Teacher's Book Essential Science 5

August 14, 2017 | Author: sorayina | Category: Tissue (Biology), Cell (Biology), Life, Muscle, Organisms
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Descripción: Teacher's Book Essential Science 5...

Description

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd 857415_Portadilla.eps 28/9/06 14:56:23

3/10/06

09:09

Página 1

Teacher’s Book

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:09

Página 2

Essential Science 853694_C.ai

3/5/02

16:33:26

• Essential Science teaches basic concepts of Science, Geography and History through English. • Content and language are carefully interwoven in Essential Science. • The syllabus covers all the scientific contents which students require at this level.

Science, Geography and History

• The language objectives correlate with those set out in the Cambridge Young Learners suite.

Código de pedido: S-0676X

Science, Geography and History

• The Student’s Book guides students towards curricular objectives.

Activity Book

• A series of presentations explain key concepts in clear and simple language. • Basic activities in the Student’s Book give students the confidence to ask questions, and make descriptive statements.

• The Activity Book provides reinforcement and extension activities.

857356 CD.ai

3/5/02

16:51:17

• It includes projects and tasks to widen the students’ horizons, and stimulate reflection on work and progress. • The Student’s CD gives an extensive selection of recorded texts.

Student’s CD

www.indexnet.santillana.es Re c or de d

2

and mix ed

by E FLS P

• Learner autonomy is encouraged.

www.richmondelt.com

a llan anti g-S lishin roduc d Pub tion Ltd . London, England © 2006 Richmon

n ció uca Ed

• The students’ self-confidence will grow, as their fluency and pronunciation improve.

. L. ,S

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 3

• Essential Science provides a wealth of material to teachers and students. This gives teachers great flexibility to choose. They can adapt their work in view of the time the students spend on Science, Geography and History in English.

Teacher’s Book

• Richmond World Facts Readers provide a series of stimulating and carefully graded texts on Geography, Science, Culture and History. 58 readers at 6 levels of proficiency are available. • Internet resources are available for teachers and students on our websites. Links encourage students to go further in their research. • Richmond Student’s Dictionary: a valuable reference tool. • Assessment, Extension and Reinforcement worksheets provide teachers with additional resources. Science, Geography and History

• Posters and flashcards give teachers important visual back-up.

• This Teacher’s Book offers page-by-page teaching suggestions, solutions to the Activity Book activities, and a guide to other resources.

Bal

tic

Se

a

North Sea

1

The Roman Empire GERMANIA

B R I TA N N I A 2

Black

GALLIA

10

O C E A N

I TA L I A

5

ASIA

6 8 7

R

da rde eco

nd

S Pr y EF ed b mix

Lo ion Ltd. oduct

ndon, England ©2006 Richmond ndon, England ©2006 Richmon n Ltd. Lo Publis d Pub lishin Productio hing - Sa EFSg - San ntilla tilla d by na na Edu mixe Edu cac cac an d d ión i ón de ,S ,S cor .L. .L. Re

4

www.indexnet.santillana.es www.richmondelt.com

SYRIA

12 J U D A E A

H I S PA N I A

13

3

M www.indexnet.santillana.es

11

9

e

d

n e a r a n e r i t 14

AFRICA

S e a

www.richmondelt.com 7 1

Hadrian´s Wall

2

baths

3

theatre

4

aqueduct

5

temple

6

sarcophagus

Appian Way

Roman Empire

8

Class CD1

© Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S.L.

A T L A N T I C

Sea

statue

9

road

10

sarcophagus

11

theatre

12

aqueduct

13

theatre

14

Boundaries

temple

Class CD2

• The Teacher’s CD contains a selection of recorded texts as well as all the Student’s CD recordings.

3

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 4

CONTENTS FOR SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

Natural sciences

UNIT

4

CONCEPTS

BOOK 5

PROCEDURES

CITIZENSHIP

01. Living things

• Living and non-living things • Characteristics of life processes • Cells and the parts of a cell • Unicellular and multicellular organisms

• Interpreting a diagram • Studying photographs

• Respect for all living things

02. Plants

• Flowering and non-flowering plants • Classification of plants • Plants breathe, make food and reproduce

• Observing parts of a plant • Describing the reproduction of plants

• Fruit and health

03. Invertebrates

• Characteristics of invertebrates • Invertebrate groups • Characteristics of arthropods

• Classifying invertebrates • Studying labelled drawings

• Protecting animal habitats

04. Vertebrates

• Characteristics of vertebrates • Vertebrate groups • Classification of reptiles, fish and amphibians

• Comparing vertebrates • Associating groups with their habitats

• Benefits of a fish diet

05. Nutrition

• The main organs in the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory systems • The processes of nutrition, digestion, respiration, circulation and excretion

• Interpreting anatomical drawings • Observing photographs

• Healthy eating habits

06. Matter

• The properties of matter • Differentiating physical and chemical changes • Changes in matter • Changes in state

• Explaining events scientifically • Using personal experience to interpret a subject

• Tetanus

07. The atmosphere

• The atmosphere • The hydrosphere • The geosphere • Changes in the Earth’s surface

• Sequencing information • Extracting information from photographs, drawings and diagrams

• Natural disasters

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

Geography and History

UNIT

09:10

Página 5

CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

CITIZENSHIP

18. The landscape

• The concept of landscape • Inland and coastal landforms • Mountains, plains and coasts in Spain

• Interpreting maps

• Rubbish

19. Rivers

• Rivers, lakes and watersheds • Climate and weather • Living things and their habitats

• Observing drawings and photos • Locating climate zones on a globe

• The effects of human action on the environment

10. Population

• The concept of population • Causes and types of migration • Characteristics of the population in Spain

• Interpreting a population bar • Doing a census

• Respect for people from other cultures • Respect for senior citizens

11. The economy

• The concept of active population • The agricultural, industrial and service sectors • Tourism and transport in Spain

• Identifying industries in own area • Using maps to locate services

• The importance of all types of work • Road safety

12. Prehistory and Antiquity

• Periods of Prehistory and characteristics of prehistoric life • Early civilisations on the Iberian peninsula • The Roman legacy in Spain

• Interpreting historical maps • Studying ancient monuments

• Understanding our cultural legacy from the past

13. The Middle Ages

• The Germanic tribes and the Visigothic kingdom • The characteristics of Al Andalus • The expansion of the Christian kingdoms • Society in Spain after 1492

• Putting historical events in order • Interpreting historical maps

• Respect for historic buildings

5

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 6

The Student's Book indicates Richmond World Facts Readers.

Title • This is the number and title of the unit.

Living things LOOK

indicates an Internet Activity.

Look at this photo. • What living things can you see? • What non-living things can you see?

indicates a reading activity.

Look • The units begin with a LOOK or COMPARE section which focuses attention on the theme of the unit.

READ

shows that it is also recorded.

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes: • Nutrition

People, animals and plants are living things. Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

Living things eat food, which contains nutrients. Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

Living things have the following characteristics: • Sensitivity

• They are born from other living things.

Living things react to their environment.

• They eat. • They react to their environment.

Activities

• Reproduction

• They grow.

Living things have offspring.

• They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

• Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

indicates that the activity should first be done orally.

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things … What living things are there in your home?

• Activities at the bottom of the page reinforce basic concepts, and practise structures and vocabulary. • Some are linked to citizenship themes.

LIVING THINGS

5

indicates that it can also be used as a writing exercise.

Read • Information is organised into numbered sections.

Rivers EXPRESSING POSSESSION A region’s characteristic temperature … The Earth’s climate … A river’s course and flow …

Essential language

Population DESCRIBING PEOPLE

• The Essential Language section summarises all the key language used at this level.

6

The population is the number of people Urban populations are people Rural populations are people People

who

live in a place. live in cities. live in villages and towns. leave a country are called emigrants.

True or false? Make more sentences. The population is the number of people who visit a place.

True. / False.

TALKING ABOUT MANNER The number of inhabitants in a place changes The adult population is growing Some countries are The population is not Some areas are

continually. quickly. densely populated. evenly distributed. sparsely populated.

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 7

The Activity Book • Learner autonomy: the students assess their own progress.

I can do it

Activities • The Activity Book offers a wealth of activities.

Contents

Apply your knowledge

Worksheet 2. Date

UNIT UNIT

II CAN CAN DO DO IT IT

Living Living things things Our senses Plants

THE ORGANISATION OF LIVING THINGS KINGDOMS

Read Read and and tick tick  

3

compare and kingdoms. non-living things. I canI can classify living living thingsthings into three 3I canI can identify animal and plant habitats. describe a cell.

6

identifythe ourdifferent five senses. I canI can distinguish parts of a plant. 6I canI can parts of the eye and the ear. talk name about the photosynthesis.

1. Match and label. system

tissue

organ

organism

A

cell

B

name some bones and muscles. I canI can classify invertebrates. say how use our muscles.groups. 9 10I canI can describe the we different arthropod

Our body Invertebrates Animals Vertebrates

classify animals in different groups.groups. I canI can name the characteristics of vertebrate identify what different animals eat. 12 13I canI can classify vertebrates into groups.

Vertebrates Nutrition and invertebrates

identify vertebrates and invertebrates. I canI can locate the main organs of nutrition. namethe theprocesses characteristics of mammals. 16 16I canI can describe involved in nutrition.

The Earth Matter

thegeneral three parts of theof Earth. I canI can talk identify about the properties matter. compare solids, liquids and gases. 21 25I canI can identify changes of state in matter.

Water The atmosphere

where we find water. I canI can talk say about the purpose of the atmosphere. describe the water 25 27I canI can explain the water cycle.cycle.

Air The landscape

characteristics of air. I canI can talk describe about thethe concept of landscape. identify someinland atmospheric phenomena. 28 30I canI can identify the main and coastal landforms.

Plants Rivers

identify stems, and roots. I canI can describe rivers and leaves watersheds. compare bushes andzones. grasses. 32 32I canI can distinguish thetrees, Earth’s climatic

Flowering Populationplants

of the parts of a flower. I canI can talk name about some the concept of population. describe how plants grow.of migration. 38 35I canI can identify the causes and types

The The landscape economy

identify different landscapes. I canI can identify the three economic sectors. namepublic the parts a mountain. 41 40I canI can describe andof private service sectors.

Prehistory Water and weather and Antiquity

course of aofriver. I canI can talk describe about thethe main periods Prehistory. talk and about the weather. 44 44I canI can identify describe some Roman ruins.

Population The Middle Ages

compare cities, towns and villages. I canI can sequence events in Spanish history. some means ofoftransport. 48 48I canI can talk identify about the importance the Golden Age.

Work Extra Past and present

51

I can identify some types of work. I can talk about the needs of industry.

53

I can talk about the past. I can make a family tree.

PROJECT 1: Classify plants PROJECT Animal index cardsa fungus PROJECT 1: 2: Observe and describe PROJECT Make skeletonatoclimate study bones PROJECT 2: 3: Make andainterpret graph and joints PROJECT An experiment PROJECT 3: 4: Investigate changes in matter PROJECTS objects to experiment with Peninsula air PROJECT 5:4-7: TheMake Roman provinces of the Iberian PROJECT Make a relief model of your autonomous community GLOSSARY8: GLOSSARY:

E

D

C

2. Complete the sentences.

Tiss¤efi

a.

are made up of

b.

are made up of

c.

are made up of

which work together.

tiss¤efi

which work together. which work together.

Many systems work together in an organism. 3. Classify the living things from Worksheet 1. KINGDOMS Animal

Plant

Fungi

19 20 19 21-24 36 37 37 38-39 54-55 56-57 56-63 58-64

2

4

Project 3

MAKE AND INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH Use this information to construct a climate graph. Temperature is in degrees centigrade (°C).

stem

Precipitation is in millimetres (mm). F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

Temperature

5

9

13

15

18

20

24

26

25

19

10

7

Precipitation

50

J

54

70

78

83

60

30

15

90

86

O

88

N

69

Glossary

D

tuber

Put a point on each month using the information in the table. Then draw a red line to connect the points from all twelve months. 2. Complete the precipitation. Each month on the table is represented by a vertical blue bar at a different height on the graph. T (°C)

P (mm)

50

100

40

80

30

60

20

40

10

20

0

0 J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

36

Multicultural non-sexist education

Peace education

sunlight

• Students use the glossary to record the vocabulary they have learned.

1. Complete the temperature.

Health education

Projects and tasks • Projects and tasks lead the students to reflect, and carry out simple experiments.

Road safety

Consumer education

worm

stolon

alligator amphibian aquatic

abdomen

beak

arachnid

bony fish

arthropod

carnivore

cephalothorax

cartilaginous fish

cnidarian

cetacean

crustacean

cold-blooded

echinoderm

crocodile

exoskeleton

egg

insect

feather

invertebrate

fin

mollusc

fur

myriapod

gill

oviparous

habitat

parasite

incubation

shell

lizard

sponge

lung

thorax

mammal 57

Environmental education

Citizenship

Sex education

7

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 8

The Teacher's Book Materials for reinforcement and extension

UNIT 1

UNIT 0

Living things RESOURCES

Content objectives

Resource folder

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Distinguishing living things and non-living things Identifying the characteristics of living things and life processes Understanding what a cell is and the parts of a cell Understanding that there are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms Learning how living things are organised

PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 1

1. Describing the characteristics of living things: They are born … are made up of … 2. Giving extra information: Food, which contains nutrients … Tissues which work together 3. Expressing purpose: To keep a living thing healthy; to make their food 4. Giving examples: for example, our skin cells … such as the heart 5. Describing position: around the cell … between the nucleus and the membrane 6. Expressing ability: They can / cannot move.

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Cells and life processes http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=315 The structure of plant and animal cells and life processes, along with other biology topics. For students and teachers.

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Living things and non-living things • The characteristics of living things and life processes • The cell and the parts of a cell: cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus • The organisation of living things: cell, tissue, organ, system, organism • The principal kingdoms of living things: animal, plant and fungi

• Interpreting a diagram about the organisation of living things • Studying photographs to learn about living things • Classifying living things into three kingdoms • Identifying the characteristics of the three kingdoms of living things

ATTITUDES

Living things http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html A variety of biology topics including the kingdoms of living things and human organ systems. For students and teachers.

• Appreciating life and living things

The fungi kingdom http://www.wise-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp? objid=BIO304 A closer look at the fungi kingdom. For students and teachers.

The Organisation of the Human Body Cells

Other resources • • • •

Assessment criteria • • • • •

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

– Reinforcement: Worksheet 1 – Extension: Worksheet 1

Language objectives

Contents for English skills

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Reinforcement and extension

The cell is the basic unit of living things. All living things are made up of cells. Some living things, such as bacteria, are made up of a single cell. An adult human, in contrast, has about 100 trillion cells. Every part of the body is made up of one kind of cell or another, and each kind of cell has a special function. There are about two hundred different kinds of cells in the human body, including bone cells, muscle cells, heart cells, liver cells and so on. The shape and size of a cell depend on its funtion. Muscle cells are long and thin—when they contract, they produce movement. The three main parts of cells are the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. The nucleus is the central part of a cell and controls most of its functions. The cytoplasm is a jellylike substance that makes up most of the inside of a cell. The cell membrane is the outside covering of a cell. It controls what can enter and exit a cell.

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

Muscle Tissue

Tissue is made up of a group of cells that have the same function. For example, bone tissue is made up of three types of bone cell—one to make bones, one to repair bones and one to remove dead bone cells. Humans have four types of tissue. · Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and relax to produce movement. · Nervous tissue is found in the brain and spinal cord, as well as the sense organs. · Connective tissue includes the bones and tendons. · Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines some internal organs. Bone tissue, despite its strength, is amazingly light; bones make up only about one fifth of our weight. There are two main types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue, which is connected to the skeleton, and smooth muscle tissue, which is found in the internal organs. Around 40% of a man’s weight and 20% of a woman’s weight is made up of skeletal muscle tissue.

Bone

Distinguishing living things and non-living things Knowing that cells are the smallest living units in a living thing Recognising the three parts of a cell Explaining how living things are organised Classifying living things into three kingdoms

nucleus

cytoplasm cell membrane Bone Tissue

Muscle

Organs An organ is a set of tissues that have the same function. Each organ is made up of several types of tissue. For example, there are three types of bone tissue in bones: a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like tissue inside bones, and a smooth tissue at the ends of bones. In the skin, which is also an organ, there is epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue.

Systems A system is a set of organs that work together to perform a common function. There are ten major systems in humans, including the respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular and reproductory systems.

Skeleton

Muscular System

Musculoskeletal System

* Not yet available in English

16

17

Other resources

Internet resources

Activity Book

38

Solutions

Worksheet 8. Date

Worksheet 7. Date

Read and learn

Apply your knowledge WHAT ARE ANIMALS LIKE?

AN INVERTEBRATE PARASITE 1. Read carefully.

• There are solutions to all Activity Book activities.

1. Complete the word maps about animals.

The tapeworm

Reproduction: animals are divided into

The tapeworm (taenia) is an invertebrate animal. It is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.

Oviparoufi

For example, a pig eats food contaminated with tapeworm eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae in the animal’s intestine. Then they travel into the bloodstream and the muscles. If people eat undercooked meat from this infected pig, the larva grows in their intestine. It becomes a tapeworm. This parasite absorbs their food and causes weakness and anaemia.

are born from eggs.

Viviparoufi

are born from their mother’s womb.

Contaminated animals have eggs in their faeces. These can infect other animals. Skeletons: animals are divided into 2. Tick () the true sentences about the tapeworm. 씲 

It is an invertebrate.

씲 It is an amphibian.

씲 It is a parasite. 

씲 It is oviparous. 

씲 It is viviparous.

씲 It is an herbivore.

Ver†ebra†efi

are animals with a skeleton.

In√±r†ebra†efi

have no bones.

3. Order the information as it appears in the text.

1 3

What kind of animal a tapeworm is How it goes from animals to humans

4 2

How it lives inside a person How it lives inside an animal

VOCABULARY What organs do these animals use to breathe? Name them.

4. Investigate. Find the names of other human parasites. M. A. hookwarµ flatworµ ascarifi trichi>ellå 10

8

Muscle Cells

Bone Cells

nucleus cytoplasm cell membrane

Tissue

© Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S.L.

Contents for Science skills

UNIT CONTENT

B

A

gillfi

C

trac™eåæ

lungfi 9

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

10/10/06

08:58

Página 9

Language objectives Content objectives • A cross-reference to the content objectives on the previous double page.

• A cross-reference to the language objectives.

Hands on • A classroom experience which is motivating and simple to do.

Vocabulary • Presented in alphabetical order. • It is recommended that students learn it.

Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 1,2, 3.

Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.

cell, cytoplasm, membrane, multicellular, nucleus, unicellular

Cells

I Special attention READ

LOOK

• Using the vocabulary correctly

• Points which may be difficult for the students in both Science and English. Vocabulary

Content objectives: 3, 4.

are born, die, eat, grow, living things, non-living things, nutrients, nutrition, react, reproduce, sensitivity

Living things

I Special attention

Special attention

• Understanding that cells are threedimensional and not flat

1. What is a cell?

• Relative clauses with which

Look at this photo.

I Hands on

• What non-living things can you see?

Living things are made up of tiny units called cells.

• What living things can you see?

• Understanding that humans are made up of tiny cells

Cells are the smallest living units in a living thing. Some living things are made up of a single cell.

I Hands on

They are unicellular. Other living things are made up of many cells.

Our pets

These cells are amplified by a microscope.

They are multicellular.

• Encourage Ss to talk about their experiences with pets. • Ask: Who has a pet? What is it? What does it do? (It sleeps, plays, eats…) What does it need? (food, water …)

2. What are cells like?

Making yoghurt

Cells differ in shape and size.

• Pour two litres of warm milk into a container. Add two plain yoghurts and mix. Put a lid on the container and cover it with a towel. • Ask: What do you think will happen after twelve hours? (The milk will change to yoghurt.) • Examine the mixture later. Explain that the bacteria in the yoghurt caused a chemical change. Bacteria are unicellular living things.

They carry out different tasks. For example, our skin cells are different from our bone cells.

READ

I Presentation

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes:

Cells have three parts: • The membrane is the covering around the cell.

Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.

Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

• LOOK Focus on the photo and questions. Living things: grass, trees, cows, calves. Non-living things: air, buildings …

3. Parts of a cell 2

• Nutrition

People, animals and plants are living things.

Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

• The nucleus is the part which controls the cell.

Living things have the following characteristics: • Sensitivity

• They are born from other living things. • They react to their environment.

• Ask: How do you know cows are living things? (They are born, eat, react, grow, reproduce and die.) What do cows need to live? (food, water, space)

The parts of animal and plant cells

• Cytoplasm is between the nucleus and the membrane.

Living things react to their environment.

• They eat.

We use microscopes to study small things.

• Reproduction

• They grow.

Living things have offspring.

• They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

cytoplasm

• Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

nucleus

Complete the sentence.

What living things are there in your home?

Cells have three parts: …

LIVING THINGS

5

6

LIVING THINGS

nucleus cytoplasm membrane

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things …

…react to their environment…grow…die…/ Open answers.

Plant cell

This is why some plant stems are hard.

Animal cell

• READ Elicit examples of the characteristics of living things. Ask: When are more calves born? (spring) What do cows eat? (grass) When chickens grow, what do they become? (hens, cockerels) What animal does a cow need to reproduce? (a bull)

3

membrane

Plant cells also have a hard cell wall around the membrane.

wall

…membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm

• Ss read 1 and 2 with 1 and 2 . They then do the activities at the bottom of the page.

I CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

I CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

  R Activity Book, page 3.

1 Comprehension. Write the following phrases on the BB. Ask Ss to match the sentence halves.

1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to choose the correct option. 1. Living things are made up of tiny / big units called cells. 2. Cells are the smallest units in a living / non-living thing. 3. Living things with a single cell are multicellular / unicellular. 4. Living things made up of many cells are multicellular / unicellular. 5. Skin cells and bone cells are different / the same.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Living things Non-living things Nutrients Animals There are three

a. b. c. d. e.

provide energy. basic life processes. are born and die. do not reproduce. are living things.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – d. 3 – a. 4 – e. 5 – b.

Answers: 1. tiny. 2. living. 3. unicellular. 4. multicellular. 5. different. Respecting all living things. All living things, big or small, deserve our respect.

I Presentation • READ Focus on the drawing of cells. Ask: What are the parts of an animal cell? (membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm) What are the parts of a plant cell? (nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, wall) • Give examples of unicellular living things: bacteria, some algae, yeast, protozoa … • Point out that cells have three dimensions and are not flat. Cells can have different shapes: cubes, octahedrons … • Ask: Are cells small? (yes) How can we see cells? (with a microscope) • Ss read 1-3 with 3 , 4 and 5 . They then do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Bacteria and living things. Bacteria can cause illnesses, such as pneumonia. Some bacteria are used to make food, like yoghurt.

18

Presentation • The suggestions include texts as well as graphic materials, such as photographs, drawings, diagrams and graphs.

19

Activity Book ➔ R This symbol indicates a revision activity. E ➔ This symbol indicates an extension activity.

Content and language development • These activities combine Science and Language skills.

Citizenship • Citizenship themes are identified with symbols.

9

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 10

Learning skills Techniques

• To extract information, it is important to study the whole picture carefully as well as look at the details.

Various learning skills can help students to master the contents of Essential Science:

• The students study the accompanying texts, which give the names of the different parts or functions.

Highlighted words

Memorisation • To memorise new vocabulary, it is useful to associate the words with mental pictures, and then revise them in order. • In order to teach the circulatory system, for example, students touch the corresponding parts of their bodies.

• These are printed in bold. They highlight key points and vocabulary.

Experiments • Before an experiment begins, the students are asked to predict how they think it will end. • Students need to have a clear idea of an experiment’s different stages.

Photographs • The photographs help students to obtain information. It can be helpful to ask the students to study a picture before they have read the caption or received any other external information. • Focus the students’ attention: What do you see in the photo? Can you see …?

• Point out the following: – material they will need – initial situation – sequence of events – final result

• Go on to analyse the picture systematically, highlighting all the details.

Enquiry questions

Drawings

• Learning should never be a purely mechanical process. Questions can be used to elicit prior knowledge, and find out students’ ideas.

• These drawings represent parts of the human body, plants, etc. Some are realistic, while others are simplified.

• Students should be encouraged to predict what they will learn: What do you know about volcanoes? What do you think this unit / this page is going to be about? • Comparison questions encourage students to relate information from different sections: In what ways are ... different from ... ?

he digestive ystem 26 mouth pharynx salivary glands

oesophagus

• This type of question should be adapted to the language level of the class.

Activities

liver

stomach

pancreas small intestine anus

10

large intestine rectum

• Initially, the activities at the bottom of the page should be done orally with the whole class. Later, most can be written down, either as homework or as whole class activites. This will help students to master the key concepts and language. • Some citizenship questions may be difficult for the students in English. It is advisable to begin by eliciting short, simple replies.

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 11

Recorded Material

Defining

Some sections of each Unit are recorded on the Student’s CD. There is a more complete selection of texts on the Class CD.

• Prepositions of place: Students copy the texts, or use pencils to underline prepositions of place. In pairs they ask each other: Where is …?, and answer using the correct preposition.

• The listening exercises can be used in the presentation stage of the Unit. • Students should listen to the recording at least twice before they check their answers. • The exercises can be corrected on the board, or by looking at the text in the book. • For revision purposes, the listening exercises can be used at the end of the unit to recycle vocabulary or revise the content. • The recorded material will help students with the pronunciation of new language and vocabulary.

Essential Language

• Relative pronouns: Students identify examples of relative pronouns (who … which …). They write True / False sentences to test their partners, using relative pronouns to give correct or incorrect definitions.

Describing • Properties: verb to have: The students write affirmative and negative sentences. • Describing a process, using linking words: First, then, next, etc. The students find more examples of processes using these linkers in other units. • There is / there are + singular / plural nouns. Students find and underline more examples of this structure.

The Essential Language section in the Student’s Book (pages 51 - 56), summarises the main functions and structures. Here are some practical suggestions for using this section:

The atmospher e

MAKING IMPE RSONAL STAT EMENTS wind. are caused by differences in water temperatu re. movements of Water in liquid the Earth’s crust form . Water in solid oceans, seas, form is found in / on rivers and lakes Water vapour . mountains. the atmosphe re. GIVING EXAM PLES Water can be a liquid or a solid, There are hund reds of minerals, ice or snow. Precipitation is such as water, diamonds. rain, snow or hail. Waves Ocean currents Earthquakes

Expressing facts • The Present Simple tense in the affirmative, negative, interrogative forms: Students underline examples of the structure in each unit, either copying the texts, or using pencils. • Passive verb forms: Students identify the structure: verb to be + past participle, and write examples.

The landscape

Giving examples • Students ask questions related to examples from the unit, for example: Are vegetables consumer products?

54

ESSENTIAL LANG

INDICATING LOCATION Coastal plains are flat land near A marsh is wet the coast. land near Low-lying coast the mouth of a s are plains river. by High coasts are the sea. high areas by There are high the sea. mountains in The Ebro depre some areas. ssion is in the north. MAKING IMPE RSONAL STAT Central Spain EMENTS is dominated An island is completely a large plateau. The Central Plate surrounded au by is divided water. the Central Moun tain Chain. UAGE

Talking about the past • Students copy the table from Unit 12 into their notebooks. They test each other with True / False questions in pairs.

11

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 12

Contents Linking units and contents • Before students look at the Contents list, write a few titles on the left of the board: The landscape; Living things; Population; The economy.

Contents

• On the right, write, in a different order, some of the information about the titles: Migration; Mountains and plains in Spain; Cells; The primary and secondary sectors.

PAGE

Living things 01 Cells The organisation of living things Kingdoms Plants 02 Plant nutrition Plant reproduction 03 Invertebrates Invertebrate groups Arthropods Vertebrates 04 Birds Reptiles Fish and amphibians Nutrition 05 The digestive system Respiration and excretion Blood circulation 06 Matter The properties of matter Changes in matter Changes of state The atmosphere 07 The hydrosphere The geosphere Volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering The landscape 08 Mountains and plains in Spain The coast Spanish coasts Rivers 09 Climate Vegetation and fauna 10 Population Migration The population of Spain economy 11 The The primary and secondary sectors in Spain The service sector in Spain and Antiquity 12 Prehistory The Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times Roman Hispania Middle Ages 13 The Al Andalus The Christian kingdoms Spain after 1492

..................................................................5

.........................................................................9

• Students volunteer to go to the board and draw a line between a title and its information.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

• The students now have the list of contents (page 2 of the Student’s Book), open in front of them. Draw something on the board to represent a title, for example, a dog (Unit 4), and a mountain (Unit 8).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

• Students guess which unit is referred to. Students then volunteer to draw other titles on the board, and the activity continues. They may also do this activity in pairs.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Anagrams

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

• Write anagrams on board, for example CLIMATE (TEMACLI) and ask the students to say which unit is being referred to. The students could do this in pairs.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Multicultural non-sexist education

2

Notes:

12

Peace education

Health education

Road safety

Consumer education

Environmental education

Citizenship

Sex education

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 13

General questions • Ask general questions: A

How many units are there in the book?

B

What is the first / last unit about?

Learning to learn

What do you think you will study in Unit (5)?

ABOUT THIS BOOK

What are Units 4, 8, 12 about? (These questions can also be asked in pairs.)

• Look at pictures A-M. Match them to Units 1-13 on page 2. Then look at the book. Check your answers. Unit .........

C

D

E

Unit .........

Which unit is about animals / plants / the Earth? (These questions can also be asked in pairs.)

F

Which unit discusses reptiles? Which unit do you like best / is most interesting for you? Unit 1

G

Unit 7

H

Unit .........

I

Unit .........

Pairwork activities

J

• In pairs, the students test each other: A: Mountains? B: Unit 8. Birds? Unit 10

K

Unit 5

L

Unit .........

A: Unit 4. Population?

Unit .........

B: Unit 10.

M

Answers: a – 2; b – 13; c – 1; d – 7; e – 12; f – 4; g – 10; h – 5; i – 8; j – 11; k – 3; l – 6; m – 9. Unit .........

Unit .........

Unit 9 3

Notes:

13

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 14

You already know a lot! • This section shows students that they already have considerable prior knowledge. • Explain that this will help them throughout the year. • This section can also be used as a diagnostic test at the beginning of the year. • Choose how many words to include according to the level of the class.

YOU ALREADY KNOW YOU ALREADY KNOW A LOT! A LOT! PLANTS ANIMALS Name four things plants need. Whatneed do animals eat? Plants the correct Herbivores...eat plants. temperature,

TITLE TITLE What is the number of the unit? What is the number of the unit? What is the title?

What is the title?

Carnivores eat… Omnivores eat…

ANIMALS How do animals breathe?

FOOD Can you name five types of food?

FOOD Do you know the names of three meals? What is a healthy diet?

What first section on on thethe page? Whatisisthe the first section page?

THE BODY THE BODY What can babies do when they are born? Name fourtwo parts of the digestive system. Name things. Name three parts of the What can't babies dorespiratory when theysystem. are born? Name two parts of the excretory system. Name two things.

LOOK AT THE PHOTO LOOK AT THE PHOTO What is the animal doing? What is the animal doing? Can you see trees? Can you see water? What else can you see in the photo? What else can you see in the photo? Think about what you see in photos. Think have abouta what you see in photos. Photos lot of information.

Photos have a lot of information.

PLANTS THE ATMOSPHERE What Name more two things. Can you do talkplants about need? the weather? Today it is sunny; today it is raining; ... Sunlight, … and… THE UNIVERSE MINERALS Do isyou the names of any astronomical What theknow difference between minerals bodies? and rocks? The Sun, planets,… How many hours are there in a day? THE ECONOMY Can you name six jobs in the service sector? LIGHT Lawyers, Do you...know the seven colours in a rainbow?

Red, … indigo and violet. ROMAN TIMES AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES Describe Roman cities. In What Romanis cities, thereofwere buildings: the name yourimportant Autonomous amphitheatres, ... Community?

Which other communities are close to your Autonomous Community? MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS Where did Muslims and Christians live? OCEANS CONTINENTS Muslims livedAND in cities surrounded by ... Can you...name three continents? Christians

Can you name two oceans? • These areare topics youyou will will study • These topics this year.this year. study You already know a lot!

You already know a lot!

4

Notes:

14

LIVING THINGS

What second section on on thethe page? Whatisisthe the second section page? EXPLANATIONS EXPLANATIONS These give you important information. Thesetexts paragraphs have important information. Important appear likethis: this:water, react, food. nutrients. Importantwords words are like SYMBOLS SYMBOLS • •The onon thethe CDCD Thetext textis is • •Richmond World Facts Richmond World Facts • •There Internet activity Thereis isanan Internet activity • Speak

• Speak

• Read

• Read

• Write

• Write

ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES Theseexercises exercises give These give youyou practiceininESSENTIAL ESSENTIAL SCIENCE. practice SCIENCE.

