The Bedside Oral Exam and the Barrow Oral Care Protocol
CRITICAL CARE NURSING...
CAJIGAL, KARLA KATRINA T.
July 14, 2013
The Bedside Oral Exam and the Barrow Oral Care Protocol: Translating evidence-based oral care into practice Virginia Prendergasta, Cindy Kleiman, Mary Kinga
Division of Advanced Practice Nursing, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, United States Oral Care Consultant, Phoenix, AZ, United States Accepted INTRODUCTION:
Most often ICU nurses neglect to provide oral care to the critically-ill patients despite understanding and knowing the importance importance of oral care. Usually, critically-ill critically-ill patients are at risk risk of having increased accumulation of biofilms and dental plaque, deterioration in mucous membranes and colonization with potential respiratory pathogens, and these incidence would even worsen when neglected. Critically Critically ill patients are unable to independently perform self-care activities activities such as oral care, making the oral hygiene by nursing staff essential. Therefore, this study aims to introduce introduce Bedside Oral Exam (BOE) and the Barrow Oral Care Protocol (BOCP) to guide oral care for intensive care unit patients and to explore quality improvement data for incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia, cost effectiveness effectiveness of oral hygiene supplies and staff nurses’ response to change in practice. SUMMARY:
A descriptive approach was used to introduce the BOE and the BOCP and evaluate the merits based on VAP rates, cost savings and nursing feedback. There were 2 phases in the study. The first phase was pre-implementation and guided by the formation and subsequent recommendations of an Oral Health Initiative Committee. The second phase was the implementation of the BOE and the BOCP. Analysis was performed in several different areas, including: routine comparative data to assess VAP rates before and after implementation, cost comparisons of previously used oral care supplies versus new oral hygiene supplies and quality of oral hygiene as reported through nurse interviews to a dental hygienist. VAP rates were calculated by members of the selected hospital’s Infectio n Control Committee using the National Healthcare Safety Network report structure. Summary statistics of VAP rates from 2011 to 2012 were compared. The Z test was used to compare proportions; a p-value of .05 or less considered statistically significant. A cost analysis was performed by materials management to compare the cost of products used for the BOCP to those previously used for oral care. Feedback from bedside staff was elicited over a six month period during staff meetings and during one-on-one clinical rounds conducted. The staff responses were reviewed, and additional educational strategies developed to facilitate oral care were adopted accordingly. CONCLUSION:
Oral assessments, the BOE and BOCP, was associated with a 50% reduction in VAP, decreased oral care supply costs by 65%, improved staff satisfaction and reported compliance with oral hygiene. The proportion of VAP rates was reduced from 18 in 2011 to 10 in 2012. Cost comparisons yielded significant savings using the BOCP .Average monthly costs for the previous oral care product in 2011 protocol were
CAJIGAL, KARLA KATRINA T.
July 14, 2013
$4000.00.in comparison to the average monthly cost in 2012 was $1453.00, a savings of 65%. The use of a tongue scraper, previously unreported in critical care oral hygiene protocols and electric toothbrush provided a non-traumatic means of removing debris from tongue and teeth surfaces together with the non-foaming toothpaste, resulted in improved cleanliness of teeth and gingival margins. The introduction of the BOE and the BOCP was initially met with mixed responses from bedside nursing staff. While the scientific rationale of performing an assessment was understood, staff verbalised feelings of frustration with being asked to perform an additional assessment. Staff education raised awareness of patients’ vulnerability in maintenance of oral health.