The Art of Woodworking - Kitchen Cabinets

July 17, 2017 | Author: azmir | Category: Plywood, Cabinetry, Wood Veneer, Wood, Woodworking
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profile router bitstoforma complex Using simple molding appears elaborate it canactually be Although crown routerbits.Tomakethemolding, madewiththreecommon longer firstcutthreeboards andwider thanyouwillneedfor Install a panel raising bitinyour thethreelayers of molding. router table.Alignthefenceandadjustthedepthof cut,


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THE ARTOF WOODWORKINGwasproducedby ST. REMY PRESS PUBLISHER Kenneth Winchester PRESIDENT Pierre L6veill6 SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director Editor Art Directors

Pierre Home-Douglas Francine Lemieux Andrew Jones Jean-PierreBourgeois, Normand Boudreau Designers Frangois Daxhelet, )ean-Guy Doiron PictureEditor Genevidve Monette Writers John Dowling, Adam Van Sertima Contributing lllustrators Gilles Beauchemin,Michel Blais, Ronald Durepos, JacquesPerrault, Michael Stockdale, JamesThdrien Administrator Natalie Watanabe ProductionManager Michelle Turbide Coordinator Dominique Gagn6 SystemCoordinator Eric Beaulieu Photographer Robert Chartier Proofreader Judy Yelon lndexer Christine M. Jacobs

Time-LifeBooksis a divisionof Time Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIME-LIFEINC. President and CEO

John M. Fahey

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President ManagingEditor Directorof Design Directorof Editorial Operations

JohnD. Hall RobertaConlan MichaelHentges EllenRobling

ConsultingEditor Vice-President,Book Production ProductionManager QualityAssurance M anager

JohnR. Sullivan Marjann Caldwell MarleneZack famesKing

THE CONSULTANTS fon Eakes has been a cabinetmaker and custom renovator in Montreal for more than 20 years.He is known primarily for his teaching through books, videos, radio, and the TV show RenovationZone. Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmaking at Montreal technical schools for more than ten years.A native of New Zealand, he has worked as a restorer of antique furniture.

Kitchen cabinets. p. cm.- (The Art of woodworking) Includes index. ISBN 0-8094-9545-7 l. Kitchen-cabinets.2. Cabinetwork. I. Time-Life Books. II. Series.

TTr97.5.K571996 684.1'6-dc20

9s-46501 CIP

For informationaboutanyTime-Lifebook, pleasecall l-800-621-7026, or write: ReaderInformation Time-LifeCustomerService P.O.BoxC-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1996Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by means,includinginformation anyelectronicor mechanical storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat brief passages may be quotedfor reviews. Firstprinting.Printedin U.S.A. in Canada. Publishedsimultaneously TIME-LIFEis a trademarkof TimeWarnerInc. U.S.A.

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6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 17 19 23

LAYOUTAND DESIGN A galleryof kitchen styles Principlesof layout Dimensioning Storypoles

26 CASEWORK 28 Anatomy of a kitchen cabinetcase 30 Buildingmaterials 33 Buildingthe cases 38 Shelvingand storage 44 Assemblingthe cabinets 50 Faceframes

98 100 L02 II2 115 118

INSTALLING CABINETS Installationbasics Installingthe lower cabinets Islandsand peninsulas Installingthe upper cabinets Crown molding

I2O I22 123 I34

COTINTERTOPS A galleryof countertopsurfaces Installingcountertops Backsplashes and edgetreatments


56 DOORS 58 A galleryof cabinet door designs doors 60 Board-and-batten doors 62 Frame-and-panel 73 Mounting doors 78 80 83 87 93

DRAWERS Drawerconstruction Building drawers Drawerslidesand runners Falsefronts and hardware


Tom Santarsleroon

CHOOSING CABINETSTYLE,S espitethe tremendousvarietyof kitchencabinets, theyall comedown to two

faceframeandframeless. Eachhascharacteristics basictypes: thatgreatly affect how the heartof the modernhomewill appearand function.For the designer, cabinetmaker, and installer,theyalsodeterminehow the cabinetswill be created. Faceframe cabinetsare the most populartype of kitchencabinetin North America.Thistime-honoredmethodof constructioninvolvesattachinga framework of solidlumberto the front of a carcase. Doorsand drawerscanbe mountedin oneof threeways:inset,lipped, Inset,themostelegantin appearance, is or overlay. a true testof a craftsman's Tight tolerances skill in constructionand installation. arerequiredto accommodate woodmovementandyielda pleasing seasonal margin betweenframeand door.During installation,cabinetsmustbe setperfectlylevel and plumb to maintainthat margin.My clientswho chooseframedcabinetsare veryinterested in forginga link with thepast.Theyappreciate theclassic look of wellfitted doorsand drawersthat openwith easeand closewith a gentlepuff of air as theynestwithin the frame.

Frameless cabinetry wasbornin EuropeafterWorldWarII. It addressed some of thechallenges of thetime,suchastheshortage of lumberandtheneedto rebuild housing rapidly. Thesimplicity kitchencabinet greatly of theframeless, or European, reduced material, needs, andproduction time.Doorswouldaligntightlytogether, creating aclean,flowinglineof casework. Thisreflected amodernist viewof achanged worldwheretimewasshortandproductionandefficiency reignedsupreme. This methodyieldedotherbenefits. construction Drawers couldbewideranddeeper because theydidn'tneedto cleara faceframe.Andstorage andremoval of items alongwith cleaning thecabinetinteriorbecame easier andmoreefficient. Today, thelinebetween faceframeandframeless hasblurredslightly. casework Frameless cabinets arenolongerlimitedto flush-laminate doors;mostof theframelesskitchens I buildfeature raised paneldoors, traditional multi-part cornice moldings, andotheraccoutrements endowing eachkitchenwithwarmthandcomfort.For maximizing building,installing, storage, andease of use,frameless cabinets can'tbe surpassed. If, on theotherhand,you'dprefera touchof timeless traditionin your yourcabinets kitchen, areonlya faceframeaway.