857415_IntroEssent0001-0015.qxd

3/10/06

09:10

Página 15

Focus on the page

Living things

Use the text in the right-hand column of page 4 to show the students how their textbook is organised.

LOOK

TITLE AND PHOTO • Ask the students to tell you the number and title of the unit. Then ask them to look at the photo and predict what they think the unit will be about: What do you think this unit is going to be about?

Look at this photo. • What living things can you see? • What non-living things can you see?

• Explain that photos include a great deal of information. Ask the students: What can you see in the photo? • If their language level allows it, suggest that they compare this landscape with their own region: Is this landscape different from your region? (It’s green …)

READ

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes:

People, animals and plants are living things. Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

• Further suggestions for teaching page 5 are given on page 18 of this Teacher’s Book.

• Nutrition Living things eat food, which contains nutrients. Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

• The use of photos is discussed in the Learning skills section on page 10 of this Teacher’s Book.

Living things have the following characteristics: • They are born from other living things. • They eat. • They react to their environment.

• Sensitivity Living things react to their environment. • Reproduction

• They grow.

Living things have offspring.

• They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

• Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

EXPLANATIONS AND SYMBOLS • Explain that the students have their own Student’s CD.

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things … What living things are there in your home?

LIVING THINGS

5

• Students should listen to the recordings at home, which will help them to assimilate what they have learned. It is helpful if they sometimes listen to the recordings without using the Student’s Book. This sharpens their auditory capacity. The recordings also help them to work on their pronunciation. • Further suggestions for exploiting the recording are given in the Learning skills section on page 11. ACTIVITIES

Notes:

• Some activities reinforce acquisition of the scientific contents. Others focus on citizenship reflection. Suggestions for exploitation are given in the Learning skills section on page 10.

15

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

2/10/06

20:24

Página 16

UNIT 1

Living things UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Distinguishing living things and non-living things Identifying the characteristics of living things and life processes Understanding what a cell is and the parts of a cell Understanding that there are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms Learning how living things are organised

Language objectives 1. Describing the characteristics of living things: They are born … are made up of … 2. Giving extra information: Food, which contains nutrients … Tissues which work together 3. Expressing purpose: To keep a living thing healthy; to make their food 4. Giving examples: for example, our skin cells … such as the heart 5. Describing position: around the cell … between the nucleus and the membrane 6. Expressing ability: They can / cannot move.

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Living things and non-living things • The characteristics of living things and life processes • The cell and the parts of a cell: cytoplasm, membrane and nucleus • The organisation of living things: cell, tissue, organ, system, organism • The principal kingdoms of living things: animal, plant and fungi

• Interpreting a diagram about the organisation of living things • Studying photographs to learn about living things • Classifying living things into three kingdoms • Identifying the characteristics of the three kingdoms of living things

Assessment criteria • • • • •

16

Distinguishing living things and non-living things Knowing that cells are the smallest living units in a living thing Recognising the three parts of a cell Explaining how living things are organised Classifying living things into three kingdoms

ATTITUDES

• Appreciating life and living things

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

2/10/06

20:24

Página 17

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 1 – Extension: Worksheet 1

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 1

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Cells and life processes http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=315 The structure of plant and animal cells and life processes, along with other biology topics. For students and teachers. Living things http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html A variety of biology topics including the kingdoms of living things and human organ systems. For students and teachers. The fungi kingdom http://www.wise-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp? objid=BIO304 A closer look at the fungi kingdom. For students and teachers.

• • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

Cells The cell is the basic unit of living things. All living things are made up of cells. Some living things, such as bacteria, are made up of a single cell. An adult human, in contrast, has about 100 trillion cells. Every part of the body is made up of one kind of cell or another, and each kind of cell has a special function. There are about two hundred different kinds of cells in the human body, including bone cells, muscle cells, heart cells, liver cells and so on. The shape and size of a cell depend on its funtion. Muscle cells are long and thin—when they contract, they produce movement. The three main parts of cells are the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. The nucleus is the central part of a cell and controls most of its functions. The cytoplasm is a jellylike substance that makes up most of the inside of a cell. The cell membrane is the outside covering of a cell. It controls what can enter and exit a cell.

Muscle Cells

Bone Cells

nucleus

cytoplasm nucleus cytoplasm

cell membrane

cell membrane Bone Tissue

Muscle Tissue

Tissue Tissue is made up of a group of cells that have the same function. For example, bone tissue is made up of three types of bone cell—one to make bones, one to repair bones and one to remove dead bone cells. Humans have four types of tissue. · Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and relax to produce movement. · Nervous tissue is found in the brain and spinal cord, as well as the sense organs. · Connective tissue includes the bones and tendons. · Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines some internal organs. Bone tissue, despite its strength, is amazingly light; bones make up only about one fifth of our weight. There are two main types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue, which is connected to the skeleton, and smooth muscle tissue, which is found in the internal organs. Around 40% of a man’s weight and 20% of a woman’s weight is made up of skeletal muscle tissue.

Bone

Muscle

© Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S.L.

Other resources

The Organisation of the Human Body

Organs An organ is a set of tissues that have the same function. Each organ is made up of several types of tissue. For example, there are three types of bone tissue in bones: a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like tissue inside bones, and a smooth tissue at the ends of bones. In the skin, which is also an organ, there is epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue.

Systems A system is a set of organs that work together to perform a common function. There are ten major systems in humans, including the respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular and reproductory systems.

Skeleton

Muscular System

Musculoskeletal System

* Not yet available in English

17

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

2/10/06

20:24

Página 18

Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 1,2, 3.

are born, die, eat, grow, living things, non-living things, nutrients, nutrition, react, reproduce, sensitivity

Living things

■ Special attention LOOK

• Using the vocabulary correctly • Relative clauses with which

Look at this photo.

■ Hands on

• What non-living things can you see?

• What living things can you see?

Our pets • Encourage Ss to talk about their experiences with pets. • Ask: Who has a pet? What is it? What does it do? (It sleeps, plays, eats…) What does it need? (food, water …)

READ

■ Presentation

1. Living and non-living things 1

2. Life processes

In nature, there are living things and non-living things.

There are three basic life processes: • Nutrition

People, animals and plants are living things.

Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.

Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.

• LOOK Focus on the photo and questions. Living things: grass, trees, cows, calves. Non-living things: air, buildings …

Nutrients are substances which provide energy.

Living things have the following characteristics: • Sensitivity

• They are born from other living things.

Living things react to their environment.

• They eat. • They react to their environment.

• Ask: How do you know cows are living things? (They are born, eat, react, grow, reproduce and die.) What do cows need to live? (food, water, space) • READ Elicit examples of the characteristics of living things. Ask: When are more calves born? (spring) What do cows eat? (grass) When chickens grow, what do they become? (hens, cockerels) What animal does a cow need to reproduce? (a bull)

• Reproduction

• They grow.

Living things have offspring.

• They reproduce.

Many living things need a mate to reproduce.

• Finally, they die.

New living things replace the ones which die.

Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things … What living things are there in your home?

…react to their environment…grow…die…/ Open

LIVING THINGS

• Ss read 1 and 2 with 1 and 2 . They then do the activities at the bottom of the page.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

➔ R Activity Book, page 3.

Comprehension. Write the following phrases on the BB. Ask Ss to match the sentence halves. 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Living things Non-living things Nutrients Animals There are three

a. b. c. d. e.

provide energy. basic life processes. are born and die. do not reproduce. are living things.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – d. 3 – a. 4 – e. 5 – b.

Respecting all living things. All living things, big or small, deserve our respect.

18

5

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

2/10/06

20:24

Página 19

Vocabulary Content objectives: 3, 4. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.

cell, cytoplasm, membrane, multicellular, nucleus, unicellular

Cells

■ Special attention READ

• Understanding that cells are threedimensional and not flat

1. What is a cell? Living things are made up of tiny units called cells.

• Understanding that humans are made up of tiny cells

Cells are the smallest living units in a living thing. Some living things are made up of a single cell.

■ Hands on

They are unicellular. Other living things are made up of many cells. These cells are amplified by a microscope.

They are multicellular.

2. What are cells like?

Making yoghurt

Cells differ in shape and size.

• Pour two litres of warm milk into a container. Add two plain yoghurts and mix. Put a lid on the container and cover it with a towel. • Ask: What do you think will happen after twelve hours? (The milk will change to yoghurt.) • Examine the mixture later. Explain that the bacteria in the yoghurt caused a chemical change. Bacteria are unicellular living things.

They carry out different tasks. For example, our skin cells are different from our bone cells.

3. Parts of a cell 2 Cells have three parts: • The membrane is the covering around the cell. • The nucleus is the part which controls the cell.

We use microscopes to study small things.

The parts of animal and plant cells

• Cytoplasm is between the nucleus and the membrane.

3

membrane cytoplasm

Plant cells also have a hard cell wall around the membrane.

nucleus

Plant cell

This is why some plant stems are hard.

Animal cell Cells have three parts: …

LIVING THINGS

■ Presentation

cytoplasm membrane

Complete the sentence.

6

nucleus

wall

…membrane, nucleus and

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to choose the correct option. 1. Living things are made up of tiny / big units called cells. 2. Cells are the smallest units in a living / non-living thing. 3. Living things with a single cell are multicellular / unicellular. 4. Living things made up of many cells are multicellular / unicellular. 5. Skin cells and bone cells are different / the same.

Answers: 1. tiny. 2. living. 3. unicellular. 4. multicellular. 5. different.

• READ Focus on the drawing of cells. Ask: What are the parts of an animal cell? (membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm) What are the parts of a plant cell? (nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, wall) • Give examples of unicellular living things: bacteria, some algae, yeast, protozoa … • Point out that cells have three dimensions and are not flat. Cells can have different shapes: cubes, octahedrons … • Ask: Are cells small? (yes) How can we see cells? (with a microscope) • Ss read 1-3 with 3 , 4 and 5 . They then do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Bacteria and living things. Bacteria can cause illnesses, such as pneumonia. Some bacteria are used to make food, like yoghurt.

19

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

2/10/06

20:24

Página 20

Content objectives: 5.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

cell, organ, organism, system, tissue

The organisation of living things

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Understanding new concepts

1. How are living things organised? 4

• Pronunciation of muscle, tissue

The organisation of living things

Multicellular living things have the following structure:

■ Hands on Atlas of human anatomy • Use an atlas of human anatomy, or the Richmond poster of the human body, to show different structures in the human body. • Ask: What does the human body consist of? (bones, organs, muscles ...) What are the major organs in the digestive system? (mouth, oesophagus, stomach)

• Cells form tissues: Tissues, such as muscle tissue, are made up of cells which work together.

cell

• Tissues form organs: Organs, such as the heart, are made up of tissues which work together.

tissue

• Organs form systems: Systems, such as the digestive system, are made up of organs which work together.

5 muscle cell

muscle tissue

muscle organ

• An organism is a complete living thing: Many systems work together in an organism. All living things are organisms. All the systems in an organism work together to keep a living thing healthy. system muscular system

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Explain that the human body is organised into systems which work together.

tissue cell

• Use different colour chalk and write these words inside the same concentric circles: muscle cell, muscle tissue, deltoid muscle, muscular system, organism. • Ss read 1 with 7 . They then do the activities at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 4.

Prevention. Periodic health check-ups can help prevent illness by detecting health problems before they become serious.

20

organism system

Put the words in order from the simplest structure to the most complex structure.

• Draw concentric circles on the BB and write these words from the centre outwards: cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism. • Ask: What is the simplest unit in the human body? (a cell) Which is more complex, an organ or a cell? (an organ) Which is more complex, an organ or an organism? (an organism)

organ

organism

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words.

human being

Tissues, such as muscle tissue, are made up of cells which work together.

cell, tissue, organ, system, organism / Model Answer (M.A.) Systems… the digestive system … organs. Organs…the heart…tissues…

LIVING THINGS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Vocabulary. Write these sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to write the jumbled words correctly.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A human being is an NAGROMIS. Human beings are ILTUMRALULELC. One type of tissue is ELSCUM tissue. Tissues are made up of SELCL. The heart is an AGRON. One type of system is the VITESGIDE system.

Answers: 1. organism. 2. multicellular. 3. muscle. 4. cells. 5. organ. 6. digestive.

7

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

2/10/06

20:25

Página 21

Vocabulary Content objectives: 4, 5. Language objectives: 1, 3, 4, 6.

animal kingdom, fungi kingdom, kingdoms, plant kingdom

Kingdoms

■ Special attention

READ

1. Kingdoms Living things are classified into groups called kingdoms. The three principal kingdoms are the animal kingdom, the plant kingdom and the fungi kingdom.

• Understanding the concept of kingdom • Understanding that fungi are neither plants nor animals

■ Hands on

2. The animal kingdom 6 • Animals are multicellular. Animals can move.

• They eat other living things. • They can move from one place to another. • They have a nervous system and sense organs. • They react to stimuli.

3. The plant kingdom 7 • Plants are multicellular. • They use sunlight and substances from the soil and air to make their food. • They cannot move. They have roots in the ground. Plants grow well when there is a lot of sunlight and water.

• Plants do not have a nervous system or sense organs. However, they react slowly to some stimuli. For example, many plants grow towards the light.

4. The fungi kingdom • Most fungi are multicellular. A few are unicellular. • They depend on other organisms for food. They do not make their own food. • They are fixed to something. They cannot move. A mushroom is the top part of a fungus. Most of it is underground.

8

LIVING THINGS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB. Ss copy the sentences and circle the correct option. 1. Living things are classified into three / four kingdoms. 2. Animals can / cannot move from one place to another. 3. Plants have / do not have a nervous system or sense organs. 4. Plants grow towards / away from the light. 5. Fungi depend on / do not depend on other organisms for food. 6. Fungi can / cannot move.

Answers: 1. three. 2. can. 3. do not have. 4. towards. 5. depend on. 6. cannot.

Mould

• Put a few drops of water on a slice of bread. • Place inside a plastic bag. Put the bag in a warm, dark place. • Show Ss the bread after a few days. Ask: What has happened? (The bread has developed mould.) Ask: What does the mould need to grow? (moisture, warmth and nutrients)

■ Presentation • READ Present with 9 and 10 . Ask: Can animals move? (Yes) Can plants move? (No) Can mushrooms move? (No) How do plants obtain food? (They make their food.) Ask about plants and fungi. • Help Ss make a tree diagram. Title: The three kingdoms. Level 1: The animal kingdom, The plant kingdom, The fungi kingdom. Level 2: characteristics of each. Level 3: examples. • Read and listen to 11 and 12 . Ask: Can you give some examples of fungi? (bread and fruit mould, yeast) What do you know about mushrooms? (many are poisonous) E ➔ Activity Book, page 5.

Yeast and bread. Yeast is a microscopic fungus used to make bread. It feeds on sugar and produces carbon dioxide, making the bread rise.

21

Worksheet 1. Date

Apply your knowledge CLASSIFICATION

20:25

1. Match and label.

1. Classify into living or non-living things. tissue

organ

organism

A

cell

B

©el¬ E

D

organisµ

tiss¤æ C

sys†eµ

orga>

wind

people

cows

chairs

rocks

air

trees

snakes

fungi

glass

flowers

plastic

LIVING

NON-LIVING

πeop¬æ cowfi t®æefi sna§efi flo∑±rfi fung^

chairfi glasfi plasti© ai® win∂ rockfi

Página 22

system

2. Complete the sentences. a. b. c.

Tiss¤efi Organfi Sys†emfi

are made up of are made up of are made up of

©ellfi tiss¤efi organfi

which work together. which work together. which work together.

Many systems work together in an organism. VOCABULARY

3. Classify the living things from Worksheet 1.

Match and write.

KINGDOMS

4

Animal

Plant

Fungi

πeop¬æ cowfi sna§efi

træefi flo∑±rfi

fung^

sensitivity

nutritio> ßensitivit¥ ®eproductio>

reproduction

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge THE ORGANISATION OF LIVING THINGS KINGDOMS

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

Activity Book

22 Worksheet 2. Date

nutrition

: living things eat food, which contains nutrients. : living things react to their environment. : living things have offspring.

3

857415 _ 0016-0023.qxd

Notes:

2/10/06

Worksheet 3. Date

Read and learn FUNGI

20:25

1. Read carefully. cap

What type of living things are fungi? Página 23

Fungi are living things. They are born, grow, reproduce and die, but they are not plants or animals. They are not plants because they cannot make their own food. They absorb nutrients from the remains of other living things. They are not animals because they do not have sense organs and they cannot move.

stem

Some fungi, such as yeast, are too tiny to see. Others, such as moulds, are also tiny, but you can see them all together. Some fungi are in the ground. In autumn, they become mushrooms and grow above the ground. There are many edible mushrooms.

mushroom 2. Identify. B

A

• mould 씲 A

C

• mushrooms 씲 C

• microscopic yeast 씲 B

VOCABULARY Match. Fungi are



• they do not have sense organs.

Fungi are not plants because



• born, grow, reproduce and die.

Fungi are not animals because •

• they cannot make their own food.

Investigate. Which edible mushrooms are found in your region? Model Answer (M. A.)

Butto> mushroomfi a®æ foun∂ i> m¥ ®egio>. 5

23

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Página 24

UNIT 2

Plants UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Recognising the distinguishing features of flowering and non-flowering plants Understanding how to classify plants and the main characteristics of each group Identifying what plants need Learning how plants breathe and make their own food Understanding how plants reproduce Appreciating the important role plants have in nature

Language objectives 1. Describing properties: Plants have …, angiosperms have … 2. Describing processes (passive, present simple): … are absorbed from the soil … transported from the roots … Photosynthesis takes place … 3. Expressing quantity: almost all gymnosperms … some grasses … 4. Giving examples: such as pine trees 5. Giving additional information: small plants which live … stems which extend … 6. Describing movement (prepositions): through the roots … up the stem … from the stamens to the ovary

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• The parts of a plant and their functions • Plant classification • Plant nutrition: respiration and photosynthesis • Flowers as organs of reproduction: the parts of a flower, pollination, how seeds form and germinate • Types of special stems involved in plant reproduction

• Observe the different parts of a plant • Classify plants into two groups • Describe the processes carried out in plant nutrition • Describe the processes carried out in the reproduction of flowering plants using the correct sequence • Interpret drawings, photographs and diagrams correctly

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate the role of plants and show an interest in protecting them

Assessment criteria • • • • • • • •

24

Distinguishing the different parts of a plant Understanding the processes carried out in plant reproduction Identifying the different groups of plants with their main characteristics Explaining the process of photosynthesis Understanding the difference between respiration and photosynthesis Knowing about different types of plant reproduction Interpreting diagrams, drawings and photographs correctly to obtain answers Respecting plants

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Página 25

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 2 – Extension: Worksheet 2

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 2

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Plants http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/gpe/ The Great Plant Escape combines facts, pictures and activities. For students and teachers. Plants and animals http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chapters.html The Open Door Web Site has a wealth of material about plants and animals, including how plants breathe, feed and reproduce. For teachers. How plants grow http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/ HowPlantsGrow/HowPlantsGrow.html How Plants Grow includes information on pollination, seeds and bulbs.

4

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

C OCONUT : S EED

OR

F RUIT ?

www.richmondelt.com

25

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Página 26

Vocabulary Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

angiosperms, cones, fungi, gymnosperms, leaves, mosses, stem

Plants

■ Special attention LOOK

• Not all plants have flowers • Pronunciation of breathe and moisture

• How many plants can you see in this photo?

■ Hands on

• What are the plants like where you live?

Cones • Collect different gymnosperm cones. • Get Ss to compare their shape, size and colour. • Lift the pine cone scales to show where the seeds are and what they are like.

READ

1. Plant groups Plants have roots, a stem and leaves. The roots are in the soil. Water and other substances are absorbed from the soil through the roots. The stem supports the leaves. Water and nutrients are transported from the roots to the leaves inside the stem. The leaves breathe and make the plant’s food.

■ Presentation

pine cone

Flowering plants are the biggest group of plants.

26

olives

• Angiosperms have flowers and fruit. Chestnut trees and some grasses are angiosperms.

3. Non-flowering plants Non-flowering plants are the smallest group of plants. They need shade and moisture. moss

• Mosses are small plants which live on rocks, trees and the ground. • Ferns are larger than mosses. They have thick, underground stems and big leaves.

• Draw a table on the BB. Title: PLANT GROUPS. First level: Flowering plants – Non-flowering plants. Second level: Gymnosperms – Angiosperms. Third level: examples.

Ancient trees. Some trees live for hundreds of years. They are part of our natural heritage. We should respect and protect them.

grapes

• Gymnosperms have small flowers, but no fruit. Their seeds are all together in cones. Almost all gymnosperms are trees, such as pine trees.

• READ Draw a plant on the BB with the three main parts and a line to show the ground. Ask: What is the part in the soil? (the roots) What supports the leaves? (the stem) What makes the plant’s food? (the leaves) Ss read 1-3 with 13 , 14 , 15 .

➔ R Activity Book, pages 6, 7.

Angiosperm fruit

2. Flowering plants 8

• LOOK Establish that plants have different shapes, sizes, colours, leaves … Focus on the photo and elicit answers.

• Examples: Gymnosperms: cedar, cypress, fir Angiosperms: wheat, poppy, oak, rosemary Non-flowering plants: moss, fern

Gymnosperm cone

ferns

Ferns and mosses are found in dark, humid forests.

PLANTS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Quiz. Ask Ss to close their books. Read out these questions. Ss write the answers in their notebooks. 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Which is the biggest group of plants? Which is the smallest? Plants have roots, a stem and … what else? What does the stem transport to the leaves? What do the leaves make? Where do we find ferns and mosses?

Answers: 1. flowering plants. 2. non-flowering plants. 3. leaves. 4. water and nutrients. 5. food for the plant. 6. in forests / on rocks and trees.

9

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Content objectives: 3, 4, 6. Language objectives: 2, 3, 6.

Página 27

Vocabulary: autotrophs, carbon dioxide, elaborated sap, nutrition, oxygen, photosynthesis, raw sap, respiration, sunlight

Plant nutrition

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Respiration

• Plants, like all living things, breathe continually

The exchange of gases

Like all living things, plants breathe. They take oxygen from the air, and release carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is called respiration. It takes place in leaves continually, day and night.









Respiration

oxygen

Photosynthesis

2. Plant nutrition Plants obtain food in a different way from animals. Plants are autotrophs: they make their own food. To make food, plants need sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and minerals from the soil.

carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide

■ Hands on oxygen

Plants produce oxygen Plant nutrition 10

3. Water and minerals sunlight carbon dioxide



Water and minerals are important for plant nutrition. In the soil, minerals dissolve in water. Plants absorb this water through their roots. These nutrients, called raw sap, travel up the stem to the leaves.



raw sap

oxygen

4. Photosynthesis 9 Photosynthesis enables plants to make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals. Photosynthesis takes place in the leaves. In the leaves, raw sap mixes with carbon dioxide and becomes elaborated sap. This is the plant’s food.

leaf elaborated sap

Sunlight is essential for photosynthesis, so it only takes place during the day. During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen.

raw sap roots

water and dissolved minerals

Do you have plants in your home? How do you take care of them?

PLANTS

• Put an aquatic plant in a jar full of water. Cover the plant with a short inverted funnel and place an inverted test tube over the funnel. • After several days, show Ss the bubbles in the inverted test tube. Explain that the plant releases oxygen when it makes food during photosynthesis.

stem

Complete the sentence. To make food, plants need …

10

• Distinguishing respiration and photosynthesis

…sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals. M. A. I give them sunlight and water and replant when necessary.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write these words and sentences on the BB. Ss copy the sentences and complete them with the correct words. oxygen food stem minerals gases leaves respiration

1. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are … 2. Plants breathe through their … 3. When they breathe, plants take … from the air and release carbon dioxide. 4. The exchange of gases is called … 5. Plants make their own … 6. Water and … are important for plant nutrition. 7. In plants, nutrients travel up the … to the leaves.

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Ask: What happens to plants in a room without light? (they die) Do plants breathe? (yes) • Ss read 1-3 and listen to 16 , 17 , 18 . Ask: What do plants need to survive? (sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals) Where does respiration take place? (in the leaves) How do plants obtain food? (They make their own food.) Ask: What is raw sap? (a mixture of water and minerals) Where does it form? (in the roots) • Ss read 4 with 19 . Ask: What is elaborated sap? (the plant’s food) Where does it form? (in the leaves) Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Answers: 1. gases. 2. leaves. 3. oxygen. 4. respiration. 5. food. 6. minerals. 7. stem.

27

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Página 28

Vocabulary: asexual reproduction, bulbs, germinate, ovary, petal, pollen, pollination, seeds, sepal, sexual reproduction, stamens, stolons, tubers

Content objectives: 5, 6. Language objectives: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Plant reproduction

■ Special attention

READ

• The sequence in the reproductive processes of angiosperms

The parts of a flower 11

• Fruit comes from flowers

corolla

1. Sexual reproduction Flowers are the reproductive organs of the plant. pollen

• Tubers and bulbs are underground stems stamens

ovary

■ Hands on

petal sepal calyx

Needs of seeds

• The stamens are the male parts which produce pollen. • The ovary is the female part which contains ovules. Ovules become seeds.

2. Pollination Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens. Pollination is the movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary. Pollination usually takes place in the same plant. However, wind and insects also carry pollen to other plants.

• Soak some lentils in water. Then put a folded paper napkin and some lentils on three soup plates. • Wet the napkin in plate 1. Do not wet the napkin in plate 2. Cover the lentils in plate 3 completely with water. • Ask: What will happen to the lentils? (The lentils in plate 1 germinate because they have air and water. The lentils in plate 2 stay the same because they have no water. The lentils in plate 3 begin to germinate but later die because they have no air.)

3. Seeds and fruit

Insect pollination Wind pollination

After pollination, the flower changes. Its petals fall. The ovary grows, and becomes a fruit with seeds inside. When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground. The fruit opens, and its seeds fall out. The seeds germinate: they open, and small roots and tiny leaves grow. A new plant forms.

A potato plant: reproduction by tubers stem

 

Some plants reproduce without flowers or seeds.

 

• Tubers, such as potatoes, are underground stems. The underground stem develops roots. A thin stem rises above the ground, and develops leaves. A complete plant grows.

tubers A strawberry plant: reproduction by stolons new plant

■ Presentation

stolon

4. Asexual reproduction

• Bulbs, such as onions, also grow underground. • Some plants, such as strawberry plants, have stolons. These are stems which extend across the ground. Roots grow, and a new plant begins. What is your favourite fruit? What do the seeds look like?

• READ Ask: What are the male and female parts of a flower? (stamens and ovary, respectively) • Play 21 and ask Ss to point to the parts in the drawing as they hear the names. • SS read 1-4 and listen to

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

22 , 23 , 24 , 25 .

• Ask: Why are stolons an example of asexual reproduction? (New plants grow from the stems without flowers or seeds.) • Ask: Can you name any bulbs? (onions, tulips, hyacinths …) • Discuss the questions at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 8. Fruit and health. Fruit helps us grow strong and healthy. To get all the vitamins, we should eat fresh fruit.

28

PLANTS

1 Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to write the numbers in the correct sequence. Number 1 is correct.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The stamens produce pollen. A new plant forms. When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground. The pollen moves from the stamens to the ovary. Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens. The seeds germinate: they open and small roots and leaves grow. 7. The ovary grows and becomes a fruit with seeds inside. 8. The fruit opens and its seeds fall out. 9. After pollination, the petals fall.

Answers: 1 – 5 – 4 – 9 – 7 – 3 – 8 – 6 – 2.

11

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Página 29

1. Decide if these sentences are true or false. 1. Gymnosperms have small flowers.

True / False

2. Gymnosperms have fruit.

True / False

3. The seeds of gymnosperms are in the leaves.

True / False

4. Almost all gymnosperms are trees.

True / False

5. Angiosperms have no flowers.

True / False

6. Angiosperms have fruit.

True / False

7. Some grasses are angiosperms.

True / False

Answers: 1. True. 2. False. 3. False (in cones). 4. True. 5. False. 6. True. 7. True.

2. Circle the correct word. 1. Photosynthesis enables plants to make food / light. 2. Plants make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and roots / minerals. 3. Photosynthesis takes place in the stems / leaves. 4. Raw sap mixes with carbon dioxide / oxygen in the leaves. 5. Photosynthesis takes place during the day / night. 6. During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen / carbon dioxide. Answers: 1. food. 2. minerals. 3. leaves. 4. carbon dioxide. 5. day. 6. oxygen. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

29

Apply your knowledge

1. Complete each sentence. a. The stems of bushes are

gymnosperms

pine trees

sof† an∂ f¬exib¬æ.

soft and flexible

hard

ferns b. Plants need the correct temperature, water, soil and sunlight mosses

without flowers

ƒernfi

PLANTS

gymnosπermfi with flowers

pi>æ t®æefi

(They do not have any fruit.)

(They have fruit.)

c™estnu† t®æefi

2. Gymnosperm or angiosperm? Decide and label the photos. A

salt

flo∑±rfi.

c. The reproductive organs of a plant are the flowers

leaves

frui†.

d. Seeds are inside the fruit

flowers

e. Plants breathe and

ma§æ t™ei® ow> foo∂.

make their own food

angiosπermfi

sunligh†.

Página 30

chestnut trees

angiosperms

20:24

1. Use the words below to complete the word map.

PLANTS

eat other living things

2. Name the parts of the plant involved in the following processes. production of pollen

formation of fruit

pollination

staµenfi

ovar¥

staµenfi, ovar¥

B

angiosπerµ

gymnosπerµ

VOCABULARY Match and write. flower

C

gymnosπerµ

D

E

angiosπerµ

F

angiosπerµ

gymnosπerµ

pollinatio> co>æ frui† ovar¥ staµenfi flo∑±®

2/10/06

Worksheet 4. Date

CLASSIFY PLANTS

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

Activity Book

30 Tasks

Worksheet 5. Date

ovary

stamens

pollination

fruit

: movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary. : part of gymnosperms which contains the seeds. : part of angiosperms which contains the seeds. : female part of the flower which turns into fruit. : male parts of the flower which produce pollen. : reproductive organ of the plant.

cone

857415 _ 0024-0031.qxd

Notes: Apply your knowledge PLANT REPRODUCTION

20:24

1. Match and write. Then order the photos.

Página 31

germination flowering pollination formation of fruits and seeds

formatio> oƒ fruitfi an∂ ßæedfi

flo∑±[email protected]

@erminatio>

pollinatio>

2. Complete the table.

1 2 3 4

2/10/06

Worksheet 6. Date

Stage

What happens?

@erminatio> flo∑±[email protected] pollinatio> formatio> oƒ fruitfi an∂ ßæedfi

Sæedfi oπe> an∂ smal¬ rootfi an∂ tin¥ ¬ea√±fi gro∑. Flo∑±rfi apπea®. T™ei® πetalfi attrac† inßectfi. Pol¬e> mo√±fi froµ t™æ staµenfi tø t™æ ovar¥. Af†e® pollinatio>, t™æ flo∑±® [email protected]fi. Itfi πetalfi fal¬. T™æ ovar¥ growfi an∂ ∫±coµefi å frui† wit™ ßæedfi.

31

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

2/10/06

20:27

Página 32

UNIT 3

Invertebrates UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Identifying characteristics of invertebrates and where they live Learning names of invertebrate animals Understanding the main characteristics of invertebrate groups Identifying the characteristics of arthropods and where they live Understanding the different arthropod groups Appreciating the importance of protecting animal habitats

Language objectives 1. Describing and classifying invertebrates and arthropods: Invertebrates are … Arthropods are covered by … … have an external skeleton 2. Expressing contrast: Most are … but some … Many live in the sea … others live … 3. Giving examples: such as giant squids … such as medusas 4. Expressing ability: Most invertebrates can move … The arthropod can grow … 5. Describing sequence: At first …, then … 6. Expressing frequency: They are usually … and often have … From time to time …

Contents CONCEPTS

• The main characteristics of invertebrate animals • Invertebrate groups • Arthropods: characteristics, groups, and anatomical differences

PROCEDURES

• Recognise different types of invertebrates • Classify invertebrates into groups • Observe photographs and drawings of invertebrates • Distinguish body parts of insects, arachnids and arthropods • Study labelled anatomical drawings of invertebrate animals

Assessment criteria • • • • •

32

Recognising characteristics of invertebrate animals Classifying invertebrates Using the main characteristics to identify arthropods Interpreting anatomical drawings Showing interest in protecting nature

ATTITUDES

• Understand the importance of protecting habitats in order to protect animal life

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

2/10/06

20:27

Página 33

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 3 – Extension: Worksheet 3

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 3

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Insects http://www.ento.csiro.au/education/index.html Everything you ever wanted to know about insects and more. For teachers and students. Invertebrate animals http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/animals/index.html The Shape of Life gives facts, photos and activities on all the invertebrate groups. For students and teachers. Let's talk about insects http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/insects/12.html A clever ant explains about insects. For students and teachers.

