come up with. Running, Jumping, Laughing, Hoping, Skipping, Swimming, Chaseing, Kicking, Catching, Hiting, etc. Then have students take turns acting out the “action gesture.” When students seem comfortable with the new word and the ideas it contains, have them fold a peice of paper (I use copy paper instead of newsprint) into four equal parts. We call these 13

“thinking spaces.” Draw a pencil line over the folds to create a window-looking sheet. Have students choose four actions that they would like to draw and write the word at the bottom of each thinking space. Make sure the younger students write small, or they will take up all the drawing space. Remember that the board has all of the brainstorming actions written and correctly spelled. Once the “thinking space” paper is ready, have students pair up and begin to pose the action gesture. Demonstrate quick scribble drawing to

find the action. These should be done quickly, with attention given to proportionsand gesture, but not to detail. Some students will have a hard time abandoning detail (detail is primarily what young artists get praise for) and others don’t even know the word, detail. Have students start rendering their chosen gestures. Keep the drawing time short. Even as short as 5-second gestures. Try some as long as a minute. Experiment as the teacher to see what works well for you and your students.



The Human Figure Face Mapping For Beginning Students by Joseph Germaine

In this project we will focus on the human face and facial proportions. Our goal is to expose beginning students to the generic proportions of the human face. (FACE MAP) Use the word proportion as the new vocabulary word. It simply means portion or part and where the parts go and their sizes. Objective: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the generic proportions of the human face by drawing 4 generic schemes. One will be a template of the generic human face. One will be of a neighbor in the classroom. One will be from memory of a family member who is not there, and one will be a self-portrait. We are not looking for realistic details. We are looking for general human proportions.

Detail from Curious Onlookers, Alexei Trotsenko

Materials: Pencil, pen and paper. Process: By using a student’s face as a model, show the students that the face is not separate from the head. The naive child scheme (also true for beginners at all ages who are still using their child schema) for the human face is a circle because they have visually isolated the face from the rest of the head (skull) and are using the bottom of the hair line or bangs as the top of the face. This throws off all the proportional relationships of the face. It puts the eyes high into the forehead area rather than the middle of the head where they actually are. By placing a ruler or a straight edge on the top of the head and a hand under the chin of your student model you can demonstrate that the face is part of the head and how to divide up the placement of the facial elements into recognizable and repeatable ratios and proportions. Start by pointing out the shape of the the head. It is not a circle. It is not an oval. It is an egg shape with the small end at the bottom. If the top and bottom are the same, the head has no chin. The generic egg shape is difficult for beginning 15

artists to draw. Demonstrate a sketchy search for the line around the egg shape for the head. Start light and as you find the form, make the lines a little darker, but not too dark to change your mind. Do not let students use erasers. The eraser, no matter how good, is actually a smudge maker and does not actually remove the line if it was drawn darkly. Remember that this is a search and not a finished product. Show students from your living model that the eyes are about half way between the crown of the head and the chin. Show them how to draw a very light arched line to indicate the roundness to the surface of the face and the approximate placement of eye. The bottom of the nose is about half way between the eyes and the chin. The mouth (bottom lip) is about half way between the bottom of the nose and the chin. These are only approximate proportions and will change with observation and further instruction of trained art teachers, but learning to draw this generic face map is the first step. The eyes are about as big as the space between them. People with large eyes usually have

a large space between their eyes. The width of the nose is about the same as the space between the eyes. The width of the mouth can be determined by measuring down from the center of the eye to the corners of the mouth. Ears are approximate from the bottom of the eye to the edge of the mouth. The secret to drawing hair is to draw the shape of the “hairdo” and then add texture rather than trying to draw each hair. Later in another lesson we can focus on details like shading to show three dimensionality and the specific organic detail of the facial features.

It appears that the generic face map is hard wired into an infant’s brain before birth. Newborns can recognize human facial proportions immediately, while they seem to not be able to recognize even very similar images. This is obviously a pretty good survival strategy for the human race. If you want to take the time to have students label each thinking window with “generic,” “neighbor,” “memory,” and “self,” that is a good idea but not particularly necessary.



Additional ideas for beginning figure drawing: Some Parts Move, Some Parts Don’t Have a couple of students come to the front of the class. Have them bend and straighten various body parts. Have the rest of the class identify what parts bend and what parts don’t. Then have students look at how the different parts bend— some parts, like knees and elbows, bend in sharp angles while other parts, like your back, bends in a curve.

Have students make simplified gemetric figures, using circles or ovals for joints and rectangles, triangles, or ovals for body parts. Then have students do gesture drawings, keeping in mind which parts bend and which don’t. If you have access to a skeleton, show how the different joints articulate. have students do gesture drawings with lines that indicate the shapes of the major bones and the spine, then lightly indicate the 16

The Human Figure Blind Contour Drawing by Vicki Gehring

Objective: Students will have a right brain drawing experience (perceiving what they are actually looking at) by doing a blind contour drawing. Visual Arts State Core Standard: Making—The use of new tools to expand the skills in the creation of art. Materials: • paper and pencils or pens (preferably pens) • lap boards • students to model • two visual aids such as a toy or object in the classroom ( the object should not be too simple, such as a single colored ball.) • a sample of a contour drawing Blind Contour Drawing: To look at an object and draw the contours (edges) by looking only at the object being drawn and not at the paper being drawn on, and without lifting the drawing instrument (pencil, pen. etc.) off the paper until the drawing is complete. The whole image is made with one continuous line. Contours are every place where there is a line. This includes outside lines and inside lines. For example: on the hand the outside lines represent the shape of the hand, the inside lines are the wrinkles and folds of the skin. The Rules: 1. Once the drawing is started, the pen or drawing instrument is not lifted off the paper until the drawing is complete. * This rule can be modified in the following way: if you take your eyes off the subject being drawn, you must stop moving your pen. 2. All of the edges (contours) on the object being drawn should be included in the drawing. For example: wrinkles, creases and folds in clothes and skin; laces and designs on shoes, etc. (extra lines to get from one place to another are necessary and characteristic of a 17

blind contour drawing.) 3. The student is not to look at the paper on which the drawing is being done until it is complete. Note: Until students get used to drawing this way, they will want to, and do, look at their drawings. It is therefore almost necessary to tell them when they do look that they must stop moving their pen. Young children, when they first start drawing, love the experience of just making marks on a piece of paper. However, once they start school and get programed into believing there is a right way and wrong way to do things, they get very selfconscious about whether or not their drawings “look right.” When they first start to do blind contour drawings, they will complain and laugh about how “bad” their drawings look. So make sure you help them understand the nature of blind contour drawing and that this kind of drawing is only “bad” if they haven’t tried to follow the contours of the object being drawn. Until an individual is very experienced, blind contour drawings won’t look very much like the object being drawn. Students must be reassured that blind contour drawings are not about what is on the paper, but about their ability to keep their eye on the object while they are doing the drawing, the hand /eye coordination, and the tactile experience of feeling the pen moving on the paper. Blind contour drawings are also a way to help students get past their ideas of what they are seeing and concentrate on what the eye actually perceives. This skill will ultimately make them better draftsmen. Once students get over worrying about whether their drawing looks “right,” many of them will be excited about doing more drawings, so make sure they have time to do several drawings in one session.

Lesson: Show the students the first toy or other classroom object. Turn it in various directions to give them a good view. Hide the object and question the students about the details of the object. Have several students describe the object. Discuss details that are not mentioned and why students may have different opinions about the descriptions, such as the colors and shapes, etc.

pockets, and ask the students what contour lines you are “tracing.” Ask them to notice when their eyes may have wandered away from where you are pointing. Tell them it is important for them to be aware of when they lose their concentration. Repeat this exercise if the students are interested in doing it again.

Show the second object. Tell the students you are going to ask the same questions. See if the results are better. *Seeing is a learned skill that requires us to actually think about the things we look at. People who are good artists are not people who are born with artistic skills, but people who have a natural or learned ability to think more carefully about what they look at. In other words, they are more observant. Have a student model take a pose. Tell the students the art project they will be doing will require them to be more observant. Discuss the pose. (There is no need to discuss color.) Tell the students that since they will be drawing what they see, the pose will look different depending on where each student is sitting in the classroom. Tell them it is important they draw what they see, and not what they think they should see. Ask students the following: What are the main angles they see? Where is the center of balance? How can that be determined? Where are the arms and legs in relation to other parts of the body? What are some things that can’t be seen? For example: maybe some students can’t see part of a leg, or one of the shoulders, etc. Pre-drawing Exercise: Tell students they are going to do a practice run before they do the actual drawings. Point to a starting place on the edge of the model. Have the students follow with their eyes as you move your finger or pointer fairly quickly around all the contours of the model. (They will lose their concentration if you go too slow. On the other hand, if you go too fast, they will think they can draw that fast and miss the whole object of the experience.) Stop every once in a while when you get to something like the folds in the clothing or the

First Blind Contour Drawing by Elizabeth, 5th Grade

Project: Pass out papers, pens and lap boards. Have the student model get in a pose that can be held for about 3 minutes. (seated poses using chairs are fine, but students must include the chair in their drawing.) Have the students put their lap boards on their laps and scoot up their chairs to the tables or desks, so they can’t see their paper. Tell them to find the place on the model where they want to start, preferablly near the head and to put their pens near the top middle of their paper. Encourage them not to draw too fast and to stop moving their pens if they lose their concentration and move their eye away from the spot they are 18

drawing. They can start drawing again when their eyes are back on the place they were last looking at. (This is not really a timed drawing, but it is hard for an inexperienced model to hold a pose for more than three minutes and most of the students will finish before that, especially on their first drawing.) Remind the students to draw as many details as they see and that they are not to pick up their pens until they are finished. This means there will be extra lines when they have to move their pen to draw some unconnected details such as the eyes and nose, or pockets etc., but that is normal for this kind of drawing.

