The Expansion and Evolution of Gay Language in the Philippines

December 5, 2017 | Author: Emy Ruth Gianan | Category: Gay, Jargon, Linguistics, Homosexuality, Dialect
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Paper submitted to English Research Writing Class, Second Year college. :)...


The Evolution and Expansion of Gay Language in the Philippines Submitted to Mr. Veronico Tarrayo as Final Requirement in English II Class Submitted by Emy Ruth De Quiros Gianan Bachelor in Political Science major in International Relations II- 2 February 2008

Gay A: “Hoy Bakla, me Anda ka ba today?” Gay B: “Naku, Washington Sycip, Purita ang lolah mo ngayon.” Gay A: “Rampa sana aketch. Go Bingo ka mare?” Gay B: “Ay, Wishing!, Pagoda Cold Wave Lotion aketch!” Everyone who understood what these gays are saying, raise your hands! It is true. Gay lingo has really gone a long way since the start of the 21st century. The propagation of this language and form of communication is unstoppable. A once not- so- secret language used solely by gays is now infiltrating both worlds of the media and the academe. Its exclusivity to gays, much to our diva’s dismay, is now broken and gay lingo is being used by every girl, closet gays, young and old, and even straight guys in town. Almost everyone could speak and use this once hard to break “code of communication”. Admit it that everyone could not escape the alluring and colorful language used by gays. Funny, witty, creative yet irreverent all at the same time was how people describe this language (Cayabyab). But before we continue discussing this language, let us first identify who and what are gays in the Philippine society: Filipino gays are mostly stereotyped as effeminate, cross dressers, hair dressers, camp and ridiculed. “Bakla”, a derogatory Filipino word for gay, is commonly used… A more benign slang word for gay men is billy boy. For Filipino gays, the Tagalog phrase “paglaladlad ng kapa” (literally means “unfurling the cape”) refers to the coming out process. Although gays…are generally tolerated within Philippine society, there are still widespread cases of discrimination. (Wikipedia) Looking back at how gays were treated before, it was actually very insulting on their part. They are constantly tortured by the taunts, mockery and ridicules thrown at them. Now, these gays are appreciated by the public for the entertainment they bring though there are these isolated cases of gay discrimination in certain aspects of our society. Discrimination of gays have paved way to the creation of a code of communication which only gays could use; but because of its daily usage on parlors, comedy bars, sidewalks and other places where gays proliferate, people’s curiosity arose on what these words meant, eventually using it, thus the expansion of gay lingo. But how about defining what gay lingo really is? There are actually different definitions given by different people in of course different views and perspectives. The Wikipedia Online

Encyclopedia readily defined it as “a vernacular language derived from Englog, and is used by a number of gay Filipinos. It uses elements from Tagalog, English, and Spanish, and some are from Niponggo, as well as celebrities’ names and trademark brands, giving them new meanings in the context of this unique language” (Wikipedia). Gay lingo, also known as Swardspeak and gayspeak, have this nature of being dynamic, original, creative and flexible (Wikipilipinas). Dynamic because it doesn’t conform itself on a single culture but allows more freedom to its speakers. It is original and creative in a manner that though it is harbored from a local word, it is still given a twist, cleverly defined and spoken with gusto. A gay lingo speaker must have a vast knowledge on everything under the sun and trivial ideas that would really stand out when spoken and used. Its flexibility makes it easier for users to describe events and happenings without even confiding a dictionary or a grammar book since it has no actual past, present and future tenses for verbs, comparative and superlative forms for adjectives and it doesn’t follow subject- verb agreement rules. Gayspeak, like any other language, is constantly changing. But unlike other languages, words and terms in this colorful tongue undergo change so quickly that it would be impossible to come up with a dictionary of the language that wouldn’t become obsolete within a matter of months, weeks, or even days. In spite of this, there is a thread that holds this language together, and that is freedom, freedom from the rules and dictates of society (Suguitan, 1). Murphy Red, in his article Gayspeak in the Nineties, as cited by Suguitan in A Semantic Look at Feminine Sex and Gender terms in Philippine Gay Lingo, gives a background on this vibrant language in the Philippines: The centuries-old bigotry against homosexuals…exiled [them] away from the mainstream. On the margins gays saw, though only through rose-tinted glasses, a semblance of freedom in terms of self-expression. Even in their language, the gays observed no rules at all. Thus blossomed a language that some gay activists even found to be an effective code in front of the “enemies.” (41) It was said, according to certain researches, that gay lingo has originated since the 60’s. There were these gays who have coined terms to create a language of their own. In a study of ethnography