5

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

W E N EED

I NSECTS !

www.richmondelt.com

33

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

2/10/06

20:27

Página 34

Content objectives: 1, 6. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Vocabulary: exoskeleton, invertebrates, oviparous, parasites, shells

Invertebrates

■ Special attention

COMPARE

• Using the vocabulary correctly Compare the photos.

■ Hands on

• How many different animals can you see? • Think of other animals which live in, or near, the sea.

Worms and light • Ask: Where do worms live? (underground) • Cut off about one-third of the lid of a shoebox. • Place the earthworms on a wet paper towel at one end of the box. • Cover the box with the lid making sure the worms are on the open side. Ask: What will the worms do? (move to the dark side) • Place the box away from the light. • Wait 30 minutes and take off the lid. Ask: Why do the earthworms move to the dark side? (They avoid light because they live underground.)

READ

1. What are invertebrates? 12

2. How do invertebrates live?

Invertebrates are animals which do not have a skeleton or a backbone.

Many invertebrates live in the sea, but some live in fresh water. Others live on land.

• Size: Most invertebrates are very small, but some, such as giant squids, are enormous. • Body shape: Most invertebrates are symmetrical, but some have irregular bodies. • Body covering: Many invertebrate bodies are protected by shells or exoskeletons, but others have no covering.

■ Presentation

Most invertebrates can move, but some attach themselves to rocks or the sea floor. Others, called parasites, live inside other animals. Invertebrates are oviparous. A larva hatches from an egg. At first, it does not look like an adult. Then its physical appearance changes.

Describe invertebrates. Most invertebrates are very small, … Why is it important to protect animals’ habitats?

• COMPARE Focus on the photos and questions. 12

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 26 and 27 . Ask Ss for examples of invertebrates: Which are very small? (flies, ladybirds) Which are a little larger? (snails, clams) Which are even larger? (octopus, starfish, crabs) • Ask: Which invertebrates … have shells? (limpets, mussels, cockles, snails) … have exoskeletons? (crabs, sea urchins, starfish, scorpions) … have no body covering? (earthworms, squid, jellyfish) • Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page. ➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, page 9.

The vocabulary activity is Extension. Present the vocabulary on the BB before Ss name the organs.

34

M.A. …are symmetrical, are protected by shells or exoskeletons INVERTEBRATES M.A. If an animal’s habitat is destroyed, it can die…

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Comprehension. Write the words and sentences on the BB. Ss copy and complete the sentences with the correct word. 1

parasites sea shells or exoskeletons skeleton oviparous 1. Invertebrates do not have a … 2. Many invertebrates are protected by … 3. Not all invertebrates live in the … 4. … live inside other animals. 5. Invertebrates are … Answers: 1. skeleton. 2. shells or exoskeletons. 3. sea. 4. Parasites. 5. oviparous.

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

2/10/06

20:27

Content objectives: 2, 3. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

Página 35

Vocabulary: arthropods, cnidarians, echinoderms, molluscs, sponges, worms

Invertebrate groups

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ A

SPONGES

B

CNIDARIANS

C

WORMS

• The fact that anemone and coral are animals

planaria

• Some vertebrates are protected by hard body coverings, but do not have a skeleton coral

■ Hands on

jellyfish tapeworm anemone D

earthworm

Draw and label

ECHINODERMS

1. Invertebrate groups 13 • Sponges have irregular bodies. They cannot move. They attach themselves to rocks or the sea floor. They filter seawater, and retain nutritive substances for food. • Cnidarians have jelly-like bodies. They are marine animals. They have tentacles which can sting you. Some, such as coral and sea anemone, attach themselves to rocks. Others, such as medusas, can move about.

• Arthropods are covered by a hard exoskeleton. Some are aquatic. Others are terrestrial. • Molluscs have a soft body. Many are covered by one or two shells.

sea urchin

starfish

E

• Worms have long, soft bodies. Some are cylindrical, and others are flat. Some are aquatic, and others are terrestrial. Many are parasites. • Echinoderms are symmetrical: they are usually in five parts. They are marine animals. They have a skeleton made of hard plates, and often have spines. They are covered by a thin skin.

• Ask: Which invertebrate animals can you name? Write suggestions on the BB. • Ss choose an invertebrate animal and draw it. • They label the body parts. • They write what they know about the invertebrate in the drawing.

ofiura star

ARTHROPODS

beetle

scorpion

■ Presentation

river crab

F

MOLLUSCS

• LOOK AND READ Focus on the illustrations. Ask: How many groups of animals are there? (six) Which names are in big letters? (names of the invertebrate groups) Which group does (coral) belong to?

snail clam octopus

INVERTEBRATES

13

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write these sentences on the BB. Ss decide if they are true or false, then check by listening again to 28 .

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Sponges have symmetrical bodies. Cnidarians have tentacles which can sting you. Medusas cannot move about. Many worms are parasites. Echinoderms are usually in four parts. Arthropods are covered by a hard exoskeleton. Molluscs have a hard body.

Answers: 1. False (irregular). 2. True. 3. False (can). 4. True. 5. False (five). 6. True. 7. False (soft).

• Ask: How can we organise all the information? (in a table) Ask: What type of table should we use? Point out that in this case, a double-entry table is useful. Write the names of the invertebrate groups down the left side. At the top, write these headings: Body, Habitat, Other characteristics, Examples. • Ss read 1 with 28 and complete the table. Some squares will be empty. ➔ R Activity Book, page 10.

Invertebrates and food. Many people include invertebrates in their diet, for example, prawns, squid, mussels and snails.

35

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

2/10/06

20:27

Página 36

Content objectives: 4, 5. Language objectives: 1, 4, 6.

Vocabulary: abdomen, arachnids, arthropods, cephalothorax, crustaceans, exoskeleton, head, insects, myriapods, thorax

Arthropods

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• The fact that arachnids are not insects • Worms and myriapods are two different groups

1. Arthropods Arthropods have an external exoskeleton. It is made up of many small plates, and covers the body, legs and antennae. The exoskeleton is rigid. From time to time, the arthropod sheds it, and grows a new, flexible one. As a result, the arthropod can grow until its new exoskeleton becomes rigid.

■ Hands on

Arthropod sense organs are well developed: they have antennae and eyes. The eyes can be simple or compound. Compound eyes are made up of many smaller, simpler ‘eyes’.

Making a spider • Ask: How can we make a spider out of plasticine? • Elicit suggestions from Ss. First, make a small ball and a large ball. Then connect them. Ask: How many legs have spiders got? (eight) • Make four pairs of articulated legs to place on the cephalothorax.

Insects, arachnids, crustaceans and myriapods are arthropods.

Insect: grasshopper 15 wing wing

head eye

leg antenna abdomen

2. Arthropod groups 14 • Insects: An insect’s body is divided into three parts: head, thorax and abdomen. The head has a mouth, two eyes and two antennae. The thorax has six legs. Many insects also have wings on the thorax. Insects are the most numerous arthropod group. They are found in many different habitats.

mouth

abdomen

legs cephalothorax

Flies and butterflies are insects. • Arachnids: Arachnids have eight legs. The body is divided into two parts: the abdomen and the cephalothorax.

Crustacean: lobster pincher claws

• Crustaceans: Crustaceans have ten or more legs. Many have long antennae. The body is divided into two parts: the abdomen and the cephalothorax.

■ Presentation

Lobsters, shrimps and crabs are crustaceans.

• LOOK AND READ Ask: Which invertebrates can we see in the drawings? (grasshopper, spider, lobster) Which group do they belong to? (insect, arachnid, crustacean) Which invertebrate has a head / thorax / abdomen? etc. • Have Ss copy this sentence: Arthropods are invertebrate animals which have exoskeletons made up of many small plates. • Ss make a double entry chart for arthropods. Down the left, they write the arthropod groups. They write these headings: Body, Habitat, Other characteristics, Examples. 29

and

30 .

• They do the activity at the bottom of the page. E ➔ Activity Book, page 11.

Cochineals. Cochineal insects live on cactus plants. The females produce a deep red dye used to colour cloth, cosmetics and food.

36

leg

Arachnid: spider

Spiders and scorpions are arachnids.

• Ss read 1 and 2 with

thorax

• Myriapods: Myriapods have long bodies with many legs. The head has one pair of short antennae.

legs

Centipedes and millipedes are myriapods.

legs antenna

Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Do insects have six legs? Is an insect’s body divided into two parts?

abdomen

cephalothorax

Are there many insects or arachnids where you live? Where do you see them?

14

Yes. No, three. M.A. Do arachnids have eight legs? INVERTEBRATES Do crustaceans have ten legs? Is a crustacean’s body divided into three parts? Is an arachnid’s body divided into three parts?

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Pairwork testing. Ss use their tables and the information in their books to test each other on arthropods. They should prepare a minimum of five questions for their partner and write them down. Student A should ask all the questions first. Student B should not look at his / her book or notes.

Then, the roles are reversed and Student B asks the questions. Ask for feedback after a few minutes, e.g. How many questions did you get right? Were any of your questions the same?

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

2/10/06

20:27

Página 37

1. Match the sentence halves. 1. From time to time, the arthropod

a. are crustaceans

2. Arthropod sense organs

b. can be simple or compound

3. The eyes of arthropods

c. into three parts

4. An insect's body is divided

d. an arachnid

5. The spider is

e. myriapods

6. Shrimps and crabs

f. are well developed

7. Centipedes are

g. sheds its skeleton Answers: 1 – g. 2 – f. 3 – b. 4 – c. 5 – d. 6 – a. 7 – e.

2. Write the words below under the appropriate heading. the sea shell symmetrical enormous fresh water irregular small on land Body shape

Body covering

Size

Habitat

Answers: Body shape: symmetrical, irregular. Body covering: shell. Size: enormous, small. Habitat: the sea, fresh water, on land. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

37

Apply your knowledge WHAT ARE ANIMALS LIKE?

20:27

1. Read carefully.

1. Complete the word maps about animals.

The tapeworm

Reproduction: animals are divided into

Oviparoufi

For example, a pig eats food contaminated with tapeworm eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae in the animal’s intestine. Then they travel into the bloodstream and the muscles. If people eat undercooked meat from this infected pig, the larva grows in their intestine. It becomes a tapeworm. This parasite absorbs their food and causes weakness and anaemia.

Página 38

The tapeworm (taenia) is an invertebrate animal. It is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.

are born from eggs.

Viviparoufi

are born from their mother’s womb.

Contaminated animals have eggs in their faeces. These can infect other animals. Skeletons: animals are divided into 2. Tick () the true sentences about the tapeworm. 씲 

It is an invertebrate.

씲 It is an amphibian.

씲 It is a parasite. 

씲 It is oviparous. 

씲 It is viviparous.

씲 It is an herbivore.

Ver†ebra†efi

are animals with a skeleton.

In√±r†ebra†efi

have no bones.

3. Order the information as it appears in the text.

1 3

What kind of animal a tapeworm is How it goes from animals to humans

4 2

How it lives inside a person How it lives inside an animal

VOCABULARY What organs do these animals use to breathe? Name them.

4. Investigate. Find the names of other human parasites.

hookwarµ flatworµ ascarifi trichi>ellå

B

A

C

M. A.

10

gillfi

2/10/06

Worksheet 7. Date

Read and learn

AN INVERTEBRATE PARASITE

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

Activity Book

38 Worksheet 8. Date

trac™eåæ

lungfi 9

857415 _ 0032-0039.qxd

Notes:

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 9. Date

CLASSIFY INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

20:27

1. Name the invertebrate groups. Give examples.

Covered by a hard exoskeleton

arthropodfi

Soft bodies, usually covered by shells

molluscfi

They cannot move and live in the sea

[email protected]

M. A.

[email protected]æ

cnidarianfi

M. A.

∆ellyfis™

echino∂ermfi

M. A.

starfis™

Jelly-like bodies and tentacles Skeleton made of hard plates; symmetrical

M. A.

scorpio>

M. A.

wormfi

Long, soft bodies

M. A.

Página 39

INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

snai¬

earthworµ

2. Write the name of the group of arthropods in the correct space. insects

arachnids

crustaceans

myriapods

Arthropod groups

body divided into 2 parts

body divided into more than 2 parts

8 legs

10 or more legs

6 legs

many legs

arachnidfi

crusta©eanfi

inßectfi

myriapodfi 11

39

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

2/10/06

20:26

Página 40

UNIT 4

Vertebrates UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Recognising the characteristics of the main groups of vertebrates Classifying vertebrates into mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians Learning that there are various bird groups with distinctive characteristics Understanding how reptiles are classified Understanding how fish are classified Understanding how amphibians are classified Appreciating the importance of knowing about and protecting animals

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Describing quantity: most; some; many; a few; others Describing location: inside; on; on the front of; on the sides; underwater Explaining how actions occur: They swim by moving … Using their wings … Describing general and particular characteristics: All birds … Each bird species … Providing additional information: … food which the bird eats Expressing purpose: They come to the surface to breathe … use their fins to swim. Describing progression: As young amphibians grow, they change …

Contents CONCEPTS

• Physical appearance and structure of vertebrate groups • Reproduction, habitats, how they breathe, and main characteristics of vertebrate groups

PROCEDURES

• • • •

Describe the vertebrate groups Classify vertebrates into groups Compare types of vertebrates Associate physical aspects of the vertebrate groups with the habitats where they live and their habits • Observe photographs of vertebrate animals to obtain information

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate the importance of knowing about and protecting animals

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

Recognising the distinctive characteristics which define each of the vertebrate groups Distinguishing reptiles, amphibians and fish Classifying vertebrates correctly using different criteria Associating characteristics of the different vertebrate groups with their way of life Recognising the variety of marine animals Associating the physical appearance and structure of certain animals with their adaptation to life in the sea • Observing photographs of vertebrates to obtain information

40

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

2/10/06

20:26

Página 41

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 4 – Extension: Worksheet 4

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 4

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Animal classification http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/ ScienceIndex.htm Many interesting science topics are covered including animal classification. For students and teachers. Animal photo galleries http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/PhotoGallery/ default.cfm Up close with a variety of reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals, including primates and giant pandas, at the Smithsonian Zoological Park. For students and teachers. Iberian Nature http://www.iberianature.com/index.html A guide to the wildlife, geography and nature of Spain. For students and teachers.

5

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

IT’S

A

M AMMAL !

www.richmondelt.com

41

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

2/10/06

20:26

Página 42

Content objectives: 1, 2, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary: carnivores, cetaceans, fur, hair, lungs, mammals, milk, primates, ungulates, viviparous, warm-blooded

Vertebrates

■ Special attention LOOK

• Associating each mammal group with their general and distinctive characteristics

Look at the photo. Think about these questions:

• Understanding that marine mammals breathe through lungs

• What do these animals look like? They have … • Do all mammals live on land?

■ Hands on

Then read the texts and answer the questions.

Marine mammals and flotation • Tie an elastic band to one end of a large stone. • Put the stone in a pail of water. Ask Ss: When we pull the stone up, will it feel heavier or lighter? Ss take turns to pull up the stone. • Ask: Does it feel heavier or lighter in the water? (lighter) What is pushing it up? (the water) This is the Archimedes Principle. How do marine mammals float? (because of their shape, density and the upward push of the water)

READ

1. Mammals

2. Mammal groups 16

All mammals have a head, a trunk and limbs. However, they differ in their limbs and bodies. Most mammals have legs, some have fins, and bats have wings. Many mammals have a body covered with hair or fur.

• Primates have five fingers on their hands and feet. Their eyes are on the front of the head, not on the sides like many animals. Human beings, monkeys and gorillas are primates.

Mammals can keep their body temperature constant when the outside temperature changes. For this reason, they are called warm-blooded animals. They breathe air through their lungs. Mammals are viviparous. The young grow inside the female’s body, receiving oxygen and nutrients. Baby mammals drink their mother’s milk. Mammals live in different habitats. Most mammals are terrestrial. However, some mammals, such as dolphins, are aquatic. They breathe at the water’s surface.

■ Presentation

• Carnivores hunt for food. They have sharp teeth and feet with claws. Lions are carnivores. • Ungulates are herbivores. They have feet with hooves. Zebras are ungulates. • Cetaceans are marine mammals. They have no hair. They swim by moving their tails and flippers. Whales and dolphins are cetaceans.

Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Do carnivores have sharp teeth? Are zebras carnivores? What do you think about fur coats and jackets?

• LOOK Ss compare and contrast the animals in the picture. Which is the biggest? What do they all have in common? (a head, a trunk and four limbs/legs.) • READ Ss read 1 and 2 with 32 and 33 . Write a list of the highlighted words in 1 on the BB. Ask Ss: Which characteristics do most mammals have? (They are viviparous, terrestrial, warm-blooded, breathe through lungs, and have hair or fur. Baby mammals drink their mother’s milk.) • Ask Ss: Name the mammal groups. What group do dolphins belong to? What group has hooves?, etc. • Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Wool. Wool is the hair from sheep and other animals. The animals are not hurt when the wool is cut.

42

M.A. Do primates have five fingers? Are gorillas primates? Do ungulates have feet with hooves? Are dolphins ungulates? Open answers.

VERTEBRATES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Mammal Quiz. Ss read the information about mammals and mammal groups again and listen to 32 and 33 . Then they close their books. Divide the class into two groups and read each of the following questions aloud twice. Ss put up their hand if they know the answer. The first student to answer correctly wins a point for their group. 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Do all mammals have legs? (no) Are mammals warm-blooded animals? (yes) Do whales breathe air through their lungs? (yes) Do mammals lay eggs? (no) Do all baby mammals eat solid food? (no) Are human beings primates? (yes) Do zebras have feet with claws? (no) Do dolphins have hair? (no)

15

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

2/10/06

20:26

Content objectives: 1, 3, 7.

Página 43

Vocabulary: beak, eggs, feathers, incubation, lungs, warm-blooded, wings

Language objectives: 3, 4, 5.

Birds

■ Special attention

READ

1. Birds 17 Birds have a head, a trunk, a tail and limbs. The front limbs are wings, and the back limbs are legs. A bird’s skin is covered with feathers. Using their wings, most birds can fly. Birds can keep their body temperature constant when the outside temperature changes. For this reason, they are called warm-blooded animals. They breathe through their lungs.

Female birds lay eggs on land. Female birds, and sometimes male birds, keep their eggs warm with their body heat. This process is called incubation. When baby birds are born, at least one parent feeds and cares for them. All birds are terrestrial, but some spend a lot of time in water. Each bird species eats its own type of food such as seeds, fruit, insects or other birds. A bird’s mouth is covered by a hard beak. The shape of the beak is appropriate for the type of food which the bird eats.

LOOK Bird groups 18 A

PERCHING BIRDS

B

canary D

FOWL

pheasant

RUNNERS

E

BIRDS OF PREY

C

SWIMMING BIRDS

duck F

WADING BIRDS

• Associating bird groups with their distinctive characteristics

■ Hands on Mobile of birds in flight

• Draw silhouettes of various birds in flight on white card. Swallows, seagulls, eagles, storks and vultures have distinctive silhouettes. • Cut them out and tie a piece of thread to each. • Tie them at various lengths on coat hangers to make a mobile.

■ Presentation • READ Ask Ss: What distinctive characteristics do birds have that no other animals have? (feathers and a beak) • Ss read 1 with

eagle

heron

Describe birds. Birds are vertebrates. Their front limbs are …

34 .

• LOOK Ask Ss: What group does the pheasant belong to? What group does the ostrich belong to?

ostrich

16

VERTEBRATES

…wings. Their skin is covered with feathers. They are warmblooded animals. They breathe through lungs.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative. 1. The front limbs of a bird are the wings / legs. 2. The back limbs of a bird are the wings / legs. 3. Most / all birds can fly. 4. Female / male birds lay eggs. 5. Incubation is when parent birds keep their eggs warm / cold with their body heat. 6. All / some birds are terrestrial. 7. All / some birds spend a lot of time in water. 8. Birds have / do not have the same shape of beak.

• Ask Ss: Look at the beak of the canary, the heron and the duck: which is the shortest? (the canary’s) the longest? (the heron’s) the flattest and widest? (the duck’s) • Tell Ss that some birds feed by themselves as soon as they are born. For example, ducks and chickens are born with feathers; they walk and follow their mother around. ➔ R Activity Book, page 12.

Answers: 1. wings. 2. legs. 3. Most. 4. Female. 5. warm. 6. All. 7. Some. 8. do not have.

43

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

2/10/06

20:26

Página 44

Content objectives: 1, 4, 7. Language objectives: 1, 6.

Vocabulary: alligators, cold-blooded, crawl, lungs, oviparous, scales, slither, turtles

Reptiles

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Not all reptiles crawl. Some slither, swim, or walk or run on hind limbs.

A

CROCODILES

Most reptiles have a head, a trunk, limbs and a tail. Their body is covered with hard scales. Most reptiles are terrestrial, but a few are aquatic. Reptiles cannot keep their body temperature constant when the outside temperature changes. They need external heat, such as heat from the Sun. For this reason, they are called cold-blooded animals.

■ Hands on Lizards lie in the sun

Nile crocodile

• Place an umbrella in the sun. Put an outdoor thermometer in the shade of the umbrella and another one in the sun. Write down the temperatures on both thermometers. • Wait several hours then compare the temperatures on the two thermometers. • Ask: Which thermometer shows the higher temperature (the one in the sun) Why do lizards spend a lot of time in the sun? (to keep warm)

B

LIZARDS

2. Reptile groups 20 iguana C

SNAKES

• LOOK AND READ Ask Ss: Name some reptiles you know. (crocodile, lizard, turtle, snake) Name the reptile groups. (crocodiles, lizards, snakes, turtles) 36

and

37 .

• Ask: What is a cold-blooded animal? (an animal whose body has the same temperature as its surroundings) What group does the iguana belong to? (lizards) What group does the sea turtle belong to? (turtles) • Ask: What reptile group has a shell? (turtles) What are the iguana’s scales like? (green) What is a snake’s body like? (long with no limbs) What are a crocodile’s legs like? (short) • Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page. E ➔ Activity Book, page 13.

44

Reptiles can be classified into four groups: • Crocodiles and alligators are very large reptiles. They have four legs, and a body covered with hard scales. They use their large teeth to capture their prey. They spend a lot of time in water. • Lizards are small terrestrial reptiles. They have four very short legs. They crawl.

D

■ Presentation

All reptiles breathe through their lungs. Aquatic reptiles, such as crocodiles and alligators, cannot remain underwater for long. They come to the surface to breathe. Reptiles are oviparous. The female reptile lays many eggs. Most reptiles are carnivorous.

rattlesnake

• Present 1 and 2 with

1. Reptiles 19

TURTLES

• Most snakes live on land. They have long bodies with no limbs. They slither. • Turtles have a shell to protect their body. They can extend their head, legs and tail through openings in the shell. Many turtles are aquatic. However, they breathe air, and they lay their eggs on land. Make more questions. Change the underlined words. Do reptiles breathe through gills? Are snakes warm-blooded?

sea turtle

M.A. Do snakes have legs? Are turtles aquatic? Do crocodiles have large teeth?

VERTEBRATES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Ss read and listen to 36 and 37 . Then, without looking at their books, they copy and complete the sentences. They check their answers by listening again to the CD recording.

oviparous / shell / scales / lungs / cold / legs / terrestrial / no 1. Reptiles are covered with hard … 2. Most reptiles are … but a few are aquatic. 3. Reptiles need external heat so they are … – blooded. 4. Reptiles breathe through their … 5. Reptiles are … The female lays eggs. 6. Lizards have four short … 7. Snakes have … limbs. 8. Turtles have a … to protect their bodies. Answers: 1. scales. 2. terrestrial. 3. cold. 4. lungs. 5. oviparous. 6. legs. 7. no. 8. shell.

17

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

2/10/06

20:26

Content objectives: 1, 5, 6, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7.

Página 45

Vocabulary: bony fish, cartilaginous fish, eggs, fins, gills, oviparous, scales, tails

Fish and amphibians

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Fish

BONY FISH

A

Fish have a head, a trunk and a tail. A fish’s body is covered with thin, shiny scales. Fish live in water, and use their fins to swim. Fish breathe through gills located on the sides of the head. They take in oxygen from water. Fish are oviparous. Female fish lay their eggs in the water. Baby fish are born from the eggs.

salmon CARTILAGINOUS FISH

B

2. Fish groups 21 Fish can be classified into two groups: • Bony fish. They have skeletons made of bones. Some live in the sea, but others live in rivers and lakes. Sardines and salmon are bony fish. • Cartilaginous fish. They have skeletons made of cartilage. They live in the sea. Sharks are cartilaginous fish.

shark AMPHIBIANS WITHOUT TAILS

C

3. Amphibians Amphibians have a head, a trunk and limbs. Some have tails. They can live on land, but they stay in, or near, water to keep their skin moist. Amphibians are oviparous. The female lays eggs in ponds or rivers. As young amphibians grow, their appearance changes completely.

frog D

AMPHIBIANS WITH TAILS

• Amphibians without tails, such as frogs, have a wide body. They have long, strong back legs which they use for jumping. They catch their prey with their long tongue. • Amphibians with tails, such as salamanders, have a long body and four limbs. All four limbs are approximately the same length.

True or false? Make more sentences about fish and amphibians. A fish’s body is covered with feathers. Fish breathe through gills. Do you eat fish from fish farms? Do you eat tinned fish? Which is your favourite fish?

18

VERTEBRATES

• Meaning of the word moist

■ Hands on Scales

• Draw the silhouette of a fish on a piece of paper. Cut out small circles for the scales and glue them onto the fish, overlapping rows of circles. • Ask Ss: Do the scales feel rough or smooth if you pass your hand over the fish from head to tail? (they feel smooth) What do the scales feel like if you do it in the opposite direction from tail to head? (they feel rough)

4. Amphibian groups 22 Amphibians can be classified into two groups:

salamander

• Pronunciation of bony, cartilaginous

…M. A. …Fish are oviparous. Amphibians are oviparous. Female fish lay eggs in the water. Female amphibians lay eggs in ponds and rivers.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Vocabulary. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them and rearrange the letters of the words in capitals to form words related to fish and amphibians. 1. A fish’s body is covered with thin, shiny S E C A L S. 2. Fish use their N F S I to swim. 3. They breathe through their S L G I L. 4. Female fish lay S G E G in water. 5. Salmon are Y B N O fish. 6. R H S A K S are cartilaginous fish. 7. Amphibians live on land but stay in or near E A T W R. 8. R F G O S use their back legs for jumping. 1

Answers: 1. scales. 2. fins. 3. gills. 4. eggs. 5. bony. 6. sharks. 7. water. 8. frogs.

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Say: Look at the pictures. Ask: How do fish move? (they swim) What do they use to swim? (their fins and tails) Ask Ss to name some amphibians. • Present 1-4 with 38 , 39 , 40 and 41 , Show photographs of the metamorphosis of a frog: egg – a tadpole with a tail and gills which looks like a fish – tadpoles develop legs and lungs and lose their tails and gills – when the transformation is complete, the frogs come out of the water • Explain that amphibians begin their lives in the water, where the females lay eggs. Adult amphibians live on land, but depend on water. E ➔ Activity Book, pages 14, 15.

Health benefits of fish. Fish are an important part of a healthy diet. White fish has protein and is low in fat. Oily fish contains fatty acids which help control cholesterol.

45

Apply your knowledge BIRDS

1. Write the name of the bird group.

Linnaeus and the names of living things

fowl

wading birds

perching birds

birds of prey

[email protected] birdfi b. Medium-size birds with webbed feet: [email protected] birdfi c. Birds with sharp, hooked beaks and strong claws: birdfi oƒ p®e¥ d. Small birds with short beaks: π[email protected] birdfi e. Birds with plump bodies and short beaks: fow¬ a. Big birds with long, thin legs:

In Linnaeus’ system, the scientific name of the plant consists of two Latin words. The first word is the genus and the second is the species. The genus is like our family name, and the species is like our first name. For example, the dog is called Canis familiaris. This name distinguishes the dog from the wolf, which is called Canis lupus. It also shows that the dog and wolf belong to the same genus.

Wolf: Canis lupus

swimming birds

Página 46

All living things have scientific names. The names which we use today are based on the system developed by the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus in 1758. Linnaeus went to Lapland to study plants. To study them better, he decided to name and classify plants. Later, he did the same for animals.

2. Write the bird group.

The advantage of this system is that it is universal. The common names which we use are different in every language.

C

B

A

2. Learn some scientific names. • Lion: Panthera leo

• Beech: Fagus sylvatica

• Rosemary: Rosmarinus officinalis

• Brown bear: Ursus arctos

• Cork oak: Quercus suber

• Tiger: Panthera tigris

• Leopard: Panthera pardus

• Jaguar: Panthera onca

canary

partridge

heron

π[email protected] bir∂

fow¬

[email protected] bir∂

D

3. In the above list, there are four living things which belong to the same genus but to a different species. Which ones are they? Explain.

E

Pant™erå ¬eo, Pant™erå pardiufi, Pant™erå tigrifi, Pant™erå oncå. Thæ @enufi ifi Pant™erå, an∂ eac™ anima¬ sπec^efi hafi itfi ow> naµæ. 4. Write the word dog in different languages. Consult a dictionary. M. A.

I> Spanis™ “πerro”; i> Germa> “hun∂”; i> F®enc™ “ch^e>” 13

12

duck

hawk

[email protected] bir∂

bir∂ oƒ p®e¥

20:26

1. Read carefully.

2/10/06

Worksheet 10. Date

Read and learn SCIENTIFIC NAMES

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

Activity Book

46 Worksheet 11. Date

857415 _ 0040-0047.qxd

Worksheet 12. Date

ANALYSE ANIMAL FOOTPRINTS

1. What is a dichotomous key used for? Read and complete. We use dichotomous keys to identify and classify living things. With a dichotomous key, we can find out the group a living thing belongs to. To use the key, you must answer questions about the characteristics of an animal. Then follow the direction given after each answer.

a. Where can we find animal tracks? Tick (). 씲 In areas with rocks or stones

In areas with mud or clay

KEY TO IDENTIFY VERTEBRATES

b. What can you find out about an animal by observing its tracks? 씲  씲 

Its size

씲 

How it walks

씲 

If it lives in a pack or herd

DoDo they have scales, fins, use gills to to breathe and livelive in water? they have scales, fins, use gills breathe and in water? YES FISH

씲 What it eats

If it has hoofs, claws, etc. 씲 Its colour

Página 47

Animal footprints are also called tracks. If we study an animal’s tracks and other remains we can learn about these animals. We get information about their anatomy, their habits, what they eat and how they reproduce.

씲 

20:26

1. Read and answer.

Read and learn

CLASSIFICATION KEYS

fis™

NO NO YES Do they stay in or near water to keep their skin moist? Do they stay in or near water to keep their skin moist? YES _____

c. Which animal left each track? Decide and write.

lynx

NO NO Do they have scales and use lungs to breathe? YES _____ Do they have scales and use lungs to breathe? NO NOthey have feathers and use lungs to breathe? Do YES _____ Do they have feathers and use lungs to breathe? NO

mouflon

MAMMALS NO

YES

amphibianfi

YES

®epti¬efi

YES

birdfi

MAMMALS bustard

badger VOCABULARY Match and write.

A

B

lyn≈

C

mouflo>

carnivores

D

bustar∂

Ungula†efi Ceta©eanfi Prima†efi Carnivo®efi

[email protected]® 15

14

cetaceans

primates

ungulates

are herbivores and have feet with hooves. have no hair and move by moving their tails and flippers. have five fingers and eyes are on the front of their head. have sharp teeth and feet with claws.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 13. Date

47

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

2/10/06

20:29

Página 48

UNIT 5

Nutrition UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Recognising and locating the main organs in the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory systems and their functions 2. Describing the processes involved in nutrition, digestion, respiration, circulation and excretion 3. Developing healthy eating habits and taking care of the whole body

Language objectives 1. Expressing obligation: … our diet must be complete 2. Describing stages in a process: First …, then … 3. Describing what occurs in the process (passive forms): … is chewed; is formed; are absorbed 4. Making comparisons: Our heart works like a pump. 5. Explaining where blood circulates (prepositions of movement): between; through; away from; throughout

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Nutrition: digestion, blood circulation, respiration and excretion • The organs and systems involved in nutrition • Anatomy and physiology of the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory systems

• Interpret anatomical drawings of the organs in the human body • Interpret anatomical drawings of the processes involved in nutrition • Observe photographs carefully to obtain information

ATTITUDES

• Interest in acquiring healthy habits regarding food and for taking care of the body

Assessment criteria • Understanding the processes involved in nutrition • Identifying the organs of the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory systems • Recognising the anatomy and physiology of the systems involved in nutrition • Interpreting anatomical drawings correctly • Acquiring healthy eating habits • Showing interest in taking care of their own health

48

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

2/10/06

20:29

Página 49

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 5 – Extension: Worksheet 5

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 5

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es The world of nutrition http://www.nutritionexplorations.org/kids/linksmain.asp Fun sites and games about nutrition. For students. The Digestive System http://www.naspghan.org/sub/For_Children/for_children. asp#ImageTop An interactive presentation with pictures and descriptive text about the digestive organs. For teachers and students. The Digestive, Respiratory and Circulatory Systems http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/health_index.html Information on body systems with facts and quizzes. For students and teachers.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

3

LEVEL

E AT Y OUR VEGETABLES!

www.richmondelt.com

49

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

2/10/06

20:29

Página 50

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3. Language objectives: 1.