Don’t be discouraged by their whining when they see their first drawing. They will most likely want to quit because they think it is too hard and their drawings look “bad” or funny. Change models and do at least three more drawings. The students will probably need to be reminded each time that it is not what’s on the paper that matters, but the tactile experience and the eye/hand coordination. Have the students number each drawing.

Ethan, 5th Grade, 1st Drawing

Shaelynn, 5th Grade 1st Drawing

NOTE: Most of the students will pick up their pens on their first drawing. Let them look at their paper and put their pen down on the spot where the line stopped and continue their drawing.


Assessment: Have the students line up their drawings from the first to the last. Discuss the differences. Did they improve their ability to keep their eyes on the subject? Did they improve their ability to keep the pen on the paper? Did they improve their ability to see the details? Did they include more details in the drawings?

(this reflects improvement in eye/hand coordination) Have them discuss their change in feelings from the first drawing to the last. Were they able to let go of their concern for how the drawing on the paper was turning out? *The change in feeling is one of the most important parts of the experience. Discuss how improving our ability to “see” details and relationships might be an important skill in things other than art.

The two drawings below, by Nate, 6th Grade, clearly show his improved ability to capture the shape and gesture of the body as well as indicate details.


The Human Figure “Hands–On Drawing” by Lorna Teeter

your eyes around its edges. Looking closely at each detail—creases at the knuckles, pads on each finger, shapes of finger nails. Now, using your finger as a drawing tool, follow the contours of those details with your finger.

3. Objective: Students will train their eyes to see details as they use blind contour and modified contour drawing to draw their hands. Materials: • Examples of hand drawings by artists such as Van Gogh and M.C. Escher • Examples showing blind and modified contour drawing techniques • Drawing Paper • Pencils Vocabulary: Line—An element of design that refers the path of a point moving through space Contour—The outline or edge of a figure of object. In contour drawing, it is an edge as you perceive it. Proportion—The relationship of the size of parts of the body or an object to the whole or to other parts. Symbol—Something that stands for something else, especially a figure or sign that represents a real object.

Then, practice blind contour drawing by observing your hand and drawing it without looking at your paper. If needed, tape your paper to the table so it does not move. Place your pencil on the paper. Look at your other hand and slowly move your eyes along the contours and details, carefully following each line and curve. As your eyes move, also move your pencil on the paper at the same speed, pressing down firmly as you draw. Do not look at your paper. Trust the nerves in your hand and mind to make the connections. You are looking for and drawing details and contours. Do not worry if your drawing is not totally realistic. Keep your eyes and hand moving together. Look at your paper only when you are finished drawing. Notice how the lines on your paper resemble the contours of your hand.

“Drawing is taking a line for a walk.”—Paul Klee “The painter draws with his eyes, not with his hands. Whatever he sees, if he sees it clearly, he can put down. The putting of it down requires, perhaps, much care and labor, but no more muscular agility that it takes for him to write his name. Seeing clearly is the important thing.”—Maurice Grosser

Instructions for Creating (Process): 1. Look at examples of symbols and real objects. Note and compare similarities and differences among them. Discuss when and how they are used. 2. Look closely at your hand. Follow the contours or outlines very slowly moving 21

Sources: Edwards, Betty. The New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. New York: Penguin Putnam, Inc., 1999. Hubbard, Guy. Art in Action. Chicago: Coronado Publishers, 1986. Reid, William. Developing Creativity: A Classroom Resource. Portland, Maine: J. Weston Walch, 1989. 4. Now you are ready to practice modified contour drawing by occasionally glancing at your paper as you draw. Take a clean paper or simply turn your blind contour drawing over to the blank side. Once again slowly move your eyes along the contours of your hand while your pencil draws the lines at the same slow speed. This is not a race to see who finishes first. It is an opportunity to train your eyes to look for details. Allow yourself to glance at your drawing only to note relationships of one part to another and to check lines and proportions. Your eyes should be focused on the hand you are drawing for ninety percent of your drawing time. When you have finished this drawing, look at it and compare it to the first. Did your eyes and hand “talk” to each other?

Sources for examples: M.C. Escher, Drawing Hands, 1948 ggescher-53953.0.html Vincent van Gogh, Study of Three Hands for Potato Eaters 1885


The Human Figure Figure and Portrait Drawing Lesson Plans—Elementary and Secondary by Cindy Clark Lesson Objectives: • Students will draw self and figures by careful observation. • Students will use expressive lines, values, or colors to portray expressive self-portraits. CORE Concepts: Making—Students will create works of art by experiencing a variety of art media, techniques and processes: Expressing­—Students will create meaning in art. Materials needed: •

Mirror about 8 x 10 inches. You can get the least expensive mirrors cut by the local glass company and tape them with duct tape to 9 x 12 inch pieces of foam core. Hinge another piece of foam core to the top edge with duct tape so they can stand like an easel in front of the student.

Detail from Connie Borup, A Compromise

• Bright ribbon sold to building contractors.


• Paper and drawing supplies •

images from the CD: Robert Barrett, Camille, Seated; William Whitaker, Ruth: The Listener; Lee Bennion, Self in Studio; Connie Borup, A Compromise of Freedom and Control; Thomas Hoffman, Mini-Me; Howard L. Kearns, Self-Portrait; Beverly W. Mastrim-Miller, Self-Portrait; George M. Ottinger, Self-Portrait as Fire Chief; Gary E. Smith, Self-Portrait: Divine Symmetry and Sacred Geometry; examples from the Gesture folder 23

Each day draw one practice drawing of your self directly onto a mirror using an overhead projector pen. (It erases with moist paper towel). These drawings can be traced onto copy paper.

After at least five sessions of practicing directly on mirrors, move to using the mirrors for reference for a self-portrait drawing or painting.

Discuss with students where the eyes are located, and various other proportions of the face. Have them come up with ideas first. Some might include: Eyes are ½ the distance from top on head to bottom of the chin; Face is 5 eyes wide; One eye width between the eyes; Ears located across from brow line and extend to nose; Mouth is as wide as pupils; Mouth is 1/3 distance from bottom of nose to chin; and so forth.

• Students might draw themselves with a head piece—something unique on top of their head that represents something about them. •

Use the images of Camille, Seated and Ruth: The Listener to introduce the section on drawing, to spark interest, for students to examine for ideas on how they can improve their figure-drawing skills, and/or for students to compare with their own work and find ways their work is similar to the professional’s work.

Show images from the Gestures folder and have students identify how the artists have captured the gesture of their models. 2. 500-Mark Drawing—Secondary Using chalk or charcoal and working as rapidly as you can, counting to yourself, make 500 short marks that reflect the pose of a model. Keep your eyes on the subject during the entire process. When you are finished, look at your figure and try to think of it as a large piece of clay to be modeled and carved into. You are, in effect, trying to reestablish a greater affinity with the original motif by erasing into the tones and re-drawing areas as you see fit. Do not strive for photographic realism. This drawing is expressive—a result of the process of your total involvement in it.

PRACTICE DRAWING FIGURE 1. Gesture Practice—Elementary a. Pose the model in an active pose. b. Add pieces of tape at each joint of the figure to give structural emphasis to the model. c. Work on large brown Kraft paper or wrapping paper or butcher paper. d. Use the side of a piece of dark kindergarten crayon, Conte crayon, or charcoal. e. Allow absolutely NO OUTLINES f. START IN THE CENTER of body and very 3. Invisible Man Drawing-Elementary or Secondary rapidly mark in the mass of the whole figure Use high visibility pink or orange very thin plastic with very fast gestural hatching. ribbon from building supply stores (used to mark g. Never lift the crayon from the paper. Keep it in stakes during construction). CONSTANT MOTION but vary the pressure. Fill in a bit of the body, move to a leg, to the Pose figure in active athletic pose. Wrap with head, to an arm, etc., never finishing one part ribbon. Tape it in place. before all parts are started. Keep building up Draw ONLY the ribbon - not the figure the mass until all parts are finished. 24

SAFETY NOTE: Use only thin plastic ribbon that can break very easily. Use only with adult supervision. Do not tie knots. Fasten ribbon with pieces of tape.. Some good artists to study along with the artists in this packet are Kathë Kollwitz, Frida Kahlo, Pablo Picasso, Rembrandt, and others. Search others by artist name, self-portrait, and drawing. An Internet image search will find many examples of their work.


the gesture, and rearrange your hair or add a hand or jewelry. Select one image or yourself, and work from a black surface replicate the image on a large scale by erasing back to reveal the tonal image the paper offers. It is interesting to work backward to reveal the form, and helps students stop drawing LINES but create more with value patterns and planes. Instead of first putting the line to reveal the “oval” of the face, and then dividing the oval to reveal the correct proportions, they use light and dark to record all areas at the same time. The image is oddly out of focus until very late in the drawing’s development, which seems to help control the self-conscious impulse of many students to have it immediately look like them. The copy machine face has frequently added areas where the face has been flattened, adding to the distortion of the image. It makes it fun to draw. I posted the images drawn by my students on a window in the ahll, and it looked like there were all these faces with their face smashed up to the glass, wanting to “come in.” Lee Bennion, Self in Studio (1985)

A rubric needs to be established with each assignment depending on the concepts the teacher

EXPRESSIVE SELF-PORTRAITS You may want to use the following imges of selfportraits to introduce the lesson. Have students discuss the variety of ways the artists have represented themselves. However, if you prefer to have the students explore their own ideas without being influenced by the artists’ work, use the images as part of a discussion of the results of the students’ explorations: Lee Bennion, Self in Studio; Connie Borup, A Compromise of Freedom and Control; Thomas Hoffman, Mini-Me; Howard L. Kearns, SelfPortrait; Beverly W. Mastrim-Miller, Self-Portrait; George M. Ottinger, Self-Portrait as Fire Chief; Gary E. Smith, Self-Portrait: Divine Symmetry and Sacred Geometry 1. Using oil pastels, create a self-portrait using expressive colors. ( see examples of student work on the previous page). 2. Using a copy machine, smash your face to the window, and try several different expressions, vary


More examples of “Smashed Face Portraits”


is attempting to teach. For, example, proportions of the face may be included as part of the rubric. Or color application. Or value contrast. The rubric needs to be consistent with the core concepts. Since the portraits are “expressive,” it might be interesting to see if the “viewer” understood the “expression” the artist was trying to portray. For example, questions like the following might be given to students: Artist: Write what you meant to express through your artwork. On a separate sheet of paper, ask the viewer to write a response to your artwork. Viewer: Without looking at what the artist wrote, write what you think this work is about and what it means to you. Answer these questions about the artwork you are viewing. If you are working with other students, choose one student to write down what the group decides. Then discuss the artwork as a group.