in Dumaguete City, “bayot speak” or much more known as gay lingo, was some form of a secret code for gays used when talking with each other. It was done so, so that non- gays would not understand a single word they say when they tell stories and experiences they had from work or other events (Pontenilla). Linguists have classified gay lingo as a sociolect or a social dialect. A sociolect, to be defined, is a variation of language based on the speaker’s social status. It has a lot to do with socioeconomic standing- rich or poor, professional or amateur, age, ethnic group, religion, and of course, gender. A sociolect must be based on agreed context of usage. Because of this definition, gay lingo is considered a sociolect. It is actually used by gays and for their sphere of influence only, meaning it is exclusive. There was no intention of letting non- gays use it because it is argot, or a secret language, a code made by gays and for gays. However, it had slowly been introduced in the mainstream and is generally used today (Languagelinks). According to Montgomery’s Introduction to Language and Society as cited in Suguitan’s paper, anti-languages are “extreme versions of social dialects” which tend to “arise among subcultures and groups that occupy a marginal or precarious position in society… (96).” Given this definition, gay lingo was also considered an anti- language. Or at least it used to be. With the gained acceptance and popularity today, gay lingo wasn’t an anti- language at all, but an expression of the society’s fight against a homophobic culture. It was also referred to as, by some contemporary linguists, a “Pidgin”. Pidgins are created out of necessity by certain groups of people, a way of communication exclusive to them. According to these linguists, a pidgin must have been derived from a lexifier or a mother language; gay lingo having English, Tagalog, Nipponggo and Spanish as its lexifiers. A comparison could be made on this-- the Chabacano dialect we have is considered a stable pidgin because it has its own set of grammar rules. On the other hand, gay lingo is still a pre- pidgin because it doesn’t have universal grammar rules and it still needs further linguistic studies. So whenever a person uses gay lingo, no one will question whether your grammar is wrong or not, and even your pronunciation a correct one or not (Santos). Gay lingo is also associated with certain variations of Tagalog or sociolects. Examples of these are Englog, Taglish, Carabao English and Coño English, rampantly used also by Filipinos. In a column written by Michael Tan, entitled “The English Divide”, he stated the connection of gay lingo to Carabao English:

“Chiswisang Backlush” (gay slang) actually has a lot of this Carabao English (and Carabao Spanish)…and just as chiswisang backlush develops partly in response to discrimination, a way of poking fun at society, Carabao English deliberately twists, even mangles English words’ pronunciations and meanings, a way of saying, hey, how how the carabao, my English is carabao but I’m not ashamed of it, just as I am not ashamed of my social status (A11). It is not the dictionary that determines the meaning of a word, but the people who use that word. This semantic principle is, perhaps, more obvious in gay lingo than in any other language. This is because gay speak uses words that are part of a mainstream language (e.g. Filipino or English), but applies them metaphorically. As a result, the words acquire core or sense meanings very different from that of their roots. Another characteristic of meaning is although mental images may represent meaning; these images vary from person to person. Thus one person might think of a sparrow when asked to picture a “bird” while another might think of a parrot. This semantic principle also lends itself well to the study of gay lingo. This is because the mental representations that certain words bring to mind among speakers of a mainstream language are very different from the images that are thought of in gayspeak. (Suguitan, 2- 3). With this, the researcher presents a comprehensive list of commonly used gay words, their meanings and how they are used in a sentence. Here is the list:

Anaconda (n): In English, this means a snake, but in gay speak it literally means seducing or having an affair with committed men. It could also mean getting what is not yours or a traitor. It actually came from the Filipino figurative phrase “mang- ahas”, which means the same thing. Ana is a shortened term for anaconda. Synonymous to this are terms like serpentine, Ana Bayla, medusa, Anabelle Rama and Valentina.

Anda (n): this term means money. Andalucia, datung and That’s entertainment are similar to this term.

Anetch: this means what/ which (ano). It is commonly used when asking questions like “Anetch gagawin mo today?”

Award (v): if award in English connotes trophies and achievements, praises and appreciation, well it is far more different in gay speak. It is actually an opposite of what in English it

meant. Award in gay lingo means reprimanded and scolded. So if a gay tells you this, “Ay maganda yan, mare, ma- aawardan ka jan!” it means you’re going to be scolded for what you did. •

Backlush (n): this does not literally mean you’re a gay, though sometimes it does. The gay word “backlush” refers to any gender, or when someone doesn’t know your name, that person will just call you backlush. Bakla, baklabelle, bading are synonymous terms to backlush.