TomSantarsiero isPresident of theKtchenDesignCenter in Montclair, NewJersey.



KITCHENFORM AND FUNCTION I am continuallyjugglingtwo requirements: I n *y work asa kitchendesigner, I creating spaces thatarebothwonderfultolookat anda pleasure to workin. Form must andfunction work in tandem. Thiswasnot alwaysthecase.In yearspast,cabinetmakers who designedkitchens werevirtuallyunknown,sincethe homebuilderwasresponsible for creatingthe kitchenand its cabinets, and oftenbroughtto the kitchenthe sameeconomyof meanswith which he built the restof the house.For example,a ceilingheightof 8 feetandthreestudsspaced16inchesapartcreated theneedfor largequantitiesof plywood.The homebuilderfelt it waseconomicallysoundto useleftoverplyvood for kitchencabinets sotherewouldbeno waste.Thebasecabinets were22inchesdeep just running andthewallcabinets were11to 12inchesdeep.Thesecabinets-really shelves with doors-stubbornlyresisted anyform of change; basecabinetsdidn't changeto a 24-inchdepthuntil thedevelopment of dishwaihers madeit necessary. In the kitchenenvironmentof today,designingand buildingkitchensis much morethana wayof recyclingleftoverhomebuildingmaterials. To createeye-catching residentialkitchens,today'sdesigners havetakena cuefrom the extraordinarywork of cabinetmakers. Thedifferentwoodsandfinishesthat makeup thecabinetmaker's paletteprovidethefreedomto conjureup anystyle.Wth histools,thecabinetmaker might carvecherryor oakwoods,creatingFrenchor EnglishCountrycabinets, or shapean intimateArtsandCraftskitchenin beech.He couldfashionanArt Decolook in the richness of walnut,or anArt Nouveau, Victorian,or EarlyAmericanlook in a varietyof woods-pine, ash,maple,or mahogany, to namea few Thecabinetmaker puttingat hisdisposal mightevenwork with laminates, theentirecolorspectrum. And let'snot forgetthestainsthatproducean arrayof huesandpatinas. Therange is breathtaking. of choices The cabinetmaker hasalsomadethe cook'slife a delightby incorporatingthe right kind of accessories that canmakethe cook'sjob easier,evenfun. For example, therearedrawersand roll-outswith hardwarethat givesthe cookfingertipcontrol, pantriesthat areonly a foot wide yet 84 inchestall,providingenormousstorage whenpulledout of a wallcabinetwith ease. Moreandmore,thekitchendesigner of todayis drawingon thepastandthepresentto createa kitchenenvironment thatlooks and cooksbeautifully.

DonaldSilversis a kitchendesigner who teaches at the Universityof Californiaat LosAngeles. He is theauthorof TheCompleteGuideTo KitchenDesignWith CookingIn Mind, publishedby TheNewarkManagement Institute.



ASMOOTH INSTALLATION needtop-qualityinstallation to lookgoodandfunctionwell. itchencabinets Unlikefinefurniturethatcanlookgoodin adustycornerof theshop,cabinets wetendto put don'tcometo life until aftertheyhavebeeninstalled.Unfortunately, it happens in anunfamiliar off considering theproblemsof installation because andrequiresskillsdifferentfromthoseneededto build thecabinets. environment plan,cirawn Toavoidtheseproblems, startwith andstickto a detailedinstallation you Dont betemptedto change it because up wellbeforethecabinets arefinished. of the36-inchoneyouoriginally suddenly likea 42-inchdrop-incooktopinstead plannedfor.Thiswill forceyouto modifrtherangebase, bothadjacent cabinets, table andtheirdrawers. It'sfarmoreefficientto bringallpartiesto thenegotiating andmakethatkindof decision beforeyoubuildthecabinets. yourpsychological Youwill getto practice skillswhenyouannounce to therest of thehousehold thatthektchenwill beclosedfor a fewdayswhilethenewcabinets goin. Tryto keeptheblockade for everyone. Aboveall, shortandtimedconveniently do not fall into the snakepit of trying to haveyour newkitchenreadyjust before "if goesto plan" investing in oneof those everything Thanksgiving or Christmas, them schedules. However, if youplanto getrid of yourin-lawswhileconvincing youarethecomplete idiottheythought,success beckons. Thereis no rightor wrongwayto installcabinets. I liketo installandlevelthe plinthsfor thelowercabinets theafternoon beforetheinstallation begins. Forsheer levelto thehighestpointof exhaustion, crawlingaroundthefloorto setallthebases chores. Thefollowingmorning,I thefloor standsapartfrommostwoodworking first,thenthelowercabinets. AsI screwthecabinets in installtheuppercabinets "idiot" place,Ialways for levelness. Nothingsays louderthana tilting double-check sinkor cooktop. Duringinstallation, adustcurtainmadeof 4-milplasticsheeting can repelwould-be whilekeeping mostdustandsomenoisecontained. Tofursnackers anyairductsandopenthekitchenwindowacrack therreduce dust,youshouldblock Finally,I'veobserved manyfirst-timeinstallers whousesurprisingly fewtools. I relyon manymoreandlaythemout on a temporary workbench setat theedge of theroom.Ifyourshopisapartfromthejob site,startmakingalistof theinstalhelps lationtoolswhileyou'restillconstruaing thecabinets.Visualizing theinstallation yourtools(and to fabricatea cabinetthatistruly readyto installandhelpsorganize mindset)to finishthejob properly.In 25yearsI'veneverhearda singlewoodworker "I say, wishI hadn'twasted somuchtimepreparing for thatjobJ'