Kathleen Houlahan, Laughing Portrait 1915

What do you see? What does it mean? How do you know?

Artist: Read the viewer’s comments and think about them carefully. If you then would want to change your artwork to improve it and better communicate your intent, write notes about what you would do.


The Human Figure 80/20 Drawing by Dustyn Allen An 80/20 Drawing is a subtractive drawing project that can be used for anything from a still life, to a landscape, to figure drawing. Materials: • graphite stick (2B or softer) • a large pink eraser • heavy paper (usually 50# or so), with a good tooth to hold the graphite The students draw their subject as follows: Start off by working in timed increments of drawing and erasing. a. Spend 5-10 minutes blocking in the subject and possibly picking up any major value shifts. b. Erase about 80% of the drawing. Look at the marks the eraser leaves. Stay aware of how those marks are as valuable as the graphite marks. c. Spend another 8-15 minutes drawing the subject. Don’t just trace the lines. Look at the subject and pay attention to its form and how it’s put together. d. Erase about 75% of the drawing. Continue using the marks of the eraser to add to the overall drawing. If desirable, use the eraser to move the graphite around so that as you layer it, the graphite builds up rich dark values. e. Continue this process. Spend more time drawing and less time erasing. Be sensitive to the marks, the values, and the overall drawing. This drawing project creates very successful artworks for students in any class, if they take enough time and care. The following pages have some examples of my work and my students. There is also a progressive timeline of a quick portrait I did to show the progression of the work. Good luck and have fun!

A finished example of an 80/20 drawing of a skull, by the teacher

Student working on 80/20 drawing



This teacher example of an 80/20 Drawing clearly shows how the marks of the eraser are as critical to the drawing as the graphite is.


Can you tell what the subject of this drawing is or what can be seen in the background? How important is the identity of the subject to the success of the drawing as an artwork? Why?

The image to the right is a portrait done using the 80/20 process. The expressive nature of an artwork created by the 80/20 approach is clearly demonstrated. The images on the next pages show the process, from the blank sheet of paper taped to a drawing board to the finished artwork.





Rubric For Grading Art Teacher’s Name 100

95 A


Excellent Outstanding Exemplary


85 B


Above Average Very Good Very Acceptable


75 C


Average Good Acceptable


65 D


Below Average Needs Improvement Barely Acceptable

59% and below F Unsatisfactory Poor Unacceptable

Effort/Perseverance A: B: C: D: F:

The project was continued until it was as complete as the student could make it; gave effort far beyond that required; took pride in going well beyond the requirement. The student worked hard and completed the project, but with a little more effort the preject might have been outstanding. The student finished the project, but it could have been improved with more effort; adequate interpretation of the assignment, but lacking finish; chose an easy project and did it indifferently. The project was completed with minimum effort. The student did not finish the work.

A: B: C: D: F:

The student carefully planned each step in the directions after exploring several choices. The student followed the directions more than adequately. The student adequately followed directions but was indifferent in the execution. The student completed the project but did not follow directions. The student did not complete the work.

A: B: C: D: F:

The artwork was beautifully and patiently done; it was as good as hard work and care could make it. With a little more effort and care, the work could have been outstanding. The student showed average care; adequate, yet a bit careless. The student showed below average care, lack of interest in finished work. The student exhibits laziness and lack of understanding or interest in finishing.

Following Directions


Student Self-Assessment

Teacher Assessment

Effort Score: _____ Following Directions Score: _____ Neatness Score: _____

Effort Score: _____ Following Directions Score: _____ Neatness Score: _____

3 _____


3 _____

The Human Figure Sketching the Body: Using Nude Art in the Classroom by Virginia Catherall Objective(s): Students will understand the importance of drawing the nude figure to gain a mastery of art and to show emotion, ideals, and ideas. Students will practice drawing a nude hand and a clothed hand to understand the different moods, meaning and emotions they can give. State Core Links: Grade 4 Standard 2­—The student will analyze, reflect on, and apply the structures of art. Objective 1—Analyze and reflect on works of art by their elements and principles. • Identify evidence of depth, shadow, color, and mood in artwork. Standard 3—The student will choose and evaluate artistic subject matter, themes, symbols, ideas, meanings, and purposes. Objective 1—Explore possible content in art prints or works of art. • Determine and explore a variety of sources of inspiration for making art; e.g., panoramic view, microcosm, people, imagination, experimentation, decoration, celebration, events, interpretation of emotions, education, religion. Grade 5 Standard 4—The student will interpret and apply visual arts in relation to cultures, history, and all learning. Objective 1—Compare the arts of different cultures to explore their similarities and diversities. • Describe what the artist’s intentions may have been at the time the art was created. 35

Paul B. Manis, Nude Study (1933)

Grade 6 Standard 4—The student will interpret and apply visual arts in relation to cultures, history, and all learning. Objective 2—Connect various kinds of art with particular cultures, times, or places. • Explain how experiences, ideas, beliefs, and cultural settings can influence the students‘ perceptions of artworks. • Describe the impact of significant works of art in the time and place they were created. • Hypothesize if the meanings of significant works of art change over time. Grade 7-12 Drawing Standard 1, Making—Students will assemble and create drawings by manipulating art media and by organizing images with the elements and principles. Objective A—Refine techniques and processes in a variety of media. • Select and analyze the expressive potential of drawing media, techniques, and processes.

Objective B—Create drawings using art elements and principles. • Create expressive drawings using art elements, including line, shape, form, value, contour, and perspective. • Create expressive works of art using principles to organize the art elements, including mood, emphasis, and unity. Standard 3, Expressing—Students will create meaning in drawings. Objective A—Create content in drawings. • Identify subject matter, metaphor, themes, symbols, and content in drawings.

comes from the lines the artist uses to show position. The shot putter’s legs (which are bare), on the other hand, have muscle definition and give the sense of straining and movement with just the muscles. Contrast this to the figure in Southey’s work. The straining figure reaching up to fly has a more powerful sense of movement because each muscle can be seen. Even without a face to carry the emotion, the unclothed figure gives the viewer the sense of reach, stretch, and energy.

Grade Level: 4-8 grade Materials: • Images of Flight by Trevor Southey and Sketch of Shot Put by Mahonri M. Young • Drawing materials (pencil, pastels, pen, chalk, charcoal, or ink) • Paper • A glove for each student Lesson: Most artists draw the nude figure, either as practice from a live model or from memory in their works of art. There are many reasons that artists depict figures without clothes. Some reasons: - Clothes put a date on the work of art whereas nude figures are more timeless. (See Exhausted Dancer by James Harwood) - The nude figure can show more expressive- ness through position, muscles, and body type. (See Flight by Trevor Southey) - Nude figures are important to the story i.e. Adam never had clothes before being created, Buddha went without clothes during his time with the ascetics. (See the Bridge Builders by Dimitri Zhilinski or Prayers by Shauna Cook Clinger). Show the images of Flight by Trevor Southey and Sketch of Shot Put by Mahonri Young. The Sketch of Shot Put shows a figure clothed, although he is straining to throw the shot put you cannot see muscles moving. The movement in the drawing

Sketch of Shot Put by Mahonri M. Young

Activity: Give the students a glove and have them draw their gloved hand. Then have the students draw their hand without the glove (nude). Which is harder to draw? Which is more interesting? Which has more texture, color, light and shadow, line, or shape? Which drawing is more expressive? Assessment: Ask the students why they think art students today take life drawing classes - drawing nude models. If they are able to understand that students need to be able to draw muscles, skin, and textures of the human form, the lesson was successful.