Vocabulary: carbohydrates, diet, fats, fibre, minerals, nutrition, proteins, vitamins, water

Nutrition

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that we need nutrients and energy to live

• What meal are these children eating? • What food can you see?

■ Hands on

• Why do you think it is important to have a good breakfast?

Labels and nutrients • Collect and read labels from packaged foods, such as biscuits, butter, can of tuna, to find out the nutrients they contain. • Classify the food into carbohydrates, fats or proteins based on the most abundant nutrient.

READ

1. Nutrients 23 Nutrients are the substances which our body needs to survive, grow and repair itself. Nutrients also give us energy. • Carbohydrates give us energy. There are two types of carbohydrate. Sugars are in foods which taste sweet. Starches are in bread, potatoes and legumes.

■ Presentation • LOOK Ss look at the photo and answer the questions. Ask: Do you eat a healthy breakfast? Why/why not? • READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 42 , 43 , 44 . Say: Give me an example of food classified as fat (butter), carbohydrate (bread) protein (fish).

• Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 16.

• Water. Most of our body is made up of water, so it is essential. We drink water, and our body also obtains water from food. • Fibre helps food to move through the digestive system. It is found in fruits, vegetables and whole-grains.

• Fats also give us energy. We get some fats, such as butter, from animals. We get other fats, such as olive oil, from plants.

3. Diet

• Proteins help our body to grow and repair itself. Meat, fish and legumes are good sources of protein.

The food which someone normally eats over a period of time is called their diet. For good, healthy nutrition, our diet must be complete and balanced.

2. Other nutritive substances

• A complete diet includes nutrients from all the food groups.

• Vitamins and minerals are essential for our bodies to function well. Fruits and vegetables

• A balanced diet includes the right amount of each nutrient.

Complete the sentences. We get some fats ...

We get other fats ...

Do you eat a balanced diet? Do you know what anorexia is? What can you and your classmates do to prevent it?

• Ask Ss to identify the different food groups: meat, fish and eggs; bread, rice, pasta, cereals and sugars; milk and dairy products; fruits and vegetables. • Ask Ss: What advice would you give to someone who wants a healthy diet? (Eat foods with calcium and fibre; eat vegetables and fruit every day, eat very little animal fat …)

are good sources, but minerals and vitamins are also found in other foods. Milk gives us calcium for our bones.

…from animals. …from plants. / Anorexia is an eating disorder. It can cause severe health problems and even death.

NUTRITION

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Vocabulary Revision. Draw on the BB a vocabulary tree. The «trunk» word is Food and the «branches» are Carbohydrates / Fats / Proteins / Vitamins and Minerals / Fibre. On each branch the Ss write the corresponding words from page 19. 1

Answers: Carbohydrates: sugars, starches, bread, potatoes, legumes; Fats: butter, olive oil; Proteins: meat, fish, legumes; Vitamins and minerals: fruits, vegetables, milk; Fibre: fruits, vegetables, whole grains. A balanced lunch. Ss work in pairs and prepare a menu which they consider to be balanced. Ask Ss for their menus and write one or two examples on the board, correcting any difficulties if they arise. Ss should be able to name different varieties of meat, vegetables, fruit etc. in their menu 2

50

19

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

2/10/06

Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 2, 3.

20:29

Página 51

Vocabulary: absorption, anus, chyme, digestive system, faeces, large intestine, liver, oesophagus, pancreas, pharynx, salivary glands, small intestine

The digestive system

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. The digestive system We need to eat. Food gives us the energy which we require for our daily activities. It also gives us the substances which we need to grow. The digestive system converts the food we eat into nutrients which our body can absorb. It carries out three important functions: digestion, absorption and the elimination of waste.

2. Digestion 24 • First, food is chewed in the mouth, and mixed with saliva produced by the salivary glands. Gradually, a mass of chewed, soft food is formed. • Then, this food moves down the pharynx and the oesophagus, and passes into the stomach. • Next, it mixes with gastric juices in the stomach. This produces a thick liquid called chyme.

The stages of digestion

• Understanding that the substances we need from food pass from the small intestine into the blood

25

Digestion in the mouth Digestion in the stomach

• Pronunciation: pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, faeces

Digestion in the intestine Absorption in the intestine

■ Hands on

Elimination of waste The digestive system 26

Saliva and digestion

mouth pharynx salivary glands

oesophagus

• Finally, the chyme leaves the stomach and reaches the small intestine. It mixes with juices from the intestine, the pancreas and the liver. All the substances which we require have now been separated.

3. Absorption In the small intestine, the substances which we need are absorbed into the blood.

4. Elimination of waste The chyle loses its nutritional value as it passes through the small intestine. Only undigested substances, like fibre, remain and move to the large intestine. The large intestine removes water from these substances, and forms solid waste called faeces. This is expelled through the anus.

20

NUTRITION

liver

stomach

pancreas

large intestine

small intestine

rectum

anus

small intestine oesophagus

• Say: Hold a piece of bread in your mouth for about five minutes. • Ask: Does it taste sweet? (yes) Why? (Enzymes found in the saliva begin to break down starch into simple sugars in the mouth. That is why bread tastes sweet even though most bread does not contain sugar.)

anus pharynx mouth stomach large intestine

Follow the path that food takes. Put the organs of the digestive system in order: mouth …

…, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Sequencing. The Ss copy the sentences from the stages in digestion onto a piece of paper. They cut the sentences into strips, then turn them over and mix them up. With a partner, they look at each sentence again and put them in the correct order.

Vocabulary. Write on the BB the following list of words: large intestine / mouth / fibre / liver / anus / stomach / faeces / pancreas / pharynx / oesophagus / salivary glands / substances absorbed into the blood / chyme / small intestine 2

Write three headings: Digestion; Absorption; Elimination of waste. Ss classify.

■ Presentation • Ask Ss: Why do we need to digest food? (to convert it into substances our body can absorb) Where does digestion begin? (in the mouth) Where does the digestion process end? (in the large intestine) • Point out the various stages in the digestive process. First digestion, then absorption, and finally the elimination of waste. • LOOK AND READ Present 1-4 with 47 , 48 .

45 , 46 ,

• Name the organs of the digestive system and ask Ss to point to them in the drawing. Ask: What organ is like a long, thin tube? (the oesophagus) What organ is dark red and triangular? (the liver) What organ is below the oesophagus and next to the liver? (stomach) • Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Answers: Digestion: mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, chyme, pancreas, liver. Absorption: substances absorbed into the blood. Elimination of waste: fibre, large intestine, faeces, anus.

51

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

9/10/06

19:03

Página 52

Vocabulary: air passageways, alveoli, bladder, bronchi, bronchioles, excretion, exhale, inhale, kidneys, larynx, lungs, pharynx, respiratory system, sweat glands, trachea, ureters, urethra, urine

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3. Language objectives: 2.

Respiration and excretion

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Understanding that oxygen from the air passes into the blood in the lungs • Understanding what excretion is and why it is necessary

The respiratory system 28

In addition to nutrients, we need oxygen to live. We breathe to obtain oxygen from the air.

nose

This function is carried out by the respiratory system. It is made up of the nose, air passageways (the tubes which carry air in and out of the body), and the lungs. • First, the air enters through the nose. Then it passes through the pharynx, the larynx, and the trachea. Next, it goes through the two main bronchi and into each lung. In the lungs, the bronchi divide into smaller bronchioles. There are tiny sacs of air at the end of the bronchioles called alveoli.

See air from our lungs • Prepare a small tub with about five cm of water, a large water bottle and a flexible tube. • Fill the bottle with water. Quickly invert it and hold it with the mouth underwater in the tub. Put one end of the tube into the bottle. Tell a student to blow through the tube. • Ask: Where do the bubbles come from? (the air in our lungs) Why does the water go out of the bottle? (The air displaces the water.)

• In the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes into the blood. The blood releases carbon dioxide which passes into the alveoli. It is toxic, and the body expels it. Two movements, inhalation and exhalation, cause the air to circulate. When we inhale, our lungs fill with air. When we exhale, air leaves the lungs.

pharynx

bronchi

larynx

bronchioles

trachea

lung

lung The excretory system 29

2. The excretory system Our body produces waste substances which go into the blood, and can be dangerous. Excretion is the elimination of these waste substances.

kidneys

• The kidneys are the organs of the excretory system. These two organs filter the blood and produce urine. This is made up of water (95 %) and waste substances (5 %). The urine leaves the kidneys and passes through the ureters, two tubes which go to the bladder. The urine accumulates there until it is expelled through the urethra.

■ Presentation

bladder

kidney

• Ask Ss: What do we call the process that eliminates waste substances from the blood? (excretion) What are the main organs? (the kidneys) Point out that the excretory system is below the digestive system. Ask Ss to locate their own kidneys (in the middle of the back on both sides of the spinal column). 51

and

52 .

• Ss answer the question at the bottom of the page. E ➔ Activity Book, page 18.

renal artery

renal vein

What is a major cause of lung cancer?

bladder urethra

…Smoking. Tobacco contains substances which cause cancer.

ureters

NUTRITION

21

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the two halves of each sentence on the BB. Ss copy them and join the correct halves.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

First the air Then it Next it In the lungs Alveoli are In the alveoli When we inhale

8. When we exhale

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

air leaves the lungs. tiny sacs of air. enters through the nose. oxygen passes into the blood. our lungs fill with air. the bronchi divide into smaller bronchioles. passes through the pharynx, larynx and trachea. h. goes through the two main bronchi into each lung.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – g. 3 – h. 4 – f. 5 – b. 6 – d. 7 – e. 8 – a.

52

kidney

• The sweat glands in the skin also help in excretion. They make sweat.

• LOOK AND READ Ask Ss: Why do we need to breathe? (to obtain oxygen from the air) What are the two breathing movements we make? (inhalation and exhalation)

• Present 1 and 2 with

1. The respiratory system 27

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

2/10/06

Content objectives: 1, 2. Language objectives: 4, 5.

20:29

Página 53

Vocabulary: aorta, arteries, blood, blood vessels, capillaries, carotid artery, circulation, circulatory system, femoral artery, heart, humeral artery, jugular vein, pump, renal vein, veins, vena cava

Blood circulation

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. The circulatory system 30

The circulatory system

Circulation is the movement of blood through the circulatory system. Circulation carries nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body, and collects waste substances, which can be dangerous.

• Understanding that blood is circulating continually

32

jugular vein

carotid artery

humeral artery

vena cava

Our heart works like a pump, and moves blood through the body. It never stops beating.

aorta

The heartbeat

• Arteries are the blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.

• Bring some long, thin balloons to class and a pear-type balloon inflator. • Place a balloon on the mouth of the inflator. • Squeeze the inflator. Ask: What happens? (The balloon inflates.) Why? (air enters) What part of the body can we compare the heart to? (the inflator) What is pushed along by each heart beat? (blood)

femoral artery

• Veins are the blood vessels which carry blood into the heart. • Capillaries are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins. They reach every part of our body.

2. Blood circulation 31 Blood circulation

• Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs. Blood leaves the heart through the pulmonary arteries and goes to the lungs. In the lungs, the blood absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. The blood then returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. • Systemic circulation is the movement of blood to the rest of the body. Blood with oxygen from the lungs leaves the heart through the aorta. It distributes nutritive substances and oxygen throughout the body. Finally, it returns to the heart through the vena cava.

22

■ Hands on

renal vein

Blood vessels are tubes which transport blood through the circulatory system. There are three kinds: arteries, veins and capillaries.

There are two circulatory systems:

• Distinguishing the two circulatory systems

heart

PULMONARY CIRCULATION

pulmonary vein

pulmonary artery vena cava

aorta

right side of the heart

left side of the heart

SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION

NUTRITION

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative. They then compare answers in pairs and listen to 55 to check their answers. 1. Digestion / circulation is the movement of blood through the circulatory system. 2. Our heart / stomach works like a pump. 3. It never stops eating / beating. 4. There are three kinds of food / blood vessels 5. Arteries carry blood into / away from the heart. 6. Veins carry blood away from / into the heart. 7. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. They reach / don’t reach every part of our body.

Answers: 1. circulation. 2. heart. 3. beating. 4. blood. 5. away from. 6. into. 7. reach.

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Point out that arteries and veins are different colours in the drawings so we can distinguish them. • Ask Ss to look at the first drawing and ask: Where is the carotid artery? (in the neck) Where is the femoral artery? (in the leg) Where is the jugular vein? (in the neck) • Ask them to look at the lower diagram and ask: What is the name of the artery which carries the blood from the heart to all parts of the body? (aorta) What is the name of the vein which carries blood from all parts of the body to the heart? (vena cava) What carries the blood from the heart to the lungs? (the pulmonary artery) • Ss read 1 and 2 with

55

and

56 .

➔ R Activity Book, page 17.

Fat and health. Too much fat in your diet is unhealthy. Deposits of fat can accumulate in the blood vessels and block normal blood flow.

53

Tasks

Worksheet 14. Date

MAKE UP A HEALTHY MENU

absorption

2. Write the name of each organ.

digestion

1. Make up a healthy menu. Remember the conditions a diet must have to be healthy:

• pharynx

• A diet should be complete; it should have foods from all the groups. • A diet should be balanced; it should have the right amount of each food type.

• small intestine The stages of digestion

• large intestine

[email protected]>

1

• liver

absorptio>

2

li√±® smal¬ in†esti>æ

eliminatio> oƒ was†æ

3

rice

noodle soup

vegetable soup

chicken with potatoes

yoghurt

banana

lentils

pear

fish with salad

beefsteak with salad

orange

meatballs with vegetables

omelette with tuna and potatoes

stomac™ [email protected]æ in†esti>æ

• oesophagus

spaghetti

First course

3. Underline the words related to breathing. • inhalation

• exhalation

• intestine

• expiration

• bronchi

• lungs

• liver

• kidney

• trachea

• oxygen

Second course

Dessert

custard

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

√±@etab¬æ souπ chic§e> wit™ potatøefi

nood¬æ souπ

¬entilfi

ri©æ

spag™ett^

πea®

wit™ µeatballfi ∫¶æfs†ea§ fis™ wit™ oµe¬et†æ tunå an∂ wit™ sala∂ potatøefi √±@etab¬efi wit™ sala∂ [email protected]æ

yoghur†

bananå

custar∂

4. Order the steps in the excretion process.

2 6 4

The kidneys filter the blood. Urine is expelled through the urethra. Urine is carried by the ureters.

Blood goes through the kidneys.

3 5

Urine is formed.

2. Write down what you eat for dinner for a week.

Urine is stored in the bladder.

sala∂, √±@etab¬efi, souπ, oµe¬et†æ, fis™, chic§e>, ∫¶æfs†ea§, por§, frui†, yoghur†, custar∂ an∂ c™æeßæ.

M. A.

VOCABULARY Match. Capillaries •

• are blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.

Veins



• are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins.

Arteries



• are blood vessels which carry blood into the heart.

3. Do you think you should change anything in your diet? Explain.

Yefi. I thin§ I shoul∂ ea† mo®æ frui† an∂ √±@etab¬efi an∂ I shoul∂ ea† ¬esfi suga®.

M. A.

17

16

Página 54

pharyn≈ øesophagufi

• stomach

elimination of waste

20:29

1. Put the following words in order.

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge DIGESTION, RESPIRATION, EXCRETION, CIRCULATION

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

Activity Book

54 Worksheet 15. Date

857415 _ 0048-0055.qxd

Worksheet 16. Date

Read and learn TEETH

Name of the plant

20:29

@eraniuµ

M. A.

1. Read carefully. 1 2

6 5 4

3

What are teeth like? Teeth are part of the skeleton. Like bones, they are alive. The outside of a tooth is covered with a hard, white substance called enamel. Enamel is the hardest substance in our body. Dentin, which is not very hard, is under the enamel. Pulp is in the centre of the tooth. The pulp is the living part of the tooth and contains blood vessels and nerve endings. The roots are fixed into the jawbone. But we cannot see them because they are below the gums. The part of the tooth above the gums is called the crown. When babies are born, their teeth are inside the jawbone. The milk teeth, or baby teeth, break through little by little. At about six years old, milk teeth begin to fall out and permanent teeth appear.

Project 2

OBSERVE AND DESCRIBE A FUNGUS Material needed: a ruler and some mushrooms. 1. What size is it?

5. What colour is the stem?

2. What colour is the cap? 3. What shape is the cap?

6. What shape is the stem? Is it cylindrical or does the thickness change?

4. What colour are the gills?

7. Does the stem have rings?

2. Underline the most important words in the text. Choose three and give their meanings.

Pulπ iß t™æ ©ent®æ oƒ t™æ toot™. Enaµe¬ ifi å har∂, whi†æ substan©æ whic™ co√±rfi t™æ outsi∂æ oƒ å toot™. T™æ crow> ifi t™æ toot™ abo√¶ t™æ gumfi.

M. A.

Complete the chart with the information you have gathered: M. A. Size

Height Width Colour

Cap

Shape Gills Colour

Stem

Shape Ring

3. Name the numbered parts on the tooth drawing.

10 cmfi. 13 cmfi. dar§ brow> circula® √±r¥ dar§ brow> ligh† brow> cylindrica¬ no>æ

1 enaµe¬ 2 ∂enti> 3 pulπ

4 jawbo>æ 5 gumfi 6 crow>

4. Think and answer. What can we do to keep our teeth healthy?

Brus™ ou® †æet™ th®ææ tiµefi å da¥. Do>ª† ea† å lo† oƒ s∑¶etfi. Visi† t™æ ∂entis† on©æ å ¥ea®.

M. A.

19

18

Página 55

angiosπerµ, flo∑±[email protected] plan† Stem: g®æe>, sof† Leaves: g®æe> ¬eavefi, lo∫±∂ o® scalloπe∂ Flowers: brigh† ®e∂, pin§ o® purp¬æ Fruit: no frui† ∑¶ ca> ea† i> man¥ pla©efi, fo® examp¬æ, i> Africå, Euroπæ, Grows in: Sout™ Aµericå, Nort™ Aµericå Other information: πeop¬æ gro∑ @erianiumfi i> flo∑±® potfi Type of plant:

2/10/06

Project 1

CLASSIFY PLANTS

55

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

2/10/06

20:28

Página 56

UNIT 6

Matter UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Understanding the properties of matter Differentiating between pure substances and mixtures Identifying the general properties of matter Learning how the properties of matter are measured and the units used Identifying changes in matter Differentiating physical changes and chemical changes in matter Distinguishing the different states of matter and their properties Identifying changes of state in matter Understanding why water is important in our diet Associating certain changes of state with temperature changes

Language objectives 1. Describing mass and unit nouns (uncountable and countable): Matter is made up of … An element is matter … 2. Giving examples: like mass and volume; for example; such as plastic 3. Making comparisons: … have more mass than others … more matter than a pencil … the football's mass is greater … the same volume … it weighs more 4. Measuring mass and volume: one litre is equal to … mass per volume 5. Contrasting facts and conditions: When the temperature increases … If the temperature rises … 6. Describing changes: The balloon gets smaller … Iron changes into rust 7. Talking about ability: They can be transported … Gases can be compressed

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Matter and its main properties • The three states of matter: solid, liquid and gaseous • Physical and chemical changes in matter • Changes of state

• Observe photographs to obtain information • Explain events around us scientifically • Use personal experience to comprehend the unit contents

ATTITUDES

• Appreciation of why water is important in our diet • Association of certain changes of state with temperature changes

Assessment criteria • Defining matter • Understanding the properties of matter • Differentiating between physical and chemical changes in matter

56

• Identifying the properties of solids, liquids and gases • Identifying changes of state • Explaining events scientifically

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

9/10/06

19:05

Página 57

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 6 – Extension: Worksheet 6

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 6

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Matter http://www.chem4kids.com/index.html Rader's Chemkids provides a variety of material about matter, changes in matter and changes of state. For teachers and students. Matter and energy http://bengu-pc2.njit.edu/trp-chem/scism.html Matter and energy and other fundamentals of chemistry are explored. For teachers and students. Solids, liquids, gases http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=64 Properties of solids, liquids and gases and changes of state are addressed. For students and teachers.

4

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

B ALLOONS

www.richmondelt.com

57

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

2/10/06

20:28

Página 58

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3. Language objectives: 2, 3, 4.

Vocabulary: compound, element, mass, matter, mixtures, properties, pure substances, volume

Matter

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding the concept of matter • Differentiating between pure substances and mixtures

Look at the photo.

• Identifying the properties of matter

• Is there more water in the river at some times of the year?

• Which things are solid? Liquid? Gaseous?

■ Hands on Composition of drinking water READ

• Ask: Is drinking water a pure substance or a mixture? (a mixture of water and minerals) • To prove it, bring in labels from bottled water and examine their composition. Ask: What minerals can you see on the labels? (chloride, calcium, magnesium, silica, sodium …)

1. Matter

33

Everything in the universe is made of matter. The Sun, rocks, plants, human beings and manufactured objects are all made of matter. Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are extremely small. They are invisible to the human eye. There are approximately one hundred different types of atoms. When they are combined in different ways, they make up all the substances in the world. • An element is matter which consists of only one type of atom.

■ Presentation

• A compound is matter which consists of more than one kind of atom.

• LOOK Ss look at the photo and answer the questions. True or false? Make more sentences about matter.

• READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with 58 , 59 , 60 . Ask: Where can we find matter in the universe? (everywhere because everything is made of matter) What are the tiny particles called that matter is made of? (atoms) • Ask: What matter can we find in a cup of coffee with milk and sugar? (milk, sugar, coffee) Is it a mixture of various substances? (yes) Can you name other mixtures? (mayonnaise, soup, soft drinks, perfume …) • Choose various objects or materials and talk about their characteristic properties. For example, show a fork. Ask: What colour is it? (silver) Does it have an odour? (no) Is it shiny? (yes) ➔ R Activity Book, page 21.

2. Types of matter Matter can be classified into two groups: • Pure substances are made up of a single type of element or compound. For example, gold, iron and salt are pure substances. • Mixtures are made up of several pure substances. For example, sea water is a mixture which is formed by water and salt.

3. Properties of matter We can classify properties into two types: • General properties: All matter has general properties like mass and volume. Everything which is made of matter has mass and takes up space. • Characteristic properties: Properties like odour, colour, shininess and density are characteristic. They are different for each substance.

Human beings are not made of matter. Sea water is a pure substance.

Both sentences are false. M.A. The human body has mass and volume. Mayonnaise is a mixture of eggs, oil, salt and lemon juice.

MATTER

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. The Ss decide if they are true or false. If they are false, they correct them. 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are visible to the human eye. There are about 100 similar types of atoms. An element is matter which consists of only one type of atom. Salt is a pure substance. Sea water is a pure substance. All matter has mass and volume.

Answers: 1. True. 2. False. They are invisible to the human eye. 3. False. There are about 100 different types of atoms. 4. True. 5. True. 6. False. Sea water is a mixture. 7. True.

58

23

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

2/10/06

20:28

Content objectives: 3, 4, 9. Language objectives: 2, 3, 4.

Página 59

Vocabulary: density, kilogram, mass, volume

The properties of matter

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding the concept of density

1. Mass 34 Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Some objects have more mass than others. For example, a football has more matter than a pencil. The football’s mass is greater. The unit of measure for mass is the kilogram (kg), or kilo. One kilo is equal to 1,000 (one thousand) grams (g). 1,000 (one thousand) kilos are equal to one ton (t).

■ Hands on Scales are used to measure mass.

Decantation

2. Volume 35 Volume is the amount of space which an object occupies.

Measuring cups are used to measure the volume of a liquid.

For example, a football has more volume than a pencil. It takes up more space. The unit of measure for volume is the litre (l). One litre is equal to 1,000 (one thousand) cubic centimetres (cm3). 1,000 (one thousand) litres are equal to one cubic metre (m3).

3. Density 36 Density is mass per volume. To calculate density, divide the mass of a substance by its volume:

These two marbles have the same volume. However, the iron marble weighs more. Iron has more density than glass.

Mass ᎏᎏ Volume Each object or substance has its own density: • Water has a density of one kilo per litre of water: 1 kg/l. This means that one litre of water has a mass of 1 kilo. • Iron has a density of 7.9 kilos per litre of iron: 7.9 kg/l. This means that one litre of iron has a mass of 7.9 kilos.

Complete the sentences. Mass: One kilo ⫽ … grams. One thousand kilos ⫽ … ton.

■ Presentation

Volume: One litre ⫽ … cubic centimetres. One thousand litres ⫽ … cubic metre.

• READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with

How many litres of liquid do you drink in a day? Make a chart with the different kinds of liquid, and when you drink them.

24

MATTER

• Pour some oil into a container and add water. • Quickly cover the container and shake it to mix the liquids. • Let the container stand and ask: What is going to happen? (After some time, the liquids will separate.) Which liquid will be on top? (The oil will be on the top, and the water will be on the bottom.) Which is less dense – the oil or the water? (the oil, which is why it floats)

…one thousand - one - one thousand - one

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Vocabulary. Write the words on the BB. Ss match them. 1. Mass a. mass per volume 2. Unit of measure for mass b. the kilogram 3. Volume c. the litre 4. Unit of measure for volume d. the amount of matter in an object 5. Density e. the amount of space which an object occupies 1

61 , 62 , 63 .

• Ss role-play they are in a small shop and have to ask for different things. They should pay special attention to units of measure. For example: I would like … a kilo of rice … a litre of milk … a hundred grams of sunflower seeds … a quarter of a kilo of almonds. • Ask: Can we put five litres of water in a two-litre bottle? (no) Why not? (because there is too much volume of water) • Ask: How do we measure mass? (with scales or balances) Give some examples. (bathroom scales, kitchen scales, food scales, baby scales)

Answers: 1–d. 2–b. 3–e. 4–c. 5–a. 2 Numbers. At home the Ss can observe different quantities of mass and volume, for example, bread, a small bottle of water, or a packet of biscuits. They note down the results and report their findings to the class.

Water and health. Water is essential in our diet. Children should drink at least one and a half litres of water every day.

59

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

2/10/06

20:28

Página 60

Content objectives: 5, 6. Language objectives: 5, 6.

Vocabulary: changes of state, chemical changes, contraction, expansion, fragmentation, movement, oxidation, physical changes, putrefaction

Changes in matter

■ Special attention

READ

• Differentiating between physical and chemical changes in matter

1. Changes in matter There are two types of change in matter:

• Identifying chemical changes in matter

• Physical changes: The object or substance changes, but the matter remains the same. When water freezes, it is still water. • Chemical changes: The original matter changes into a different substance. When paper burns, it changes into ashes and gases.

■ Hands on

2. Physical changes 37 A physical change: ice melts, and becomes water.

Inflate a balloon with a banana

• Expansion: When the temperature of an object increases, it gets bigger. If the temperature rises, mercury expands in a thermometer.

• Mash a ripe banana with a fork and spoon it into a bottle with a small mouth. • Put a balloon over the mouth of the bottle and place it in a warm, sunny place. • Ask: Why does the balloon inflate? (because it fills with gas) Where does the gas come from? (from the putrefaction of the banana) Putrefaction produces gas.

• Contraction: When the temperature of an object decreases, it gets smaller. If a balloon filled with air is put in a refrigerator, the air contracts: the balloon gets smaller. • Changes of state: When the temperature rises, the state changes. If water is heated, it changes into steam. • Fragmentation: The object is divided into small pieces. If a glass breaks, the pieces are still made of glass.

3. Chemical changes 38

Tetanus. Cuts from rusty objects can cause tetanus. This illness can be prevented by vaccinations.

60

• Oxidation: One substance changes into another when it reacts with oxygen. For example, iron changes into rust.

ashes

• Combustion: When an object or substance is burned, it changes into another substance. For example, when wood burns, it changes into ashes and gases.

A chemical change: wood burns, and changes into ashes and gases.

• Look at the pictures. Ask: Is ice water? (Yes, it is water in a solid state) What is happening to the wood? (It is burning.) What does fire produce? (light, heat, smoke) What does the wood change into when it burns? (ashes and gases)

• Cut up an apple or banana and wait several minutes. The fruit will turn brown. Ask: What type of change in matter has occurred? (chemical; fruit reacts with the oxygen in the air during oxidation)

smoke

• Putrefaction: This occurs when a living thing decomposes. For example, when an apple decays, its appearance, colour, smell and taste change.

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with 64 , 65 , 66 . Ask: Are these physical changes or chemical changes? a match burns (C) butter melts (P) a basketball goes through the hoop (P) we grate a carrot (P) food decays (C)

• Movement: The object changes position, but the matter remains the same.

Chemical industries use chemical reactions to manufacture substances. Some substances, such as plastic, are artificial. Plastic is made from petroleum.

Physical change or chemical change? Decide and make more sentences. A glass breaks into pieces. (… change)

Iron changes into rust. (… change)

M.A. …physical, chemical. M.A. Wood burns and changes into ashes and gases. (C). If water is heated, it changes into a gas. (P).

MATTER

25

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Write the following headings on the BB and ask Ss to copy them. • Physical changes: Movement, Expansion, Contraction, Changes of state, Fragmentation • Chemical changes: Oxidation, Combustion, Putrefaction Write the following list on the BB and tell Ss to classify them. an apple decays / water changes into steam / wood changes into ashes and gases / an object changes position / iron changes into rust / mercury expands in a thermometer / a glass breaks Answers: Movement – an object changes position; Expansion – mercury expands in a thermometer; Changes of state – water changes into steam; Fragmentation – a glass breaks; Oxidation – iron changes into rust; Combustion – wood changes into ashes and gases; Putrefaction – an apple decays. 1

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

2/10/06

20:28

Content objectives: 7, 8, 10. Language objectives: 5, 6, 7.

Página 61

Vocabulary: boiling, change of state, condensation, evaporation, fluid, gas, liquid, melting, solid, solidification, sublimation

Changes of state

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding the permanence of matter when there is a change of state

1. The three states of matter 39 The states of matter are solid, liquid and gaseous. Each state has different properties.

■ Hands on

• Solids have a fixed volume and shape. For example, if we put a ball in a bag, the shape of the ball stays the same. • Liquids have a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape. Liquids take the shape of their container. For example, if we pour water into a glass, the water takes the shape of the glass. • Gases do not have a fixed volume or a fixed shape. For example, if a balloon bursts, the air escapes and expands into the room. It acquires the volume and shape of the room.

Making stalactites If we move a solid, it still has the same volume and shape.

Liquids and gases are fluid. They flow through openings in solid bodies. They can be transported through pipes.

2. Changes of state 40 Matter can change from one state to another. This change of state sometimes occurs when the temperature changes. • Melting: A solid changes into a liquid. For example, snow melts when it is warm. • Solidification: A liquid changes into a solid. For example, water changes into ice when it is very cold.

Liquids maintain their volume, but change their shape.

• Boiling: A liquid changes into a gas. For example, water boils when it is very hot: one hundred degrees centigrade (100°C). • Evaporation: A liquid changes into a gas. For example, water in a pond evaporates. • Condensation: A gas changes into a liquid. For example, water vapour in the air forms condensation on car windows when it is very cold.

■ Presentation

• Sublimation: A solid changes into a gas. For example, solid air fresheners change into a gas when they mix with air.

Condensation and solidification sometimes make it dangerous to drive. What happens?

26

MATTER

• Fill two jars with warm water. Add magnesium sulphate until no more will dissolve. • Tie a paper clip to each end of a string and put the ends in the jars. Put a plate between the two jars with the string hanging over it. Wait several days. • The solution will wet the string. In the centre, drops will begin to fall. Gradually, a column of salt will form and continue to grow.

Gases can be compressed. There is a lot of oxygen in this tank.

…M. A. When it is cold outside, water vapour condenses inside the car windows and we cannot see very well. Also water freezes on the roads and makes them slippery.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Distribute photocopies of page 62. SS listen to 68 to complete the missing words. 1. … a solid changes into a liquid. 2. … a liquid changes into a solid. 3. … a liquid changes into a gas. 4. … a liquid changes into a gas. 5. … a gas changes into a liquid. 6. … a solid changes into a gas.