SvenHansonis a cabinetmaker Ne'wMexico. in Albuquerque,



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incecolonialdavs.the American orovidedfor work.Thekitchenisa workkitchenhasbeenthoughtofas the ihop like anyother,and shouldbe laid heartof thehome.It is thefirst room a out with efficiencyin mind. Youwould familyshareseachday;it is not only the not think of locatingthetablesawanda placewheremealsareprepared, planerat oppositeendsof a workshop; but also wheretheyareofteneaten.The kitchen theprimaryworkcentersof a kitchenis wherechildrenand adultsdo their in mostcases, the sink,refrigerator, and homework,and wherethey lingerfor stove/cooking area-are no different. Yet,althoughthe roleof conversation. Worktriangles(page17)areonewayto the kitchenhasnot changedin three minimizethe trips betweenthe three. centuries,its appearance has.Once, Arriving at an efficientlayout for a cookingwasdoneby the centralfireThesupplypipesanddrainofa kitchen kitchenin a confinedspacecanbea chalplace,andthelarderwasstoredagainst sinkaremarkedon thewallwith theaid lenge.Invariably,the sizeand location willhaveto be the cold,north-facingwall. Today,a of a carpenter\level(above).Theprecise of your kitchencabinets kitchenmust be carefullyplannedto flexibleenoughto accommodatethe locationof thefixtureswill thenbe meetthe demandsof a busyhousehold, locationof appliances, markedontoverticalandhorizontal site utilities,windows, andto accommodate a batteryof laborstorypolesbeforebeingtransferred to the and doors.A selection ofbasiclayout savingdevices. Thischapterfocuses on storypolesfor thesinkcabinetitself. optionsis shownon page18.Drafting thework of today'skitchen-especialscalefloor plansandelevations canhelp ly its cabinetry-introducespopulardesigns,and outlines you visualizeyour layout;floor plansandelevations for a typical L-shapedkitchenareshownon page20. Onceyou have somebasicprinciplesthat willhelp you createa kitchenthat meetsyour needs. you candividetheir settledon theplacementof your cabinets, A kitchendesignoftenstartsasa naturalextension runsinto individualcabinetsanddrawers.Whilemostkitchen ofthe architecturalstyleof a house.Justastrim, molding,and furcabinets adhereto basicdimensionalstandards inheight (page nishingscandistinguisha homeasbeingVictorianor Colonial, 19),their width and numberof doorscanbe fine tunedto cabinetdoors,molding,andhardwarecandefinethestyleof a reacha visuallywell-balanced kitchendesign(page22). kitchen.For example,Victorianis an opulentstylemarkedby Accuracyis crucialwhen draftingfloor plansand elevapulls,andexposed tions.A site-referenced complexegg-and-dart molding,porcelain storypole(page24) tellsyou everyhinges,while Shakerstyleis a modelof austerity,relyingon thing you needto know abouta kitchenwall in precisedetail, frame-and-panel includingthelocationandsizeof thecabinets. simple,recessed doors,an absence of moldBy usingthese ing, and the muted colorsof milk paint.A galleryof kitchen smalllengthsof wood for eachwall and cabinet,you can stylesfrom traditionalto modernis shownstartingon page14. proceedfrom floor plan to cuttinglist with a minimum of Whetheryou choosea traditionalarchitectural stylefor your errors.From thereto your dreamkitchenit is only a few kitchenor a blendof severalstyles, adequate room mustbe morecarefulsteos.

Drawingyour kitchento scaleis thebestwayto experimentwith its layout.Thephotoat leftshowstheJloorplan of an L-shapedkitchen, includingthelocationof cabinets, windows,appliances, and utilities.


A GALLERYOF KITCHEN STYLES \ [ f hileakitchenshouldreflectyour Y V personalculinaryneedsand its designshouldnot bechosen tastes, withoutfirst addressing a fewimporWiil thestylecompletant questions. mentor clashwiththerestof thehouse

A Victoriankitchen architecturally? wouldlookout of placein a modern with Missionfurniture. housedecorated Budgetis anotherimportantconsideration.Thelumbercostsalonefor an kitchenwith cherfuts andCrafts-swle

ry cabinets doors andframe-and-panel arebeyondthereachof many.Popular, lessexpensive optionsincludethe kitchen,whichusesstanEuropean-style dardizedmelaminecabinets, or the kitchen,in whichrustic Country-style

SHAKER but Manykitchens areShaker-inspired, styleasthis fewareasfaithfulto Shaker architect Charles Allen house designedby Hill. Withtheirflat recessed frame-andpaneldoors, achewornamenthecabinets yet elegant tation,andevoke theShalcer's evena pegboard utilitarianethic.There's overtherange.

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Lessopulentthan its namesake, this byMaine architect kitchendesigned lohn Gillespienonetheless featuresseveralhallmarlsof thestyle,mostnotabf tall uppercabinetswith tongue-andgroovedoors,surface-mounted brass hinges,andporcelainpulls. Notethe way the Victori an motifs-cr own molding ornatecolumnsand arches -are carriedinto adjoiningareasof thehouse.


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charm can be derivedfrom the minor defectsofaged,recycledwood. A kitchendesigndoesnot haveto be faithful to a singlestyle.As the gallery on thesepagesandthe charton page16 show,severalstylescan be combined

with a carefuleyeto createa unique of therightmaterials canalsounifr a Blending make your kitchen with design. stylescan contrasting thesurroundfor examdesignmore flexible:Shaker-style ing house.Cherrycabinets, ple, provide kitchens well-adapted to modugraceful are the can a transition larconstruction of European-style cab- between a European-style kitchenand inetry(page26). Thediscerning choice a Colonialfarmhouse.

