Term Paper NRF24L01

July 21, 2017 | Author: Advait Vaidya | Category: Wireless Sensor Network, Computer Network, Electronic Engineering, Wireless, Computer Engineering
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Experimentation on Mesh Network Using nRF24L01 Self-Healing & Self-Connecting Wireless Network System

Advait Vaidya (13116006) ECE Department IIT Roorkee Roorkee [email protected]

Hemant Kumar (13116031) ECE Department IIT Roorkee Roorkee [email protected]

Vikash Manidhar (13116072) ECE Department IIT Roorkee Roorkee [email protected] Abstract— In this paper, a new design of wireless sensor network (WSN) node is discussed which is based on components with ultra low power. We have developed a Low cost and low power WSN Node using nRF24L01. The architectural circuit details are presented. This architecture fulfils the requirements like low cost, low power, compact size self-connecting and selfhealing. Various tests are carried out to test the performance of the nRF24L01 module. Such networks can be effectively used to overcome the packet loss when a signal is transmitted from one place to another. The smart-healing also felicitates the linking of a node to the system when it is far away from central node.

I. INTRODUCTION A wireless sensor network is a network made up of hundreds or thousands of Sensor nodes which are densely deployed in an unattended environment [1]. These nodes are capable of communicating by means of wireless communications, sensing and self-computation (software, hardware, algorithms). Hence the wireless sensor network is the result of the combination of sensor, embedded techniques, distributed information processing, and communication mechanisms. The sensor network is more application specific than traditional networks designed to accommodate various applications [2,3,4]. The organization and architecture of a sensor network should be designed or adapted to suit a special task so as to optimize the system performance, maximize the operation lifetime and minimize the cost II. OVERVIEW A. nRF24L01 The nRF24L01 is a single chip radio transceiver for the global, license-free 2.4 GHz ISM band. The low cost nRF24L01 is designed to merge very high speed communications (up to 2Mbit/s) with extremely low power (the RX current is just 12.5mA) [4]. The transceiver consists of a fully integrated frequency synthesizer, a power amplifier, crystal oscillator, demodulator, modulator and Enhanced ShockBurst protocol engine. In addition, the nRF24L01 also offers an innovative on-chip hardware solution called ‘MultiCeiver’ that can

support up to six simultaneously communicating wireless devices. This makes it ideal for building wireless Personal Area Networks in a wide range of applications. The PCB of this WSN node is circular, having two inches diameter. Output power, frequency channels, and protocol setup are easily programmable through an SPI-bus. Current consumption is very low, only 8.5mA at an output power of 6dBm and 12.5mA in RX mode. Built-in modes such as Power Down (400nA current) and Standby (32μA at 130μs wakeup), makes significant power savings easily realizable. The data rate can be chosen between 1 and 2Mbit/s. This allows for short time-on-air and therefore low power consumption.

B. Graph Theory In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A "graph" in this context is made up of "vertices" or "nodes" and lines called edges that connect them. A graph may be undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from one vertex to another; see graph (mathematics) for more detailed definitions and for other variations in the types of graph that are commonly considered. Graphs are one of the prime objects of study in discrete mathematics.

III. OVERVIEW In its most general form , a wireless mesh network (WMN) interconnects stationary and/or mobile clients and optionally provides access to the Internet. The defining characteristic of a WMN is that the nodes at the of the network are forwarding the data to and from the clients in a multihop fashion, thus forming a (mobile) ad hoc network (MANET). Beyond the multi hop requirement, there are no other restrictions on the design o

consumption (1uA at standby mode) communication distance (20-30 meters).

and quite far

B. Problem Definition  While traditional networks rely on a small number of wired access points or wireless hotspots to connect users, a wireless mesh network spreads a network connection among dozens or even hundreds of wireless mesh nodes that "talk" to each other, sharing the network connection across a large area.  The setting up of traditional mesh networks use much cost and is often expensive. Using fewer wires means it costs less to set up the wireless mesh network. The wireless mesh network is used particularly for large areas of coverage. Using wireless mesh networks eliminate the cost and complexity of installing fiber / wires between buildings, on campus grounds and business parks. Thus to eliminate the expensiveness of the system is the key thing to look at. C. Motivation for Research The basic urge for taking up this topic for Making a term paper out of this was to extend our work in the field of Home Automation. The Wireless Mesh Network can be effectively used for automatic controlling of household gadgets. We suffered from the problem of Packet Loss , which was then looked upon by nRF24L01 module .This is the cheap electronic device that uses the wireless transmission. Hereafter the range of communication was the point of concern, only limiting to 5-6 meters. This was resolved by creating mesh network using nRF24L201 module. It was the best time to implement the things we studied in our previous semesters. The Graph Theory from Data Structure was made into use to calculate the minimum distance to form a tree. The Algorithms from Microprocessors And Architecture was also used to design the code for creating smart-healing meshes.