Sources: Blair, Lorrie, “Strategies for Dealing with Censorship.” Art Education, September 1996 36

Braithwaite, Arlene, “The Rodin Show Reflects South, Will, ‘Making Waves: Controversial Art in a Male Gaze.” Letter to the editor, University Utah Exhibition Catalog,’ Salt Lake Art Center, Journal, Southern Utah University, November 7, Salt Lake City, UT 1997. South, Will, “Nudity versus Lewdity - The Campbell, Rebecca, “Controversy in Education: A Denuded Figure in Art.” The Arts Magazine, Case in Point.” Utah Museum Association, 1997. June 1993. Cannon, Ann, “‘Nude’ and ‘Naked’: The Difference is More than Skin Deep.” Deseret News, November 2, 1997. Clark, Kenneth, The Nude, a Study in Ideal Form, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1972 Cole, Kelleigh and Kristen Sonne, “200 BYU Students Protest.” The Daily Universe, Brigham Young University, October 31, 1997. Duncan, Carol, “Virility and Domination in Early Twentieth-Century Vanguard Painting,” Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, Harper & Row, 1982. Fehr, Dennis Earl, Dogs Playing Cards: Powerborkers of Prejudice in Education, Art and Culture. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1993. Garrard, Mary D., “Artemisia and Susanna,” Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, Harper & Row, 1982 Nicholson, Claudia J., “Teaching in the Curatorial Wake.” The Docent Educator, Spring 1997. Nochlin, Linda, “Eroticism and Female Imagery in Nineteenth-Century Art,” Women, Art, and Power, and Other Essays, Harper & Row, 1988 O’Brien, Joan, “Still Moving the Nudes.” Salt Lake Tribune, October 17, 1997 Potempa, Ann, “Finding Art in the Nude Form.” The Daily Herald, November 21, 1997. Ross, Aden, “A Brief History of Nudity in Utah,” Lecture given at the Salt Lake Art Center, November 6, 1997


Trevor Southey, Flight ca. 1981 Brigham Young University Museum of Art


The Human Figure Nudity as a Symbol by Virginia Catherall Objective(s):Students will understand how nude figures in art can be used as symbols to give the art deeper meaning. Students will debate the meaning of works of art employing nudes symbolically. State Core Links: Art History and Criticism (7-12 grade) Standard 3 Visual Arts - Expressing Students will discover meaning in art. Objective 1 Perceive content in works of art. • Identify subject matter, metaphor, themes, symbols, and content in works of art. • Assess which works of art effectively communicate subject matter, metaphor, themes, symbols, or individually conceived content. • Interpret subject matter, metaphor, themes, symbols, or content through divergent, novel, or individually inspired applications of art media and art elements and principles. Grade Level: 7-12 grade Materials: Images of Avard T. Fairbanks, Rain (1932) Shauna Cook Clinger, Prayers (1989-1993) Namdi Okonkwo, Repentant Magdalene (1995) For the extension: Trevor Southey, Eden Farm (1976) Trevor Southey, Pieta (1983) Mahonri Young, Adam Lesson: Show the students Rain by Avard Fairbanks. Talk to the students about Fairbanks’ history, style, and artwork (see information below). As a class discuss the content of this artwork and the idea of an allegory. Allegory: The representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters,

figures, or events in narrative, dramatic, or pictorial form. Below are some sample questions to begin the discussion: • Why is it titled “Rain”? • How does this qualify as an allegory? • Why would Fairbanks choose to have the fig-

ure nude?

• How does nature play into the symbolic repre-


sentations in this sculpture of both rain and

the nude artform?

• If this figure were clothed, how would it

change the meaning of the sculpture? • How would the sculpture read if the figure were a nude male?

17. However, his studies in Paris were cut short by the start of World War I, so he returned to Utah where he finished high school and continued modeling in clay.

After the discussion, go to the activity below to reinforce the idea of nudity in art as symbolic. Background information from the Springville Museum of Art ( Avard Tennyson Fairbanks (1897-1987) Payson/ Salt Lake City, Utah Avard T. Fairbanks was born in 1897, in Provo, Utah. His initial instruction in art came from his father, John B. Fairbanks, who was an art teacher at Brigham Young Academy and also from his brother, J. Leo, who was a painter. Avard’s first sculpture, a rabbit in clay, was done when he was 12. The sculpture won first prize at the 1909 Utah State Fair, but the judge refused to give Fairbanks the medal because he said the contest was for professionals, not for boys. His family decided Avard should go to New York to study, where his father was making private sale copies of the masterpieces at the Metropolitan Museum. The curator at the museum gave reluctant permission for Avard to make copies because he was so young (13). After seeing the quality of Fairbanks’ work, the curator apologized. After an article about him appeared in the New York Herald, calling him the “Young Michaelangelo of this modern day,” he was allowed to model animals at the Bronx Zoological Gardens. A scholarship to study at the Arts Students League with James Earl Fraser soon followed. During this time, Fairbanks came to know several notable sculptors who gave him advice and critiqued his work. He returned to Utah after a year and a half in New York because he wanted to study abroad. Avard created the sculpture Buffalo when he was 15, planning to pay for his travels by sales of the sculpture, but enough funds came from sales resulting from attention garnered by a lion sculpture he made of butter for a creamery exhibit at the Utah State Fair. While in France in 1914, he became the youngest artist to be admitted to the French Salon: he was

His first major commission was with his brother, J. Leo, to work on the statuary and friezes of the LDS Hawaii Temple. In 1918, he attended the University of Utah. Then, at the end of World War I, he was commissioned to do a war memorial called Victorious American Doughboy for the state of Idaho. This commission led to other commissions and to a teaching position at the University of Oregon. Among his other commissions were the Ninety-first Division Monument, Pioneer Family, Pony Express, and four marble busts of Abraham Lincoln. In 1925, he earned his Bachelor of Fine Arts from Yale and was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to study art in Rome and Florence the following year. His Mother and Child was sculpted during this period. He became a member of the faculty at the University of Michigan’s Institute of Fine Arts in 1929 and while there, earned a Master of Fine Arts and also a Ph.D. in anatomical science. Fairbanks always spent time researching his intended subjects to find background information that allowed him to include accurate details. For example, Fairbanks studied historical details of Lincoln’s life as well as the president’s life mask in order to portray him accurately. The anatomical studies he had done in college helped him make his figures very accurate. In 1947, he returned to Salt Lake City with his family and was appointed Dean at the University of Utah where he was given the responsibility of 40

organizing a college of Fine Arts. Considered an innovative and effective teacher, Fairbanks was, nevertheless, an “arch-conservative” artist. That conservatism resulted in departmental conflict as modernist teachers were hired but also resulted in a new generation of academically trained realist sculptors. Among Fairbanks’ most successful students were Ed Fraughton, Justin Fairbanks (his son), Alice Morrey Bailey, Grant Speed, and Clark Bronson.

be conveyed without a nude figure; then debate. Some questions to think about: Prayers: • Does knowing that the Clinger painting is a self-portrait add to the symbolism? • What impact do the fully clothed figures in contrast tot he nude have on the symbolism of the painting? • Look closely at the body positions of the figures in the painting. Do they have a role in the meaning of the painting?

Retiring as Dean of the College of Fine Arts in 1955, Fairbanks taught for another ten years. He continued to produce sculpture and to criticize modern abstractionism until he died at age 90 in 1987.

Repentant Magdalene: • What is the Christian Biblical story behind this sculpture? (look up Mary Magdalene on the internet for the story). • Why would Okonkwo depict her nude? • How does her pose add to the symbolism of the sculpture? • How would the symbolism and impact of the piece change if there were color added to the bronze?

Avard Fairbanks believed art should be simple and understandable, not only to the educated and technically trained, but also to children and the untutored. He believed art should be uplifting and represent the finer qualities of life to all men and women. He received numerous important commissions and honors throughout his career.

Have the class vote on who won each debate and why.

In addition to his religious sculptures, small and large bronzes, marble carvings, medals, and relief panels, Fairbanks created hood ornaments for Chrysler Motor Co. He had been asked to design a hood ornament for the Plymouth, and had designed a mermaid, which was approved. After approval of his mermaid design, Fairbanks was asked to design an ornament for the Dodge car. The design he came up with was a ram. When management from Chrysler came to see the design, they asked Fairbanks what a ram had to do with Dodge. Fairbanks replied that a ram was sure-footed, king of the trail and won’t be challenged by anything. Then, humorously, he added, that if you were on a trail and a ram was charging you, you’d think “dodge!” He got the commission. Activity: Divide the class into four groups. Have two groups choose Shauna Cook Clinger’s painting Prayers and two groups choose Nnamdi Okonkwo’s sculpture Repentant Magdalene. Have each group take a side as whether the nude figure adds to the symbolic meaning of the artwork or if the meaning could

Background information from the Springville Museum of Art ( Shauna Cook Clinger (1954- ) Salt Lake City, Utah Shauna Cook Clinger was born on July 7, 1954, in Salt Lake City, Utah. She began her artistic training under Harold Peterson. She was awarded a four-year Presidential Scholarship at the University of Utah, and while there, she studied under Doug Snow and Alvin Gittins. She graduated Magna Cum Laude in 1976. After graduation from the university, Clinger continued her studies with William Whitaker at Brigham Young University from 19781979.


Clinger has had many one-woman shows and group showings. One such show was at the Kimball Art Center in Park City, Utah. The show was titled, “Seven Realists.” Her works also can be seen at the University of Utah Medical Center and at Utah State University. She has won awards for her paintings such as “Best of Show” at the Utah State Fair.

