Taranatha the Seven Instruction Lineages

December 8, 2017 | Author: Siegfried Schwaiger | Category: Guru, Vajrayana, Tibetan Buddhism, Mahayana, Schools Of Buddhism
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The Seven Instruction Lineages Jo Nang Taranatha

Tran lar

and Edit b) David Tempi man




@ 1983 by Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala.

No part of this publication may be re-produced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

Published by the Library of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamsala and printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), Nehru House, New Delhi.

Contents Publisher's Note Preface



Translator's Introduction


Abstract of contents


Translation of bKa. babs. bdun.ldan.gyi. brgyud. pa'i.mam. thar. ngo.mtshar.rmad.du. byung.ba.rin. po.che'i.lta. bu'i.rgyan.


Notes to the translation




Publisher's Note The Seven Instruction Lineages which relates the mystic lives of 59 Indian Siddhas is the second work of Jo.nang Taranatha which the Library of Tibetan Works & Archives is publishing. The first was The Origin of Tara Tantra published in 1982. Both these works are translated by David Templeman. We are sure that readers will find both these important translations useful.

Gyatso Tsering Director 1983

Preface Taranatha's bKa'.babs.bdun.ldan was first translated into German by Albert Griinwedel in 1914. at St. Petersburg as part of the Bibliotheca Buddhica series. 1 It was a pioneering work and has been quoted endlessly by Indian and European historians dealing with this period of Indian history. But, as with all such works, it had its limits. Errors of translation and mis-reading notwithstanding (and I make no claim that the present work is error free) it was largely inaccessible to the growing English-speaking audience for Tibetan and Indian Buddhist material. Even Bhupendranath Datta's precis and translation from the German of Grunwedel entitled Mystic Tales of Liimii Tiiraniithii 2 was barely intelligible, partly due to mistranslation and partly due to the amount of material omitted, which made important lineages incomplete. In the light of this I felt that a new translation was merited. I hope that in some way this does not detract from Griinwedel's important work, but augments it, as it deserves. I have been helped more than I can ever repay by the Ven. Traleg Rinpoche and Norbu Samphel, very gifted in their respective fields, and very dear friends,

1A. Grunwedel Taranatha's Edelsteinmine. Das Buch von de Vermittlern der Sieben Inspirationen. Bibliotheca Buddhica XVID. St. Petersburg, 1914. 1B. Datta M.vstic Tales of Lama Taraniitha (Sic I) A religio-sociologlcal history of Mahayana (Sic/) Buddhism Ramakrishna Vedanta Math, Calcutta,


Translator's Introduction In the present work, Taranatha paints a miraculous picture of the great Siddhas of India-their lives and the lineages which sprang from their teachings. In all, the lives of some 59 Siddhas are relatedsome well known, others more obscure, but all linked by their various lineages and by the instructions handed down from Siddha to disciple. Taranatha's account of these remarkable lives is especially valuable as he had as his gurus, and as the sources of these accounts, three Indians from the very traditions about which he wrote with such conviction. Among them was the great Buddhaguptanatha, 1 disciple of Mahasiddha Santigupta, whose biography Taranatha records so eloquently in this work. Buddhaguptanatha's biography is recorded elsewhere in Taranatha's collected works. The lineage accounts were very important to a clear understanding of the Tanttic upadesas themselves, and although not actually containing the teachings, these sampradayas, or lineage accounts, were a guarantee of the purity and fidelity of the teachings passed down from master to pupil. In several places Taranatha makes quite sure that his own lineage is irrefutably established so that there is no doubt he is a participator in the upadesas themselves, not merely a hander-down of legends. Clearly then the accounts were orally passed on and, due to the special factors involved in the tantric oral tradition, we cannot but understand them as being other than accurate and reliable.

* * *

Details of Taranatha's life and the social and historical background in which he worked may be seen in this author's translation of Taranatha's sGrol.ma'i.rgyud.kyi.byung.khung.gsal.bar.byed.pa'i. lo.rgyus.gser.gyi.phreng.ba. published as The Origin of the Tara Tantra by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, and in the present author's article Tdranatha the Historian, published in the Tibet Journal, Vol. VI, No. 2, Summer 1981.

* * *

Editions of the text used in the present translation may be seen in the bibliography of Tibetan works quoted. 1

See Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls Vol2 p 552.