f a WMN, resulting in considerable flexibility and versatility. This versatility allowed many players to enter the mesh networking arena with different products and applications. For example, the Internet access link in can be wired (e.g., T1, Ethernet, etc.), wireless (point to point or point to multipoint), or be absent . Some WMN technologies are designed for high speed mobility (100mph) ,some for casual roaming in a building, while others are only meant to be used by stationary clients A. Relevant Existing Research Relevant research is being conducted on Wireless mesh networking on parallel basis in various technical Universities. Efforts are being made to make wireless communication lowly cost and efficient. Zigbee is a good wireless solution for arduino long time, however, it is expensive. NRf24l01 only $1.5 per piece at Electrodragon, you can find it here. Not only cheap, this module is also high speed (2Mbps), Low power

We as the residents of Hostel premises looked for free sms services that could be provided . This can be achieved by installing the nRF24L01 module mesh network on the floor . It could be a free of cost service with only installation cost to the user.


A. Sailient Features The key elements of the mesh network includes the nRF24L01 modules that are inter paired with each other with a personal PAN ID. The central module is termed as Coordinator which is responsible for the complete wireless network. There are Routers in between that helps in spreading

the network . The new modules that are to be added are termed as End Points.

B. Introduction of End-Points. The process begins with the installation of the Coordinator module. The rest of the modules share a common PAN ID which is as same as Coordinator ID. The modules are linked to the coordinator and are labelled as Router-1. Thus it assumes a shape of tree. This helps in achieving a far-spread network.

high-speed SPI interface for the application controller. The low-power short-range (200 feet or so).


The second level of modules are linked with the network using Graph Theory algorithms. The introduction of a single module is achieved by following a minimum path to the central module or Coordinator. It can be best figured by the following tree diagram.

Fig. 1. Pin configuration of nRF24L01

Conclusion It can be seen that an End Point is added to the Mesh Network with ease . In the beginning these modules were not in the range of central module , Coordinator. But the setup of the mesh network helped in achieving the communication between the farthest end point and the central module. C. Figures and Tables 1) nRF24lo1 pin configuration These are a series of 2.4 GHz Radio modules that are all based on the Nordic Semiconductor nRF24L01+ chip. The Nordic nRF24L01+ integrates a complete 2.4GHz RF transceiver, RF synthesizer, and baseband logic including the Enhanced ShockBurst™ hardware protocol accelerator supporting a

The experimentation was completed using a set of five nRF24L01 modules. The problem of Packet Loss was also minimised and better information quality was achieved. The set up was installed a 2BHK apartment, where electrical appliances were controlled using Arduino as a microcontroller. The wireless communication was achieved by creating a Mesh Network of five modules. Thus a successful mesh network was realised and can be put to a commercial use.

Acknowledgment This research paper is made possible through the help and support from everyone, including: parents, teachers, family, friends, and in essence, all sentient beings. Especially, please allow me to dedicate my acknowledgment of gratitude toward the following significant advisors and contributors: First and foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Rajib Kumar Panigrahi for his most support and encouragement. He kindly read my paper and offered invaluable detailed advices on grammar, organization, and the theme of the paper.




[5] [6]


References [1]

R. Bruno, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “Mesh Networks: Commodity Multihop Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Comm. Mag., vol. 37, pp. 123–131, March 2005.


V. Navda, A. Kashyap and S. R. Das, “Design and Evaluation of iMesh: an Infrastructure-mode Wireless Mesh Networks,” in 6th IEEE Int. Symposium on a World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks 2005, pp. 164-170, June 2005.. Noga Alon, Michael Krivelevich, and Benny Sudakov, Coloring graphs with sparse neighborhoods, J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 77 (1999), no. 1, 73{82. MR 1710532 (2001a:05054). Mohammad Ilyas and Imad Mahgoub, “Handbook of Sensor Networks: compact wireless and Wired Sensing Systems”, CRC Press, New York, 2005. Nordic Semiconductor. nRF2401 Datasheet ETSI EN 300 220-1. V1.3.1. 2001. Electromagnetic compatibility and radio matters. Short range device. Radio equipment to be used in the 25MHz to 1000MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500mW. Vanessa W.S. Tang, Yuan Zheng and Jiannong Cao, “An Intelligent Car Park Management System based on Wireless Sensor Networks”, 1 st International Symposium on Pervasive Computing and Applications, 2006. IEEE P802.11s™/D7.0, Draft amendment to standard IEEE 802.11™: Mesh Networking. IEEE, 2010.

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