Burol (n): this term that connotes landforms actually means mammary glands in gay lingo. Synonymous to this are terms like Sierra Madre (big breasts), Hidden Valley (breast that are about to develop) and Twin Peaks (breasts in general). Other terms similar to this are boobs, boobelia, boobies and boogies.

Bitter Ocampo (adj): this term means you’re sad or bitter over something that had happened. It could also mean that someone’s fuming mad or angry.

Chaka (adj): when someone describes something using the term “chaka”, it means that it is ugly or has an unbearable figure, face or feature. Chaka Khan, chakaness and chapter also means ugly.

Chimay (n): this term refers to our Indays and yayas. Chimay literally means househelpers, maids or in vernacular “katulong/ kasambahay”. Synonymous to these is the gay term chiminey cricket.

Cheese (n): in English, the word cheese means something that is eaten, the one that is put in sandwiches, however, in gay lingo cheese means another thing. It refers to rumors, talks of the town and gossips. It is the same with the terms chika, chismax, chismis, cheese whiz and cheese curls. “I- spread na ang cheese tungkol kay bakla,” that is how the term cheese is used.

Chugi (v): this means that someone is eliminated, or dead.

Dramamin (v): it sounds like a medicine tablet but this term means gays acting like men or those known as closet gays. Its synonyms are terms like bonamin, paminta, pamenchu, pamenthols and pamintuan.

Eksenadora (n): this refers to people who always likes to be figured in a scene, event or happening. Definitely a scene stealer! It is also the same with the colloquial term “epal” and “mapapel” because these people like to be noticed always.

Enter the Dragon (v): this phrase means entering, or coming inside a room or gathering. The gay words enter, entourage, entraka and entrabella are synonymous to this phrase.

Fillet (v): it means that you like something or you like the feeling of this thing.

Gander (adj): the word gander brings to us a picture of a male goose, but in gay lingo it means physical beauty and things that has beauty in it. It came from the Filipino word “ganda”.

Hammer (n): this term connotes a tool used in carpentry. In gay speak, however it means a woman with loose morals or a prostitute. It is the same with the term pokpok.

Imbyernadette Sembrano (v): this term sounds like the news reporter on television but in gay lingo it means that someone feels irritated (imbyerna).

In fairness (v): a term used to console someone over a loss. “In fairness, okay pa rin yang ginawa mo ate kahit bagsak.”

Jowa (n): in gay speak this means a boyfriend or a girlfriend. It is similar to the term jowabelles.

Kape (v): if in English this means a beverage that makes someone feel brought back to life, in gay lingo, it is somewhat related to it. Kape or coffeemate, in gay lingo, means being realistic or alert.

Kuya Germs (adj): this person is a well- known TV personality but in gay lingo, this describes people who are dirty or rugged. It also means bearer of germs.

Lafang (v): this means to eat.

Lapel (adj): this might bring to mind a microphone and this is where it was harbored. A microphone makes your voice be more audible even at long distances, so the term “lapel” (a type of microphone) means who are gifted with such booming, loud voice.

Lupita Kashiwara (adj): this refers to cruel or strict people.

Lucresia Kasilag (adj): it came from a common household name for crazy people, “lukring”, and this term means also the same thing. It refers to crazy people or those that are out of their sanity or state of mind.

Luz Valdez (n): another TV personality given a much different meaning. This term means you are a loser.

Okray (v): this term means to criticize someone and something.

Pagoda cold wave lotion (v): since most of the gay population works at parlors and spa salons, they attributed this lotion they use. It means someone is tired or out of energy. It came from the term’s first word, “Pagoda”, which if the last letter be eliminated, it comes up with the Filipino word “pagod”, which also means tired.

Purita Kalaw (adj): this term means poor. It came from the first word “purita” which also means poor, and the street Kalaw in Taft, Manila where there are these squatters on the street. Related to this term are gay words purita, Squala Lumpur and poorness.

Rica Peralejo (adj): she is another TV personality attributed a different meaning. His term means rich, wealthy and has a lot of anda (money). The word “rica” in Spanish means rich.

Thundercats (n): for old people, this show might be familiar. And actually, it is for old people. The terms thundercats, chandeliers, masyonda, and tanders all mean the same thing—old people. Our lolos, lolas and old maids are all referred to as thundercats, antique and oldfashioned.