EUROPEAN Its hardwareout of sight,theEuropeanstylecabinetdefinesthemodernkitchen. Itsclean,unadornedlinesareenhanced by recessed kghtingandplentyofuncluxered laminatecountertop. Subtletouches by Maine designer JohnScholtz,suchasthe porcelainfriezeand bacl E +L ;l ll ^C. ) O lq Ul

f i x e dw i d t ha n dt h e e n do f t h e b a c k s p l a s h u s u a l lwy i l l n o tf a l la t t h e c o u n t e r e' sn d . T h ee n do f t h e b a c k s p l a si shu s u a l lsyl i g h t l y s e t b a c k( s e ep a g e 1 3 6 ) .I o f i n d t h e c o r r e cl te n p t hl a vo r r ta l t h et i l e so n t h e c o u n t ew r i t h a n I i n c hs p a c eb e t w e e n t h e r na n dc u t t h es u b s t r a t e o t h i sl e n g t h : r i n i f o n r r : l i n i h o n o r o h tn { i h o t i l p c .n l r r s


n ft t h es t u d s I i n c h .M a r kt h e p l a c e m e o d ith o n t h e w a l l ,t h e ns e c u r e t h e p l y w o ow two screwsin eachstud (/eft).lf necessaryu . s et w o p e c e so f p l y w o otdr i m n e d


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C ' e a nt h e p l y w o o cw i t h a s l g h t l y d a m p e n ecdl o t ht o p , c ku p a n yd u s t . P r o t e ctth e c o u n t e r t ow pith nasking t a n p a n d : n n l v a s t r n p r o JcSo a to f m a s t i c w i r ha s e r r a t etdr o w e ls, m o o t h , nigt a s y o ug o t o c r e a t ea s u r f a c e l r k ea f r e s h l y


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a n a r e aa t f i r s t ;t h e m a s t i cs e t si n a b o u t 30 minutes.

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Mounting thetiles Cut%-inch-thick spacers to separate thetiles.Makesurethetilesareall clean place anddustfree.Starting in onecorner, twospacers onthecounter in frontof the w a l lw h e r e t h ef i r s t i l ew i l lg o .S e t h e tileonthespacers andpivotit intoplace, separating it fromthewallcorner with another spacer. Press thetileagainst the givingit a slighttwistto ensure substrate, a tightfit. Theninstallthe restof the (lghf). tiles,separating themwithspacers


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t Attaching molding Addmolding to thetopof thebacksplash afterthetilemastichascured.The widthof themolding shouldbeequalto thecombined thickness of thesubstrate andthetiles.Mitertheendof themolding,thentrimit to length. Applya beadof glueto theplywood substrate thenplace themolding in position. Fasten it to the substrate witha finishing nailevery 5 to 6 inches. Remove themasking tapeand s e atl h et i l e sb yf i l l i n ga l lt h eg a p sw i t h e p o xgy r o u ta, n da p p l y i nagj o i n to f s i l i conebetween thetilesandcountertoo.


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BACKSPLASH INSTALLING A W()()DEN thebacksnlash 1I Attachins -

I T o m a k ea w o o d e n b a c k s p l a swh, t h n o l d e dt o pa n ds i d ee d g e s . ' r s l aal l s q u a r e - e d gbeoda r dt,h e na d da m o l d i n g ( p a g e1 3 5 )o r s h a p et h e e d g eo f a w i d e r b o a r dw i t h a r o u t e or r s h a p ear n d n s t a l l t h e b a c k s p l a si nho n ep i e c eI.n e i t h e cr a s e , s c l e c ra ' p r - p t h o f a t t r a c t i vhea r d w o ofco r y o u rb a c k s p l a sahn d p l a n ei t t o a t h i c k n e s so f / t a / , i n c h .C u ti t t o s i z e m , akrng r t s l r g h t lsyh o ' t e trl ^ a nt h e c o u r t e " t o tpo c r e a t ea s e t b a c ak t t r e e n d .l V i t etrn ee r d s o tf e a c h a s s h o w nl.n d i c a t teh e p l a c e m e n s t u dw i t ha l i g h tm a r ko n t h ew a l l ,t h e n nailthe boardin place(left).


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r) Installing a return L W f r " " t h e b a c n s p l a senr o s . m a v .aP r e t u r nm o l d i n gf r o ms o m es c r a pl e f t o v e r f r o mt h e b a c k s p l a s M h .i t e rt h e r e t u r ns o i t f r l l st h eg a pb e t w e etni e b a c k s p l a s h a s q u a r e n da n d a n dt h e w a l l ,f o r m i n g c o n t i n u i nt gh e m o l d e dp r o f i l eS. i n c et h s p i e c ew i l l n o t b e s u b j e c t etdo a l o t o f s t r e s ist c a n b e s , m p l g y l u e d ' np l a c e a n dt h e nh e l dw i t h s o m em a s k i n tga p e u n t i lt h eg l u ec u r e s .


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A chamfering bit revealsa walnut divider betweenplastic laminate top and edgesurfaces.This effect was createdby applying a solid wood edgeto the countersubstrate,then adding laminate to the top and edge. Not only is this an auractive way to easethe counterfront but it alsodisguisesthe dark edgesof the laminate.


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'l Applying wooden edging I Applysolidwoodedging to thecountertop youglue before (page126).(Ihiswillensure downtheplastic laminatelop there arenocracks between theupperlaminate andtheedging.) Mill theedgestockto a thickness of %inchandthedesired width.