Tiranitha's bka,. babs. bdon. ldan-gyi. brgyd. pa,i. man. thar. ngo. mtshar. mad. du. byung. ba. rin. po. che,i. khungs.

Abstract of Contents Taranatha pays obeisances to his root and lineage gurus, and pays tribute to the special qualities of his own guru, Buddhaguptanatha and to his gu1 u Santigupta. FIRST INSTRUCTION-MAHAMUDRA -





Story of Brahrrzana Riihula (Saraha). Taranatha's comment on old siddha lineages. Naming as Saraha. Saraha's doha to the Brah:q~.ins. Differentiation between Brah:qtana Rahula and Sthavira Rahula. Story of Ndgarjuna, Saraha's student. Nagarjuna's life secured, his nourishment of the Sangha, his meeting with the nagas, his extraction from the naga realms of the Prajiiapararnitii texts, his refutation of enemies of the Mahayana, his death due to fruition of previous karma and Taranatha's mention of his guru's testimony concerning Nagarjuna's cave. Story of Savari, known as Saraha the younger, student of Nagarjuna. Lineage mentioned-Savari, Luyipa, Dengipa, Tillipa, Naropa, younger Pombhipa, Kusalibhadra. Also a lineage from Tillipa-Luyipa, Darikapa, Antarapa. Story of Luyipa, student of Savari. His meeting with Savari, his practice on the banks of the river Ganges in Bengal, naming as Luyipa, his conversion of the king of Odivisa, his doha to the King, Siddhahood of the King who became Darikapa, and his minister who became Dengkipa. Story of Maitripli/Moitrigupta student of Savari. His eviction from Vikramalasila at the hands of Atisa, his meeting with the guru, Taranatha's criticism of Tibetan credulity, his final attainment of the highest Mahamudra state, rnying.ma.pa view of his

disciples. His four major disciples-Sahavajra, known as Nategana; Sunyatiisamiidhi, known as Deviikaracandra, Riimapiila; Vajrapii(1i, known as "Indian PaJJi." Story of Ramapdla His disciples Kusalabhadra the ymmger, Asitaghana and Prajiiiimitra.






Story of Virupa. His miracle of stopping the sun's motion, his subjugation of the goddess CaQ given by Vyalipa, takes a consort, king of Campa donates two xvii






cave temples to Carpa\ipa. Teaches Kakkufipa. Story of Kakku{ipa, disciple of Carpa\ipa. Lineage-Kakku[ipa, Luyipa, Minapa. Story of Minapa, disciple of Kakku\ipa. His life as a fisherman, his miraculous hearing of Mahesvara's Tantras while in a fish's belly. Lineage-Minapa, Halipa, Ma/ipa, Tibolipa. LineageMachendrapa, Caura{lgi, Gorak~anatha. Story of Caura{lgi. As a prince he was wrongly tortured by the king, rescued by Machendrapa, fed by Gorak~a. Story of G01·ak~a. Attained siddhi by the upadesas of Machendra. Story of Kar!Jaripa, disciple of Gorak?a. Gorak~a makes king of Mevara see the nature of grief, king becomes KarQaripa, offers his eyes to his Guru. He is also known as Veraganiitha. He taught Nagopa, the "Naked one". Story of Nogopa, disciple of KarQaripa. King of Kongkuna tortures Nagopa unsuccessfully. Story of Golennatha, pupil of Nagopa. His 12 year meditation in an earthenware pot. Story of Onkarnatha, pupil of Golenniitha. Expelled from home, studies under Goleniitha, meets Gorak~a and attains realization of Tattva. Story of Riitigupta, disciple of Onkarniitha. Begged Abhi~ekha from Jnanagupta in Rakang, gets empowetment from Dasabalapingha, studies with Asitaghana and hears upadesas from Onkamiitha. Story of Mahtisidddvara Stintigupta, Guru of Buddhaguptantitha who was Guru of Ttiraniitha. Tiiraniitha describes him as "master of all the instructions". His birth, studies, his offerings before his Guru, his gradual rise to abbacy over his monastery, his outrageous actions while abbot, his gentle expulsion by the Sangha. His wanderings, his hearing of upadesas from six prostitutes who were, in reality, Vajra9akinis, his encounter with Vajrayogini and her injuction for Santigupta to search for his Guru, Jnanamitra. His long search for his Guru, his Guru's tests, his Guru's refusal after many years to give him even one upadesa, his attempts at suicide, his journeys to Nepal and Kiimari.i in search of his guru again, his work on behalf of his Guru, his imprisonment and release, his attainment of Siddhi instantaneously, his consort Menaka, Jfianamitra's


