Teologia e Missão - Perspectiva Paulina da Missão Urbana em Romanos - Norval Silva

June 12, 2019 | Author: Sammis Reachers | Category: Paul The Apostle, Jesus, Salvation, Acts Of The Apostles, Saint
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Teologia e missão: perspectiva paulina da missão urbana em Romanos Norval Oliveira da Silva

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INTRODUÇÃO A carta aos Romanos

É consenso geral que a carta de Paulo aos Romanos é um dos escritos mais importantes e mais profundos da religião Cristã. Foi através dela que homens como Agostinho, Lutero, John Wesley e Carl Barth tiveram uma experiência pessoal com Cristo (Bruce, 1979, pp. 50-51). Calvino diz que “se porventura conseguirmos uma genuína compreensão dessa epístola, teremos aberto uma amplíssima porta de acesso aos mais profundos tesouros da Escritura” 1. Leon Morris diz que Romanos trata de grandes temas, temas que estão bem no

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cora co ração ção do cristi cristian aniismo 2. Assi Ass im, essa ess a carta não não foi apena apenass importante para a primeira geração de cristãos, mas se torna relevante também tanto para os crentes de hoje em dia como para os de épocas futuras. O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar, ainda que de forma breve, o tema de missões urbanas no contexto da Carta aos Romanos. Nele, procuraremos enfocar a visão que Paulo tinha da cidade, a sua perspectiva missiológica para a cidade, os problemas envolvidos na pregação do Evangelho no contexto urbano e as soluções apontadas pelo autor. Concluiremos o trabalho com uma abordagem sobre a relevância do tema para os nossos dias de hoje e faremos uma breve aplicação para o nosso contexto brasileiro.

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1. O evangelho e a cidade de Roma

Não sabemos com certeza como o Evangelho chegou a Roma. Lucas narra em Atos 2:10-11 que em Jerusalém no dia de Pentecostes havia judeus de todas as partes do mundo e “visitantes vindos de Roma, tanto judeus como convertidos ao    judaí    judaísmo smo (NVI, (NVI, grifo grifo meu). meu). Supõ Sup õ e-se q ue foi assi ass im q ue o Evangelho foi levado à capital do império, pelas mãos de pessoas comuns. Outra possibilidade ainda é de que, após a morte de Estevão, os crentes de Jerusalém que se espalharam por todas as partes tenham chegado também a Roma. A terminologia usada por Paulo para se dirigir aos cristãos de Roma indica que a igreja daquela cidade não era de organização

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2. Qual era a visão do autor sobre a cidade?

A cidade de Roma foi fundada em 735 A.C. sobre sete colinas e nos tempos do Novo Testamento estava em plena pujança do s eu d es esenvo envollvimento. vimento. Havia Havia na c id ade ade mais mais de d e um mil milhão de de

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Menor e ao que tudo indica, fora educado em Jerusalém, aos pés do rabino Gamaliel. Havia porém em Roma muitos cristãos que Paulo conhecera aqui e ali em suas viagens (F.F. Bruce, 1989, p. 14). No mundo dos dias de Paulo, o nome de Roma muito significava, e não deixa de exercer um forte fascínio também sobre o apóstolo, uma vez que ele expressa o forte desejo de pregar o evangelho também ali (Douglas, 1962, p. 1412). Como bom estrategista missionário, Paulo sabia da importância de Roma como base missionária para novos campos pioneiros e como centro de expansão do cristianismo por todo o império. Esse modelo de centros de expansão como prática missiológica é largamente atestado na tarefa missionária paulina, de acordo com o livro de Atos dos apóstolos. Foi assim que o apóstolo sempre viu o seu ministério: escolher centros estratégicos de expansão regional, passar o tempo necessário lá para a implantação de uma comunidade cristã e seguir em frente para um novo centro. Essa atividade se repetia quantas vezes necessárias até que uma dada região estivesse estrategicamente ocupada pela presença cristã. Tem se discutido muito nos círculos acadêmicos hoje qual era a real intenção de Paulo ao escrever a carta aos Romanos. Por