And, in the Fall of 1992, one of her paintings was shown at the National Museum for Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C. Her work is described as having a sense of “strength, sensitivity and quiet dignity.” Clinger has much experience as a portrait artist, and she focuses on and pays “attention to the human form.” Her paintings also have the characteristic of “vibrant color” and demonstrate her proficiency with oils. Clinger’s first love is the human form. She believes the body is an embodiment of the spirit. In her work entitled The Prayers, Clinger’s theme is transformation. The person portrayed in this work is Clinger herself. She is undergoing transformation, both literally and metaphorically, as seen in the four panels, or stages, of the work. Prayer, for Clinger, is a personal thing and a way an individual can express his or her hopes and desires. Clinger’s desire with this painting, as well as with all her works of art, is to be able to speak to all viewers on different levels. In fact, Clinger believes art is a “mirror,” and in looking at a work, viewers should be able to learn something about themselves. Nnamdi Okonkwo (1965- ) Orem, Utah   Nnamdi Okonkwo was born in Eastern Nigeria in 1965. He is the first of three sons and currently reside in Orem, Utah with his wife Deidra, son Jacob, and daughter Nkechi. The rest of his family is still in Nigeria . As far back as Okonkwo can remember he has always been drawn to art, especially drawing. It wasn’t until he was about 17 years of age that he realized that his artistic sensibilities were best expressed in the three dimensional art of sculpture. Around this same time he was introduced to basketball, which suited him well as he am six feet nine inches tall. Later, after obtaining a Higher National Diploma (equivalent to a Bachelor Degree) in painting in Nigeria, bas-

ketball became the avenue for him to come to the United States . He was recruited by BYU-Hawaii where he played from 1989-1993, and graduated with a BFA in Sculpture. Immediately after that, he enrolled in the graduate program at BYU-Provo where he received an MFA degree in sculpture in 1997. While going to school in Provo, he met and married his wife, Deidra, who is from Idaho and graduated in 1996 with a Master of Accountancy. He now works full time out of his studio in Orem.  Assessment: Have the students write a synopsis of their own opinion about the debate and whether their opinion changed or stayed the same after the debate. This not only helps assess whether the students took part in the activity and understood the learning goals, but it also allows the student to express his or her own opinion regardless of what side they took in the debate. Extension: You can extend the lesson to talk about how nudes in art are not only symbolic, they can be used to tell a story. Below are three images that use nudes to tell a story. All the stories are Christian in nature and can be looked up on the internet. Other art that uses nudes to tell a story: Trevor Southey, Eden Farm (1976) Trevor Southey, Pieta (1983) Mahonri Young, Adam Sources: Blair, Lorrie, “Strategies for Dealing with Censorship.” Art Education, September 1996 Braithwaite, Arlene, “The Rodin Show Reflects a Male Gaze.” Letter to the editor, University Journal, Southern Utah University, November 7, 1997. Campbell, Rebecca, “Controversy in Education: A Case in Point.” Utah Museum Association, 1997. 42

Trevor Southey, Pieta (1983) SMA Cannon, Ann, “‘Nude’ and ‘Naked’: The Difference is More than Skin Deep.” Deseret News, Nochlin, Linda, “Eroticism and Female Imagery in Nineteenth-Century Art,” Women, Art, and November 2, 1997. Power, and Other Essays, Harper & Row, 1988 Clark, Kenneth, The Nude, a Study in Ideal Form, O’Brien, Joan, “Still Moving the Nudes.” Salt Lake Doubleday Anchor Books, 1972 Tribune, October 17, 1997 Cole, Kelleigh and Kristen Sonne, “200 BYU Students Protest.” The Daily Universe, Brigham Potempa, Ann, “Finding Art in the Nude Form.” The Daily Herald, November 21, 1997. Young University, October 31, 1997. Duncan, Carol, “Virility and Domination in Early Twentieth-Century Vanguard Painting,” Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, Harper & Row, 1982.

Ross, Aden, “A Brief History of Nudity in Utah.” Lecture given at the Salt Lake Art Center, November 6, 1997

South, Will, Making Waves: Controversial Art in Fehr, Dennis Earl, Dogs Playing Cards: Utah Exhibition Catalog, Salt Lake Art Center, Powerborkers of Prejudice in Education, Art and Salt Lake City, UT Culture. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1993. South, Will, “Nudity versus Lewdity - The Garrard, Mary D., “Artemisia and Susanna,” Denuded Figure in Art.” The Arts Magazine, Feminism and Art History: Questioning the June 1993. Litany, Harper & Row, 1982 Nicholson, Claudia J., “Teaching in the Curatorial Wake.” The Docent Educator, Spring 1997. 43


The Human Figure George Segal Tape Sculptures Secondary Level

by Stephen Pratt

Objectives: Students will learn about George Segal and figure sculpture by creating a Segal-like sculpture out of packaging tape. They will choose a pose that best expresses the high school experience and display it in their school.

How is it Pop art? Show them Segal’s procedure through powerpoint. Demo how to make a tape version of Segal sculpture – demo on a student’s arm (see “Tape sculpture process”). Explain the assignment and have students group themselves in teams of three. They need to discuss possible poses they want, make a list of 15 ideas – pick five to write an explanation of how that pose would express the high school culture.

State Core Standards: Standard 1 Making • Experience and control a variety of art media • Create expressive sculptures using art elements and principles Standard 2 Perceiving • Interpret sculptures Standard 3 Expressing • Identify subject matter, metaphor, themes, and content in sculpture. Materials: • Packaging tape (about 3-5 rolls per model) • Scissors, or letter openers, or bandage cutters • George Segal images, including The Holocaust and Abraham and Isaac • Images of Duane Hanson’s work (or other figure sculptors: Antony Gormley, Magdalena Abakanowicz) Vocabulary: Installation art Pop art Ideal figure Public_Holocaust_Memorials/public_holocaust_memorials.html

Day 2 Art Criticism: Show the class an image of The Holocaust by Segal. Use the Feldman model to do criticism on it (journal entry). Discuss it as a class. Rest of class time to start taping their model.

Outline of lesson procedure: Day 1 Art History: Introduce George Segal and Pop art. What is it that makes his art unique? Expressive? 45

Day 3 Art Criticism: Show Segal’s Abraham and Isaac and sk students to discuss. Explain the background of the sculpture and the Kent State shootings. Ask: Is the sculpture appropriate? (journal entry)

excrement. Can anything be used, or should the line be drawn somewhere?

Use rest of class time to continue working on tape figures. Images and information: memorials/segal.html George Segal, Sculptor: “There is a strong connection in my mind between the image of Abraham and Isaac and the killings at Kent State” Segal explains. “It’s an attempt to introduce difficult moral and ethical questions as to how older people should behave toward their children.” Segal sees the May 4 incident as a “genuine tragedy in that both sides were well meaning, each convinced of its own point of view and unable to see the other’s.” Day 4 Aesthetics: Discussion on the concept of the “ideal figure.” (journal entry) Should there be an ideal figure? What is our society’s concept of the ideal figure? What was it 20 years ago? What about other eras? What can we learn from this? Show images of ideal figures from different time periods. Rest of class time to continue working on tape sculptures.

Duane Hanson Sculpture

Tape sculpture process: Wrap a section of the model’s body with tape, first a couple of layers of sticky side out, then a couple of layers of sticky side down.

Day 5 Introduce Duane Hanson’s figure sculptures. Discuss his work. Compare and contrast Segal’s work and Hanson’s work. (journal entry) Rest of class time to work on tape sculptures. Day 6 Continue as needed until class is ready to install the sculptures. Teams must fill out an evaluation form and explain the meaning of their pose. If time permits, address the issue of art materials. Aesthetics: What are legitimate materials for art? Show some of Tom Friedman’s work (sculptures made of toothpicks, straws, construction paper, etc), or Marc Quinn’s self-portraits in his own blood and


Tip# 1. Don’t pull hard when you are wrapping – you could easily cut the circulation off to limbs.

Tip# 2. Plan before starting, so you know what sections your pose will need – the smallest number of separate sections is best.

Tip # 3. When doing the head, leave either the nose or mouth uncovered, and cover it up with tape after it is off the model’s head.

Tip# 4. Anything the model is uncomfortable having someone else tape, the model can tape first and then classmates can tape the rest. 47

Once you are done doing a section, cut it off with scissors, making the fewest cuts possible that will allow you to get the taped section off.

Tape the seam(s) back together with the same packaging tape.


Display Finished Group Sculptures


Evaluation strategies: 1) Teams turn in a paper with list of 15 ideas and explanation for five of them. 2) Journal entries (scored in journal rubric) 3) Sculpture rubric with categories of: Expression of idea (5 pts) Proportions and form (5 pts) Craftsmanship (5 pts) Effort (15 pts) Extensions or adaptations: 1) Use plaster bandages (just like Segal) and do body parts (faces, arms, legs, etc.) instead of the full figure. Could maybe make relief sculptures like Segal’s with them. 2) Watch Segal video – George Segal: an American Still Life (from pbs) 3) Address installation art more in depth. Use other installation artists as examples (like Sandy Skoglund and Ann Hamilton) 4) Compare Segal’s work with sculptor Antony Gormley or Magdalena Abakanowicz. Antony Gormley Magdalena Abakanowicz Resources:


The Human Figure A Matter of Identity: Exploring Self-Portraits by Lisa Jensen digitally manipulated or computer-generated selfportraits have equal aesthetic value as the more traditional art media (include themes from ‘What is art?” and ‘Artistic Creation”). (A)

Introduction Beginning with images from visual culture, students focus on how portraits are used in society and what our priorities are in self-representation. They look back at the history of self-portraits to see how artists made statements about themselves through the styles, techniques, and media they chose. Students explore creating a variety of self-portraits based upon the styles discussed in class, also incorporating any characteristics they wish to covey about themselves. In art criticism, students use the Anderson Model of Criticism to look at a contemporary portrait of Chuck Close. Students conclude with aesthetics, determining if any form of selfexpression is a valid work of art, and whether or not contemporary methods are just as legitimate as historical methods. As students are beginning to define who they are and what image they want to convey to those around them, so it is important for them to identify with their own personalities and the individual characteristics that make them unique.

[A] Determine what self-portrait individual philosophers would choose for themselves based on a packet of information. ( C ) [AH] Make verbal comparisons between the various subject matter and styles artists have used to portray themselves and the contextual connections of each to the history of art. ( C ) [AC] use the Anderson Model of Criticism to look at a contemporary portrait of Chuck Close and use of non-traditional media. (S) [AP] Explore creating self-portraits with collage, realism, expressionism, and contemporary methods. (S) [VC] identify the influence of portraits on the individual in society.