Spread a filmof glueonthewood,thenfastenthe piecein place w i t hf i n i s h i nnga i l se v e r4y t o 6 i n c h e sl f. t h ee d g ew i l l (step9, placethenailsat least%inchbelow bechamfered the topedge; thiswillprotect therouterbitfrombeingdamaged.




r) Applying laminate a bit laminate of plastic I trtma length w i d etrh a nt h et h i c k n e sosf t h ec o u n t e r . edgewithcontact Fasten it to thecounter (left)and press it downf irmly cement hascured, When the adhesive roller. witha r o u t eor r f l u s h w i t h a l a m i n a t e t r i mt h e a chisel to square Use laminate trimmer. t h e n r e m o vaen y i n s i d c e o r n e r s , u pa n y with a scraper. cement contact excess et h e 0 n c et h i si s d o n ea, p p l yl a m i n a t o I 25-1 27). countertop @ages


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theedge Q Chamfering r - J B yc h a m f e r i nt hgec o r n e rosf t h e youwillexpose thewood edging, built-up a edgeyouaddedin thefirststep.lnstall piloted and bit in yourrouter chamfering setthecuttingdepthto % inch.Holding thetoolwithits basef latonthecounteruntilthe thebitintothelaminate top,ease edge.Move thecounter touches bearing r , o r k i nigt t h et o o la r o u n tdh ec o u n t e w Thebtt of bit rotation. thedirectron against cutrightintotheapexof an inside cannot g m b ' tso n g u e c o r n e rb,u tt h er e s u l t i nl a pattern effect. is anattractive


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R o u t i nagn o g e ep r o f i l e N a i l a s o l i dw o o ds t r i pt o t h e e d g eo f t h e c o u n t e r( p a g e1 3 7 ) b e f o r eg l u i n gt h e p l a s t i cl a m i n a t ed o w no n t h e c o u n t e r t o p . S i n c ey o u w i l l b e s h a p i n gt h e e d g ew i t h a r o u t e r m , a k es u r e t o p l a c et h e f a s t e n e rws e l lb e l o wt h e b i t ' sd e p t ho f c u t ( a b o v e ) . N e x t ,a t t a c ht h e l a m i n a t et o p a n d t r i m i t f l u s h ( p a g e sJ 2 6 1 2 7 ) .T o s h a p et h e e d g e ,i n s t a l a l p i l o t e do g e eo r o t h e re d g e -

forming b i t i n y o u r o u t e rS. e tt h et o o lo n t h ec o u n r earn c a d l u stth ec u t t i n gd e p t hs ot h eb e a r i nwg i l lr i d ea g a i n st ht e loweredgeof thecounter. Toshapetheedge,setthe router f l a to nt h ec o u n t e r t ot h pe , ne a s et h eb i t i n t ot h ew o o dM . ove therouter around thecounter, working against thebit'sdirect i o no f r o t a t i o n .



S h a p i nag d r i pe d g e A d r i pe d g ei s a s l i g h t l yr a i s e de d g et h a t p r e v e n tm s i n o rs p i l l sf r o mr u n n i n go f f t h e c o u n t e r t o pA. p p l ya s t r i po f m a t c h i n g s o l i d - s u r f am c ea t e r i at o l t h e e d g eo f t h e c o u n t e r t o pc,r e a t i n ga r a i s e de d g e .A f f i x t h e e d g i n gw i t h a d h e s i vdee s i g n eeds p e c i a l l yf o r t h e m a t e r i a(l p a g e s1 3 0 - 1 3 1 ) . I n s t a l l ap i l o t e d r i pe d g eb i t i n y o u rr o u t e r a n da d j u s t h e c u t t i n gd e p t hs o t h e t o p o f t h e c u r v ei s e v e nw i t ht h e r o u t e rb a s e ; t h e i n s e ts h o w sh o wt h e b t t s h o u l dm e e t t h ec o u n t e rT.o s h a p et h ec o u n t e rh,o l dt h e routerbaseagainstthe edge,then lowerit u n t i lt h e p i l o tb e a r i ntgo u c h etsh e c o u n tertopsurface.Keepingthe routerpressed f l a t a g a i n stth e e d g e ,m o v et h e t o o la l o n g the counter(/eit).

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GLOSSARY A-B-C.D leveller:Anycommercial Adjustable foot or leg attachedto lowerkitchen cabinetsto leveland supportthem. Auxiliary fence:A woodenattachment to a tool's rip fencethat servesto attach and preventaccidental accessories damageto the fence. Backsplash:A continuation of the countertopalongthe backwall; canbe part of the countertopitselfor made from tile orwood. Biscuit: A thin oval wafer of compressedwood that fits into a semicircular slot cut by a platejoiner. Blank A pieceof solid or glued-up wood usedto createa furniture part. Board-and-battendoor: A door madeof boardsfastenedtogether with lap joints and held together by a diagonalbatten. Board foot A unit of wood volume measurementequivalentto a pieceof wood one inch thick, 12incheslong, and 12incheswide. Caul: In veneeringor gluing uP a carcase,a board placedbetween the clampsand theworkpieceto distribute clampingpressure. Chalk line: A length of twine loaded with chalkdustusedto mark longlines that arenormally eitherlevelor plumb. Chamfer:A decorativebevelcut along the edgeof a workpiece. Cheek The faceof the projecting joint. tenonin a mortise-and-tenon Cockbeading:A narrow decorative molding appliedto the insideedges of a faceframeor draweropening.

Cope-and-stickjoint: A methodof joining stilesand rails in frame-andpanelconstruction.Tonguesin the railsmeshwith groovesin the stiles; a decorativemolding is cut alongthe insideedgeof the frame. Counterbore:To drill a hole that permits the headof a screwto sit below the wood surfaceandbe concealed with a wood plug. Countersink:To drill a hole that permits the headof a screwto lie flush with or slightlybelowa wood surface. Dado: A rectangularchannelcut in a workpiece. Dado head:A combinationof blades and cuttersusedto form dadoesand groovesin wood. The assemblyis mounted on a tablesawwith two bladesseparatedby oneto five cutters to achievethe right width.