Answers: 1. melting. 2. solidification. 3. boiling. 4. evaporation. 5. condensation. 6. sublimination.

• Draw attention to the upper illustration. Ask: What happens to the ball? (It changes place.) Does it change in any other way? (no) • Tell Ss to imagine they untie the knot in an inflated balloon. Ask: What happens to the balloon? (it deflates) Where does the air from the balloon go? (into the room) (Air is a gas and tends to occupy all available space.) • Pour the water from a jar into containers with different shapes. Point out that water takes the shape of each container. Ask. Does liquid have a fixed shape? (no) What shape does the liquid take? (the same as the container). • READ Present 1 and 2 with

67

and

68 .

➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, pages 20, 22-24.

Slippery roads. More accidents happen in bad weather. When roads are wet or icy, good drivers drive carefully.

61

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

2/10/06

20:28

Página 62

1. Listen and complete the missing words. 1.

a solid changes into a liquid.

2.

a liquid changes into a solid.

3.

a liquid changes into a gas.

4.

a liquid changes into a gas.

5.

a gas changes into a liquid.

6.

a solid changes into a gas.

Answers: 1. melting. 2. solidification. 3. boiling. 4. evaporation. 5. condensation. 6. sublimination.

62

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

OIL

1. Complete the word map about matter. Matter

soli∂

Oil is a thick, black liquid which is extracted from inside the Earth. It is formed from the remains of living things which lived millions of years ago.

liqui∂

can be found in three states

Crude oil is not very useful when it comes out of the ground. It is a mixture of many different substances. These substances are separated at a refinery by a process called fractional distillation. This process involves physical and chemical changes. We obtain useful products including petrol, gas-oil, tar and butane gas.

gafi masfi

Today oil is a vital raw material of great economic importance. After the refining process, it is used as petrol and fuel for heating and transport. It is also used to make plastic, medicines, detergents, paint and lubricant oils.

has two kinds of properties

voluµæ can go through two types of change

physica¬

such as

M. A.

mo√±µen†

2. What does fractional distillation mean? Tick the correct answer. 씲  A process for separating substances in a mixture. 씲 The sum of fractions.

oxidatio>

씲 A type of factory.

c™emica¬

3. Write two of the main ideas in the text. M. A.

Oi¬ ifi å thic§ blac§ liqui∂ forµe∂ froµ t™æ ®emainfi oƒ [email protected] thingfi millionfi oƒ ¥earfi ago. I† iß å vita¬ ra∑ ma†eria¬ oƒ g®ea† economi© importan©æ.

such as

combustio> put®efactio>

VOCABULARY Match.

4. Answer the question.

mass

What will happen if our oil supply runs out?

Wæ wil¬ no† ha√¶ πetro¬ an∂ f¤e¬ fo® ™[email protected] an∂ transpor†. Wæ wil¬ no† ∫¶ ab¬æ tø ma§æ plasti©, paintfi, µedici>efi o® ∂e†[email protected]fi. 21

20



• the ratio of the mass to the volume of an object

volume •

• the amount of matter in an object

density •

• the amount of space which an object occupies

Página 63

Oil

20:28

1. Read carefully.

ORGANISE INFORMATION ON WORD MAPS

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 17. Date

Read and learn

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

Activity Book

Worksheet 18. Date

63

Worksheet 19. Date

MATTER: CHANGES OF STATE

씲 oil

1. Give examples of changes of state. 씲 honey 

씲 alcohol

씲 milk

• What experiment can you do to test your answer? M. A.

I ca> ßææ ho∑ [email protected] i† ta§efi fo® å droπ oƒ eac™ liqui∂ to fal¬.

2. Name two properties of the solid that makes up each of these objects. M. A.

har∂ durab¬æ

2. Complete the word map. Write the name of the changes of state in each space.

µ[email protected]

[email protected] f¬exib¬æ

solidificatio>

metal wire

gold coin

har∂ translu©en†

smoot™ wa†erprooƒ

con∂ensatio> LIQUIDS

rubber boots

sapphire (precious stone)

GASES

evaporatio>

3. Compare the properties of raw clay and baked clay.

3. Answer.

raw clay M. A.

sublimatio>

SOLIDS

sof†

a. Is the ice cream in the photo in a solid, liquid or gaseous state?

baked clay

har∂

I† ifi i> å soli∂ sta†æ. b. What change of state is produced when ice cream melts?

I† ifi cal¬e∂ µ[email protected]

• What causes the change in the properties of this solid? M. A.

I† dr^efi; i† loßefi itfi wa†e®. 23

22

Página 64

sno∑ µeltfi • From gas into liquid: wa†e® vapou® i> t™æ ai® formfi con∂ensatio> o> ca® window • From liquid into solid: wa†e® [email protected]fi into i©æ • From liquid into gas: wa†e® i> å pon∂ evapora†efi • From solid into liquid:

20:28

1. Which of these liquids do you think is the thickest? Tick. 씲 water

Apply your knowledge

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

Activity Book

64 Worksheet 20. Date

857415 _ 0056-0065.qxd

Notes: APPLY KNOWLEDGE TO DAILY LIFE

Página 65

a. What happens when we put ice cubes in a full glass of water? 씲  The glass overflows. 씲 Nothing happens.

Becaußæ t™æ voluµæ oƒ t™æ wa†e® inc®eaßefi.

Why? M. A.

b. Imagine you have three inflated balloons in your hand. You have inflated two by blowing. The other is full of helium gas. If you let the balloons go, what will happen? 씲 The one with helium will rise. The others will fall to the ground. 씲 All of them will rise. Why? M. A.

Becaußæ ™eliuµ gafi ifi ligh†e® tha> ai®.

c. You are having noodle soup. How do you separate the liquid from the noodles with a strainer? M. A.

I pou® t™æ souπ throug™ t™æ strai>e®. Onl¥ t™æ liqui∂ pasßefi.

What property of liquids are you observing? Explain. M. A.

24

20:28

1. Apply what you have learned to daily life. Tick () and explain.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 21. Date

Liquidfi do no† ha√¶ å fi≈e∂ shaπæ.

65

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

2/10/06

20:31

Página 66

UNIT 7

The atmosphere UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Understanding the composition of the atmosphere Understanding the purpose of the atmosphere Identifying weather phenomena Learning the distribution and characteristics of the hydrosphere Explaining the circulation of water and changes of state during the water cycle Learning the characteristics and components of the geosphere Identifying changes on the Earth’s surface due to natural causes Protecting nature Saving water

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Defining and describing: The atmosphere is the air which … Waves are … Erosion is … Classifying: The principal weather phenomena are … Rocks can be classified into … Describing location: the lowest layer … It is found in … Giving examples: such as rain; for example, the sea's waves … Describing process: Liquid water evaporates … When a volcano erupts … Describing conditions: As we travel higher … If it is very cold … Igneous rocks are formed when water cools …

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• The atmosphere: composition and layers • Precipitation and wind • The hydrosphere • The water cycle • The layers of the geosphere: crust, mantle and core • Components of the crust: rocks and minerals • Changes in the Earth’s crust: volcanoes, earthquakes, weathering

• Explain the stages of the water cycle • Identify the movement of water in the oceans • Recognise the effects of weathering • Put the stages of weathering in the correct order: erosion, transport and sedimentation • Interpret photographs, drawings and diagrams to extract information

ATTITUDES

• Show interest in protecting nature • Understand the importance of saving water

Assessment criteria • Knowing the Earth is made up of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the geosphere • Knowing the purpose of the atmosphere • Explaining the water cycle

66

• Associating volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering with changes on the Earth’s surface • Interpreting photographs, drawings and diagrams

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

9/10/06

19:06

Página 67

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 7 – Extension: Worksheet 7

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 7

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Geography http://www.geography4kids.com/ The atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the Earth's structure are explained using diagrams. For students and teachers. Weather http://www.weatherwizkids.com/index.htm The fascinating world of weather and weather phenomena, including experiments. For students and teachers. Rocks http://sln.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/index.html Discover how rocks are formed. For students and teachers.

4

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

L IVING ON THE M OON

www.richmondelt.com

67

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

2/10/06

20:31

Página 68

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 8. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

Vocabulary: air, atmosphere, carbon dioxide, layer, nitrogen, outer space, oxygen, ozone, precipitation, stratosphere, troposphere, water vapour

The atmosphere

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that the atmosphere filters the Sun’s rays

Look at this photo of the Earth. • What do clouds look like from space?

• Understanding that the atmosphere is made up of various layers

• Can we see the atmosphere?

■ Hands on Movement of the air READ

• Draw a spiral six cm in diameter on a square of onion paper and cut it out. • Glue or tape the end of a thread to the centre of the paper spiral. • Hold the spiral over a lamp by the thread about ten cm from the light bulb. • Ask: Why does the spiral spin? (The light bulb heats the air. The hot air rises and the cold air falls, forming currents which make the spiral move.)

1. What is the atmosphere? 41 The atmosphere is the air which surrounds the Earth. Air is a mixture of gases. It is mainly nitrogen and oxygen. There are also small quantities of carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapour. The atmosphere is essential to life on Earth: • It has the oxygen which all living things breathe. It also has carbon dioxide which plants need for photosynthesis. • Carbon dioxide and other gases are like a blanket which retains the Earth’s heat. • Ozone filters harmful ultraviolet rays.

As we travel higher, the gases become less dense. In outer space there is no atmosphere.

3. Weather phenomena The principal weather phenomena are precipitation and wind. Precipitation is water, such as rain, snow or hail, which falls from the atmosphere to the Earth. Wind is the movement of air, and has different names depending on how strongly it blows. Breezes are gentle winds. Hurricanes are violent winds.

2. The layers of the atmosphere 42

■ Presentation • LOOK Focus attention on the photo and questions. Clouds look like white masses from space. We cannot see the atmosphere because it is made up of gases. • READ Use a mirror to reflect the Sun’s rays. Ask: What happens when the rays reach the mirror? (they bounce off) Explain that the atmosphere also reflects the Sun’s rays and protects us from harmful radiation. • Draw a tall, thin rectangle. At the top, write outer space. At the bottom write Earth’s surface. Divide the rectangle into two parts and write troposhere in the bottom part and stratosphere in the top part. • Ask: Where do plants and animals live? (troposphere) Where is the ozone layer? (stratosphere) Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with 69 , 70 and 71 and then do the activity at the bottom of the page.

68

The troposphere is the lowest layer. Most gases are in this layer. Plants and animals live in the troposphere.

What is happening to the ozone layer?

The stratosphere is the next layer. There is a thin layer of ozone in the upper stratosphere. This is called the ozone layer.

The air which surrounds the Earth contains five gases: … The atmosphere has three layers: …

Complete the sentences.

M.A. Certain gases are destroying the ozone layer. / nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapour / the troposphere, the stratosphere and the ozone layer

THE ATMOSPHERE

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB and ask Ss to say if they are true or false. They correct the false sentences. 1

1. The main gases in the air are nitrogen and oxygen. 2. The atmosphere has large quantities of carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapour. 3. The atmosphere is not essential to life on earth. 4. All living things breathe oxygen. 5. Plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. 6. Oxygen filters harmful ultraviolet rays. Answers: 1. True. 2. False (small quantities). 3. False (is essential). 4. True. 5. True. 6. False (ozone filters).

27

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

2/10/06

20:31

Content objectives: 4, 5, 9. Language objectives: 1, 3, 5, 6.

Página 69

Vocabulary: hydrosphere, ocean currents, tides, water cycle, waves

The hydrosphere

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. The hydrosphere All the water on Earth makes up the hydrosphere. Water is usually a liquid, but it can also be a solid or a gas. Water in liquid form covers most of the Earth’s surface. It is found in oceans, seas, rivers and lakes. Water in solid form (snow and ice) is found in the polar regions. It is also found on mountains. Water vapour, a gas, is found in the atmosphere. Water can be a liquid or a solid, such as ice or snow. Water vapour is in the atmosphere.

1. Liquid water in the sea, rivers and lakes evaporates because of heat from the Sun. It becomes water vapour. precipitation

condensation

evaporation

clouds and water vapour

2. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops of water. The water drops form clouds. 3. Water falls from clouds as rain: precipitation. If it is very cold, water solidifies and falls as snow. 4. Water flows over the land and filters into it. It forms rivers and lakes. Some water returns to the sea or evaporates. The water cycle starts again.

3. The movement of water • Waves are the rise and fall of the water’s surface. They are caused by wind. river ocean

• Tides are the rise and fall of the sea level twice a day. They are caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun. • Ocean currents are the movement of large masses of ocean water in the same direction.

Why is it important to save water? What do you do to save water?

28

THE ATMOSPHERE

M. A. Water is scarce in many parts of the Earth. To save water: turn off the tap when you clean your teeth, take showers and not baths…

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension (reordering). Write the following sentences about the water cycle on the BB. Ss write the sentences in the correct order in their notebooks. They check by listening again to 73 .

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

■ Hands on Raindrops

2. The water cycle 43 The water cycle is the constant circulation of water between the sea, the atmosphere and land.

The water cycle

• Understanding that the water cycle is continuous and takes place all over the Earth

Water filters into the land, returns to the sea or evaporates. It becomes water vapour. Water falls from clouds as rain or snow. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops of water. The water cycle starts again. Liquid water evaporates because of heat from the sun. The water drops form clouds.

• Take a clear, plastic lid and eyedropper. With the concave surface of the lid facing up, squeeze a few drops of water onto the inside of the lid. Then, turn the lid over quickly. • Ask: What happens if you collect the drops of water in one place with a pencil point? (they form bigger drops, then fall) Demonstrate using a pencil. Explain that in the water cycle drops of water collect in cloud. Raindrops form and fall to the ground.

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Ask: What kinds of water are there in the photo? (liquid – the ocean; solid – ice; water vapour) Ask: How much of the Earth is covered by water? (about three quarters) Explain that most of the water is in the oceans and seas. • Ss read 1 with

72 .

• Write on the BB the changes of state in the water cycle. Ss read 2 with 73 . Ask: What is … evaporation? … solidification? … condensation? • Ask: What does the beach look like at high tide? (Water covers most of the beach.) What does it look like at low tide? (The water recedes and the beach looks bigger.) • Ss read 3 with 74 , and answer the questions at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 25.

Answers: 6 – 2 – 4 – 7 – 3 – 1 – 5.

69

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

2/10/06

20:31

Página 70

Content objectives: 6. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.

Vocabulary: core, crust, geosphere, igneous rocks, magma, mantle, metamorphic rocks, minerals, sedimentary rocks

The geosphere

■ Special attention

READ

• Distinguishing types of rocks

1. The geosphere 44

Parts of the geosphere

• Distinguishing between outer, middle and inner

crust

mantle

The geosphere is made up of three layers: • The crust is the Earth’s outer layer. It is made up of solid materials. • The mantle is the Earth’s middle layer. It is extremely hot. In some parts, there is magma (red-hot liquid rock).

■ Hands on

• The core is the Earth’s inner layer. It is also extremely hot. It is divided into the liquid outer core and the solid inner core.

The shape of the Earth

2. Rocks and minerals

• Put a stone in a plastic bottle top and then fill the top with oil. Put the bottle top in a glass and pour alcohol into the glass until it is 1 cm above the bottle top. Pour water slowly down the side of the glass. The oil leaves the bottle top in the form of a bubble. Turn the bubble gently without breaking it. If it rises to the top of the glass, add more alcohol letting it slide down the side of the glass. • Ask: What shape is the bubble? (like a rugby ball, not a sphere) The Earth is not a perfect sphere but is flattened at the poles.

Rocks are natural materials which make up the Earth’s crust.

core

Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are pure. We cannot break them down into other substances.

crystal

There are hundreds of minerals, such as diamonds and other precious stones. We can identify each mineral by its density, colour, hardness and shine.

3. Types of rock 45 There are several crystals in this rock.

bituminous coal (a sedimentary rock)

Rocks can be classified into three types depending on how they are formed: • Sedimentary rocks are formed from pieces of other rocks or pieces of living things. Coal and gypsum are sedimentary rocks. • Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and solidifies. Granite and basalt are igneous rocks.

basalt (an igneous rock)

slate (a metamorphic rock)

• Metamorphic rocks are formed when heat or pressure changes the original rocks. Marble and slate are metamorphic rocks.

True or false? Make more sentences. The crust is the inner layer of the geosphere. Rocks are made up of minerals.

■ Presentation • READ Look at the drawing of the Earth. Point out that the geosphere is the solid part of the Earth. Ss read 1 with 75 . Ask: Which is the outer layer of the geosphere? (the crust) Which is the inner layer? (the core) Which layer is between the crust and the core? (the mantle) • Explain that the crust is made up of solid materials. Ask: Are rocks natural materials? (yes) Are minerals natural materials? (yes) What are rocks made of? (minerals) Ss read 2 and 3 with 76 and 77 and do the activity at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 27, exercise 1.

70

Where can you see granite and marble in your community?

The mantle is the Earth’s inner layer… / M. A. mountains, quarries, stairs, walls, kitchens, sculptures…

THE ATMOSPHERE

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB and underline the different options. Ask Ss to write down the correct option in each sentence.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The geosphere is made up of three / four layers. The crust is the Earth’s outer / inner layer. The mantle, or middle layer, is very cold / hot. The core is the Earth’s outer / inner layer. Magma is red-hot solid / liquid rock.

Answers: 1. three. 2. outer. 3. hot. 4. inner. 5. liquid.

29

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

2/10/06

20:31

Content objectives: 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Página 71

Vocabulary: chimney, cone, crater, earthquakes, erosion, lava, magma, sedimentation, transport, volcanoes, weathering

Volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Volcanoes 46

The parts of a volcano 47

Volcanoes form in places where there is magma, red-hot liquid rock, just under the surface. When a volcano erupts, internal forces push the magma up through a central pipe, the volcanic chimney. It emerges through a circular opening called a crater. Magma is called lava when it reaches the surface.

volcanic cone

crater chimney

lava magma

Layers of lava and ash cool and solidify around the crater, and form a volcanic cone.

■ Hands on Volcanic eruptions

mantle

2. Earthquakes Earthquakes are caused by movements of the Earth’s crust. They can destroy buildings and bridges, divert rivers, and cause avalanches. Earthquakes on the ocean floor produce enormous, destructive waves called tsunamis.

3. Weathering The action of wind and water is called weathering: • Erosion is the removal of soil and rocks by wind and water. For example, the sea’s waves gradually erode a cliff.

• Associate volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering with their effects on the Earth’s crust

Many islands were formed by underwater volcanic eruptions.

• Half fill a plastic bottle with sodium bicarbonate and place on a tray. • Put sand around the bottle. • Mix vinegar and food colouring and pour it into the bottle. Observe the eruption. The bubbles that are created are filled with carbon dioxide gas which pushes the vinegar to the surface. • Ask: How is our experiment similar to a volcanic eruption? (Pressure from gases pushes materials to surface.)

• Transport is the movement of eroded material. For example, rivers, seas and the wind carry sand. • Sedimentation is the accumulation of eroded material from other places.

■ Presentation

For example, mud settles at the bottom of a river.

Describe what happens when a volcano erupts. Internal forces push the magma … Rivers can carry mud or sand.

30

THE ATMOSPHERE

M. A. …up through the volcanic chimney. Magma emerges through the crater.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Comprehension. Write these half sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to match them and write the complete sentences. 1. Volcanoes form in places a. eroded material 2. Earthquakes are caused by b. is called weathering 3. Earthquakes on the ocean floor c. produce enormous waves called tsunamis 4. The action of wind and water d. where there is magma 5. Erosion is the removal of e. of eroded material from other places 6. Transport is the movement of f. movements of the Earth’s crust 7. Sedimentation g. soil and rocks by is the accumulation wind and weather

• LOOK AND READ Present 1 and 2 with and 79 . Ask: Where does the magma go? (up through the chimney) What emerges through the crater? (lava, gases, pieces of rock)

78

• Explain that earthquakes and volcanic eruptions change the Earth’s surface. • Focus on photo 2 and ask: What do you see along the river banks? (rocks) Where do they come from? (the flow of the river moves them and leaves them in flat areas) • The action of the wind and water continually affect the Earth’s surface. Ss read 3 with 80 . E ➔ Activity Book, page 26. ➔ R Activity Book, page 27, exercise 2.

Natural disasters. Volcanoes and earthquakes can harm people and other living things. It is very difficult to predict when they will occur.

Answers: 1 – d. 2 – f. 3 – c. 4 – b. 5 – g. 6 – a. 7 – e.

71

Worksheet 22. Date

Apply your knowledge

20:31

1. Read carefully.

THE WATER CYCLE 1. Label the diagram.

Volcanic landscapes

1 2 3 4 5

T™e¥ a®æ f^eldfi oƒ lavå. b. How are badlands formed? Lavå turnfi t™æ groun∂ into dr¥, ston¥ landscaπefi. c. What are calderas? T™e¥ a®æ √±r¥ [email protected]æ cra†erfi. d. Where can we find calderas? Wæ ca> fin∂ t™eµ o> Te>eriƒæ an∂ Lå Palmå.

river 2

1

evaporation

2. Answer the questions. a. What are badlands?

ocean

condensation

clouds and water vapor

During eruptions, red-hot material is ejected. This is called lava when it reaches the Earth’s surface. Lava moves down, destroying everything in its path. It turns the ground into a dry, stony landscape where very little vegetation can grow. The Canary Islands are a good example of volcanic landscapes. On the islands of Lanzarote and Hierro, we find volcanic cones. These are cone-shaped mountains built up by volcanic eruptions. There are also very large craters called calderas on Tenerife and La Palma. Other volcanic formations on the Canary Islands are fields of lava called badlands. A good example is the Fire Mountains on the island of Lanzarote.

precipitation

Página 72

A volcanic eruption is when magma rises through cracks in the Earth’s surface. Eruptions can rapidly change the landscape for kilometres around.

6

con∂ensatio> p®ecipitatio> evaporatio> Cloudfi an∂ wa†e® vapou® ri√±® o©ea>

3 4

5

6

VOCABULARY 3. Look for information. Write down the name of each area on the Iberian Peninsula with volcanic formations.

T™e®æ a®æ volcani© formationfi i> Cabo ∂æ Gatå i> Alµeriå, i> t™æ Errigoit^ formatio> i> t™æ Py®e>æefi, an∂, oƒ courßæ, o> t™æ Canar¥ Islandfi an∂ i> t™æ Azo®efi.

M. A.

26

Match. sunlight



• plants need this for photosynthesis

carbon dioxide •

• it filters harmful ultraviolet rays

ozone

• it is like a blanket which retains the Earth’s heat



2/10/06

Read and learn

VOLCANIC FORMATIONS

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

Activity Book

72 Worksheet 23. Date

25

857415 _ 0066-0073.qxd

Notes:

2/10/06

Worksheet 24. Date

Apply your knowledge ROCKS, WEATHERING

20:31

1. Name the type of rock. coal

marble

A

B

sla†æ

grani†æ

C

D

coa¬

marb¾

2. Complete each sentence.

win∂ an∂ wa†e®.

a. Erosion is the removal of rocks by • volcanic activity b. Transport is the • movement c. Sedimentation is the • destruction

granite

Página 73

slate

• wind and water

mo√±µen†

of eroded material.

• eruption

accumulatio>

of eroded material.

• accumulation

27

73

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

2/10/06

20:30

Página 74

UNIT 8

The landscape UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Understanding the concept of landscape Using the term altitude correctly Learning the main inland landforms Learning the main coastal landforms Understanding information about the mountains and plains of Spain Understanding information about Spanish coasts and their main landforms Appreciating the importance of the landscape

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Defining and describing landscape: Plains are … A cape is land which … Classifying: Mountain landscapes are made up of … There are two types of coast ... Describing features (adjectives): high; low; flat; raised; long; sandy Comparing: lower than … the highest peaks Describing location: near the coast … to the north … in the south … by the sea

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Main inland landforms: mountains, plains, plateaus and valleys • The mountains, plains, plateaus and valleys of Spain • Main coastal landforms: archipelago, beach, cape, cliffs, coast, estuary, gulf, high coast, island, low-lying coast, marsh, peninsula • Spanish coasts

• Observe photographs and drawings to obtain information about the landscape and landforms • Locate the main landforms in Spain on maps • Use a map to learn about Spanish coasts • Interpret different types of maps

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate, respect, protect and preserve natural landscapes

Assessment criteria • • • • •

74

Distinguishing the main coastal and inland landforms Using maps to learn about landscape Knowing about the Spanish landscape and its main landforms Observing photographs and drawings to obtain information about the landscape Appreciating the importance of the landscape

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

2/10/06

20:30

Página 75

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 8 – Extension: Worksheet 8

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 8

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Landforms http://www.edu.pe.ca.southernkings/landforms.htm A picture-filled website made by students of the Faces of the Earth. In addition to landforms, processes like weathering and erosion, as well as the rock cycle are also covered. Endangered species and landscapes http://www.arkive.org/ Enter Arkive to visit the Globally Endangered Chapter or visit the Planet Arkive to learn about landscapes and habitats. For teachers and students. Geography http://www.iberianature.com/index.html A guide to wildlife, geography and climate of Spain. For students and teachers.

4

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

M AKING

M OUNTAINS

www.richmondelt.com

75

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

2/10/06

20:30

Página 76

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Vocabulary: coastal plains, depression, landscape, mountain chain, mountain range, plains, plateau, valley

The landscape

■ Special attention LOOK

• Using the new vocabulary correctly • Distinguishing between long and large

Look at the photo.

■ Hands on

• Is everything natural, or are some things man-made?

• What can you see in the landscape?

Landscape features • Ask: What natural features can you see in the landscape around your town? (trees, grass, plains, mountains, rivers, lakes, waterfalls…) • Ask: Which things are man-made? (roads, pavements, buildings, bridges, walls …) • Write suggestions on the BB in two lists.

READ

1. The landscape

3. Plains 49

All the different features of the Earth’s surface make up the landscape. There are high mountains in some areas. There is low flat land in other areas.

Plains are large areas of flat land with no hills or slopes. A plateau is a plain at a high altitude. Depressions are plains which are lower than the surrounding land.

There are mountain landscapes, flat landscapes and coastal landscapes.

Coastal plains are flat land near the coast.

2. Mountains 48 Mountain landscapes are made up of mountains and valleys.

■ Presentation

• Mountains are raised parts of the Earth’s surface. Hills have a lower altitude than mountains. (Altitude is the height of something above sea level, or the Earth’s surface.)

• LOOK Ask Ss to look at the photo and compare natural and man-made features. Ask: Are trees/mountains natural features? (yes) Are houses/roads man-made? (yes) • READ Explain the difference between height and altitude. Altitude is the height of something above sea level. Height is the vertical measurement of something. Ask Ss: Which has a higher altitude … a hill or a mountain? (a mountain) … a hill or a valley? (a hill) • Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with 82 , 83 , 84 . They do the activity at the bottom of the page. E ➔ Activity Book, page 29.

True or false? Make more sentences about landscape features.

• Several mountains grouped together are called a mountain range. A long line of mountain ranges is called a mountain chain.

Mountains are low areas. Mountains are raised parts of the Earth’s surface.

• Valleys are low areas between mountains. Rivers are often found in valleys.

Which mountains are closest to your home? What is their altitude?

M. A. …Valleys are low areas between mountains. A plateau is a plain at a high altitude. Coastal plains are flat land near the coast.

THE LANDSCAPE

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

Comprehension. Write these words and sentences on the BB.

Ask Ss to copy the sentences and complete them with the correct word.

flat

chain

features

plateau

altitude

1. Valleys and mountains are … of the landscape. 2. Hills have a lower … than mountains. 3. A mountain … is a long line of mountain ranges. Excursions and rubbish. When we go on excursions, we should always throw our rubbish in the bins or take it home. This way we protect nature and help prevent fires.

76

4. Valleys are … areas between mountains. 5. Plains are large areas of … land. 6. A … is a plain at a high altitude. Answers: 1. features. 2. altitude. 3. chain. 4. low. 5. flat. 6. plateau.

low

31

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

2/10/06

20:30

Página 77

Vocabulary: Betic Chain, Central Mountain Chain, Central Plateau, Iberian Peninsula, mountains, plains, Pyrenees

Content objectives: 5, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Mountains and plains in Spain

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Interpret a relief map

Mountains and plains in Spain Bay of Biscay

E

AI

N

Pico del Moro Almanzor 2,592

EN MOR RA ER SI

TA OUN AM

N

E

S

SI

ON

IN

BET

RA N

IN TA

CH

A

I

N

MO TAL AS CO

Tra m

un

ta

na

Ra

ng

■ Hands on

e

Balearic Islands

GE

N AI CH I C Mulhacén 3,478

Medite

GU

Canary Islands

S

E

ANDORRA

U

R

rra

ne

an

Se

a

Relief maps

metres

Kilometres

ATLANTIC OCEAN

E

PLATEAU

ON ESSI

AD AL Q

DEPR VIR UI

127

CH

N

P

CA TA LA

L

DE

IN

RA

O

A

NT

IA

H

CE

SCALE

N

Aneto 3,404

E

ER

C

0

P O R T U G A L

CENTRAL

OCEAN

R

R

IB

B

MO

A TL A N T I C

Y

S

N O L E NT U

P

an M o u nt a i n C h a i n

IN

S

Ca nt ab ri

• Adverbial phrases: to the north, in the south etc.

F R A N C E

e

A

Ga Moun licia tai n n Ra ng

E

N

N W

2,000 1,000 500 0

Ceuta Melilla

Teide 3,718

MOROCCO

Peak

The Teide, on the Canary Islands, is the highest mountain in Spain.

1. Mountains and plains in Spain The Iberian peninsula has many different landscapes. The map shows the mountains and plains.

The Iberian peninsula has narrow coastal plains.

Central Spain is dominated by a large plateau, called the Central Plateau. This is divided into two parts by the Central Mountain Chain.

• The Ebro depression is in the north.

There are two extensive depressions: • The Guadalquivir depression is in the south.

■ Presentation

There are mountains to the north, east and south of the Central Plateau: • The Pyrenees is a mountain chain to the north of the Central Plateau. • The Betic Chain is a mountain chain to the south of the Central Plateau. The highest peaks on the peninsula are in these chains.

Complete the sentences. The highest peaks on the Iberian peninsula are in … The two extensive depressions on the Iberian peninsula are …

32

THE LANDSCAPE

…the Pyrenees and the Betic Chain … The Ebro depression and the Guadalquivir depression.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

• Show a simple relief map of the area where you live. Ask: How can you distinguish … the plains? … the mountains? (by their colour and with the map key) • Ask: How do we know where north is? (the compass symbol) Where is it? • Ask: Which is the highest mountain in Spain? Where is it?

Quiz. Ask the questions. Ss raise their hands if they can answer.

Which countries make up the Iberian peninsula? What is the highest mountain in Spain? Where is it? Where are the Pyrenees? Which mountains divide the Central Plateau into two parts? Where are the highest peaks on the Iberian peninsula? Where is the Betic mountain chain? Where is the Ebro depression? Where is the Guadalquivir depression?

• LOOK AND READ Focus on the map. Ask: What colours do you see on the map? What do these colours indicate? (different altitudes) • Ask: What do you see in the upper left corner? (a compass) What is it for? (to show north, south, east and west) • Ask: What is the name of the mountain chain which separates the Iberian peninsula from France? (Pyrenees) Is the Betic Chain in the south of the Iberian peninsula? (yes) Which is further north, the Ebro depression or the Guadalquivir depression? (Ebro depression) • Ask: What is the highest mountain in Spain? (the Teide) Where is it? (in the Canary Islands) • Ss read 1 and do the activity.

Answers: 1. Spain and Portugal. 2. Teide, Canary Islands. 3. Between Spain and France. 4. Central Mountain Chain. 5. Pyrenees, Betic Chain. 6. To the south of the Central Plateau. 7. In the north. 8. In the south.

77

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

2/10/06

20:30

Página 78

Content objectives: 4, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5.

Vocabulary: archipelago, beach, cape, cliffs, coast, coastlines, estuary, gulf, island, landforms, marsh, peninsula

The coast

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Distinguish coastal landforms

1. The coast 50

• Vocabulary for types of coastline

A coastline 52

The coast is the place where the land meets the sea. There are two types of coast:

■ Hands on

estuary

• Low-lying coasts are plains by the sea. They often have sandy beaches.

marsh

• High coasts are mountains or high areas by the sea. They often have rocky cliffs.

Coastal relief map • Ask: Where is the nearest coast to where you live? • Show Ss a map of the coastline where you live or the nearest coastal area. Point out different landforms and ask Ss to say the names. • Ask: What is the name of this cape? What is the name of this beach? What is the name of the gulf between … and …?