Concepts -compare contemporary and historical methods in self-portraits (AH) -What is Art? Any form of expression? (A) -History of self-portraits (AH) -Anderson Model of Criticism (AC) -explore creating self-portraits in various styles (AP) -portraits in society (VC)

VOCABULARY analytic cubism anti-anti-essentialism anti-essentialism essentialism expressionism modernism postmodernism realism

PREVIOUS SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE -Photoshop experience OBJECTIVES (cognitions, skills, and affects) Students will be able to: [A] Gain an opinion regarding whether or not 51

RESOURCES AND MATERIALS Teacher – Battin puzzle of “Picasso’s Portrait,” handouts of the Anderson Model of Criticism, packets of philosopher handouts, five very different portraits for aesthetic activity, computer with Photoshop, scanner ARTISTS TO KNOW / WORKS TO KNOW Rembrandt – (any self-portrait) Vincent Van Gogh – (any self-portrait) Pablo Picasso – (any cubist self-portrait) Chuck Close – Self-Portrait, 1991. Any of the artists whose works are included in the Portraits section of the disc Theme Motivation Present Battin’s puzzle of Picasso’s portrait of Francoise Gilot as a flower. Show a photograph of Francoise and/or how different artists have portrayed her. Students then bring in objects, pictures, or works from magazines to create a psychological self-portrait using collage. Find photos of Gilot at:

INSTRUCTION VISUAL CULTURE MOTIVATION: 1. Have students bring in a picture or portrait of any individual from contemporary culture that represents how he or she would want to portray him or herself. (Not an art image, just a picture from a magazine, newspaper, movie poster, and so on). LEARNING TASK: 2. Discuss why they picked who they did, and what the picture says about the person to the viewer. 3. List on the board what we perceive about others based on how they are depicted pin pictures. ART HISTORY MOTIVATION: 4. BLIND DATED GAME: Set up portraits from art history and have the class analyze how successful a dated when between the two individuals. Ask the students where the couple would go, what they would do, what would they talk about, who would pay, and so on, using only the visual clues from the portraits.

Peggy Battin’s puzzle can be found in Puzzles About Art, a volume of case-puzzles in aesthetics, By Margeret Battin, John Fisher, and Ron Moore (St. Martins Press, 1989) Or, create your own aesthetics puzzle about portraiture and what does or does not constitute representation of an individual.

Compare these two images: La Femme-Fleur, by Picasso (A paintng of Francoise Gilot), and Self Portrait in Riviera, by Francoise Gilot. and Educational use


ART PRODUCTION LEARNING TASK: 11. In any medium, have the students create either an Expressionistic self-portrait or a Cubist self-portrait. ART CRITICISM LEARNING TASK: 12. Give the students a handout on the Anderson Model of Criticism, and as a class goes through the steps looking at a contemporary digital self-portrait of Chuck Close. Have the students take turns writing the class responses to each step of the model on the board or flip chart. ART PRODUCTION LEARNING TASK: 13. Students create a contemporary self-portrait through either option listed below: a. Photoshop distortion: Students scan in an image and distort it. Then, they can use this as a guide to compose a painting or drawing, or fine tune it and turn it in as computer art. *If there are no computers available for class use, then the teacher could distort the portraits of each student differently, and give the distorted images as guides for further studio work. b. Composing using randomness: Students bring in ten small color copies of each of three to five different pictures of themselves. Trim some of them to the outline of the student’s face or figure, leave the others with the background. Using a small grid, pick one picture, roll a die—if the number is even, glue it down, if odd, omit the picture and skip to the next square. Continue with all of the pieces, overlapping when needed. Then, choose a small 2” x 2” square of the grid that represents a self-portrait of the student, and enlarge that section for display and inclusion in the portfolio.

Gary E. Smith, Self-Portrait: Divine Symmetry and Sacred Geometry

LEARNING TASK: 5. Using a Rembrandt self-portrait, explain why and how artists used Realism. 6. Or, use Gary Smith’s self-portrait from the packet ART PRODUCTION LEARNING TASK: 7. In any medium, have the students create a realistic self-portrait. ART HISTORY LEARNING TASK: 8. Using a Van Gogh self-portrait and Lee Bennion’s Self in Studio, move into why artists became more Expressionistic. 9. Then, with a Picasso self-portrait, show how art paralleled what was happening in society at that time and discuss the development of Cubism. 10. Or, using Howard Kearns’ Self-Portrait, examine how the “Dirty Thirties” style related to American Society during the Great Depression. 53

AESTHETICS MOTIVATION: 14. PORTRAIT OF A PATRON: Tell the students that they have sent their picture out to five different artists, and this is what they received back as proposals (show five very different portraits). Who would they hire for the job and why? 15. Looking at their packets of philosophers, students decide which portrait each philosopher would choose (see Special Instructions).

Students are given a packet with one-page outlines or summaries of the following philosophers; Plato, Epicurus, and Clive Bell. ADAPTATIONS Students with physical disabilities could create paintings or drawings using colors that they like or think represent themselves. Other students could help them cut images out of magazines and/or create a found-object, self-portrait sculpture. Or, these students could also create a large self-portrait by lying down on the floor and having someone trace their outline on large paper. Students can then paint or color this self-portrait. Or, have someone help the students take photo-copies of themselves. They can color one, add, stamps to it, combine several, or if they cannot operate scissors, they could direct another student how to combine the photocopies. EXTENSIONS: Going back to the theme motivation, students could create a portrait of a class member that would be compared to how that student portrayed himself or herself. Show the class both pieces and ask which is a better representation of the student. Ask students to compare the ideas of a self-view and an outsiders view—what is the relative worth of each?

LEARNING TASK: 16. Discuss whether any form of self-expression is art, addressing main ideas within ‘What is Art?” 17. Ask the students to reflect on their piece, and decide whether or not contemporary methods (i.e. computer art or digital manipulation) can produce just as legitimate works of art as the traditional, historical methods (i.e. painting, drawing, and sculpting). SPECIAL INSTRUCITONS:

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS English – Students write in their journals, write paragraphs after each studio piece, and write an aesthetics paper at the conclusion of the lesson.

ASSESSMENT -Students write in their journals a brief summary of the issues discussed and how they feel about the reasons listed on the board in the class discussion. Checked off in their journals. 54

-Students list three reasons in their journals, two pros and two cons for making portraits realistic. Checked off in their journals. -Students list three reasons why artists use abstract methods like Expressionism and Cubism for self-portraits. Checked off in their journals. -Students will compile a mini-portfolio throughout the lesson. They must write reaction paragraphs to each work, dealing with how they incorporated the style and whether they felt it was an accurate representation of them. The portfolio will be graded at the completion of the lesson using points for the inclusion of specific elements, and a holistic rubric for the overall process and quality of the work. -In the criticism discussion, each student must write something about his or her initial reaction, analysis, personal interpretation, contextual examination, synthesis, or judgment of Chuck Close’s self-portrait. Checked off for participation. -Give each student a worksheet with a philosopher’s name. Have them write what portrait that philosopher would choose and a reason why. They can work in groups.

ASSESSMENT -Students write a one-page paper of their experiences representing themselves, including a conclusion as to which method proved more effective for their self-portrait. They should respond to the question of whether this experience changed their opinions of the legitimacy of digital media and techniques.


Bruce D. Robertson, Rosa (1994)


The Human Figure Additional Ideas for Lessons 1. Use the images as part of an exploration of art history—the use of the human figure in art. Have students create a timeline with categories such as the following: • cave paintings • petrogylphs and pictographs • Egyptian Art • Greek Art • Roman Art • Precolumbian Art • African Art • Italian Renaissance • Baroque • Impressionism • Postimpressionism • Modernism • Postmodernism • Contemporary Realism • Photorealism • Pop • Harlem Renaissance • Pointilism • Precisionism • Minimalism • Socialist Realism

3. Practice drawing shadows and highlights. Shine a strong light source on a model. Do a light gesture drawing to establish the general forms, then refine the contours. Finally, add highlights and shadows to give the drawing a sense of having three dimensions. Inexpensive work lights are good, and you can often find them very cheaply at thrift stores or garage sales. 4. After looking at some of the images in the packet, have a dance lesson in which students choose an artwork, find the pose, and then move as they imagine the person in the artwork would move. You can incorporate dance objectives by structuring the movement sequence. For example, the movement sequence must use three levels, must have parts that have different tempos, and must have a clear ending and beginning. 5. When working on gesture, incorporate a section of dance where the focus is on the different ways our bodies can bend, stretch, and move. Have part of the class find ways to bend or stretch, choose a position and hold it for 45 seconds while the rest of the class does a gesture drawing. When the students are familiar with gesture drawings, progrss to moving. have the students explore ways their bodies can move through space, choose a position that conveys that movement, and have the students who are not moving draw the chosen shapes.

Suit the number of time periods to the students’ ages. Young students can work as groups and older students individually. Sources: and_Movements/ 2. Choose an artist whose work you enjoy. Identify three qualities of the artist’s work. Create an artwork of your own, creating those same three qualities in your own work. 57

Look at the drawings as a class. How have the students captured the body’s ability to move, bend, and stretch? Let the students choose 5 of the positions depicted. Using what they have learned by examining the gesture drawings, have the students do two more drawings of one of the five positions. Compare first and last drawings.


Fashion Introduction In this lesson students will explore all the disciplines of art through the theme of fashion. In aesthetics, students will discuss and explore artistic creation. In art history, students will observe various artists and artworks which show a dependence on the fashion of clothing in the artwork and will also examine some of the fashion designs of today’s top high fashion designers. In criticism, students will explore a new way of critiquing through fashion design. Students will create their own criticism model for fashion with all the components they find most important. Students will look at the visual culture of runway fashion and compare it to the clothing worn by stars and worn by students in their own school. In studio, students will have the opportunity to design and create a conceptual work of art that is a piece of clothing. The ideas covered in this lesson are appropriate for this high-school age because the lesson allows for self-expression through a medium that students usually use because they observe it repeatedly in the media. Students are able to conceptualize ideas and gain insight into their personal judgments about fashion and how much control those ideas will have on how they express themselves through clothing.