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ensinos de Paulo como verdades atemporais sem que se perguntasse para quem e para que ele escrevia. Em vez disso, a atenção tem se voltado para o(s) propósito(s) da Carta no contexto do trabalho missionário de Paulo (Klaus Haaker, 2006, p. 5). O texto de Romanos 15:24, quando lido na perspectiva da missiologia paulina, nos dá a dimensão da visão que o apóstolo tinha de Roma: um centro de missões. Vejamos o que ele diz aos romanos: “Planejo fazê-lo quando for à Espanha. Espero visitá-los de passagem e dar-lhes a oportunidade de me ajudarem em minha viagem para lá, depois de ter desfrutado um pouco da companhia de vocês”. Portanto, podemos afirmar com convicção que a carta aos Romanos tem motivação missiológica e que o apóstolo vê nos cristãos romanos um potencial de parceria missionária cuja finalidade seria o estabelecimento de novos centros de expansão da fé cristã, desta feita na Ibéria. Timoteo Carriker, comentando o trecho de d e Roma Ro manos nos 15:24, 15:24, 28 diz diz3: A expressão ‘ser encaminhado por vocês’, v. 24, era praticamente um termo técnico nos círculos cristãos missionários, que se referia ao apoio moral e também

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Corrobora com essa visão mais dois fatores: primeiro, o fato de que o próximo alvo missionário do apóstolo era a Ibéria, região latina. Assim, o apóstolo espera obter a ajuda de irmãos latinos para alcançar outros latinos. Isso explicaria a inclusão de muitos nomes latinos na lista de irmãos mencionados no final da epístola (Carriker, 1998, p. 5). Segundo, como Paulo já afirmara, ele não tinha intenção de se estabelecer em Roma, uma vez que o evangelho já estava presente lá e ele tinha como princípio missionário básico o não construir sobre alicerce alheio (Rom. 15:20-21).

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3. Quais problemas o autor estava apontando?

Para que as intenções missionárias do apóstolo Paulo fossem

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bons olhos o seu “liberalismo” em relação aos costumes e práticas gentílicas e a sua veemente defesa da não observância da lei mosaica por parte dos cristãos não-judeus. Assim, o primeiro problema apontado por ele na carta diz respeito à natureza do homem e à natureza do Evangelho. Convém lembrar nesta altura de que a igreja em Roma era constituída de judeus e gentios, com uma maioria provável destes últimos. Portanto, ao falar sobre a natureza do homem, Paulo passa a demonstrar que perante Deus, nem os judeus nem os gentios estão em vantagem a priori. “Todos pecaram e destituídos estão da Glória de Deus” (3:23). Isso era uma novidade, já que os judeus se consideravam em vantagem histórica no relacionamento com Deus. Porém, no evangelho pregado por Paulo, tanto judeus como gentios se encontram em pecado e passíveis do juízo divino, embora o apóstolo reconheça a prioridade dos judeus de ouvirem o evangelho, prática que ele mesmo utilizou ao viajar de cidade em cidade

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4. Que elementos teológicos/missiológicos podem ser encontrados nesta carta?

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4.1 Todo homem é pecador O apóstolo utiliza os três primeiros capítulos da carta para tratar da natureza do homem. Segundo a sua mensagem, o homem é pecador e está destituído de Deus. No capítulo 1, demonstra que os gentios são pecadores e estão perdidos. No capítulo 2 afirma que não só os gentios, mas também os judeus são pecadores. E no capítulo 3, que “todos pecaram e destituídos estão da Glória de Deus”. O tema da natureza pecaminosa do homem é fundamental para a teologia paulina. É a partir desse estado pecaminoso do homem que a história da salvação se revela em Jesus Cristo. Como diz Murray “O evangelho como poder para a salvação se torna sem significado à parte do pecado, condenação, miséria e morte. Essa é a razão porque Paulo se propõe a demonstrar que todo o mundo é culpado diante de Deus e está sob a sua ira e    jul    julgam gament entoo ”4

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para os que ouvem e crêem. Porém, para os que morrerem sem oportunidade de ouvir o evangelho, Deus dará um outro jeito de salvá-los, sem que a fé em Cristo seja usada como critério de    jul    julgam gament entoo . Emb Emb ora a expressão express ão ‘ p o der de Deus’ Deus’ no verso verso analisado em Grego não tenha o artigo definido o poder’, isso não quer dizer que devamos traduzir por ‘um poder de Deus’, pois a gramática irá nos indicar que substantivos que precedem o verbo e funcionam como o foco da oração são geralmente usados sem artigo definido (Levinsohn 2000). Portanto, p o demos afirm afirmar ar q ue, com co m b ase ness nessee verso verso,, o evange evangellho é o meio de salvação, não um meio de salvação. Assim entendo eu que a teologia paulina não deixa qualquer margem de dúvida q uando uando à essenci ess encial aliid ade de Cris Cris to para p ara a s alvação alvação tanto tanto de de    judeus    judeus q uanto uanto de genti gentios os p ois é em Cristo Cristo que todos tod os o s que crêem são justificados, pela fé, sem a qual ninguém verá a Deus.