death, his temptation by a Tajik King, his disciples Janamadeva and Gambhiramati; his six special disciples, Vimalasahya, Candrdkara, Ratniikara, Sugata, Yogini Umapati and Yogini Tararrzga, war caused between Patbans and Moghuls. His disciples-Vedatik$na, Sanghasila, Virabhandu, Asa'(lghabodhi, Anandamati, Vedlinanda, Dharmaksagho$a, Parahethgho$a, Sumegha. Santigupta defeats the Tirthika Mukundavarti, Taraniitha's criticism of various accounts of Santigupta's life. Taranatha's own link with Santigupta, via his three Indian Gurus who were all students of Siintigupta. - Story of Gambhiramati, disciple of Santigupta. - Story of Yogini Dinakara, disciple of Santigupta. her life as a princess, impression made on her by a mendicant monk, her marriage, her feigned madness and expulsion, her studies under Santigupta, her magical defeat of Jimghama Mahesvara, a scourge of Buddhists and her punishment ot a lapsed yogin. Taranatha's final summary ot the Siddha lineages and his eulogy of Santigupta. Taranatha tells of his sources for the work, his final benediction and the Colophon.


Oxp Svasti. Homage to the Guru. This is an account of the lineage histories of the Seven Instructions, 1 which can be likened to a marvellous vein of jewels. I pay homage to the feet of my Holy Teacher. 2 Having paid my obeisances again and again with a worshipful mind to the assemblages of root and lineage gurus who point out clearly to all beings the path of Vajradhara, I will relate their deeds briefly. Even the amazing activities of one Siddha cannot be related by one with a magic tongue even in a hundred aeons-nevertheless this book has been written, taken from the teachings of my Guru. Our excellent Teacher Buddhaguptanatha said that by so doing one would instantly enter into the teachings of the Buddhas of the three eras, an ocean of melodious speech, and that it is impossible to point out the limits of the Buddha's holy words in the excellent Doctrine. However the Lord's (ie. Buddhaguptanatha's) root Guru, Santi(gupta) said, "I am renowned as one who has the Seven Instructions," and they were, without exception, fully absorbed by the Lord himself.


Instruction One As to the first Instruction, it concerns the teachings of the Mahiimudra. 3 Now, Mahiicarya Brahm.ana Rahula, born in the land of 09i,visa,4 was by caste a Bra~ana. From his youth he became proficient in the Vedas, the Vedangas, the eighteen sciences5 and the eight subsidiary sciences, 6 etc. When he had read some secret texts to five hundred Brah~in youths, Vajrayogini appeared before him in the guise of a barmaid and repeatedly offered the acarya nectar of the knowledge of the absolute wisdom in the form of a strong intoxicant. He partook of it without an instant's thought, and even though he had attained the very highest reaches of Samadhi inside, he lost his Brah~in caste. The Brahm.ins wished to dishonour him, and the acarya, by the power of inner yoga which he was able to summon up, made the Brah~ins themselves vomit up the beer. Hurling a huge rock onto the surface of a lake he said, "If I drank beer, may this stone sink. If you have drunk it and not I, may it float!" The rock floated on the water. Thus the Briihm.ins were defeated by his powers. He went to Madhyadesa7 and became a monk in the doctrine of the Buddha, gradually becoming the most learned bhiqu in the Tripi\aka. The upadyaya8 of this acarya was Sthavira Kala, and his upadyaya was the Noble Asvagho~a. His upadyaya was Upagupta but the Guru (Buddhaguptanatha) says it is hard to be certain of these old teacher lineages. It is said in the Tibetan precept collections that although he was known as the son, Rahula's true student, it is better if one does not examine further and just leaves it at that. Then he became abbot of Nalanda. 9 He practised the Doctrines and perfotmed them on vast scales-thus the Mahayana Siitra collection became widespread and this was in the era of this acarya. Then he thought of practising mental austerities, and, without wavering from his meditation on the essential characteristiclessness of mind, 10 he wandered through various lands, finally coming to the southern country of Marhata. There he saw a yogini who was of the same sphere of liberation 2