Objectives Aesthetics—Students will be able to: C–describe aspects of artistic creation S–analyze the concept of creativity as seen in fashion A–judge the artistic merit of fakes/forgeries, repair work, and additive works in art and fashion Art History—Students will be able to: C–find evidence of fashion being used for communication in art S–examine a famous designer and interpret his/her motive in design A–judge popular fashion on a personal level Art Criticism—Students will be able to: C–recall the important aspects of a basic criticism model, like the Anderson model S–make a new criticism model geared for fashion design A–justify judgment through application of using fashion model of criticism on each other’s work Studio—Students will be able to: C–outline a conceptual idea to be used in designing an article of clothing S–create conceptual article of clothing using various mediums and techniques A–express conceptual intent through class fashion show. Visual Culture—Students will be able to: C–recognize what factors and which people influence fashion S–analyze the effects high fashion has on the clothing that the majority of society actually wears. A-determine personal reasons for following fashion trends or abstaining from them


Resources/ Materials Teacher: • information on artistic creation • imposter clothing • Images of Maynard Dixon’s Forgotten Man, the Greek Nike of Samothrace • works done by famous designers Prada, Calvin Klein, Versache • paper dolls and outfits • crazy outfit clips from runway modeling and from everyday fashion in magazines and on pop stars. Student: • Sketchbooks • any materials needed to carry out conceptual clothing design, obtain if not in classroom.


• • • • • • • • • • •

Expanding viewpoint–A,VC Formulating questions–A,AH Reflecting main ideas–AH Discussing–AH,VC,A Creating–C,S Structuring, analyzing–C Outlining–S Conceptualizing–S Solving–S,A Observing–VC,AH Judging–VC,A,AH



Concepts • • • • • • •


Artistic creation–A Clothing in art–AH Maynard Dixon, Nike of Samothrace, famous designers such as Prada, Versache, Calvin Klein–AH Model of criticism for fashion design–C Make a conceptual article of clothing–S Who sets fashion?–VC High fashion (runway), artistic clothing–VC 60

Fakes/Forgeries Repair Work Additive Confluent Haute-Coutour

Theme Motivation: Fashion Before class starts select a few students in the class to help you with a small fashion show. The classroom should be set up with music and a small runway. These students only need to walk down the runway to the music wearing the clothes that they wore to school that day. The teacher should be the narrator for the models. The narrator should compare much of what the students are wearing to these they see entertainers or designers wearing. This will be making the point that much of what these students are wearing was decided by those who are seen in the media all the time. An example would be to say that the student is wearing something that looks like it could’ve come out of Britney Spears’ closet. After the fashion show, continue to discuss how stars, name brands, and certain events like war can cause a change or decide how fashion will go. Discuss how fashion can make the person. Does one have to be in style in order to be somebody socially? How do students feel about these ideas? Ask students what styles have changed through the students’ lifetimes, and in what ways have they changed, and what may be some reasons for the changes?



2) Show various runway fashion clips and allow students to state opinions on many of the designs. What do students feel the designer is trying to do with his/her designs? Discuss what the more artistic aspects of the designs in high fashion runway shows are. Have students try to identify connections between these designs and the designs they find in the clothing that they wear everyday. Or the designs that are more popular to the public than the rich and famous. Why is fashion important to students and why is it important to the rich and famous? Are the reasons the same, what are some differences? Do the rich and famous seem to be more expressive in what they wear?-VC

-participation points

1) Do theme motivation.

3) Do motivation #1. Follow with a discussion of how fashion is used to communicate in art certain feelings or ideas. Show Maynard Dixon’s Forgotten Man. Discuss what the students see being portrayed in this painting. Ask the students what effect the mans clothing have on the meaning and ambiance of the painting. Discuss how Maynard Dixon painted this painting during the great depression and was making comments about this time period. Now what do the students see in the clothing? The mans clothing in the painting is torn and faded and holes are in his shoes. The people walking behind the man are wearing the latest fashions and the movement in the lines and clothing show a fast-paced


life. The forgotten man is sitting and his clothes are dull and lifeless fashion that has been forgotten. Discuss all aspects of clothing in this painting and whether Dixon used fashion and clothing successfully to futher express his conceptual idea.-AH 4) Show the greek sculpture the Nike of Samathrice. Many aspects of clothing can be discussed through this sculpture. Discuss the meaning of Nike, victory, and how the clothing is used to further portray this idea. How does the movement in the clothing work for the piece. How is the clothing worn and how is this greek style still used in today’s design. Discuss importance of movement in clothing today. What different types of clothes are used for different activities. Discuss how the Nike logo uses the idea of the Nike of samathrice to portray movement and victory in all of their products. -AH 5) Discuss how texture in clothing appeals to people by passing aroudn swatches of various types of fabric. Silk, wool, burlap, cotton, rayon, latex, and vinel can be included. Discuss what moods or feelings are portrayed or recieved by touching these different materials. Are some more appealing to wear or look at then others. Discuss the importance of durability or maliability in many clothing designs.-AH 6) Discuss and show examples of famous designers such as Prada, Versache, Calvin Klein, and even Jennifer Lopez.

INSTRUCTION (cont.)Discuss how the fashions of these designers differ and are similiar. What seems to be the audience these designers are playing to? Discuss if some designers seem to be more artistic and designing conceptually or just for the masses? Have students write a one page paper on their favorite designer, whatever brand name they usually wear or would like to wear. Have them express why they love this designer and how this designers clothing expresses the type of people the students are.-AH 7) Do motivation #2 8) As a class use some of the criteria that students found important to a fashion design to create an original criticism model based for fashion. This model can be recorded on the front board and in the students sketchbooks. Students can also do this alone without the rest of the class so many of the models will be different. Discuss what might be examples of steps. Criteria might include the cut, color, and texture of the design. The models should include steps and discriptions of steps like the anderson model exemplified.-C


-WWWWWH formative assessment for both discussions

-participation points

Can you identify either of the designers whose work is shown below? library.thinkquest. org/05aug/00370/southamericandesigners.html

9) Have students choose a high fashion designer to study and research. A profile of the artist and ideas on their designs should be added into a paper written on the designer. Each research project should include pictures of the designers work or sketches if picture copies are not available. Any information that the designer offers up as to the intent of their work should be included as well.-AH 10) Do motivation #3-Discuss what is creativity? Talkabout creativity being confluent and having many aspects to it. Further discuss fakes and forgeries and discuss if creativity is lost when it is just reproduced or knocked off as an original. Can an artist reproduce an old work as an original if the concept is different? Ask students to define what they think is creativity in their sketchbooks.  Then discuss as a class creativity. How can someone work on being more creative.-A 11) Discuss the terms forgery, additive process, and repair processes in accordance to fashion. Have students raise their hands if they have ever had a tear or a rip in their clothes and then there mother fixed it. Ask if it is still considered the original designers work even though it came apart and was fixed by someone else. Does it lose some of it’s value? Many times people buy something with the intent to alter it, can it be passed off as their own personal design or does the majority of the credit go to the first designer even if the addition made the design much better? Many knock off brands are sold on the streets of many major cities and people buy them with the intent to fool those around them. Why is an imposter piece less valuable even if it is the same design out of the same materials?-A 12) Discuss the aspect of using clothing to express conceptual ideas rather than to just wear to be covered. Why would clothing be a good way of expression?-VC 13) Do motivation#4-follow by asking students to brainstorm a concept or issue they would like to explore and express through an article of clothing. Students should come up with at least three different ideas and should sketch the idea in their sketchbook along with a small summary of concept and materials used in making the article of clothing. It should be added that if the materials cannot be found in the classroom the students will be responsible for getting the material. Any of this can be discussed with the teacher as well. When students design the piece they should consider the fashion

Assessment -1-5 rating scale on research, and fullfillment of assignment.

-when model is applied, whether it is successful or not will be seen.

-analytical rubric on a 1-5 level of achievement.




creative like high fashion designs. It should be stated that accessesories are also ok to be designed. This might be more desired by the boys, but either sex should have fun creating a artistic peice of clothing for high fashion. Discuss the term haute-coutour with the students and how fashion made to be displayed on the catwalk is almost like a museum and seems more artistic. Their work should be made for haute-coutour. All of the descriptions should be written in sketchbooks. These discriptions should include description of design or cut and materials used a long with concept or issue intended to be addressed. Later this information should be transfered to a notecard later to be used for a class fashion show.-S

-finished design will be place in portfolio and will be graded with a growing tree assessment.

14)Have students decide how to set the room up like a catwalk with runway and lights and all. They should decide the best place for the audience to sit and the commontator to be placed, and music should also be selected. Each student should model his or her own work for the show unless the design is intended for a certain type. In that case, they can ask for a standin for their work, for example if a boy designed a female piece of clothing or vice versa. A teacher or student can be the commontator for the works and read off the notecards what each designer wanted to be said. After the fashion show, discuss the creativity level among the different designs. The critiques of the works should be done with the ideas from the fashion criticism model that was created earlier.-S,VC,A,C

-students should do the formative assessment complex teaching (teaching tool #1 in resources)

Special Instructions Motivation#1-Teacher should hand out sets of paper dolls complete with a varying wardrobe. A set should be given to groups of four or table groups. The group should take turns changing the outfit of the doll. A boy and a girl doll should be given to each group with both girl and boy clothes. Past fashions and present, plus accessories should be included. As the students explore the outfits they should observe the differences it makes to the mood the doll is portraying. Do some outfit portray a certain idea or feeling? Ask students to take out a notecard and write down what they wore that day and a description of why they wore it. Did they feel it expressed the mood they were in or is it what they always wear on tuesdays? Whatever the reason have it stated.-AH Motivation#2-Teacher should put on a crazy or ugly outfit. Students should evaluate the outfit and it’s intent critically. Students should ask questions about the outfit and make observations. Discuss what aspects of fashion are important to critique. The students should come up with some basic aspects that are important to make a fashion piece successful for whatever its purpose is.