Featherboard:A pieceof woodwith "feathers"alongoneend thin fingersor againstthe to hold a workpiecesecurely fenceor tableof a powertool. Fence:An adjustableguideusedto keepthe edgeof a workpiecea setdistancefrom the cutting edgeof a tool. Filler strip: A thin strip of either material wood or laminate-covered usedto concealgapsbetweencabinets. Furring strip: A narrow length of wood installedatop a lower cabinet to supportthe counterand raiseits height. Glass-stopmolding: Decorativestrips of woodusedto hold panesof glassin a cabinetdoor. Glazingbars:Molded stripsof wood joined by half-lapsto hold several panesofglassin a singlecabinetdoor.

Drip edge:A raisedprofileat the edge of a countertopthat preventsspills'

Inset drawer:A drawerthat fits flush within a framelesscabinet.

E-F-G-H-I-l Edgebanding:Stripsof materialused to coverthe edgesof plywood and compositeboards;canbe solidwood or plasticlaminate.

Island:A freestandingcabinetor cabinetrun isolatedfrom the walls of a kitchen.

End grain: The arrangementand directionof the wood fibersrunning acrossthe the endsof a board. Faceframe: A decorativewooden framefixedaroundthe front of a cabinet,providingextrarigidity to the cabinet. Falsefront A pieceof wood installed overa drawerfront, usuallyto conceal the end grain of the sidesor to create a lippedfront.


fig A devicefor guiding a tool or holdingworkpiecein position. K-L-M-N-O-P-Q Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown back in the directionofthe operatorofa woodworkingmachine. Kickplate:The boardthat coversthe toe kick of a lowerkitchencabinetor the exposedfacesof a plinth. Laminatetrimmer: A lightweight routerusedto trim plasticlaminate and solid wood edgingflush with its substrate.


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Lockmiter joinfiA joint cut with a specialrouter bit that produces an interlocking connectionwith a miteredoutsidecorner. Melamine A popularbrand of plastic laminatemadefrom bonded plastic,paper,and phenolicresin; availablein sheetsor bondedto plywood or particleboard. Miter gauge:A devicethat slidesin a slot on a sawor routertable,providing support for the stockasit movespast the bladeor bit; canbe adjustedto different anglesfor miter cuts. Mortise-and-tenonjoint A joinery techniquein which a projectingtenon cut in one board fits into a matching hole,or mortise,in another. Mortise:A holecut into a pieceof wood to receivea tenon. Nailer rails: Woodenrails attached to the backsof cabinetsthat support the cabinetswhen screwedto the wall studs. Overlaydrawer: A drawerthat partially or fully overlaysthe frame of a faceframe cabinet. Panelsaw:A track-mountedcircular sawusedfor accuratecutsoflarge sheetgoodssuchasplywood. Plainsawnveneer:Veneerthat hasbeencut from the log in a flat sheet;hardwoodplywoodwith plainsawnfaceveneercloselyresemblessolid wood. Plinth: A mitered woodenframe that actsasa basefor lower cabinets or islands.

Pushblock or stick A deviceusedto feeda workpieceinto a bladeor cutter to protectthe operator'sfingers. R-S RabbehA step-likecut in the edge or end of a board;usuallyforms part of a joint. Rail: The horizontalmemberof a frame-and-panelassembly, Seestile. (RTA)fastener: Ready-to-assemble A type of threadedfastenerwith a stout shaftand a narrowhead;used for fastassembly of cabinets. Scribing:Marking a line with a compassor scribingtool to copythe irregularity of a wall onto a cabinetor counterwhereit butts againsta wall. Oncethe wood is planedor sanded to this line,the cabinetor counter will fit seamlessly againstthe wall.

T.U-V.W-X.Y-Z Thmbourdoor: A type of door made from narrowslatsattachedto a flexible canvasbackingthat slidesin tracks routedin the sidesof the carcase. Tearout:The tendencyof a bladeor cutterto tearwood fibers. TemplateA patternusedto guidea tool in reproducingidenticalcopies oI a plece. Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of a workpiecethat fits into a mortise. Three-wingslotting cutter:A piloted, groove-cutting routerbit. Toekick The recessrunning along the bottom of a lower cabinetthat allowsspacefor the feetof a person standingbeforethe cabinet.

Shim:A thin, wedge-shaped pieceof materialusedto levelcabinetsand fill minor irregularities.

jointA joint in Tongue-and-groove which a tonguecut in the edgeor end of onepiecefits into a groovein the matingpiece.

Shoulder:In a mortise-and-tenon joint, the part of the tenonthat is perpendicularto the cheek.

Tiansferscribe:A compass-like device that transferstheprofileof onesurface onto another.

Solid-surfacemateriaLA composite boardmadeof castacrylicandpolyesterusedfor kitchencountertops; sold under suchnamesasCorian and Avonite.

Utilityhookup: The point whereutilitiessuchaswater,sewage, and electricity areconnected.

Stile:The verticalmemberof a frameand-panelassembly. Seerail. Storypole A long,thin pieceof wood with the measurements for a proiect indicatedon its length. Stud finder: A devicethat electronicalIy pinpointsthe locationof wall studs.


Wood movement:The shrinking or swellingof wood in reactionto changesin relativehumidity. Worktriangle:An ergonomicprinciplemeasuringthe efficiencyof a workspacethat connectsthe three most common placesof work in that space;in a kitchen,typicallythe refrigerator,stove,and sink.