Tom Jones (v): Tom Jones might be readily remembered for his novelty songs, Sexbomb among others. However, in gay lingo, his royalty is decreased. When someone says he’s tom jones, it means that that person is hungry.

Warla (n): warla means war. It refers to people fighting each other; stated “Oh warla na ‘to ate!”

Winnie Santos (n): this term means you’re a winner.

X- Men (n): if in the movie, X- Men means people turned into superheroes and heroines, in gay lingo, it also connotes the same thing, though not turned into superheroes. They are actually men turned gays; closet gays who finally found the courage to unfurl their capes and show their effeminate side.

48 years (v): 48 years is actually a long span of time, and in gay lingo, 48 years is really “Anong petsa na?!” because this term means you’re taking a long time, very slow in doing things or in vernacular “napakatagal”. As we have said, gay speak is constantly changing so there’s no way of coming up a concrete

dictionary that would really define the words used in gay lingo. Thinking about it, gay lingo is nothing but a hilarious play of words. Adding and subtracting something from a Filipino root word like “imbyerna”- dette Sembrano is what they do. Then they twist some words to fit a new meaning or rhyme it with popular names, brand or streets. Most are just spur- of- the- moment word inventions they decide would be good enough to fill a gap in conversation like chuva and chenes or maybe to describe an indescribable event such as ek- ek (Cayabyab).

It really has no specific formula to come up with such gay word. The most important about this is the delivery and expression—that is the feminization of speech. That is the reason why gay lingo is far better said than it is written. As we have said earlier in this paper, gays are constantly ridiculed and mocked and even isolated before. In this part, we are going to discuss how gays and their language have been increasingly accepted in public though there are those contrary to it. Isagani Cruz, in his much debated column in a The Philippine Daily Inquirer entitled “Don we now our gay apparel”, stated the fine line of how gays were treated before and how they are appreciated now in public: Homosexuals before were mocked and derided, but now they are regarded with new-found respect and, in many cases, even treated as celebrities. Only recently, the more impressionable among our people wildly welcomed a group of entertainers whose main proud advertisement was that they were “queer.” It seems that the present society has developed a new sense of values that have rejected our religious people’s traditional ideas of propriety and morality on the pretext of being “modern” and “broad-minded.” (A10). Gays also reasoned out that because of this kind of treatment they received before, they created their own language. According to them, it is their own way of enabling themselves of resisting the dominant masculine culture therefore freeing them from cultural assimilation (Wikipedia). With the world in fast pace and with the advent of innovation especially in communication, gay lingo was gradually accepted in the society- both by the media and the academe. A lot has happened since the gay community in the Philippines felt the need to fight against a homophobic culture. Because of the use of gay lingo in print, film, television, and radio, this formerly marginalized sector has found acceptance (Suguitan, 1). Red even says that “the faggotification of television gave homosexuals (and gay lingo) a good chance at re-penetrating (and menacingly for the minions of patriarchy, re-dominating) the mainstream culture (42).” Given that description, media is really a constant source of information since then. As it was stated above, television appearances and radio guestings gave them a big break to introduce the

language they have by injecting it to their interviews and even creating novelty songs with gay lingo in it. Its charisma and appeal made viewers and listeners love it. The most common use of gay lingo in media is the showbiz slang (Santos). An example of this is the talk show Startalk in GMA 7 which has a segment entitled “Da Who”. The segment hosts, though proven straight guys and girls, pepper their blind items about celebrities and politicians with so many gay terms and words. Other television shows also inject gay terms like “bonggang- bongga”, “chuva”, “chenes”, “kemerloo”, “ek- ek” and many more in their conversations especially when it is a gag show like Bubble Gang wherein Michael V and Ogie Alcasid, their mainstay artists, act as gays. Local shows have their share of “siyoke” [gay men], including actors like the one rejected by a beautiful wife in favor of a more masculine if less handsome partner. And, of course, there are ladylike directors who are probably the reason why every movie and TV drama must have the off-color “bading” [gay] or two to cheapen the proceedings (Cruz, A10). Radio programs especially FM stations also use gay lingo. The radio station where DJ’s Chris Tsuper and Nicolliala hosts have always used gay lingo. In their radio segment entitled “Tambalang Balasubas and Balahura” they give pieces of advice to their listeners through the use of gay lingo. The internet is no excuse for the sudden expansion of gay lingo. Since we are in the information age, the internet served as a bridge to learn more about gay lingo. Internet forums, threads, blogs and chats use this language. Some gays and pro- gays created their own websites just to showcase this colorful tongue and to tell its readers about how gay lingo came about. Text messaging was also a tool to expand gay lingo. It is because most of us Filipinos own a cell phone unit and use it every day to contact our friends and other people. Through text messaging, many use the gay lingo as a form of informal communication while some send jokes about gays, making them more acceptable in our society. Aside from the media, the academe was also infiltrated with the gay culture included in which is the gay lingo. Traditional books use gay lingo or gays as the primary concept. An example of this is the newly edited dictionary compiled by the UP College of Arts and Letters which includes gay terms and the fictional comic book “Zsa zsa Zaturnah” written by Carlo Caparas. It is a story of a gay working in a parlor that was turned into a superhero (ine). Because of its acclaimed fame to readers, it was decided to be turned into a theatrical musical play and eventually a movie which both adaptations favored a good response from viewers (Santos).