Motivation#3-The teacher should bring in or wear an imposter piece of clothing. This piece of clothing can really be imposter or just said to be imposter. Teacher should tell the students that it is designed by a famous designer and then ask students to pin a price or value to the article of clothing. After various values were put on the piece then tell the students that the piece is a forgery or a fake or a reproduction of the famous work. After the students know this information ask them now what value they pin to the piece. Ask if value should be found in a name or a piece of work. Motivation#4-Give examples of conceptual clothing that either other students or designers have created. An example would be making a T-shirt out of tea bags. The concept can be tongue in cheek or very serious. Perhaps making shoes out of water balloons or out of glass to play with phrases like walking on water or broken glass. Maybe a social issue like racism can be addressed by a muti-colored vest or hat.

Multiple Intelligences

1-Musical 2-Logical/Mathematical 3-Interpersonal 4-Intrapersonal 5-Bodily/Kinesthetic

Adaptation Students who use english as a second language must be assessed every day as to their understanding of the concepts and projects. Use translation if needed, but extra visuals should be used for representation if translation isn’t an option. Have other students help them along as well so the teacher doesn’t have to spend constent time with them.

6-Linguistic 7-Spatial Interdisciplinary Direct connections with Home Economics or Social Studies.

Extension Push talented students to do more extensive research on their designers. If finished early have them work on the fashion show or help other students develop conceptual ideas. They may even extend their own idea with assessories that also express their concept.

Left, dresses made of feathers by Jenni Dutton html Right, The “Souper” dress magazine/issue31/iss31p6. html



The Human Figure

So What If You Can’t Draw? Painting the Human Form through Character Description by Mark Bake

Objective: Students will be able to describe the human form through the use of figurative language: metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, understatement, etc. Additionally, students will be able to paint the nature of a character by showing–not telling–how a character acts, what he says, what he thinks, and what others say and do in response to the character. Rationale: The real world requires the power of description, with the Internet compounding that need. Where many may not have the skills or desires to draw, paint, or snap a picture, they might develop both the desire and the ability to paint their picture of the world through written description. A naturally engaging and readily abundant subject is the human form, and especially that form as it acts and changes expression. Additional Rationale: Utah Sixth Grade Language Arts Core: Standard VIII: Writing Students write daily to communicate effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences. Objective 6: Write in different forms and genres. a. Produce personal writing (e.g., journals, personal experiences, eyewitness accounts, memoirs, literature responses). b. Produce traditional and imaginative stories, narrative and formula poetry. Utah Ninth Grade Language Arts Core: Strand Four - Writing Standard 4090-07: Students use composing strategies before writing. Standard 4090-08: Students use composing strategies to construct a written draft.

Objective 1: Establish a main idea or identify a central theme for writing. Determine an organizational pattern that fits the purpose/main idea or central theme, e.g., comparison/contrast, cause/effect, question/ answer, problem/solution, description, chronology, process. Objective 2: Elaborate main ideas and supporting ideas through the use of detail. Generate examples. Standard 4090-10: Students write functional, informational, and literary texts for various purposes, audiences, and situations. Objective 5: Write for a variety of purposes, in various rhetorical modes and genres. Use description to create sensory imagery. Write genres for literary aims, i.e., character sketch, description of setting, poetry, fable, folk tale and legend. Materials Needed: • Written examples/models of powerful character descriptions • Pictures, portraits, or photographs of unusual characters • Definitions for various figures of speech




Metaphor: any comparison between/among objects/ ideas which might not normally be compared (Most other figures of speech are essentially some kind of metaphor.)

Select songs which include strong description. Play these as models for student reaction/experimentation.

Simile: a stated comparison, typified by the presence of the words like or as Personification: a comparison in which non-human objects/ideas are given human attributes (Even body parts–eyes, ears, nose, arms, legs–may be given other human attributes normally reserved for the whole human figure.)

For those who do wish to draw, sketch, paint, etc., another approach is to present a written description and have students draw their vision of what they see/hear. Description is especially prominent in written visions of the natural world. Places also have character which begs to be presented in writing as well as in scenery paintings/drawings.

Hyperbole: an exaggeration of a quality/object/idea; also called overstatement Understatement: presenting a situation/object/quality/idea as less than it really is Process: Present several examples of quality character description. Ask for images created in the minds of the readers/listeners through the description. Help students draw conclusions about what stands out and why. Point out particular instances of figurative language. Help students create examples of what they’ve seen/heard by brainstorming in whole-class discussion, using visual models: photographs, portraits, paintings, etc. Invite students to create figures of speech from prominent physical features in small groups. Have students volunteer those who have created outstanding examples to share them aloud. Challenge students to individually experiment with figures of speech from a photo, painting, portrait, etc. of their choosing. They may do beyond physical description to include descriptions of what characters say, do, and think. Also, they may include what others say about and do in reaction to the target character. This helps in painting the complete picture through character description.


Nathaniel Irvine Spens Wall-eyed Self-Portrait (1890) Springville Museum of Art

The Human Figure Artist Biographies A biography of Thomas Hoffman can be found at

Most of the artists in this packet have biographies on the Springville Museum of Art website at Go to “Art Collections” on the left side of the page. Then to “Browse,” and then to “Browse by Artist.” This will show the alphabet and then the artists’ names.

Beverly Mastrim-Miller’s biography can be found at mastrim/index.html

Nnamdi Okonkwo’s biography is on page 41 of this packet.

Howard Kearns and Joseph De Santis’ biographies are included here.

Howard L. Kearns Born in Springville, Utah, in 1907, Howard La Salle Kearns entered this world in the usual way. He was the fourth child of his parents, William H. and Loretta Chase Kearns, and grew up with expectations of a great future. To the bewilderment of his mother and disappointment of his father, Howard proved to have a strong creative drive, leading him towards artistic and musical endeavors. Despite the fact that Howard’s father expected him to become a successful businessman, Howard continued to develop his artistic talents. At the age of 12 Howard began painting and taking piano lessons. While still in high school, Kearns got a job at “the Villa,” a local cinema, playing the piano for five dollars a week. In 1925, he went on to play the organ accompaniment to silent films and vaudeville programs for $45 a week. Initially, this may have proven to be a good career choice for Howard, but after the movie industry created audio to go with their videos, he was no longer needed for the job. He decided to 69

move in with his older sister, Ella, and her family, in San Francisco where he finally graduated from Mission High School. Kearns began his college career in Stockton, California, where he majored in music and art. Later he transferred to the

California School of Fine Arts, which is now called the San Francisco Art Institute. After receiving a scholarship to continue his education, Kearns transferred to Brigham Young University and studied for two years under Professor B.F. Larson. Howard ended his school quite abruptly in 1934 to organize a dance orchestra. During this time, he realized more than ever his intense drive to express himself through painting. His various jobs, including cooking at a sheep camp and various musical employments, were merely the means to make a living. His true love was painting. In 1940, Howard’s father died, and he moved in with his mother. Kearns lived a strange lifestyle, one that was not at all conducive to marriage and was especially hard on his health. His doctor had warned him for years not to stress himself out with all of his activities, but Howard never paid him any attention. After years of pushing himself beyond his physical limits, Kearns died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the Salt Lake Hospital in 1947 at the age of 40.

Joseph V. De Santis Joseph V. De Santis was a talented sculptor, but he was better known as an actor who appeared in thousands of radio and television shows over a 60year career. In addition to his work in radio and television, De Santis also appeared on the stage and in films. When he was young, De Santis studied art and was apprenticed to a sculptor. Then in 1936 he began teaching sculpture at the Henry Street Settlement House and at the 92d Street Y, continuing to teach until 1940. Joe De Santis sculpted busts of a number of prominent people including one of the actor Walter Hampden as Cyrano de Bergerac, which is in the Hampden Memorial Library. Some of his work was shown in galleries at the 1939-40 World’s Fair. Although he was working as an art teacher, De Santis had also been acting, first on an Italian

This was certainly no ordinary man. Howard L. Kearns was a very talented individual and lived an ideal artist’s life. He made his money by using his musical talents, including private piano and accordion lessons, and spent his quality time painting, equally adept in oil and watercolor. So strong was his urge to paint that he didn’t care if his work sold, he just needed to express himself. When he felt his life was ending, he drove out of town, madly trying to finish one last painting before his death. As a Social Realist, Kearns’ paintings fit into the “Dirty Thirties” style, an American scene genre of the Depression Era. His technique included thin pigmentation, grayed-out color, simplified forms and interest in the working-class. His Self-Portrait is a classic example of the “Dirty Thirties” style: he has made no attempt to show himself as other than an ordinary man. However, the subtle coloration and lack of detail are enhanced by his sensitivity and together, his artistic skill and personal insight create an evocative self-portrait.

radio show and then in 1940, on ‘’Pepper Young’s Family.’’ He was a regular in such series as ‘’Dick Tracy’’ and ‘’The Goldbergs.’’ He also became a television actor in 1940 and appeared in all the major live series that ran during the 1950s. He continued to play roles in long-running series including ‘’Bonanza,’’ ‘’Gunsmoke,’’ ‘’Perry Mason,’’ ‘’Hawaii Five-o’’ and many other shows. De Santis also worked on the stage and in film and as an acting teacher and dialect coach. He retired from acting at age 80, dying a few months later of chronic obstructive lung disease. nytarchive.html Accessed 3/11/06


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