INDEX A-B.C Adjustableshelving Shelfsupports,i8-i9 Shop-madeshelfdrilling jigs (ShopTip),39 Appliancebays,27, 38,40-4I Arts and craftsstyle,16 Backsplashes TiL;,121,134-135 Wooden,136 Biscuitjoints,29,33-34,46-47 Platejoiner stands,52 doors,58,60-61 Board-and-batten Board.feet,32 Build It Yourself Plateioiner stands,52 Cabinetjacks,gS Cabinets Dimensions,19,20-22 SeealsoCasework;Doors; Hardware;Layout;Lower cabinets;Upper cabinets Casework,27,28 Gluing :up,46-47 Lower cases,29 Uppercases,28 Sie alsoJoinery;Lower cabinets; Upper cabinets 53-54 Cockbeading, Colonial style,I5 Countertops,121 Backsplashes tile,121,134-135 wooden,136 Decorativeedgings,137-1i9 Installation,123 plasticlaminatecountertoPs, 125-128,137-139 pre-moldedcountertops, 132-133 sinks,I24, 127,128 solid surfacecountertoPs, 129-131,139 Plasticlaminate,l2l, 122, 125-128,132-133 edgings,l37-139 120,l2l, 122, Solid-surface, 129-131 drip edges,139 Wooden,122,123

Countrystyle,16 Crownmolding,16, 118-119 Makingcrownmolding, backendpaper Cutting lists,32

D-E-F Dadoioints,80 Doubledadojoints,8Q 84 Design,13 Arts and craftsstyle,16 Colonial style,I5 Countrystyle,i6 Europeanstyle,15 Shakerstyle,14,16 Victorian style,14,16 Doors,57 Board-and-batten,58, 60-6l Frame-and-panel,58, 62-65 archedpanels,67 joints,66 cope-and-stick raisedpanels,62 Glasspanel,57,58,59,69 glazingbars,70-72 Hinges,73-76 Mounting techniques,59,73 flush-mounteddoors,76 overlaydoors,74-75 58,59,68 Veneered-panel, Doubledadojoints,80,84 Drawers.T9 Assembly,85-86 Bottom panels,85,86 Dimensions,82 Eliminating drawerrattle (ShopTip), 86 Falsefronts, 78,79, 93-96 securingfalsefronts with double-facedtape (ShopTip), 96 sizingfalsefronts (ShopTip), 94 Inset,78, 80,93-94 ]oinery,80 doubledadojoints, 84 84 lock miter joints, 84 83 through dovetailjoints, 80,83 Knobsandpulls,9j,97 Layout,82 Materials,Sl


Mounting,79,87 bottom-mountedslides, 81.87-88 building up faceframe cabinets (ShopTip), 90 side-mountedslides,81, 89-90 woodenrunners,81,91-92 Overlay,79,80,95-96 Drawerslides,38,8l Drip edges,139 Edgetreatments,44 eommercialedgebanding,49 Countertops decorativeedgings,137-139 drip edges,-139 Solidwood,44,48 Europeancup hinges,56,74-75 Europeanstyle,15 Faceframes,28, 50-51,53-55 Building up faceframe cabinets for mounting drawers (ShopTip), 90 Makingwood plugs(ShopTip), 55 Fasteners Concealment making wood plugs (ShopTip),55 Knockdownfasteners, front endpaper (RIA), 32 Ready-to-assemble Floorpians,12 Flush-frontdrawers. SeeInset drawers doors,58,62-65 Frame-and-panel Arched panels,67 joints,66 Cope-and-stick Raisedpanels,62 G-H-I Glasspaneldoors,57,58,59,69 Glazingbars,70-72 Glazingbars,70-72 Handles,16 Drawers,93,97 Hansen,Sven,10-ll Hardware Doors,57 Drawerslides,38 bottom-mountedslides, 81.87-88 side-mountedslides,81,89-90


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Knobsandpulls,16,93,97 Shelfsupports,38-39 SeealsoHinges Hinges,16,73 Europeancup hinges,56,74-75 Europeanfaceframe hinges,75 Insetdrawers,78, 80,93-94

I.K-L IigS Cabinetiacks,98,117 Circular'saws panel-cuttingattachments, 26 scoringsawattachments, 33 Drills shop-madeshelfdrilling jigs (ShopTip), 39 Platejoiners platejoiner stands,52 Temporarysupportrails,115 loinery,29 Biscuitjoints,33-34,46-47 platejoiner stands,52 Board-and-batten doors,60 joints,66 Cope-and-stick Dadojoints,80 Doubledadojoints,8Q 84 Lock miter joints, 29,36, 80,83 Through do-setailjoints, 8Q 83 joints,35-36 Tongue-and-groove Kickplates,1 10-111 Kitchenislands.112 Plinths,100,101,I 12-114 Knobs,l6 Drawers,93,97 Layout,13,-18 Drawers,82 Proportionsand dimensions, 19,20-22 Work triangles,17 LazySusans, 38,42-43 Legs Levelerlegs,44-45, 100 Levellingtechniques,100,102 Lock miter j oints,29, 36,80,83 Lower cabinets Casework,29 Installation,99, 100,104-106 adjacentwalls,106-I 08 levellingtechniques,100, 102-103

making thick shims (ShopTip), 107 utility hookups,108-109 wall studs,103 Kickplates,110-I I I Layout, 19,20-22,24-25 Lumber Boardfeet,32 Cutting lists,32 Drawers,81 Plywood,30, 31,81 M-N-O-P-Q-R-S Moldings,l6 Seea[soCrown molding Overlaydrawers,79, 80,95-96 Panels Arched panels,67 Raisedpanels,62 Peninsulas.SeeKitchenislands Plasticlaminatecountertops, t2l, 122, I 25-129, 132-133 Edgings, l37-139 Plateioinerstands,52 Platejoints.SeeBiscuitjoints Plumbing,13 Sinks,124,127,128 Utility hookups,108-109 Plywood,30,31,81 Santarsiero, Tom,6-7 Shakerstyle,14,16 Sheetgoods,30 Plywood,30,31,81 Reducingtearout,33 SeealsoPlasticlaminate countertoDs Shelfsupports,SA-SS Shelves Adjustableshelvingsupports, 38-39 Slide-outshelves (ShopTip), 43 Shims Making thick shims (ShopTip), 107 ShopTips Cabinetinstallation,107,117 Casework, 39,43,55 Drawers,86,90,94,96 Silvers, Don, 8-9 Sinks,124, 127,128 Sink trays,77