Even school papers use gay lingo. An example of this is UP’s Philippine Collegian which exemplifies the usage of gay lingo. It is found in the “Eksenang Peyups”, section of the school paper which also features blind items. PUP’s The Catalyst is also an advocate of promoting gay lingo. In its Entertainment Section, it also features blind items, this time about teachers, professors and other school officials. Its satiric counterpart, PUP Duh! Chakalyst has its news and opinion columns in gay lingo. So pervasive is this re-penetration that many non-gays from different walks of life can now speak or at least understand gay lingo. What formerly served as a marginalized sector’s way of alienating the people that shunned it is fast becoming the means through which the same sector is being readmitted into mainstream society (Suguitan, 1). With this kind of expansion and acceptance, gay lingo has reached its zenith. People, who rejects it before, now appreciates this language and the colorful culture of gays. However, Cruz, again comments in his same column his utmost defiance against gays and their irreverent language: …And the schools are now fertile ground for the gay invasion. Walking along the University belt one day, I passed by a group of boys chattering among themselves, with one of them exclaiming seriously, “Aalis na ako. Magpapasuso pa ako!” [“I’m leaving. I still have to breastfeed!”] That pansy would have been mauled in the school where my five sons (all machos) studied during the ’70s when all the students were certifiably masculine. Now many of its pupils are gay, and I don’t mean happy. I suppose they have been influenced by such shows as “Brokeback Mountain,” our own “Ang Pagdadalaga ni Maximo Oliveros” (both of which won awards), “Queer Eye for the Straight Guy,” and that talk program of Ellen Degeneres, an admitted lesbian (A10). Though accepted by some, conservatives, as we may call them, or those who value tradition, really and utterly disagree with this kind of language. It is, for them, “a compromise between the strong and the weak and therefore only somewhat and not the absolute of either of the two qualities” (Cruz, A10).

But then again, teenagers, especially students, find it easier and more comfortable to talk gaily, as in using the gay lingo, than to be formal and sound like a boring one (Multiply- Tambalan). Gay lingo has really made an impact on our culture and on our language as well, as it was proven by the favorable reactions and responses it got. According to some students the researcher interviewed, the use of gay lingo adds color and excitement to what they say. It makes them appear friendlier when using this odd language because those they talk to find them amusing and fun to be with. Customers of parlors and salons proliferated by gays, find it amusing to hear their “parloristas” talk about their experiences and life stories through the use of gay lingo. American language scholar J. Stephen Quakenbush justified in an interview about Philippines’ rich languages, the increasing usage of gay lingo in the society: Swardspeak is something not disturbing… like any other language, gay speak should be judged based on its effectiveness among its users, on the way people using it communicate and express their needs…it is difficult for a non- speaker or a beginner but then its difficulty is what makes this language unique… Aside from Quakenbush’s justification over the use of gay lingo, another foreigner gave his insight about how interesting gay lingo is: One interesting aspect of the use of swardspeak is that it flourishes both in situations where a gay identity can’t easily be displayed, such as back in the Philippines, and in situations, such as in the US, where some migrants live without the appropriate immigration papers. Both situations, in other words, have something in common and both lead to a speech style that has in it elements of dissimulation, albeit elements of wit and humor as well (Winterton, 18). Though gay lingo acquired such fame and appreciation, it still has its negative sides and certain disadvantages that make it vulnerable to criticisms and apprehensions. The first and foremost disadvantage gay lingo has faced is the church’s rejection of it. If gays are still not accepted religiously because of certain beliefs and traditions, so is the language they created. The next flaw gay lingo has is that it is informal and terms used are oftentimes vulgar. An example of this vulgarity and informality was mentioned by Suguitan in her research paper entitled