2. Types of coastline 51 Coastlines have different shapes. • A cape is land which extends into the sea. • A gulf is a place where the sea extends into the land. • A peninsula is land which is almost completely surrounded by water.

cape

• An island is land which is completely surrounded by water.

archipelago

• An archipelago is a group of islands. • An estuary is the part of a river which opens into the sea.

island

• A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river. cliff

■ Presentation

beach

• LOOK AND READ Focus on the drawing. Say the names of the landforms in jumbled order and ask Ss to point to them.

gulf Make more sentences to describe coastal landforms. Change the underlined words. A cape is land which extends into the sea. An archipelago is a group of islands.

• Ask: How are beaches and cliffs the same? (they are by the sea) How are they different? (beaches are flat and have sand; cliffs are high and rocky) • Use coastal landforms to play a guessing game. It is completely surrounded by water. (island) It is a group of islands. (archipelago) It is the part of a river which opens into the sea. (estuary) It is a place where the sea extends into the land. (gulf) • Ss read 1 and 2 with they do the activity.

85

and

86 .

Then

➔ R Activity Book, page 28.

Water pollution. Rivers flow into the sea. If rivers become contaminated, this water will reach the sea and harm the living things near our coasts too.

peninsula

M.A. … A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river. A peninsula is land which is almost completely surrounded by water.

THE LANDSCAPE

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write these sentence halves on the BB and ask Ss to match them.

1. 2. 3. 4.

The coast is the place A cape is land which A gulf is a place A peninsula is land which

a. b. c. d.

5. An island is land

e.

6. An archipelago is

f.

7. An estuary is the part of a river 8. A marsh is wet land

g. h.

which opens into the sea extends into the sea where the land meets the sea which is completely surrounded by water where the sea extends into the land is almost completely surrounded by water a group of islands near the mouth of a river

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – b. 3 – e. 4 – f. 5 – d. 6 – g. 7 – a. 8 – h.

78

33

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

2/10/06

20:30

Página 79

Vocabulary: Atlantic coast, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Cantabrian coast, Mediterranean coast

Content objectives: 6, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5.

Spanish coasts

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Interpreting maps

1. Spanish coasts Spain has more than 6,000 kilometres of coastline in the peninsula. There are five types of coast.

• The Mediterranean coast is low-lying and sandy. There are many long beaches.

• The Cantabrian coast has rocky cliffs, estuaries and gulfs.

• The coastline in the Canary Islands varies greatly.

• The Atlantic coast is very varied. In the northwest, it is high and rocky. There are many estuaries. In the south, it is low-lying and sandy.

• In the Balearic Islands, high coasts alternate with long beaches.

Cantabria

Atlantic

Estaca de Bares Point

Canary Islands

Cape Peñas

Cape Ajo

Cape Matxitxako

F R A N C E

Cape Fisterra

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Mediterranean

Gulf of Valencia

E

Gulf of Cadiz Tarifa Point

S

Cape Gata

Med

iter

ran

n

Balearic Islands

■ Presentation

142

Cantabrian coast Mediterranean coast Atlantic coast

Describe each one. The Cantabrian coast has rocky cliffs.

THE LANDSCAPE

• Hand out photocopies of a map of Spain and lengths of yarn in three colours: red, green, orange. • Ask Ss to glue the yarn on the coasts according to the map in the book. • Ss write Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the name of each type of coastal area on the map. Ask: What coastal area do the Canary Islands belong to? (Atlantic) And the Balearic Islands? (Mediterranean)

a

Complete the sentence. Spain has five different types of coastal areas: …

34

Spanish coasts

Kilometres

Melilla

ATLANTIC OCEAN

ea

Se

SCALE

0

Ceuta

Canary Islands

Cape Creus Gulf of Roses

Balearic Islands

Cape La Nao Cape Palos

N W

P O R T U G A L

ANDORRA

■ Hands on

…Cantabrian coast, Atlantic coast, Mediterranean coast, Canary Islands coast, Balearic Islands coast/ The Atlantic coast is very varied. The Mediterranean coast is low-lying and sandy…

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Quiz. Books closed. Read out these questions and ask Ss to raise their hands if they know the answer. 1. How long is the Spanish coastline? 2. How many types of coast are there? 3. What is the coast in the north called? 4. Which coast is very varied? 5. Which coast is low-lying and sandy? 6. Which islands have coastlines?

Answers: 1. about 6.000 kilometres. 2. five. 3. Cantabrian and Atlantic. 4. Atlantic / Canaries. 5. Mediterranean. 6. Canary Islands, Balearic Islands.

• LOOK AND READ Focus on the map. Ask: What do you notice about the coast of Spain? (a lot of coast with different seas) Ask Ss to look at the photos in pairs and to ask each other questions: In which photo/s can you see … a high cliff? (Atlantic) … a sandy beach? (Mediterranean, Balearic Islands) … rocks on the beach? (Canary Islands) • Help Ss organise a tree diagram. Title: Spanish coasts. Level 1: Cantabrian coast / Atlantic coast / Mediterranean coast. Level 2: Iberian Peninsula / Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands coast / Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands coast. • Ss read 1 and do the activity. ➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, pages 30, 31.

Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean is almost enclosed and is surrounded by populated countries. This causes a serious pollution problem.

79

Worksheet 25. Date

Apply your knowledge LANDSCAPES

20:30

1. Read carefully.

1. Read the definition and write the word.

Oceanic landscapes

a. Land which is almost completely surrounded by water:

The ocean floor, just like the Earth’s surface, has different landscapes. There are mountain ranges, flat lands and deep oceanic trenches.

b. Large area of flat land with no hills or slopes:

πeninsulå

Página 80

plai>

chai> d. A low area between mountains: val¬e¥ e. The wet land near the mouth of a river: ∂eltå f. Where the sea extends into the land: estuar¥ c. Several mountains grouped together:

Underwater mountain ranges are known as oceanic ridges. Some are over 3,000 metres high and more than 2,000 kilometres long. The longest mountain range extends from the Arctic almost to Antarctica. In some cases, underwater mountain peaks reach the surface and form islands in the middle of the ocean.

2. Now classify these landscapes into coastal or inland.

Oceanic trenches are long, narrow and very deep depressions. The most important ones are found in the Pacific Ocean. The deepest ocean trench is the Challenger Deep in the Pacific Ocean. It is almost 11,000 metres deep.

2. Explain the difference between an oceanic ridge and a mountain.

A> o©eani© [email protected]æ ifi a> un∂erwa†e® mountai> [email protected]æ. A mountai> ifi foun∂ abo√¶ wa†e®. coasta¬

inlan∂

3. Complete the following text about the principal landscapes in your Autonomous Community. M. A.In my Autonomous Community, there are different landscapes including

VOCABULARY

oceanic ridge



• deep, long, narrow depression on the ocean floor

oceanic trench •

• the highest point of a mountain

peak



• flat land which is lower than the surrounding land

depression



• an underwater mountain range

mountai>

chainfi, ri√±rfi, plainfi an∂ val¬eyfi. There are high areas, for example Nava©erradå an∂ t™æ Guadarramå mountainfi. There are flat areas, for example t™æ µeadowfi oƒ Aranj¤eΩ.

Match.

29

28

2/10/06

Read and learn

UNDERWATER LANDSCAPES

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd

Activity Book

80 Worksheet 26. Date

857415 _ 0074-0081.qxd 2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 27. Date

INTERPRET A MAP

R

A

N

C

E

a. Which mountain chain is the farthest north?

E

W

e S

Y

i an M ou nta i n Ch a i n

R

E

IN

N O L E NT U MO

P

c. Where are the highest mountains?

A

RA AIN

NG

S

SI

O LM TA AS CO

ON

AI

2. Look at the elevation and complete.

Tr a m

u

a nt

na

Ra

ng

N AI CH C I Mulhacén ET 3,478

an err Medit

ea

n

S

dar§ brow>

Different colours represent different altitudes.The colour

e

g®æe>

is used for the highest areas. The colour

is used

for the lowest areas. The most important rivers flow through areas indicated by the colour

Balearic Islands

ES

Cantabria> mountai> chai>. Tramuntanå [email protected]æ. Canar¥ islandfi/B±ti© chai>. Ebro/Guadalquivi® ∂ep®essionfi.

U

ION ESS

B

d. Where are the lowest areas of land?

N

N T

E

CH

CA TA LA N

R

N AI

T™æ T™æ T™æ T™æ

g®æe> o® ligh† brow> 0 ea

. These areas are between

1,000

and

metres

in height. The highest mountain peak is located in an area indicated by the colour

g®e¥

.

GU

AD AL Q

R

P

PLATEAU

UNT

DEP VIR UI

IN

MO ENA

A

P O R T U G A L

N AI

Pico del Moro Almanzor 2,592

DE

N H

CH

AL

IA

C

MOR

R NT

O

R

ER

B

RA

S E ANDORRA

E

IB

CE

ER

E

b. Which mountain range is the farthest east?

Aneto 3,404

CENTRAL

SI

N

S

Ca n ta br

3. Find where you live on the map and answer. Find additional information and write the names. ATLANTIC

Ceuta

Yefi, i† dø±fi. b. Does it have any plains? M. A. Yefi, i† dø±fi. c. Does it have any depressions? M. A. No, i† dø±s>ª†. d. Is there a coast? M. A. No, t™e®æ is>ª†. a. Does it have any mountains? M. A.

Melilla

OCEAN

A L G E R I A M O R O C C O

ATLANTIC OCEAN Canary

Islands

metres

2,000 1,000 500 0

Teide 3,718

0

SCALE

254

4. Which of these landforms are found near where you live? M. A. 씲 plain  씲 valley 

Peak

Kilometres

31

30

씲 island

씲 marsh

씲 cape

씲 estuary

씲 mountain  씲 hill 

Página 81

Ga Moun licia tai n n Ra ng

1. Look at the map on page 31 and answer.

N

F

20:30

Bay of Biscay

81

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

2/10/06

20:33

Página 82

UNIT 9

Rivers UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Defining rivers, reservoirs, lakes and watersheds and identifying the watersheds of Spain 2. Distinguishing weather and climate 3. Recognising the Earth’s climatic zones and understanding their characteristics 4. Describing and locating the main types of Spanish climate 5. Associating climate with type of landscape 6. Associating climate with the living things in the different zones 7. Associating destructive and protective human actions with their effects on nature 6. Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Defining: A river is … Reservoirs are … Climate is … Fauna is … Describing (adjectives): greater; irregular; hot; cool; mild Classifying: There are three watersheds … There are different types of climate Expressing purpose: to irrigate fields; for urban consumption Describing quantity: a lot; more than half; less water; abundant; many species Describing time: in the summer; all year round; a few months of the year

Contents CONCEPTS

• Rivers and watersheds • Lakes and reservoirs • Climate, the Earth’s climate zones, the climate of Spain • Vegetation and fauna • Protecting nature

PROCEDURES

• Observe drawings and photos to learn about rivers, climate and landscape • Locate the Earth’s climate zones on a globe

ATTITUDES

• Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature • Appreciating and respecting vegetation and fauna in the place where we live

Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

82

Knowing what rivers and watersheds are Distinguishing the Earth’s climate zones Knowing the different types of climate in Spain Associating climate with the type of landscape Associating climate with the living things in each zone Observing drawings and photographs to learn about rivers, climate and landscape Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

2/10/06

20:33

Página 83

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 9 – Extension: Worksheet 9

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 9

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Rivers and coasts http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/riversandcoasts/ index.shtml Animated drawings about rivers and coasts. For students. River features http://www.kented.org.uk/ngfl/subjects/geography/ rivers/River Articles/rivart.htm Different river features. Also offers teacher planning and worksheets. Useful for students and teachers. Dams http://www.simscience.org/cracks/beginning/ dams1.html All about dams. For teachers and students.

3

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

FOLLOW A

RIVER

www.richmondelt.com

83

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

2/10/06

20:33

Página 84

Content objectives: 1. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

Vocabulary: course, flow, lakes, reservoirs, river, watershed

Rivers

■ Special attention READ

• Understanding the concept of watershed Look at the photo of a reservoir.

• Adjectives and expressions of quantity

• How do you think this water is used?

■ Hands on

• Think of other places where we find water.

Transport of materials • Build a «mountain» out of sand on a tray. • Prepare to pour water over the «mountain» so it goes down one side. Ask: What will happen when the water moves down the mountain? (It will carry sand with it to the bottom.) • Make another «mountain» of sand and place some little stones near the surface. Ask: What will happen this time when the water moves down the side? (It will mostly carry the little stones.) Why? (because they are larger)

LOOK AND READ

➔ R Activity Book, page 32.

84

Watersheds are areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea. There are three watersheds in Spain.

• The course is the route which a river takes.

• The Cantabrian watershed has short, rapid rivers. Their flow is abundant and regular.

2. Lakes and reservoirs 54 Water can also be found in lakes and reservoirs. • Lakes are large bodies of water surrounded by land. • Reservoirs are artificial lakes. Water from reservoirs is used to irrigate fields, and for urban consumption. Canals and irrigation channels transport water away from reservoirs. Reservoirs are also used to produce energy.

• LOOK Focus on the photo. Ask: Is there a lot of water? (yes) What holds the water back? (a dam) Explain that reservoirs store water for use in homes as drinking water, in agriculture, in industry, and to produce electricity.

• Ss read 3 with 90 . Write a word map on the BB. Title: WATERSHEDS OF SPAIN Level 1: Cantabrian watershed - Mediterranean watershed - Atlantic watershed. Level 2: Characteristics of the rivers. Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.

3. The watersheds of Spain

A river is a body of moving water. It starts high in the mountains. It flows into a sea, a lake or another river. • The flow is the amount of water which a river carries. The flow is greater when it rains, or if snow melts in the mountains.

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 and 2 with 88 and 89 . Ask: Can we produce electricity with the water in a reservoir? (yes) How? (Hydroelectric plants capture the force of falling water to produce electrical energy.)

1. A river’s course and flow 53

• The Mediterranean watershed covers about one third of Spain. Except for the Ebro, the rivers are short, and their flow is irregular. They sometimes overflow when it rains a lot. They are sometimes dry in the summer. • The Atlantic watershed covers more than half of Spain. The flow of these rivers is abundant and fairly regular, but they carry less water in the summer.

Make more sentences. Change the underlined words. In the Cantabrian watershed, the river flow is abundant and regular.

M.A. In the Mediterranean watershed, the river flow is irregular. In the Atlantic watershed, the river flow is abundant and fairly regular.

RIVERS

35

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Comprehension: definitions Books closed. Write these sentence halves on the BB. Ask Ss to match the halves and write complete sentences. 1

1. A river is 2. 3. 4. 5.

The course is The flow is Lakes are Reservoirs are

a. large bodies of water surrounded by land b. the route which a river takes c. artificial lakes d. a body of moving water e. the amount of water which a river carries

Answers: 1 – d. 2 – b. 3 – e. 4 – a. 5 – c.

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

2/10/06

20:33

Content objectives: 2, 3, 4, 5 Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6.

Página 85

Vocabulary: climate, continental climate, polar zone, temperate zone, tropical zone, weather

Climate

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

1. Climate

World climatic zones North Pole

tropical

polar Northern Hemisphere

Eq

ua

Southern Hemisphere

tor

Climate is not the same as weather. Weather can change in just a few minutes. Climate is a region’s characteristic temperature, wind and precipitation over a very long time.

2. The Earth’s climate 55 The distance of an area from the equator determines how much heat it gets from the Sun.

polar

• Tropical zone: It is very hot all year round near the equator. • Temperate zone: There are warm summers and cool winters. In some regions, it is rainy all year round. In other regions, it is dry and sunny in the summer. • Polar zone: It is very cold all year round at the North and South Poles.

3. Climate in Spain There are different types of climate in Spain.

Atlantic climate

Mediterranean climate

• The Atlantic climate: This is the mild climate on the Cantabrian coast and in Galicia. Rainfall is abundant all year round. • The Mediterranean climate: This is the climate near the Mediterranean. Summers are hot, and winters are mild. Rainfall is light. • The subtropical climate: This is the climate in the Canary Islands. It is hot all year round. Rainfall is limited to a few months of the year. • The continental climate: This is the climate of central Spain. Summers are hot and winters are cold. Rainfall is irregular.

What zone do you live in? What kind of climate do you have where you live? Subtropical climate

36

■ Hands on

temperate

temperate South Pole

• Identifying the characteristics of the different types of climate in Spain

Continental climate

RIVERS

A globe

• Show the class a globe. Ask: What shape is the Earth? (a sphere which is slightly flattened at the poles) Find the equator. What countries does the equator pass through? (Ecuador, Brazil, Congo, Kenya …) • Find the temperate zone and the tropical zone. Say: Name four countries … in the temperate zone. (Spain, France, Germany, Great Britain …) … in the tropical zone. (Costa Rica, Venezuela, Ethiopia …)

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Focus on the photos. Ask Ss to compare landscapes. Ask: What is the landscape like in the Atlantic climate? (wet, a lot of vegetation …) And in the continental climate? (dry, few trees, low vegetation …) • Ss read 1 and 2 and 3 with

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 True or false? Write these questions on the BB and ask Ss to say if they are true or false. They should correct the false sentences.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Weather and climate are the same thing. Weather can change very quickly. Different regions have different temperatures. It is very cold near the equator. In the temperate zone, there are warm summers and cool winters. 6. It is very warm in the Polar zone.

91 , 92 , 93 .

• Draw a map of Spain on the BB. Ask. Where is there a subtropical climate? (Canary Islands) A Mediterranean climate? (near the Mediterranean Sea) An Atlantic climate? (Galicia and Cantabrian coast) A continental climate? (central Spain) • Ss discuss the questions at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 33. E ➔ Activity Book, page 34.

Answers: 1. False. They are different. 2. True. 3. True. 4. False. It is very hot. 5. True. 6. False. It is very cold.

85

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

2/10/06

20:33

Página 86

Content objectives: 5, 6, 7, 8. Language objectives: 1, 2, 5.

Vocabulary: fauna, flora, habitats, National Park, natural preserves, vegetation

Vegetation and fauna

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding that the growth of cities etc., are things which affect flora and fauna

1. Vegetation and fauna Plant and animal life depend on the climate. Each climate has its own flora and fauna. Flora is all the plant life or vegetation in an area. Fauna is all the animal life in an area.

■ Hands on

In rainy areas, such as tropical rainforests, there is abundant vegetation and fauna. In very dry areas, such as deserts, there is little vegetation or fauna.

Our National Parks • Ask: How does the government protect our flora and fauna? (for example, by creating National Parks) • Use an atlas to show where different National Parks are located. • Ask: Is X in the north? Is Y on an island? Is Z near the sea?

2. Natural preserves 56 There is abundant vegetation in tropical rainforests.

Flora and fauna are affected by many things. The growth of cities, pollution and the exploitation of our natural resources all affect animal and plant habitats. Many animal and plant species disappear, or are in danger of extinction. Governments and regional authorities create special areas where the environment is protected. In Europe, four important National Parks are the Teide in Spain, Snowdonia in the United Kingdom, Vanoise in France and Harz in Germany.

■ Presentation

There is little vegetation in deserts.

• READ Focus on the photos. Ask: Where can you find waterfalls? (tropical rainforests) A lot of sand? (deserts) Mountains with snow? (Snowdonia NP) • Present 1 and 2 with

94

and

95 .

• Explain that National Parks have rules and regulations to protect nature. Elicit some examples: bans on cars, hunting, taking plants, entering after visiting hours … • Ask Ss to form groups to make posters about National Parks. They can include photos and information on the following: What is the Park’s name? Where is it? What kind of vegetation/fauna is found there? What is the landscape/climate like? • Ss do the activities at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 35.

Note: Project 4 (Activity Book, page 37), should be carried out with a glass bottle.

Species extinction. It is estimated that around one tenth of all species on Earth could disappear by the year 2010. Many extinctions will be caused by humans.

86

Complete the sentences. Many animal and plant habitats are in danger because of … Do you know any plant or animal species in danger of extinction? Snowdonia National Park, United Kingdom

M. A. …the growth of cities, pollution, the exploitation of natural resources, hunting … / Iberian lynx, blue whale, white rhinoceros …

RIVERS

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Books closed. Write these sentences on the BB and ask Ss to choose the correct option. They then listen to 95 to check their answers.

1. The growth of cities / countries affects animal and plant habitats. 2. Many species disappear or are in danger of pollution / extinction. 3. Governments create special areas / species where the environment is protected. 4. Two important National Parks are the Teide in Spain and Snowdonia in Germany / the United Kingdom. Answers: 1. cities. 2. extinction. 3. areas. 4. the United Kingdom.

37

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

2/10/06

20:33

Página 87

1. Write the correct form of the jumbled adjective. 1. The Cantabrian watershed has short DAPIR rivers. 2. Their flow is abundant and ARLEGUR. 3. The Mediterranean watershed has TROSH rivers. 4. Their flow is GRELARIRU. 5. The Atlantic watershed has rivers with an NUDBATNA flow. Answers: 1. rapid. 2. regular. 3. short. 4. irregular. 5. abundant.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct word. rainy

plant

climate

dry

fauna

animal

1. Plant and animal life depend on the

.

2. Each climate has its own flora and 3. Flora is all the 4. Fauna is all the

6. In very

life or vegetation in an area. life in an area. areas, there is abundant vegetation and fauna. areas, there is little vegetation or fauna. Answers: 1. climate. 2. fauna. 3. plant. 4. animal. 5. rainy. 6. dry.

5. In

.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

87

Worksheet 28. Date

Apply your knowledge WATER

20:34

1. Find the climates of Spain in the wordsearch.

1. Match. B

A

C

M E D

I

I

Página 88

A S D F G H J K L Q W E R P O K A T L A N T

C X C

T E R R A N E A N

M N B V C X Z P O S U Y T Z S U B T R O P S C O N T

I

I

C A L Q

N E N T A L M river

reservoir

lake

2. Complete the paragraph. Use words from Activity 1. The

conti>enta¬ clima†æ

2. Read and tick () the true sentences.

is the climate in central Spain. Summers are hot

Medi†erra>ea> clima†æ near the Mediterranean. Atlanti© clima†æ Summers are not, but winters are mild. The and winters are cold.There is a

a. A river is a body of moving water. b. The course is the amount of water which a river carries.

is in Galicia and in Cantabria. It rains all year round. The Canary Islands has a

subtropica¬ clima†æ

. It is hot all year round.

Match and write. tropical zone

polar zone

씲  씲

c. The flow of a river is smaller when it rains.



d. A lake is a large body of water surrounded by land.

씲  씲 

e. A reservoir is an artificial lake.

VOCABULARY

tropica¬ zo>æ pola® zo>æ †emπera†æ zo>æ

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge CLIMATE AND WEATHER

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

Activity Book

88 Worksheet 29. Date

f. Reservoirs are never used to produce energy.



g. Watersheds are areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea.

씲 

h. The Atlantic watershed is the smallest one in Spain.



temperate zone 3. Name the most important river in your Autonomous Community. Explain its principal characteristics.

: near the equator. It is hot all year round.

T™æ Ri√±® ifi t™æ mos† importan† ri√±® i> . I† hafi itfi sour©æ i> t™æ mountai> [email protected]æ. I> i† formfi t™æ ®eßervoi®, o>æ oƒ t™æ mos† importan† wa†e® suppl^efi fo® t™æ ®egio>. I† flowfi into t™æ Ri√±®.

: far from the equator. It is cold all year round. : between the other two zones. It is warm in the summer and cool in the winter.

33

32

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

Worksheet 30. Date

Read and learn

INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH

DESERTS

20:34

1. Read carefully.

1. Read carefully.

Weather in the desert

Climate graphs give us information about climates. They help us compare the climates in two different areas.

Deserts are areas with very little rain. Very few plants and animals can survive in a desert. Deserts have a very dry climate. Rain is scarce and usually irregular. Months or years can go by without rain and then torrential rains fall. Because of the dry climate, rivers in deserts only have water when it rains.

The red line shows the monthly temperatures. We can see if it is a warm or a cold climate.

2. Look at the climate graphs. Complete the following activities. Then you are ready to do project 3 on page 36. a. Read the data cards.

There is always a big difference between day and night temperatures in deserts. During the day, temperatures are very high. At night it is very cold, and temperatures fall below 0°.

b. Write Mountain or Desert below each climogram. DATA: DESERT

DATA: MOUNTAIN

• Temperatures: very high all year round. Over 20° for six months.

• Temperatures: very cold in winter and moderate in summer.

• Precipitation: very little rain all year round.

• Precipitation: heavy rains all year round, although in summer it rains less.

2. Circle the words in the text which you do not understand. Look up the meanings in a dictionary and write them down. M. A.

Temperature in °C

40 30 20 10 0 ⫺10

J

Precipitation in l/m2 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

F M A M J J A S O N D months

mountai>

Temperature in °C

40 30 20 10 0

J

F M A M J J months

Precipitation in l/m2 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 A S O N D

survi√¶ = li√¶ scar©æ = √±r¥ litt¬æ tor®entia¬ = √±r¥ [email protected]

3. Think and explain. Some people who live in the desert are nomads. They have no fixed home, and move from place to place. Why? M. A.

∂eßer† 35

34

Becaußæ t™e¥ >æe∂ to loo§ fo® foo∂ an∂ wa†e®.

Página 89

Climate graphs

The blue bars tell us the monthly precipitation. We can see if a climate is rainy or dry.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 31. Date

89

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

Notes:

90

Use this information to construct a climate graph.

20:34

Temperature is in degrees centigrade (°C). Precipitation is in millimetres (mm). F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

5

9

13

15

18

20

24

26

25

19

10

D 7

Precipitation

50

54

70

78

83

60

30

15

90

86

88

69

1. Complete the temperature. Put a point on each month using the information in the table. Then draw a red line to connect the points from all twelve months. 2. Complete the precipitation. Each month on the table is represented by a vertical blue bar at a different height on the graph. T (°C)

P (mm)

50

100

40

80

30

60

20

40

10

20

0

0

36

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Página 90

J Temperature

J

2/10/06

Project 3

MAKE AND INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH

857415 _ 0082-0091.qxd

Notes:

2/10/06

Project 4

INVESTIGATE CHANGES IN MATTER

2 Put some bicarbonate into a balloon.

5 The baloon inflates more and more as time passes.

Página 91

4 The balloon inflates when the vinegar and bicarbonate mix.

20:34

1 Pour vinegar into a bottle.

balloon

bicarbonate

3 Place the mouth of the balloon over the mouth of the bottle.

Now think and answer these questions. a. What happens inside the balloon? M. A.

T™æ vi>ega® an∂ bicarbona†æ mi≈ an∂ forµ å gafi.

b. Why does the volume of the balloon increase?

Becaußæ t™æ gafi expandfi. c. Where did the gas that is now in the balloon come from?

Froµ t™æ c™emica¬ ®eactio> ∫et∑±e> vi>ega® an∂ bicarbona†æ. d. What type of change has occurred inside the bottle? What type of change has occurred inside the balloon?

Insi∂æ t™æ bott¬æ: å c™emical [email protected]æ. Insi∂æ t™æ balloo>: å physica¬ [email protected]æ 37

91

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

2/10/06

20:32

Página 92

UNIT 10

Population UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Understanding the concept of population Distinguishing between urban and rural population Associating population changes with the number of people who are born and die Understanding the concept of population density Understanding what migration is, the causes and types Distinguishing emigrants and immigrants Understanding the characteristics of the population of Spain Appreciating the role of immigrants in society

Language objectives 1. Providing additional information (relative clauses): People who live in cities … places where … 2. Explaining methods: Density is measured by dividing … … can be classified by gender 3. Making comparisons: more densely populated; better opportunities; is low compared to; like other European populations; is getting older 4. Expressing quantity: some; others; many. 5. Expressing purpose: to live in another place; to find work; to escape 6. Describing part of a continuing process: The number is increasing … is getting older 7. Stating facts (present passive): … is not evenly distributed … are densely populated

Contents CONCEPTS

• Population: concept, census, density, rural, urban, growth • Migration: causes, types, emigrants, immigrants • The population of Spain: number of inhabitants, immigrants, density, distribution, getting older

PROCEDURES

• Interpret a population bar graph • Study photographs to learn about population

ATTITUDES

• Appreciation of the role of immigrants in society • Appreciation of senior citizens and their contribution to society

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

92

Understanding concepts associated with population: density, growth, urban and rural Understanding what migration is, the causes and types Identifying the characteristics of the population of Spain Interpreting a bar graph about population Studying photographs to learn about population Appreciating the role of immigrants in society

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

2/10/06

20:32

Página 93

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 10 – Extension: Worksheet 10

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 10

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Population http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/ index.html Internet geography with sections on population and migration. For teachers. Population comparisons http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/ infonation3/basic.asp View and compare country population, economic, health, technology and environmental data. For teachers and students. Population statistics http://www.nationmaster.com/country/sp/Age_distribution Spain population pyramids for 1995-2005 and predictions. For students and teachers.

5

LEVEL

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

N EW

L ANGUAGE , F RIENDS

N EW

www.richmondelt.com

93

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

2/10/06

20:32

Página 94

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary: adults, age, census, density, gender, inhabitants, natural increase, population, rural, senior citizens, urban, young people

Population

■ Special attention

LOOK

• Understanding the term population density • Do you live in a place with many inhabitants?

■ Hands on

• Do you know people who come from a different place?

School census • Ask: How many students do you think are in the school? Are there more boys than girls? How many students of different nationalities are there in the school? • Create a questionnaire to find out the answers to the above questions. Distribute it to all the classes at school. • Ss do the mathematical calculations to obtain the answers for the whole school.

READ

1. Population

3. Population distribution

The population of an area is the number of people who live there. It can be classified into two types.

People like to live in places where there are job opportunities, a healthy climate and good services. Many people live on the coasts and plains in temperate zones.

• Urban populations are people who live in cities. • Rural populations are people who live in villages and towns. A census measures the size of a population.

2. Natural increase 57 Natural increase is the difference between the number of people who are born and the number of people who die in the same year. The number of inhabitants in a place changes continually.

■ Presentation

• There is a positive natural increase when more people are born than die. The population grows. • There is a negative natural increase when more people die than are born. The population decreases.

• LOOK Ss look at the photo. Ask: Are there many people? Is everybody alike? How are they different? Discuss the questions together. • READ Ask: What is the difference between rural populations and urban populations? (Rural populations live in villages or towns and urban populations live in cities.) Present 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 with 96 , 97 , 98 , 99 . • Explain that population censuses are taken every ten years to find out the number of inhabitants in a country and other information such as age, gender, place of birth, etc. • Do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Respect. Everybody deserves respect and dignity. We are all important. For communities to function well, people of all ages, genders and races must take part.

94

Population density is measured by dividing the total number of inhabitants by the surface area of the place where they live. Some countries and regions are more densely populated than others. In Australia there are huge, dry areas with no inhabitants, and there are only 2 inhabitants per square kilometre.

4. Population groups Population can be classified by gender into male and female inhabitants, and by age into three main groups: • Young people under the age of 18 • Adults between the ages of 18 and 64 • Senior citizens over the age of 65

Do a census of your class. What is the population? Classify your classmates by gender and age.

38

POPULATION

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Word order. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss rewrite the sentences and check with 98 . 1

1. there are good job opportunities / a healthy climate / people / and good services / like to live / in places where 2. on / people / coasts / live / many / the 3. are / some countries and regions / than others / more densely populated 4. per square km / there are / in Australia / only 2 inhabitants Answers: 1. People like to live in places where there are good job opportunities, a healthy climate and good services. 2. Many people live on the coasts. 3. Some countries and regions are more densely populated than others. 4. In Australia there are only 2 inhabitants per square kilometre.

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

2/10/06

20:32

Content objectives: 5, 6, 8. Language objectives: 1, 3, 4, 5.

Página 95

Vocabulary: emigrants, immigrants, international migration, internal migration

Migration

■ Special attention

READ

1. Migration

• Distinguishing immigrants and emigrants

58

Many people leave their homes to live in another place. This movement of population is called migration. There are two main reasons:

■ Hands on

• Natural causes, for example floods, droughts and earthquakes, can cause migration.

Many people emigrate to find better jobs.

• Social factors, for example wars or political and religious problems, can also cause migration. Also, people sometimes leave home to find work.

Role-play

2. Internal migration Internal migration is produced within the same country. For example, there are often migrations from rural areas to cities. There are two main reasons: • The number of jobs in rural areas decreases. • Young people find better opportunities to study, work and live in cities.

Young people often go to another country to study.

3. International migration Migration from one country to another is called international migration. People who leave a country are called emigrants. When they arrive in the other country, they are called immigrants. People emigrate for many reasons. Some leave to find work, or to join relatives in another country. Others leave to escape from war and persecution in their own country. In the past, many emigrants left Europe and went to other countries, such as the United States, to find better jobs. Today, many immigrants come to the European Union from Africa, Latin America and other European countries to find better jobs.