Solid-surface countertops, 120,127,122,129-131 Drip edges,139 Storypoles,13,23-25

T-U*V Tambourslats.40-41 Throughdovetailjoints,8Q 83 Tiles Backsplashes, 121,134-I 35 Countertops,I22 Tilt-out sinktrays,TT joints,29, 35-36 Tongue-and-groove Tools Circular saws panel-cuttingattachments, 26 scoringsawattachments, 33 Drills shop-madeshelfdrilling jigs (ShopTip), 39 Laminatetrimmers,44 Measuringtools,backendpaper Platejoiner stands,52 Routers bits, backendpaper Tablesaws blades,front endpaper Tiansferscribes.99 Uppercabinets Casework,28 Installation,98,99, 1 0 0t,} t , 1 1 5 - 1 1 6 bevelednailers,117 commercialcabinetsupports, 115 crownmolding,I18-119 makingthick shims (ShopTip), l0Z shop-madecabinetjacks (ShopTip),llZ Layout, 19,20-22,24-25 Utility hookups,108-109 Veneered-panel doors,58, 59,68 Victorian sIyle,14,16

W-X-Y-Z Wood.30 SeealsoLumber;Sheetgoods Woodplugs(ShopTip), 55 Work triangles,17


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswishto thank thefollowing LAYOUTAND DESIGN LeeValley ' Tools,Ltd.,ottawa,ont.; StanleyTools,Divisionof the Stanleyworks, New Britain,CT; TritechIndustries,St-Lambert, Que. CASEWORK AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanClanryinq(Canada)Inc.,CambridgeOnt.; 6lack& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; BradburyIndustries,Toronto,Ont.; canadianIndustrialDistributors,Inc., Montreal,Que.;cMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, GA; Ont.i HitachiPowerToolsU'S.A.Ltd'' Norcross, Mississausa, JuliusBlum Inc., Stanley]NC; LeeValleyTools,Ltd.,ottawa, on-t.;Modulus, St-Hubert,Que.; Montreal,Que.;Sears,Roebuckand Co.' Chicago,IL; Loeven-Morcel, LesRealisations A'G. SencoProducts,Inc., Cincinnati,OH; Steiner-Lamello SawCo.,Kingston,MA; Tool TrendLtd', Concord,Ont' Switzerland/Colonial DOORS AdiustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. lnc. (BuckBros. DeliaInternationilMachineryTPort.r-Cable, Sears,Roebuckan$_Cg.,Chicago,IL; Division), Millbury, VA; JuliusBlum Inc., Stanley,.NC; SawCo.,kingston,MA; Tool TrendLtd.,Concord,Ont. A.G.Switzerland/Colonial Steiner-Lamello DRAWERS Guelph'Ont.; AdiustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Roebuckand co., chicago,lL; David Keller,Petaluma,cA; iulius BIum Inc.,stanley,NC; Sears, A.G. Divisionof the StanleyWorks,New Brilain,CT; Steiner-Lamello StanleyTools, SawCo., Kingston,MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,On1 Switlerland/Colonial INSTALLING CABINETS Guelph,Ont.; ClampCo.,Chicago,IL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Adiustable ' NC; GA;JuliusBlum Inc',Stanley, Hitachii'owerTooliU.S.A.Ltd.,Norcross, LeeValleyTools,Ltd.,Ottawa,Ont.; OrnamentalMouldings,.HighPoint, NC; Sears, New Britain'CT; Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Divisionof the Stanley-Works, St-Lambert,Que' Industries, MA; Tritech Kingston, Saw Co., A.G. Switzerlind/Colonial Steiner-Lamello COI.]NTERTOPS PowerTools, CA; Black&_Decker/Elu AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; Avonite,Inc.,Sylmar,. Guelph,Ont'; TowJon, ' MD; CMt Tools,Oldimar, FL;DeltalnternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; LeeValleyTools,Ltd.,Ottawa,Ont.; Sears, SencoProducts,Inc.,Cincinnati,OH in thepreparationofthis book: Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted ScottYetman LorraineDor6,Kerry& VictoriaMcCluggage'

PICTURECREDITS CoverRobertChartier 6,7 CarolynJones 8,9GaryMoss 10,11MichaelTincher Brian VandenBrink 14,15,27,38,79 87 Courtesyfulius BIum, Inc. 112BrianVandenBrink I l8 CourtesyOrnamentalMouldings l20,l2l BrianVandenBrink Avonite,Inc. l3l Courtesy


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TABLESAWBLADES F()RKITCHEN CABINETS Combination blade All-purpoee eaw blade; can rip and crogocut lumber

Melamine blade 9pecialieed blade ueed for cutLtnq lamtnatee ,UCn aA melAmtnec overe ti pa rLtc leboa rd

Plywood blade Hae many emall teel,h tthaL make a cmooth, aplinterfree cut tn plywood

Dado blade Two blades are fitted ort eirhe" eide of chipper bladea, which are added a9 nece'sary T.ovary the widLh of Lhe cut

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