4.3 Em Cristo, Judeus e gentios formam um só corpo Um outro elemento fundamental na teologia paulina, expressa em

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(judeus) que foram cortados e lançados fora em função da sua incredulidade (11:18, 22). F.F. Bruce diz que a igreja de Roma poderia se desintegrar rapidamente se os grupos cristãos (judeus e gentios) insistissem em exercer sua liberdade cristã sem se importar com a opinião d o s outros o utros..5 Paulo Paulo , então então apresenta um c ritér ritériio que q ue d eve s er seguido por todos para resolver essas questões práticas na igreja: greja: o amor amor e a tolerânci tolerância. a. No verso 13 do capí c apítul tuloo 14 ele ele insta os cristãos a não julgarem um ao outro. A colocarem o interesse do próximo acima do seu próprio interesse. Nessa matéria ele mesmo foi um grande exemplo pois “se fez de tudo para com todos a fim de ganhar alguns” (1 cor. 9:19). Finalmente, no capítulo 15, o apóstolo conclama a todos para que assumam uma postura de tolerância e amor ao próximo com o fim de promoverem a unidade no Corpo de Cristo ele diz em 15:7 “Portanto, aceitem-se uns aos outros, da mesma forma que Cristo os aceitou, a fim de que vocês glorifiquem a Deus”.

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da proclamação das Boas Novas não há como os eleitos virem a Cristo. O Espírito Santo é quem, pela palavra, convence o mundo do pecado da justiça e do juízo, e os conduz a Cristo.

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5. Qual foi a proposta do autor para a solução do(s) problema(s)?

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teria que haver uma comunhão real, acima de todas as barreiras, no nível da congregação local. Consequentemente eles se esforçaram para criar comunidades nas quais…judeus e gentios…adorariam a Deus juntos e aprenderiam o significado de uma unidade em Cristo ainda que fosse necessário encarar dificuldades que surgiriam das diferenças de bagagem cultural ou de classe social entre os membros. A nuance prática apresentada por Paulo é conclamar os gentios (os fortes) a serem mais tolerantes para com os judeus (os fracos) e não transformarem a sua liberdade em motivo de escândalo. O apóstolo demonstra que, para que haja unidade no

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6. Qual a relevância desta carta para a missão urbana hoje?

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o subj sub jeti etivismo vismo 7. Todas To das essas ess as tendênci tendências as se consti co nstitu tuem em em em desafio a nós pastores na apresentação do evangelho e na condução do povo de Deus nessa peregrinação aqui na terra. É preciso refletir se o evangelho que estamos pregando é o mesmo pregado por Paulo. Será que ele é um evangelho de poder? E mais, poder para a salvação. O que dizer do próprio conceito de salvação. De repente, a salvação foi transformada por certos teólogos em algo menos do que aquilo que o apóstolo Paulo c ria ria e pregav p regavaa8, isto é, sal s alvação vação integral ntegral aqui e ago agora, mas também salvação espiritual e escatológica, eterna. O conceito de unidade de judeus e gentios no corpo de Cristo é também de extrema extrema relevân relevâncc ia para nós hoj ho je. Embora Embo ra no no Brasi Bras il,

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Outro aspecto interessante apresentado pelo apóstolo diz respeito à relação teologia/missão. Paulo não se detém em fazer teologia sistemática como um fim em si mesmo. Para ele a teologia serve para fundamentar a sua missão. Como muito bem coloca Carriker, “a teologia, para Paulo, era conseqüência da missão, ss ão, e não não vice-v vice-ver ersa” sa”10.

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Referências Bibliográficas

BARNES, E. Notes on The New Testament. Grand Rapids:

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HONG, In Sik Sik e outros. utros . Étic Étic a y R eli eligio gio s id ad en tiempo tiemposs posmodernos. Buenos Aires: Kairós Ediciones, 2001. LEVINSOHN, Steve. Discurse Features of New Testament Greek. Dallas: SIL, 2000. MORRIS, Leon. The Epistle to The Romans. Grand Rapids: W. Eerdmans Publishing, 1987.

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pregador Paul Washer  Washer  e busca promover a Obra Missionária de forma apaixonada, motivado pela Glória de Jesus Cristo em

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