Senior citizens sometimes emigrate to live in a warmer climate.

Today, many young European adults also emigrate to study or work in a different country.

■ Presentation

True or false? Make more sentences about migration. Droughts are a social factor which can cause migration. People who leave a country are called emigrants.

M. A. …Many people emigrate to find better jobs. Internal migration is produced within the same country. Young people often go to another country to study.

POPULATION

39

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the sentence halves on the BB. Ss copy them and draw a line to join the halves.

1. The movement of population is called 2. Earthquakes are 3. Finding work is 4. Internal migration is 5. International migration is 6. Emigrants are 7. Immigrants are

• Ask Ss: Where do immigrants in Spain come from? Why do they come? • Some Ss play the parts of immigrants and the rest are the citizens of their new community. Citizens ask questions to get to know the immigrants: What is your home country? Why did you come here? Do you like it here? The immigrants invent answers. • Ss think about how they would like to be treated if they were immigrants. • Ask Ss from other countries to describe their experiences.

a. produced within the same country b. migration c. people who leave a country d. migration from one country to another e. a natural cause of migration f. people who arrive in another country g. a social factor of migration

• READ Ss look at the photographs. Ask: What are some of the reasons people emigrate? (to study, find work/better jobs, climate) Can you think of other reasons? (wars, drought, better living conditions) Present Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 100 , 101 , 102 . • Write a chart on the BB with the title MIGRATION and the subtitles Internal and External. Ask Ss to write examples of each. • Ask: What are some of the advantages of living in a town or village? (peace and quiet, clean air, contact with nature, safety) And in a city? (more opportunities for culture, shopping, work, leisure, health services) • Ask: What are some of the disadvantages of living in the country? (few shops, no hospitals) And in a city? (pollution, noise) ➔ R Activity Book, page 38. E ➔ Activity Book, page 39.

Answers: 1 – b. 2 – e. 3 – g. 4 – a. 5 – d. 6 – c. 7 – f.

95

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

2/10/06

20:32

Página 96

Content objectives: 7.

Vocabulary

Language objectives: 3, 4, 6, 7.

densely, density, immigrants, inhabitants, sparsely

The population of Spain

■ Special attention

LOOK AND READ

• Interpreting bar graphs

1. Population characteristics

Spanish population since 1900

■ Hands on

• Today the population of Spain is approximately 43 million inhabitants. In 1900 it was 18 million inhabitants. (See the chart.)

Number of inhabitants in millions

• Present 1 with

15 10 5

04

01

20

20

81

91

19

19

60

70

19

50

19

19

30

40

19

20

19

10

0

• Like other European populations, the Spanish population is getting older. This means that the adult and senior population is growing more quickly than the population of young people. Some regions are densely populated.

■ Presentation • LOOK AND READ Ss look at the graph on page 40. Ask: What does the horizontal axis show? (years) What does the vertical axis show? (number of inhabitants in millions) What is the meaning of the bar’s height? (millions of inhabitants in that year) What was the population in 1910? (20 million inhabitants) And in 2004? (43 million)

20

19

• The population is not evenly distributed. The coast and the Autonomous Community of Madrid are densely populated. In contrast, other inland areas are sparsely populated. In many Autonomous Communities, a high proportion of the population is found in the provincial capital.

25

00

• Population density is low compared to population density in other European countries, such as Germany, Belgium or France. It is 86 inhabitants per km2.

30

19

• Create a bar graph with the data collected in the class census. (See Student Book, page 38). • On the vertical axis write: the numbers from zero to the maximum number of students. • On the horizontal axis write: girls, boys. • Make two bars: one for the number of girls (b 1), the other for the number of boys (b 2).

35

19

Bar graph

• The number of immigrants is increasing. There are now about three million immigrants. Some come to work in Spain. Others, such as senior citizens, come to retire here.

45 40

Complete the sentences to describe the population of Spain. The population of Spain is approximately … The number of immigrants is … The population density is … The population is not evenly … The Spanish population is getting … Are there immigrants in your community? Where do they come from? Some regions are sparsely populated.

40

POPULATION

…43 million inhabitants / …increasing / … low / …distributed / …older.

103 .

• Ask: What regions of Spain are densely populated? (the coast and the Autonomous Community of Madrid) What regions of Spain are sparsely populated? (some inland areas such as Extremadura)

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative in each sentence.

• SS do the activity at the bottom of the page.

1. In Spain the number of emigrants / immigrants is increasing.

➔ R Activity Book, page 40.

3. Population density in Spain is low / high compared to other European countries.

2. Senior citizens come to work / retire here.

4. The population is / is not evenly distributed. 5. The Spanish population is getting younger / older. Senior citizens. Have a discussion in class about the importance of senior citizens, their contribution to society and their needs.

96

Answers: 1. immigrants. 2. retire. 3. low. 4. is not. 5. older.

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

9/10/06

19:09

Página 97

1. Answer the questions. 1. What are urban populations?

2. What are rural populations?

3. What measures the size of a population?

4. What is a positive natural increase?

5. What is a negative natural increase?

Answers: 1. the people who live in cities. 2. the people who live in villages and towns. 3. a census. 4. when more people are born than die. 5. when more people die than are born.

2. Complete the sentences with the missing numbers. 1. Today the population of Spain is approximately

million inhabitants.

2. In 1960 it was about

million.

3. There are now about

million immigrants.

4. Population density is

inhabitants per square km. Answers: 1 – 43. 2 – 30. 3 – three. 4 – 86.

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

97

Worksheet 32. Date

CITIES

POPULATION

1. Circle the correct word.

The growth of cities

a. When people born in another country come to live in our country, the change in population is due to natural increase / migration. b. If more people are born than die, the change is due to natural increase / migration. c. When people who live in villages move to cities, the population change is due to natural increase / migration. 2. Explain what the population is like in your Autonomous Community.

Today, cities have almost nothing in common with the first settlements. They are large urban areas with tall buildings, leisure facilities, and varied means of transport.

Man¥ πeop¬æ froµ ot™e® countr^efi coµæ to li√¶ an∂ wor§ i> Madri∂ inc®[email protected] t™æ populatio> oƒ t™æ communit¥.

M. A.

Two factors have influenced the growth of cities. One is the increase in population, thanks to medical advances and better health and food habits. The other is the opportunity they give people to work and the services they provide. This produces migration from rural areas.

3. Look at the photo and answer. a. Is this a rural or urban population? Give your reasons. M. A.

2. Find the most important words in each paragraph. M. A.

T™e®æ a®æ ƒe∑ houßefi an∂ i† ifi surroun∂e∂ b¥ mountainfi an∂ hillfi.

b. What means of transport do you think there are?

[email protected], agricultu®æ, li√±stoc§ [email protected], urba> a®eafi, growt™, migratio>

M. A.

carfi, taxifi an∂ trainfi

3. Is there a relationship between the increase in population and the growth of cities? Explain. M. A.

Yefi. W™e> t™e®æ ifi a> inc®eaßæ i> populatio>, t™æ num∫e® oƒ πeop¬æ [email protected] i> cit^efi also growfi.

VOCABULARY Complete the sentences. population density

å ©ensufi populatio> ∂ensit¥

4. Do more people live today in villages or in cities? Why? M. A.

I> cit^efi, ∫±caußæ t™e®æ a®æ mo®æ jo∫ opportunit^efi an∂ ßervi©efi i> cit^efi tha> i> [email protected]fi. 39

38

a census

: measures the size of a population. : is measured by dividing the number of inhabitants by the surface area of a place.

Página 98

The first cities appeared between 6,000 and 7,000 years ago in different parts of the world: the Middle East, India and China. They were small settlements. Most of the population was employed in fishing, agriculture or livestock farming.

20:32

1. Read carefully.

Apply your knowledge

2/10/06

Read and learn

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

Activity Book

98 Worksheet 33. Date

857415 _ 0092-0099.qxd

Notes: CALCULATE POPULATION DENSITY

Country

Population

Area (km2)

8,100,000

83,900

Belgium

10,200,000

30,500

Denmark

5,300,000

43,100

82,000,000

356,900

Finland

5,150,000

337,100

France

59,000,000

544,000

Greece

10,500,000

132,000

Ireland

3,740,000

70,300

57,600,000

301,300

Federal Republic of Germany

Italy Luxemburg

430,000

2,600

Netherlands

15,750,000

41,200

Poland

38,500,000

312,700

Portugal

10,000,000

92,400

Spain

43,000,000

506,000

8,850,000

411,000

59,400,000

244,100

Sweden United Kingdom

Population density

96.5 334.4 122.9 229.7 15.2 108.4 79.5 53.2 191.1 165.3 382.2 123.1 108.2 84.9 21.5 243.3

2. Now answer these questions. a. Which countries have a population density of less than 50 inhabitants per square kilometre?

S∑±∂e> an∂ Finlan∂ b. Which countries have a population density of between 50 and 150 inhabitants per square kilometre?

Austriå, Denmar§, Fran©æ, G®æe©æ, I®elan∂, Polan∂, Portuga¬, an∂ Spai> c. Which countries have a population density of between 150 and 400 inhabitants per square kilometre?

Belgiuµ, Fe∂. Republi© oƒ German¥, Ital¥, Lu≈[email protected], Net™erlandfi, Uni†e∂ Kingdoµ 40

Página 99

Austria

20:32

1. Work with a partner. Look at the data, and calculate the population density of the following European countries:

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 34. Date

99

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

2/10/06

20:34

Página 100

UNIT 11

The economy UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Understanding the concept of active population 2. Identifying the various types of economic activity i.e the agricultural, industrial and service sectors 3. Identifying the work people do in each economic sector 4. Understanding how the active population in Spain is distributed by economic sector 5. Describing the activities in the primary sector and secondary sector in Spain 6. Understanding the main types of industries 7. Describing the types of activities in the public and private service sectors in Spain 8. Understanding the importance of the transport system in Spain 9. Appreciating the importance of tourism as part of the service sector in Spain 10. Appreciating that all the jobs people do are important

Language objectives 1. Stating facts (passive forms): Natural resources are obtained … are transformed … are raised. 2. Describing ability: The money enables these people … People who cannot work … 3. Making comparisons: less than 5 %; the most important crop; the most important industries 4. Expressing purpose: … aim to make money … to provide a service

Contents CONCEPTS

• The active population • The economic sectors: primary, secondary and service sectors • The activities in the three economic sectors • Distribution by sectors of the active population in Spain

PROCEDURES

• Distinguish crop and livestock production from the transformation of these products in the agro-food industry • Associate a dominant service sector with a society’s prosperity

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate the work people do in all the economic sectors • Appreciate that tourism is important for Spain

Assessment criteria • • • •

100

Distinguishing the three economic sectors Distinguishing between obtaining products and their transformation Describing the activities in each economic sector in Spain Appreciating the work people do in all economic sectors and what they provide to society

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

2/10/06

20:34

Página 101

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 11 – Extension: Worksheet 11

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 11

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Jobs http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/kids/archive/ theme_jobs.html Matching games and other activities about jobs. For students and teachers. Agriculture in Europe and Spain http://www.ceja.educagri.fr/en/pays/espa.htm Agricultural and livestock production in the past and present. For teachers and students. Careers and jobs http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/careers/careers.asp Interviews by Kidsnewsroom with people in a variety of jobs. For teachers and students.

4

LEVEL

Employment structures http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/ topics/empstruct.html Employment structure and how jobs are classified with examples of pie charts. For teachers and students.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Student’s Dictionary Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

ON

THE

FARM

www.richmondelt.com

101

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

2/10/06

20:34

Página 102

Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 6, 10. Language objectives: 1, 2.

Vocabulary: active, consumer, inactive, manufacturing, primary, private services, public services, secondary, service

The economy

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding the concept of service as used in the field of economics

Look at the photo. • What is this woman’s job?

• Difference between manufacturing and consumer industries

• Does she make things or provide a service?

■ Hands on Jobs READ

• Ask: What job do you want to have when you are older? Write all the jobs on the BB. • Ask: How many different jobs have we written on the BB? Which job was chosen most? • Ss classify the jobs by sectors. Ask: Which of these jobs are in the primary sector, secondary sector, service sector?

1. Work

3. The secondary sector 60

Work refers to the many productive activities which people do, usually for money. The money enables these people, and their families, to buy food and clothing and enjoy leisure activities.

Natural resources are transformed into manufactured products in the secondary sector.

• The active population includes people who work and receive money for their work. It also includes unemployed people who are looking for work. • The inactive population includes people who cannot work, for example, some severely disabled people. It also includes people who work but receive no money, for example children, retired people, and people with family responsibilities. Work can be in the primary, secondary or service sectors.

■ Presentation

• Manufacturing industries transform raw materials into manufactured products, such as tools and machines. • Consumer industries manufacture products such as frozen vegetables.

4. The service sector 61 Transport, schools, tourism and other businesses that provide services are in the service sector (also called the tertiary sector). • Private services, such as cinemas, are privately controlled. • Public services, such as public transport, are controlled by the state or by the local government.

2. The primary sector 59

• LOOK Ask Ss to look at the photo. Ask: What is the woman’s job? What does she do in her job? Would you like to do her job? Why/Why not? • READ Present 1-4 with

Natural resources are obtained in the primary sector. Agriculture, fishing, mining and forestry are in the primary sector.

What examples of private services and public services are there in your town?

THE ECONOMY

104 - 107 .

• Draw on the BB a chart with the title THE ECONOMIC SECTORS. Write the following sub-headings: Primary sector / Secondary sector / Service sector. Under each subheading write the corresponding industries: Agriculture – Mining – Livestock farming – Fishing / Manufacturing industries – Consumer industries / Private services – Public services. Ask Ss to write examples of each. • Ss answer the question at the bottom of the page.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Listening. Write the sentences on the BB. Ss listen again to 104 - 107 and decide if they are true or false. 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The active population only includes people who work. The inactive population includes people who cannot work. Natural resources are obtained in the secondary sector. Agriculture is in the primary sector. Consumer industries manufacture as tools and machines. The service sector is also called the tertiary sector.

Answers: 1 – F. 2 – T. 3 – F. 4 – T. 5 – F. 6 – T. Speaking In pairs Ss each think of a job. In turns they guess each others job by asking yes/no questions. For example: Do you work in the service sector? Do you work with people? Do you wear a uniform? Do you work in a factory? 2

102

41

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

2/10/06

20:34

Content objectives: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10. Language objectives: 1, 3, 4.

Página 103

Vocabulary: active population, agriculture, construction, fishing, forestry, industry, livestock farming, mining

The primary and secondary sectors in Spain

■ Special attention

READ

1. The active population

• Understanding percentages

62

The total active population in Spain is approximately 20 million people. There are 18 million employed people and 2 million unemployed people. The active population can be classified by economic sector: • Less than 5 %, about one million people, work in the primary sector. • About 30 %, around 6 million people, work in the secondary sector. • About 60 %, around 12 million people, work in the service sector.

2. The primary sector In Spain, the principal primary sector activities are agriculture, livestock farming and fishing. • There is agriculture on the plains. The most important crops are: – wheat and barley – olives and grapes – potatoes, vegetables and fruit

• There is livestock farming. Sheep and poultry are raised on the plains. Cattle are raised in mountain areas to obtain beef, milk and leather. • Fishing is an important industry on the coast. Other primary sector activities are mining and forestry.

• Collective nouns: crops, livestock, cattle, poultry

■ Hands on

3. The secondary sector

Making a pie chart

Many industries are near big cities. Industries often invest in new technology.

• Draw a circle and divide it into three parts. • Make each sector a different colour and write: Primary sector (less than 5 %), Secondary sector (around 30 %), Service sector (around 60 %) • Ask: Which sector has the most workers? (the service sector) Which sector has the least workers? (the primary sector)

The most important industries are the metal, chemical, food, telecommunications, textile and car industries. The construction industry is also very important. There are many new houses and roads.

■ Presentation Agriculture is in the primary sector.

Manufacturing industries are in the secondary sector.

Complete the sentences and name three activities for each sector. Less than … %, about … millon people, work in the primary sector in Spain. About … %, around … million people, work in the secondary sector in Spain.

42

THE ECONOMY

M.A. …5…one… / 30 …6…

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB. Students copy them and try to complete them in pairs. They then listen to 108 to check their answers.

1. 2. 3. 4.

The total active population is approximately … million people. There are … million people employed. There are … million people unemployed. Less than … %, about … million people work in the primary sector. 5. About … %, around … million people work in the secondary sector. 6. About … %, around … million people work in the service sector.

Answers: 1 – 20. 2 – 18. 3 – 2. 4 – 5 … one. 5 – 30 … 6. 6 – 60 … 12.

• Ask Ss to look at the two pictures at the bottom of page 42 and compare them. Ask: What is being produced? (In the first, plants, maybe crops for food; in the second, cars) • READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with 108 , 109 , 110 . Ask: Which of the following activities are in the primary sector? 1. working in the fields. 2. fumigating crops. 3. driving lorries. 4. packaging shirts. 5. picking strawberries. 6. milking cows. 7. building houses. (1, 2, 5, 6) • Ask: Name some products obtained from livestock farming. (wool, meat, milk) • Ask: Why are industries near big cities? (transport is easier; more workers) How can factories manufacture many products in a short time? (using machines) • Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, page 41. Prosperity. Prosperous countries usually have many services, such as hospitals, cinemas, banks, restaurants.

103

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

2/10/06

20:34

Página 104

Content objectives: 7, 8, 9, 10. Language objectives: 1, 3, 4

Vocabulary: airport, motorways, private sector, public sector, railway, roads, suburban trains, tourism, transport, underground

The service sector in Spain

■ Special attention

READ

• Identifying jobs in the service sector

1. The service sector 63

• Pronunciation of foreign

There are many activities in this sector. In general, there are two types of objective:

■ Hands on

• In the private sector, banks, insurance companies, the entertainment industry, restaurants and shops aim to make money. • In the public sector, hospitals and schools aim to provide a service. Many services are offered by the government.

Nearby services • Ss use a map of the area near their school and mark the locations of the services offered. • Invent a code and write it on the BB. For example: SH – shop, K – kiosk, P – park, Ph – Pharmacy, H – hospital, ST – stationery shop, S – school, F – fire station … • Ask: What other services do we need in our area? Where would you put them?

2. Transport Education is in the service sector.

• All of Spain is connected by roads, including many motorways. • Major cities and towns are also connected by railway. • Suburban trains connect cities with the surrounding areas. • Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao have underground transport systems. • There are airports in most major cities.

3. Tourism Tourism is one of the most important service activities in Spain. It provides work for many people and makes a lot of money. Motorways connect large cities.

■ Presentation • Ss look at the three photos on page 43. Ask: Which services do the photos show? (education, transport, tourism) • READ Present 1 , 2 and 3 with

• Ask: What are some positive aspects of tourism? (Examples – economic benefits; it creates jobs such as cooks, waiters, tour guides; – traditional activities, such as basket-making, embroidery, sweet-making, etc. continue because tourists buy these things…; – our heritage, such as the natural parks and monuments are cared for and appreciated.) • Ss do the activities at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, pages 42, 43. Road safety. Roads must be kept in good condition to avoid accidents. Examples of road maintenance services: fix holes, pave roads, paint lines, put up road signs …

104

Every year millions of foreign tourists come to Spain. There are also many Spanish tourists. They visit museums, and relax on beaches or in the mountains.

True or false? Make more sentences about the service sector in Spain. Banks and insurance companies are part of the service sector. Tourism is not one of the most important service activities in Spain.

111 , 112 , 113 .

• Ss discuss transport in their area. Ask: Are there buses, taxis, trains, motorways? Are the roads in good condition?

Transport is very important for trade and tourism.

Tourism is an important industry in Spain.

Why is it important to use public transport?

M.A. …Tourism provides work for many people. There are airports in most major cities. / To reduce the amount of traffic on the roads.

THE ECONOMY

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss decide if the sentences are true or false and then listen to to check their answers.

1. Tourism is one of the most important service activities in Spain. 2. Tourism provides work for many. 3. Tourism makes little money. 4. Every year thousands of foreign tourists come to Spain. 5. There are also many Spanish tourists. 6. Tourists don’t visit museums. Answers: 1 – true. 2 – true. 3 – false. 4 – false. 5 – true. 6 – false.

113

43

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

2/10/06

20:34

Página 105

1. Write the answers to these questions. 1. What is the aim of activities in the private sector?

2. What is the aim of activities in the public sector?

3. What organisation offers many of the services in the public sector?

4. Which cities in Spain have underground transport systems?

5. Where are there airports?

Answers: 1. to make money. 2. to provide a service. 3. the government. 4. Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao. 5. In most major cities. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

105

Worksheet 35. Date

WORK

1. Look at the photos and name the jobs.

A

B

1 farµe®

1

20:34

1. Read carefully.

Apply your knowledge

An industry from Roman times

Spain’s Atlantic coast was an ideal place for these industries. There was a lot of fish, salt extraction was easy, and the fresh water needed to clean the fish was also available.

farmer

miner

shop assistant

engineer

taxi driver

builder

C

D

Página 106

When the Romans occupied the Iberian Peninsula, one of the most important industries was the production of salted fish and fish sauce.

mi>e®

E

F

2 buil∂e®

2 engi>æe®

The fish sauce which the Romans liked most was garum. Garum was a paste made by mixing parts of fish, such as tuna and anchovies, with salt and herbs. The paste was left in the Sun until it was ready. The garum was then transported by ship to Rome in large, pointed bottles called amphorae. It was very popular, and the Romans used it in many dishes. 2. Complete the index card.

3 shoπ assistan† 3 tax^ dri√±®

2. Now classify each job in the correct economic sector. Write the number. 1. Primary sector: agriculture, livestock farming, fishing, mining, forestry

ROMAN SALTED-FISH INDUSTRY

2. Secondary sector: manufacturing: metal, chemical, food, telecommunications, textile, car, construction

a. What three characteristics did a place need for this type of industry?

3. Service sector: transport, schools, tourism, banks, entertainment, restaurants, shops, hospitals

Lotfi oƒ fis™, å pla©æ to @e† sal† an∂ f®es™ wa†e® to c¬ea> t™æ fis™.

VOCABULARY b. What two products were produced?

Sal†e∂ fis™ an∂ fis™ sau©æ. c. How were these products transported to Rome?

B¥ shiπ i> [email protected]æ, poin†e∂ bott¬efi cal¬e∂ amphoråæ.

42

Match and write. service

primar¥ ßervi©æ ßecondar¥

primary

2/10/06

Read and learn

INDUSTRY IN ANTIQUITY

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

Activity Book

106 Worksheet 36. Date

secondary

: sector where natural resources are obtained : sector which provides services (transport, tourism) : sector where natural resources are transformed into manufactured products

41

857415 _ 0100-0107.qxd

Notes:

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 37. Date

HOW IS A PRODUCT MANUFACTURED?

20:34

1. Choose a product manufactured in your Autonomous Community. Complete the word map.

Página 107

M. A. A PRODUCT FROM MY AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY

©eµen†

raw materials

industrial process

manufactured product

from

stages

packaging/bottling

transport

liµesto>æ calciuµ aluminiuµ iro> cla¥ o® san∂

[email protected] [email protected][email protected] [email protected]

paπe® bagfi

railwa¥ truc§

2. Tick (). a. Where would you locate your industry? 씲 In a densely populated area with a good communication network.  씲 In a sparsely populated area with a poor communication network. b. What types of transport do you need to distribute the product? 씲 air

씲 sea

씲 

land

c. What is the product used for? 씲 For direct consumption. 씲 As a raw material for other industries.  43

107

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

2/10/06

20:37

Página 108

UNIT 12

Prehistory and Antiquity UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Understanding the main periods of Prehistory and their characteristics Learning how people lived in Prehistory Recognising the tribes which inhabited the Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times: Iberians and Celts Recognising the ancient civilisations which established colonies on the Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times: the Phoenicians, the Greeks and the Carthaginians Identifying Roman ruins in Hispania. Understanding the meaning of «Romanisation» and its principal legacies Appreciating ancient ruins and paintings from the past Appreciating the Roman legacy in Spain

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Past tenses to talk about historical events: began; moved; made; had … Stating facts in the past (passive forms): were used; was inhabited; were divided … Describing how things were made: by hitting … Describing location: on the Iberian peninsula; in the east of the peninsula; on the Mediterranean coast … Expressing time: at first; later; for 600 years; after …

Contents CONCEPTS

PROCEDURES

• Prehistory: periods, utensils, works of art • Tribes in pre-Roman times: Iberians and Celts • The arrival of the Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians on the Iberian peninsula • «Romanisation» and its legacies

• Interpret historical maps about the cities of the Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians • Interpret maps about Roman Hispania • Observe photographs to learn about the past • Study ancient monuments to learn about their significance • Ancient architecture and clothing

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

108

Understanding how early men and women lived Understanding the basic divisions and chronology of Prehistory Understanding about the earliest inhabitants on the Iberian peninsula Identifying the typical characteristics of the historical periods studied Describing some artistic and cultural expressions of Roman times Appreciating why we study the past

ATTITUDES

• Appreciate ancient ruins and other works of art as a way of learning about the past • Appreciate the Roman legacy in Spain and its influence on our life

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

2/10/06

20:37

Página 109

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 12 – Extension: Worksheet 12

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 12

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es Atapuerca http://www.atapuerca.com/ This official site contains a wealth of information about the archaeological sites, early humans, as well as survival games. For students and teachers. The Stone Age http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/flint/menu.html The world of Late Stone Age hunter gatherers. For students and teachers. Primitive caves http://www.creswell-crags.org.uk/virtuallytheiceage/ Activities/Explore/Cave.htm Explore a primitive cave from 50,000 years ago. Useful for students. Bal

a

The Roman Empire

2

Black

GALLIA

A T L A N T I C

Sea

10

O C E A N

I TA L I A

5

ASIA

6 8 7

11

SYRIA

9

4

12 J U D A E A

H I S PA N I A

13

3

M

e

d

n e a r a n e r i t 14

AFRICA

S e a

1

Hadrian´s Wall

2

baths

3

theatre

4

aqueduct

5

temple

6

Appian Way

8

statue

9

road

10

sarcophagus

11

theatre

12

aqueduct

13

theatre

7

sarcophagus

14

temple

Roman Empire

* Not yet available in English

© Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S.L.

Other resources Richmond World Facts Richmond Dictionaries Flashcards Posters

Se

GERMANIA

B R I TA N N I A

• • • •

tic

North Sea

1

Boundaries

109

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

9/10/06

19:10

Página 110

Content objectives: 1, 2, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.

Vocabulary: cave painting, craftsmen, Metal Ages, Neolithic, Palaeolithic, Prehistory, Stone Age

Prehistory and Antiquity

■ Special attention LOOK

• Understanding that the invention of writing marked the end of Prehistory

• How do we know what happened many thousands of years ago?

■ Hands on Discovering cave paintings • Ask Ss to imagine they have entered a cave and discover some cave paintings. • Ask: Is the cave big? Is there water in the cave? Where are the cave paintings? What colours are the paintings? What animals are represented? What did you feel when you discovered the paintings? What are you going to do about your discovery?

READ

• Ask: How did people live in the Palaeolithic period? (They moved from place to place. They lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants.) How did they live in the Neolithic period? (They lived in one place and grew crops and kept animals.) ➔ R Activity Book, page 44, exercise 1.

Prehistory is the long period before the invention of writing. It can be divided into the Stone Age and the Metal Ages.

In the Palaeolithic period, craftsmen made tools and weapons by hitting one stone against another.

• In the early Stone Age, called the Palaeolithic period, people moved from place to place. They lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants. • Later, in the Neolithic period, people lived permanently in one place. They were farmers, had crops, learned to cultivate plants and had domestic animals. The Metal Ages began about seven thousand years ago. Metal tools were used. The wheel and the plough were invented. The first cities were built.

• LOOK Discuss the question together. (Archaeological remains can tell us a lot about the distant past) Ask: What do you think the people are looking for? (bones, pieces of ceramic, tools ...) What is in the second photo? (a painting of a deer) Where do you think it was painted? (in a cave) 114 , 115 , 116 .

2. The first craftsmen 65

The Stone Age began two and a half million years ago. Stone tools were used.

■ Presentation

• READ Present 1 , 2 , 3 with

1. Prehistory 64

44

In the Neolithic period, craftsmen made polished stone tools and weapons. They also made pots and cloth. In the Metal Ages, craftsmen made metal tools, weapons and jewellery.

3. The first artists

Cave paintings, for example in the Altamira Cave in Cantabria, are magnificent works of art. They were painted on cave walls and ceilings. Early artists often painted animals like bison and deer.

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Past tense. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them but write the verb in the past form. They listen to 114 before checking their answers in the textbook. 1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The Stone Age begins 2 and a half million years ago. Stone tools are used. In the Palaeolithic period, people move from place to place. In the Neolithic period, people live permanently in one place. They are farmers and have crops and domestic animals. The Metal Ages begin about 7,000 years ago. Metal tools are used. The wheel and plough are invented.

Answers: 1. began. 2. were. 3. moved. 4. lived. 5. were … had. 6. began. 7. were. 8. were.

110

66

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

9/10/06

19:10

Página 111

Vocabulary: Carthaginians, Celts, colonies, Greeks, Iberians, Phoenicians, pre-Roman times, settlements

Content objectives: 3, 4, 7. Language objectives: 1, 2, 4.

The Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding time and the historical sequence of events

1. Pre-Roman times 67 In pre-Roman times, the peninsula was inhabited by Iberian and Celtic tribes. Later, Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to the peninsula, and established colonies.

■ Hands on

2. The Iberians and the Celts 68

The Lady of Elche

Iberians and Celts lived together on the Iberian peninsula. The Iberians lived in the east and south of the peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with rectangular houses. The Iberians were divided into tribes. They were herders, farmers, traders and craftsmen. Some of their works of art, such as the famous Lady of Elche, have been preserved. The Celts lived in the centre and north of the peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with round houses. The Celts were also divided into tribes. They were herders, farmers and expert metalworkers.

The Lady of Elche: an Iberian masterpiece

Ancient civilisations: colonies on the coast Ba y

N W

of

Biscay

3. Colonies 69

E

Rosas

AN

S

Ampurias

Mainake Adra

ATLANTIC OCEAN Canary Islands

Cartagena an ne Baria rra

Malaga Almunecar M e d

■ Presentation

Many ancient civilisations established colonies on the Iberian peninsula.

OCE ATLAN

T IC

Sagunto Denia Ibiza Akra Leuke Alonis

Cadiz

S

e

a

ite

Phoenician Colonies Greek Colonies Carthaginian Colonies

• The Phoenicians came from Asia, and settled on the southern coast. They founded the cities of Cadiz and Almunecar.

• READ Write on the BB: Carthaginians, Phoenicians, Greeks. Ask Ss to number them according to the order of their arrival on the Iberian Peninsula. (3, 1, 2)

• The Greeks came from Greece, and settled on the Mediterranean coast. They founded the cities of Denia and Ampurias. • The Carthaginians came from North Africa, and also settled on the Mediterranean coast. They founded the city of Cartagena.

Where did they live? Make sentences. The Iberians lived in the east. The Greeks …

M.A. … settled on the Mediterranean coast. The Celts lived in the centre and north of the peninsula. The Carthaginians settled on the Mediterranean coast.

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

45

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Sentence completion. Write the following vocabulary and gapped sentences on the BB. Ss write in the missing word and then listen to 118 to check their answers.

tribes / metalworkers / east / round / rectangular / Celts / farmers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

• Ask Ss to look closely at the photo. Ask: What can you see? (the face, headdress, necklace, clothing …) • Ss make their own personal version of the figure. Tell them they can use crayons, paints, markers and decorate it with sequins, rice, legumes, little bits of paper…

The Iberians lived in the … and south of the peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with … houses. They were divided into … They were herders, … traders and craftsmen. The … lived in the centre and north of the peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with … houses. They were herders, farmers and expert …

Answers: 1. east. 2. rectangular. 3. tribes. 4. farmers. 5. Celts. 6. round. 7. metalworkers.

• Write two columns. Left column: Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians. Right column: Ampurias, Cartagena, Cadiz, Denia, Almuñecar. Ss match each civilisation with the cities they founded. (Phoenicians – Cadiz, Almuñecar; Greeks – Denia, Ampurias; Carthaginians – Cartagena) • Tell Ss to look at the map. Ask: What colour are the Carthaginian colonies? (blue) Which ones are shown on the map? (Cartagena, Ibiza)… • Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with

117 , 118 , 119 .

• SS do the activity at the bottom of the page. ➔ R Activity Book, pages 44, exercise 2, and 45.

The Lady of Elche’s return home. In 2006, this national treasure was returned to the place it was discovered: Elche.

111

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

9/10/06

19:10

Página 112

Vocabulary: amphitheatres, aqueducts, circuses, forum, Hispania, Latin, public bath houses, roads, Roman times, temples, theatres

Content objectives: 5, 6, 8. Language objectives: 1, 2, 4, 5.