“A Semantic Look at Feminine Sex and Gender Terms in Philippine Gay Lingo”. She made a comparison between how typical Filipinos and gay circles react to a foul word: The Filipino term for menstruation, regla is another taboo word. Despite the fact that all women of child-bearing age go through this natural process, the word regla is viewed as a foul, distasteful word. Mention this “unclean” word and many Filipinos would wince. The euphemism bisita (visitor) was coined to avoid mentioning regla. If you ask a woman in the Philippines to go swimming with you and she answers “Meron ako” (literally I have), what she means is that it is that “time of the month.” Even “that time of the month” is a euphemism for menstruation. But in gay circles, nobody flinches at the mention of the word regla. Add to regla the suffix belle and what results is a general term for women as mentioned earlier. The word reglabelle has no negative undertones. It is merely a word that reflects one of the main biological differences between men and women (4). With this example, we could see clearly that there are terms and topics we should be careful talking about because topics like these (i.e. the one stated above) are sensitive and sometimes censored, and are not meant for public conversations except if it is really needed. Because to begin with, gay lingo was actually made for secret and unknown conversations between gays, so there is a high propensity that the words they create are rude or censored in nature. People who use gay lingo should also be careful and sensitive because sometimes what we say is offensive or below the belt. It is better to discern first whatever we are going to utter before we say it in public especially when using gay lingo. Another thing is that it is advisable not to use gay lingo when talking to old people because they won’t understand it. It shouldn’t also be used in formal conversations and forums because it would just affect your personality and it would probably just annoy certain groups of people. Granting that its difficulty and unusual jargon makes it unique, the way we use it should still be under control. Not all people like hearing gay lingo and even accepting the whole package of gay culture. Gay lingo in the Philippines is an art of its own but then it also needs an active listening skill that knows how to discern whatever we say.

Language mirrors culture. As an example, Filipino people have different names for rice since it is the staple food of our country. We have “bigas” (uncooked rice), “sinangag” (fried rice), “tutong” (burnt rice), “bahaw” (left over rice), to name a few. To borrow Suguitan’s words, “language does not merely reflect culture, it also perpetuates it.” Sagarin comments on this dual nature of language: Language is both a reflection of how we look at the world and at the same time determines how we shall look at the world. The universe around us is there for each of us to see, but different individuals and peoples will see this universe in divergent ways. Not only will this determine the development of language, but the latter will itself determine how peoples look at the world; that is to say, how they structure reality in their own minds (20).

Gay lingo is one of our inherent rich languages and therefore it is also a part of our culture right now. No matter how many people oppose it, gay lingo has really been stuck in the daily routine of speaking. We may not know it, but we are continually using the language of gays as we speak. It had actually added color and fun in our ordinary conversations and in a way had boosted the morale of our fellow Filipinos when it comes to speaking. How? As we have said, gay lingo is a portmanteau of Taglish and Carabao English; in a way people started asserting themselves in speaking in English through gay lingo even though they know that it is grammatically wrong. It has been a way of poking fun at the society, being proud of your social status and eventually breaking the barrier of communication between the peoples. Gay lingo truly mirrors and reinforces the culture of freedom. It is the freedom to expand our Filipino vocabulary, the freedom to express yourself in a more creative and wittier way and the freedom from dictation given by the society. It does not encourage hedonism as other conservatives would believe. As we could see the status of gay lingo now, it is now in the mainstream of Filipino communication and consciousness and shows no signs of fading. We believe that whatever is the future of this language, one thing is for sure: Pinoy lives would never be the same without the flamboyant jargon called gay lingo.

Bibliography: Cayabyab, Ana Cordero. Chuva, Chenes Atbp: A Beginner. Cruz, Isagani. 2006. Separate Opinion. Don we now our Gay Apparel. Philippine Daily Inquirer. A10. Montgomery, Martin. 1995. An Introduction to Language and Society. Second Edition. London: Routledge Red, Murphy. 1996. Gayspeak in the Nineties. Ladlad 2: An Anthology of Philippine Gay Writing. Edited by J. Neil Garcia and Danton Remoto. Pasig City: Anvil. Sagarin, Edward. 1962. Anatomy of Dirty Words. New York: Lyle Stuart. Santos, Ang

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( Suguitan, Cynthia Grace B. A Semantic Look at Feminine Sex and Gender Terms in Philippine Gay Lingo. University of the Philippines. Tan, Michael. 2007. Pinoy Kasi. The English Divide. Philippine Daily Inquirer. A11

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