Roman Hispania

■ Special attention

READ

• Understanding that Spain was part of the Roman Empire

70

The Roman provinces of the the Iberian peninsula

More than two thousand years ago, the Romans defeated the Carthaginians and conquered the Iberian peninsula. The peninsula became part of the Roman Empire. The Romans called it Hispania.

Making puzzles • Collect pictures of well-known Roman monuments or ruins. • Glue them onto coloured card and cut them into several pieces. • Hand out puzzles so Ss can put them together.

At first, the conquered tribes did not participate in Roman government. Later, they adopted Roman customs and spoke Latin, the language of the Romans. Many people from Hispania, such as the philosopher Seneca, became important figures in the Roman Empire. The emperors Trajan and Hadrian were also from Hispania. Hispania was Roman for 600 years. However, after about 400 A.D. the Roman Empire weakened. Visigothic invaders entered the peninsula from northern Europe.

2. Roman cities

Bay Lugo

of

Biscay

TARRACONENSIS

GALLAETIA

ATLANTIC OCEA N

■ Hands on

Zaragoza Tarragona

LUSITANIA Lisboa

CARTAGINENSIS

Sagunto

Merida BAETICA

Hispalis

Mediterranean Sea

N E

W S

ATLANTIC OCEAN Canary Islands

Roman cities

71

The Romans founded many cities in their empire. In Hispania, important Roman cities included Tarraco (now Tarragona) and Sagunto in the east, and Hispalis in the south.

■ Presentation • Ask: What have we inherited from the Romans? (Latin, Roman law, bridges, aqueducts …) • READ Ss look at the map. Ask: How many Roman provinces were there in Hispania? (five) How are they represented on the map? (in five different colours) What Roman cities are on the map? (Lugo, Zaragoza, Tarragona, Sagunto, Hispalis, Merida, Lisboa) • Ss look at the photograph. Ask: What were Roman theatres like? Where did the audience sit? (on stone steps) How was the seating arranged? (in a semicircle) Where did the actors stand? (on the stage) What can you see at the back of the stage? (columns) • Ss read 1 , 2 , 3 with

1. Roman times

120 , 121 , 122 .

E ➔ Activity Book, pages 46, 47.

Roman cities were modelled on Rome, the imperial capital. They all had two main streets and a forum. The forum was a large public square where important events were celebrated. Roman cities were connected by excellent stone roads.

3. Roman architecture The Romans built many different types of monuments. Temples were used for religious purposes. Theatres, amphitheatres and circuses were used for entertainment. Aqueducts transported water to the cities.

The Roman theatre in Merida

Describe Roman cities and their monuments. Roman cities were modelled on Rome. They all had two … Are there any Roman ruins near where you live?

Public bath houses used hot water. 46

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

M.A. …main streets and a forum. Roman cities were connected by stone roads. Aqueducts transported water to the cities.

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the two halves of the following sentences on the BB. Ss match them and write out the whole sentences.

1. More than 2000 years ago the Romans 2. The Romans called it 3. The conquered tribes 4. Seneca was 5. Hispania was 6. The Visigoth invaders entered the peninsula 7. Roman cities had 8. A forum was 9. Aqueducts transported

a. Roman for 600 years. b. water to the cities. c. conquered the Iberian peninsula. d. a philosopher. e. Hispania. f. a large public square. g. spoke Latin. h. from Northern Europe. i. two main streets and a forum.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – e. 3 – g. 4 – d. 5 – a. 6 – h. 7 – i. 8 – f. 9 – b.

112

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

2/10/06

20:37

Página 113

1. Reorganise the letters of each word that is spelt incorrectly. 1. In the Palaeolithic period craftsmen made OLOTS by hitting one stone against another. 2. In the Neolithic period craftsmen made polished stone NOPEWAS . 3. They also made SPOT

.

4. They also made THOCL

.

5. In the Metal Ages craftsmen made metal RELELJEWY

.

Answers: 1. tools. 2. weapons. 3. pots. 4. cloth. 5. jewellery.

2. Underline the correct word. 1. The Phoenicians came from ASIA / GREECE. 2. They settled on the EASTERN / SOUTHERN coast. 3. The Greeks settled on the SOUTHERN / MEDITERRANEAN coast. 4. They founded the city of DENIA / CADIZ. 5. The Carthaginians came from ASIA / NORTH AFRICA. Answers: 1. Asia. 2. southern. 3. Mediterranean. 4. Denia. 5. North Africa. ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

113

Worksheet 38. Date

ANCIENT HISTORY

PREHISTORY

20:37

1. Complete the word map.

Apply your knowledge

1. Match and write the period. Palaeolithic period

Metal Ages

The Greeks

The Carthaginians

came from

came from

came from

Asiå

G®æe©æ

Nort™ Africå

settled on the

settled on the

settled on the

sout™er> coas†

Medi†erra>ea> coas†

Medi†erra>ea> coas†

c. People moved from place to place. They hunted and fished.

founded the city / cities of

founded the city / cities of

founded the city / cities of

d. People were farmers. They had domestic animals.

CadiΩ Almu>eca®

Deniå Ampuriafi

[email protected]å

Neolithic period a. Craftsmen made polished stone tools, pots and cloth.

Neolithi© πerio∂ b. People used metal tools. The wheel was invented.

Meta¬ [email protected]fi Palåeolithi© πerio∂ Neolithi© πerio∂ e. Craftsmen made metal weapons and jewelry.

Meta¬ [email protected]fi f. Craftsmen made tools by hitting one stone against another.

Palåeolithi© πerio∂

aqueducts

television studios

amphitheatres

universities

theme parks

stone roads

airports

theatres

railway stations

temples

circuses

public bath houses

2. Match and write Iberians or Celts. a. They lived in the east and south of the peninsula. b. They lived in the centre and north of the peninsula. c. They lived in rectangular houses. d. They lived in round houses. e. The Lady of Elche is one of their most famous works of art. 45

44

I∫±rianfi Celtfi I∫±rianfi Celtfi I∫±rianfi

Página 114

The Phoenicians

2. Circle the structures built by the Romans.

2/10/06

Apply your knowledge

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

Activity Book

114 Worksheet 39. Date

857415 _ 0108-0115.qxd

Worksheet 40. Date

Read and learn

MEASURE HISTORICAL TIME

ROMAN CIRCUS GAMES 1. Read carefully.

Gladiators and charioteers

Dates can be expressed as BC or AD. The birth of Christ, more than 2,000 years ago, is used to make the first big division in historical time. Events that happened before the birth of Christ use the letters BC (before Christ) after the date. For example, the prehistoric paintings in the Caves of Altamira are from the year 15,000 BC.

Circus games were the Romans’ most popular form of entertainment. Games were held regularly, and lasted for many days. The events were advertised on signs and proclaimed throughout the city. People came from all over the Roman Empire to watch the games. Sometimes they slept outdoors waiting for the games to begin. The gladiators’ fights and chariot races were the most popular circus games. Most of the gladiators were slaves, prisoners of war, or criminals, but some were volunteers. All gladiators went to training schools to learn special fighting techniques. Many gladiators died in the fights. The president of the games decided if a gladiator lived or died.

A period of one hundred years is called a century. The year 1492 was in the fifteenth century.

2. Order the historical events in chronological order. 711 AD: Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula. 753 BC (approximately): Rome was founded. 1492: Columbus’ expedition reached America. 1200 BC (approximately): the Phoenician alphabet was invented.

Chariot races were held in the circuses. There were four different chariot teams which had different colours. The chariots were pulled by four horses and driven by the charioteer. The races were very dangerous. Chariots crashed, and men and horses were injured and killed.

T™æ Phø±nicia> alpha∫±† wafi in√±n†e∂. b. Roµæ wafi foun∂e∂. c. Muslimfi inva∂e∂ t™æ I∫eria> Peninsulå. d. Columbufi ®eac™e∂ Aµericå. a.

Some gladiators and chariot drivers became rich and famous.

2. Tick the correct answer. a. Where did gladiators learn their techniques? 씲 At home

3. Write the century these dates are in.

thir∂ ©entur¥

b. 536:

sixt™ ©entur¥

c. 1359:

씲 In training schools 

씲 In wars

b. How many horses pulled chariots?

four†æent™ ©entur¥

씲 Two

씲 Three

씲 Four 

4. Answer the questions. 3. Imagine you live in ancient Rome and you are going to see the circus games. Describe your day.

1997 b. What century were you born in? t∑±nt^et™ ©entur¥ c. What century are we in now? t∑±nt¥-firs† ©entur¥ a. What year were you born in? M. A.

M. A. I wa§æ uπ earl¥ an∂ go to t™æ circufi earl¥ too. I go wit™ m¥ pa®entfi an∂ watc™ t™æ chario† ra©efi. I enjo¥ t™æ ra©efi å lo†. 47

46

Página 115

Measuring time

Events taking place after the birth of Christ are identified with the letters AD after the date, but most of the time we do not use anything. For example, we could write that the Crown of Castile was formed in 1230 or 1230 AD. Both forms are correct.

a. 211:

20:37

1. Read carefully.

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 41. Date

115

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

2/10/06

20:37

Página 116

UNIT 13

The Middle Ages UNIT CONTENT Content objectives 1. Identifying the different people who invaded the Iberian peninsula after the Roman Empire and placing them in the correct periods of time. 2. Identifying and describing the characteristics of the Visigothic kingdom 3. Identifying and describing the characteristics of Al Andalus 4. Identifying the location of the Christian kingdoms 5. Learning what the Christian Reconquest was

6. Understanding the expansion of the Christian kingdoms on the Iberian peninsula 7. Understanding events in Spain after 1492 8. Identifying the characteristics of the Spanish Empire 9. Understanding the nature of an absolute monarchy 10. Recognising the cultural importance of the Golden Age

Language objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Talking about the past: adopted; spoke; became Making impersonal statements (past passive): were created; was formed Time sequence: first…, later…, next…, finally Expressing purpose: to unify their new kingdom; to practise their religion Making comparisons: their highest authority; the most important Describing simultaneous events: Meanwhile, … Expressing contrast: in contrast; however

Contents CONCEPTS

• The invasion of Germanic tribes: Vandals, Suevi, Visigoths • The Visigoths and Muslims: arrival in Hispania, customs, way of life, religion, law • The Christian kingdoms and the Christian Reconquest: significance, events, dates • The Catholic Monarchs • The territories of the Spanish Empire • The Golden Age: important artists and works of art

PROCEDURES

• Putting historical events in order: historical sequence and simultaneous development • Identifying buildings from different historical periods • Interpreting historical maps

ATTITUDES

• Show appreciation and respect for historic buildings and interest in preserving them • Show interest in learning about the past

Assessment criteria • Sequencing historical events in Spain after the fall of the Roman Empire • Describing characteristics of the Visigothic kingdom and of Al Andalus

116

• Identifying the Christian kingdoms on the peninsula. • Describing characteristics of the Spanish Empire.

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

2/10/06

20:37

Página 117

UNIT 0

RESOURCES Resource folder PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES

• Reinforcement and extension – Reinforcement: Worksheet 13 – Extension: Worksheet 13

SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*

• Developing intelligence worksheets • Working with recent immigrants

• Assessment – Assessment: Worksheet 13

Internet resources www.richmondelt.com www.indexnet.santillana.es The Middle Ages http://www.themiddleages.net/ Middle Ages art and lifestyle, weapons, and famous medieval people. For teachers. Romans http://www.brims.co.uk/romans/index.html All about the Romans, especially in Britain. For students and teachers. Columbus http://www.columbusnavigation.com/ The Columbus Navigation homepage examines many different areas including the history, voyages and ships of Christopher Columbus. For teachers and students. The history of chocolate http://www.fieldmuseum.org/Chocolate/history.html All about chocolate. For teachers.

Other resources • • • •

Richmond World Facts Richmond Dictionaries Flashcards Posters

* Not yet available in English

117

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

9/10/06

19:12

Página 118

Content objectives: 1, 2.

Vocabulary: Christianity, Germanic tribes, metalworkers, Roman law, Vandals, Visigoths

Language objectives: 1, 3, 4.

The Middle Ages

■ Special attention LOOK

• Sequencing historical events • Who lived in the Iberian peninsula in the centuries after the Roman Empire? The Visigoths, the ...

■ Hands on Looking up information • Ask: What do you know about St Isidore of Seville? (He was a key figure in the Visigothic period in Spain) • Write on the BB: Why was he famous? What was his most important work? • Ask: Where can you find this information? (encyclopaedias, history books, Internet) Explain how to investigate: first, look up information and read it; then, extract the main ideas; next, organise the ideas; finally, write the report.

A Visigothic church

READ

1. The invasion of Germanic tribes 72 Under the Roman Empire, Hispania adopted Roman customs and laws. Its inhabitants spoke Latin. They became Christians. In 409 A.D., the Vandals and other Germanic tribes invaded Hispania. Later, the Visigoths established a kingdom on the Iberian peninsula.

First, the Visigoths crossed the Pyrenees into Hispania, and settled in the centre of the peninsula. Toledo became their capital.

Ask: What do you know about the Visigoths? Elicit ideas. Present 1 and 2 with 123 and 124 .

Describe the invasion of the Visigoths. First, the Visigoths …

READ

• Write on the BB: Visigoths, Romans, Vandals. Ask Ss to number them in the order they arrived on the Iberian peninsula. (3, 1, 2) • Ask: What was the capital of the Visigothic kingdom? (Toledo) Describe how they lived. (In villages; they were farmers and metalworkers.) How did they unify their kingdom? (They changed their language, religion and laws …) Why did the Visigothic kingdom end? (The Muslims invaded and conquered the peninsula.) • Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.

The Visigothic kingdom ended after the Muslim invasion in 711 A.D.

Later, they conquered the territories occupied by other Germanic tribes, such as the Suevs.

• LOOK Say: Describe the church in the photo. (It’s small, made of stone, with long, narrow windows.) •

The Visigoths changed their language, religion and laws to unify their new kingdom. They adopted the Hispano-Roman culture and converted to Christianity. They based their laws on Roman law. The Visigoths lived in villages. They did not build cities like the Romans. Instead, they used the land for agriculture, livestock farming and pastures. They were expert metalworkers.

2. The Visigoths 73

■ Presentation

Finally, they extended Visigothic rule over the entire peninsula.

Later, …

Finally, …

M.A …crossed the Pyrenees… Later, they conquered the territories … Finally, they extended Visigothic rule …

THE MIDDLE AGES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT True or False? Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy them and say if they are true or false. If they are false they re-write them correctly. 1

1. Under the Roman Empire the inhabitants of Hispania spoke Latin. 2. The Visigoths crossed the sea into Hispania. 3. Madrid became their capital. 4. The Visigoths lived in villages. 5. They used the land for agriculture. 6. They were expert farmers. Answers: 1 – true. 2 – false. They crossed the Pyrenees into Hispania. 3 – false. Toledo became their capital. 4 – true. 5 – true. 6 – false. They were expert metalworkers.

118

47

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

9/10/06

19:12

Content objectives: 3, 4. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Página 119

Vocabulary: Al Andalus, caliph, Christianity, Christian kingdoms, Christians, Islam, mosques, Muslims, palaces

Al Andalus

■ Special attention

READ The Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula Oviedo

Battle of Covadonga

N OCEA

Zaragoza

ATLANTIC

Toledo Merida Mediterranean Cordoba Battle of Guadalete

Ceuta ATLANTIC OCEAN Canary Islands

74

In 711 A.D., a small army of Muslims from northern Africa invaded Visigothic Spain. In seven years, they conquered most of the peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Under the Muslims, Hispania was called Al Andalus.

Battle of Roncesvalles

Astorga

1. Muslims and Christians

Sea

Independent Christian territories Main Muslim expeditions Main battles

The Muslims brought their customs, laws and religion to Al Andalus. Their highest authority was the caliph, and their religion was Islam. Many Muslims lived in cities, and worked as merchants and craftsmen. Christians continued to live in the north of the peninsula. Their highest authority was the king, and their religion was Christianity. Most Christians lived in the countryside, and were farmers.

2. Al Andalus 75 For almost eight hundred years, the centre and south of the peninsula were Muslim. The Muslims built cities, protected by walls, on hills. They built palaces, such as the Aljaferia in Zaragoza.They also built mosques, such as the Great Mosque of Cordoba, to practise their religion. The Aljaferia palace in Zaragoza

The most important Muslim city was Cordoba, the capital of Al Andalus. The great philosopher Averroes was born there.

3. The Christian kingdoms After the Muslim conquest, small, independent Christian kingdoms grew on the Cantabrian coast, and in the Pyrenees. The first was the Kingdom of Asturias, which later became the Kingdom of Leon. Next, the Kingdoms of Aragon, Navarre, and the Catalonian Counties were created. Finally, the Kingdom of Castile was formed. The Great Mosque of Cordoba

48

THE MIDDLE AGES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Ss copy and complete the sentences below with the correct word, then check by listening to 125 .

Islam / Caliph / Africa / north / Hispania / king / seven 1. In 711 a small army of Muslims from northern … invaded Visigothic Spain. 2. In … years the Muslims conquered most of the peninsula and the Balearic Islands. 3. Under the Muslims … was called Al Andalus. 4. Their highest authority was the … 5. Their religion was … 6. Christians continued to live in the … of the peninsula. 7. Their highest authority was the …

• Sequencing historical events

■ Hands on Words of Arabic origin

• Ask: What do you know about Al Andalus? • Explain that many Spanish words are Arabic in origin. Ask if Ss know any. Write a list on the BB: almohada (pillow), alcalde (mayor), alcachofa (artichoke), zanahoria (carrot), azafrán (saffron), aduana (customs), almacén (warehouse), alcoba (bedroom), azulejo (glazed tile)…

■ Presentation • READ Focus on the photos. Ask: What can you see? (columns and arches) Compare the arches: Which building has red and white arches? (the Great Mosque of Cordoba) Which has more elaborate arches? (the Aljafería in Zaragoza) • Ask: Where did the Muslims come from? (northern Africa) Present 1 and 2 with 125 and 126 . • Ask: Where did the Muslim invasion begin in Spain? (in the south) What was the capital of Al Andalus? (Cordoba) What was the highest Muslim authority called? (caliph) Describe how the Muslims lived in Al Andalus. (Many lived in cities and were merchants and craftsmen.) What did the Muslims bring to Al Andalus? (customs, laws and religion) What types of buildings did they build in Spain? (mosques and palaces) • Ss read 3 . ➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, pages 48, 49.

Answers: 1. Africa. 2. seven. 3. Hispania. 4. caliph. 5. Islam. 6. north. 7. king.

119

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

9/10/06

19:12

Página 120

Vocabulary: Catholic Monarchs, Christian Reconquest, Christian kingdoms, Gothic style, taifas

Content objectives: 5, 6. Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7.

The Christian kingdoms

■ Special attention

READ

• Sequencing historical events

The Iberian peninsula in the fifteenth century Bay

■ Hands on

of

Around the year 1000, Al Andalus weakened. Finally, it broke up into small independent kingdoms called taifas.

OCE

AN

NAVARRE

AL RT

C A S T I L E

PO

ATLANTIC

• Ask: Where can you see stained glass windows? (in churches and cathedrals) • Ss cut rectangles out of black card. • They draw simple figures: stars, circles, diamonds and cut them out. • They glue or tape coloured cellophane over the holes then turn the card over to admire their «stained glass windows».

Meanwhile, the Christian kingdoms expanded, and formed alliances. Their populations grew, and their cities became prosperous.

ARAGON UG

Create a stained glass window

Mediterranean

KINGDOM OF GRANADA

Sea

Christian territory Muslim territory

➔ R and E ➔ Activity Book, pages 50-52.

Around 1230, the Christian territory was divided into several large kingdoms.

• The Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca, and the Catalonian Counties. • The Crown of Castile included the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Leon. Later, it included all Andalusia, except for the Kingdom of Granada. • Portugal was an independent kingdom. In 1479, the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married and united the Crowns of Castile and Aragon.

3. The Kingdom of Granada The Kingdom of Granada was the last taifa kingdom. Its territory included Granada, Malaga and Almeria. It was weakened by internal disputes, and was finally conquered by the Catholic Monarchs.

• Present 1 , 2 , 3 with 127 , 128 , 129 . Ask: What happened around the year 1000? (Al Andalus broke up into small independent kingdoms, called taifas. The Christian kingdoms expanded and formed alliances.)

• Focus on the photo of Burgos Cathedral and talk about the characteristics of Gothic cathedrals.

Burgos Cathedral was built in the Gothic style. Gothic architecture is characterised by great height, pointed arches and large windows.

THE MIDDLE AGES

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Comprehension. Books closed. Write the following sentences on the BB and ask Ss to choose the correct option. 1

1. 2. 3. 4.

Al Andalus weakened around the year 100 / 1000. Al Andalus broke up into small / large independent kingdoms. The Muslim kingdoms were called cities / taifas. The Christian kingdoms became bigger / smaller and more prosperous. 5. The taifas were weak and lost / won many battles. 6. The Christian reconquest was started / completed in 1492. 7. The Catholic Monarchs conquered the last Muslim kingdom, Valencia / Granada. Answers: 1. 1000. 2. small. 3. taifas. 4. bigger. 5. lost. 6. completed. 7. Granada.

120

76

• The Kingdom of Navarre included Navarre and part of La Rioja.

• READ Focus on the map. Ask: Which was larger in the 15th century, the Christian or the Muslim territories? (the Christian territories)

• How and when was the Christian Reconquest completed? (In 1492, when the Catholic Monarchs conquered the Kingdom of Granada.)

In contrast, the taifas, weakened by their lack of unity, lost many battles. The Christian Reconquest was completed in 1492, when the Catholic Monarchs conquered Granada.

2. The Christian kingdoms ATLANTIC OCEAN Canary Islands

■ Presentation

• Ask: How was the Christian territory divided around 1230? (Kingdom of Navarra, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Portugal)

1. The Christian reconquest

Biscay

49

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

9/10/06

19:12

Content objectives: 7, 8, 9, 10.

Página 121

Vocabulary: absolute monarchy, Catholic Monarchs, Golden Age, Spanish Empire

Language objectives: 1, 2, 5, 7.

Spain after 1492

■ Special attention

READ

• Sequencing historical events

The Spanish Empire

• Understanding that historical events can occur at the same time N OR TH EUROPE

A MER I C A

■ Hands on

A S I A

ATLANTIC

P A CI F IC

OCEAN

O CE A N

AFRICA

PACIF IC OCEANIA

S OU TH

OCE AN

INDIAN

A MER I C A

OCEAN

The Spanish Empire

1 Spain after 1492

77

However, by the end of the 19th century, most of these possessions no longer belonged to Spain.

Columbus’ expedition reached America in 1492. In the same year, Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic Monarchs, unified the kingdoms of Spain. They began the conquest of America, and Spain became the centre of a great empire. Their successors, Charles I and Philip II, acquired many new possessions in the 16th century. In the 18th century, the kings established an absolute monarchy. In this form of government, the monarch’s actions are not controlled by law. The local laws of the old kingdoms were abolished, except in Navarre and the Basque Country.

3. Writers and artists In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain produced many great works of literature and art. This period is called the Golden Age. In literature, Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quijote de La Mancha. There were great poets, such as Francisco de Quevedo and Luis de Gongora. Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderon de la Barca wrote many famous plays. In painting, Diego Velazquez became the most important artist of his time.

2. The territories of the Spanish empire Between the 16th and the 19th centuries, Spain had possessions in almost every part of the world. Spanish armies conquered the Canary Islands, much of the Americas, the Philippines in Asia, and several small territories in North Africa. The kingsiiiii also inherited territories in central and southern Europe. 50

THE MIDDLE AGES

Make new questions. Change the date. What happened in 1492? What happened in the 16 th century ?

M.A. …the 18th century? …between the 16th and the 19th centuries?

■ CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 1 Comprehension. Write the dates and events on the BB and ask Ss to match them.

1. In 1492 2. In the 16th century 3. In the 18th century 4. Between the 16th and 19th centuries 5. By the end of the 19th century 6. The 16th and 17th centuries

a. Spain had possessions in almost every part of the world. b. the kings established an absolute monarchy. c. Columbus reached America. d. was the Golden Age of Spanish literature and art. e. Charles 1 and Philip II acquired many possessions for the empire. f. Spain had lost most of its empire.

«Las Meninas«

• Show Ss a copy of «Las Meninas» (Maids of Honour) by Diego Velazquez. Ask: What do you know about this painting? • Ask: Do you think the painting is large or small? Why? Describe the room / the people. Who do you think they are? Describe their clothes. What name would you give this painting?

■ Presentation • READ Explain to Ss that some historical events on this page occurred at the same time as other events on the previous page. Ask: What happened in Spain in 1492? (The Catholic Monarchs completed the Christian Reconquest and unified the kingdoms of Spain.) (Columbus’s expedition reached America.) • Focus on the map. Ask: What can you see? (continents and oceans) On which continents did Spain have territories? (America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania) • Ss read 1 , 2 and 3 with 130 , 131 , 132 and do the activity at the bottom of the page.

Chocolate. Cacao seeds were brought to Europe by Columbus. At first, it was only used as a drink. Later, they mixed the powder with sugar, milk and other things to make chocolate.

Answers: 1 – c. 2 – e. 3 – b. 4 – a. 5 – f. 6 – d.

121

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

2/10/06

20:37

Página 122

1. Reorder the letters to make a correct word. 1. The Muslims built ASAPLEC. 2. The Muslims built SUMEOSQ. 3. They built SICETI on hills. 4. They occupied the centre and south of the peninsula for GETIH hundred years. 5. The philosopher Averroes was born in ORCODBA. Answers: 1. palaces. 2. mosques. 3. cities. 4. eight. 5. Cordoba.

2. Complete the sentences. 1. The Kingdom of Navarre included Navarre and part of La

.

2. The Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca and the

Counties.

3. The Crown of Castile included the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of . Later, it included all Andalusia, except for the Kingdom of

.

4. Portugal was an independent kingdom. In 1479, the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella 1 of Castile and

of Aragon, married and

united the Crowns of Castile and Aragon. Answers: 1. Rioja. 2. Catalonian. 3. Leon, Granada. 4. Ferdinand II.

122

ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 • Photocopiable material © Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educación, S.L.

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

Read and learn

Worksheet 42. Date

MOSQUES

Apply your knowledge BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES

1. Does the event correspond to the Christian civilisation or the Islamic civilisation? Write Christian or Islamic. a. They arrived on the Iberian Peninsula in 711.

Muslims pray five times a day. On Fridays, they meet in mosques for community prayer. The muezzin is responsible for calling Muslims to pray. He calls them from a minaret, the mosque tower.

b. Their religion was Islam. c. They created kingdoms in the north of Spain. d. They lived in the countryside.

Inside the mosque, believers kneel and pray towards the wall which faces in the direction of Mecca. Mecca is the most sacred Muslim city.

e. They built palaces and mosques. f. They lived in cities.

As well as being a place of prayer, mosques are used as meeting places and even schools. Mosques have a large courtyard at the entrance, a prayer hall inside, and one or more minarets, depending on their size.

Islami© Islami© Christia> Christia> Islami© Islami©

Página 123

The place where Muslims pray

2. Name three Christian kingdoms at the beginning of the Middle Ages. a. b.

During the Middle Ages, Muslims built many mosques on the Iberian Peninsula. The most important one is in Cordoba, the capital of Al-Andalus.

c.

Arago> Casti¬æ Navar®æ

3. What parts of a medieval castle can you see in the photo. Tick (). 2. Complete the sentences.

pra¥e® an∂ afi µæ[email protected] pla©efi an∂ schoolfi. b. The muezzin is responsible for [email protected] Muslimfi to pra¥. a. Mosques are used for

씲 battlements  씲 courtyard 씲 tower 

VOCABULARY

씲 water

Circle the words related to mosques. minaret

courtyard

bridge

university

wall

school

씲 bridge

49

48

20:37

1. Read carefully.

2/10/06

Worksheet 43. Date

123

Worksheet 44. Date

THE MIDDLE AGES

20:37

1. Read carefully.

Apply your knowledge

1. Complete the word map.

Johann Gutenberg, inventor of the printing press

CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS

Finally he completed his invention, and around the year 1450, he formed a partnership with a German merchant who lent him the money for his printing business. He began to print his first books.

Kingdom of Navarre

Crown of Aragon

Crown of Castile

Territories included

Territories included

Territories included

Navar®æ Lå Riojå

Arago>, Va¬enciå Majorcå an∂ Cataloniå

Castilæ, Leo>, Andalusiå ex©ep† fo® Granadå

At that time, books were hand-written by scribes. Gutenberg designed the letters of his printing press to imitate the original manuscripts. The Gutenberg Bible is usually considered to be the first printed book in the Western world. Thanks to the invention of the printing press, news such as the discovery of America spread rapidly throughout Europe. 2. Answer. 2. Think and answer.

a. Which was the last Muslim kingdom?

After the invention of the printing press, the price of books dropped. Why do you think this happened?

b. When was it conquered?

Becaußæ i† wafi no† >e©essar¥ to wri†æ bookfi b¥ han∂ anymo®æ. T™æ [email protected] p®esfi ma∂æ bookfi mo®æ c™eapl¥. [email protected] scri∫±fi wafi exπensi√¶.

c. Who conquered it?

M. A.

Granadå 1492 t™æ Catholi© Monarchfi

VOCABULARY VOCABULARY

Match.

Match.

caliph



• a great philosopher

• a document written by hand

Gothic style •

• small, independent kingdoms

manuscript •

• a person who copies manuscripts

Averroes



• the highest authority of the Muslims

scribe

• a person who makes things of gold

taifas



• It is characterised by great height, pointed arches and large windows.

goldsmith

• •

51

50

Página 124

Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz around the year 1400. He was trained as a goldsmith, but he was always interested in printing, and he experimented with printing machines.

2/10/06

Read and learn

THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

Activity Book

124 Worksheet 45. Date

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

Notes: IDENTIFY MEDIEVAL BUILDINGS

20:38

1. Identify the buildings in the photos as Christian or Muslim. B

Christia>

Página 125

A

Musliµ

2. Answer the question. What differences are there between the two buildings? M. A.

T™æ Christia> [email protected] wafi uße∂ afi å houßæ an∂ fo® pro†ectio>. I† ifi å fort®esfi T™æ Musliµ [email protected] ifi uße∂ fo® pra¥e®. I† hafi å mina®e†.

3. Choose a medieval building in your Autonomous Community. Complete the index card. BUILDING Manzana®efi e¬ Rea¬ Cast¬æ Date built: ∫et∑ee> 1475 an∂ 1478 Who built it: t™æ Marquifi oƒ Santillanå, Inigo LopeΩ What it was used for in the past: t™æ famil¥ ®esi∂en©æ What it is used for today: touristfi ca> visi† t™æ cast¬æ. Cultura¬ e√±ntfi a®æ ™el∂ ™e®æ. 52

2/10/06

Tasks

Worksheet 46. Date

125

3. Write the names of Roman cities.

20:38

2. Stick them on the map.

2/10/06

1. Cut out the Roman provinces.

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

Activity Book

Notes:

126

THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA

Página 126

54

2/10/06

20:38

Página 127

ATLANTIC OCEAN Can a r y Is la n ds

Project 5

55

857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd

Notes:

127

857415 _ 0128-0128.qxd

2/10/06

20:23

Página 128

Essential Science, Science, Geography and History, for Year 5 of Primary Education is a collective work, conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision of JOSÉ LUIS ALZU GOÑI, JOSÉ TOMAS HENAO and MICHELE C. GUERRINI Contributing authors: Cristina Zarzuelo, Jane Kilner and Lesley Thompson English language editors: Martin Minchom, Cathy Myers, Sheila Klaiber, Nancy Konvalinka, Nikki Strutt English language specialist: Jeannette West Art director: José Crespo Design coordinator: Rosa Marín Design Team: Cover: Martín León-Barreto Interior: Rosa Barriga Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera Design development: Raúl de Andrés, José Luis García and Javier Tejeda Technical director: Ángel García Encinar Technical coordinator: Marisa Valbuena Layout: Fernando Calonge and Miguel Á. Mora-Gil Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodríguez Photographs: C. Jiménez; F. Ontañón; GARCÍA-PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira; J. Jaime; J. Lucas; M. G. Vicente; S. Enríquez/Our thanks to the electrical appliances shop EXPERT; HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; STOCKBYTE; MATTON-BILD; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

Richmond Publishing 4 Kings Street Cloisters Albion Place London W6 0QT United Kingdom © 2006 by Santillana Educación, S. L./Richmond Publishing Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educación, S. L. PRINTED IN SPAIN Printed in Spain

ISBN: 84-294-0963-7 CP: 857415 D.L.: All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.