as he, and she had the form of a fletcher's daughter. He straightened arrows etc. and made weapons as his livelihood and she also pointed out to him through signs the meaning of things as they are, and thereby he saw the Dharmata 11 in its reality. Having taken the arrowsmith's daughter as his mudra (Consort), he wandered in various lands doing the work of an arrowsmith. As his wisdom increased he became known as Saraha, or "He who shoots with an arrow". Formerly he was a Sthavira or elder over all the monks, and now he had become quite a non-conformist. The King together with innumerable beings came to see him and jeered at him but the acarya in his form of arrow straightener said, "Oh ho! I am a Brahqtana and I live with a girl who works with bamboo. I see neither caste nor no caste. I have taken the disciplines of the shaven headed monks and yet I also wander with this wife of mine. There is no distinction between attachment and nonattachment. These impurities are only thoughts. Others don't even know this. They are just like poisonous snakes". Having heard all this and having sung many Doha Vajra songs 12 the King and five thousand of his retinue saw clearly the meaning of things as they are. His body was transformed into that of a Vidyadhara 13 and by magic he soared off into the heavens-it is said that he finally became invisible. Furthermore it happened that as a result of this there were many hundred thousand persons who manifested mental concentration and so his renown spread to all places. Having worked for the welfare of many sentient creatures it is said that he departed in his bodily form to other Buddha realms. In this there is agreement with the Tibetans. In one of the fragments of the Indian book of Siddha lists by Buddhakapala, it appears that in the intervening period, as there is nothing mentioned about Rahula's ordination, then the Brahqtana Rahula and Sthavira Rahula are clearly to be seen as separate people. Even the Translator of Mi.nyag 14 evidently wants it as such and does not see any contradictions in it. 3

Rahula's student was acarya Nagarjuna, who was born in the South at Vidarbha 15 into the Brahiitin caste. At his birth the soothsayers said that if 100 monks, 100 Bra~ins and 100 ordinary folk were invited to the celebratjons, then in due course he would live for seven years, seven months and seven days. There was no other recourse, so they said. His parents therefore did as was suggested. As the completion of the allotted time drew near he was sent, together with servants, on tour to another province. Eventually he arrived at Nalanda and there the abbot Rahula introduced him to the recitation of the Amitayus mantra to seal his life's strength. Having become ordained as a monk there was nothing he could not understand in the Tripitaka texts of Mahayana and Hinayana and in the subsidiary sciences. Then he practised the sadhanas of Mahamayuri, Kurukulla, the nine Yak~is and Mahakala and also attained the Pill siddhi, the Eye salve siddhi, the Sword siddhi, the Fleetfoot siddhi, the Elixir siddhi and the Treasure-trove siddhi, as well as many others. Finally he perfected all the powers to enable him to destroy life and to revive it again, and Yak~as, Nagas and .Asuras all became his servants. By perfecting the extraordinary Elixir siddhi he attained a Vajra body and it is said that he got great magical powers as well as the power of foreknowledge. Having perfected Mahakala's Mantra at Dhanyaka\aka, 16 he stayed there and meditated on Mahakala's Tantra and on the practice of coercing his presence. Supported in that place by Acala, he perfected the illusory form of Mahakala with c;lakiQ.iS surrounding his head and he conjured forth Mahakali, from each of the eight Mahakala Tantras, from a two-armed form ·right up to the Tantra dealing with the eighteen armed form Kurukulla's reflex form, etc. By summoning forth these forms he was able to win the counsel of the Vidyac;Jiikinis. It is said that he summoned forth the 160 various kinds of Sadhana, perfected, all eight of the common siddhis, such as the Sword and Mercury siddhis etc., to an absolute degree of perfection. This is an account of how he prepared nourishment and sustenance for the Sangha. The Abbot Rahulabhadra was staying in a certain place perfecting the sadhana of Arya Tara and when Nagarjuna came before him he was giving instruction to 500 monks. A state of famine had been in existence for twelve years and the areas around Magadha 17 had become deserted. Seeing in all this the Karmic actions of sentient creatures, the acarya made an infusion of gold, eradicated the famine over vast tracts of the country, and 4

changed the gold into grain, thereby making the lives of the Sangha flourish. When the acarya Rahula had completed the sadhana he saw that all the lands were again deserted and Nagarjuna asked for the cause of this. The acarya was unable to give a reason for he feared that some impediment would arise in the siidhana. After twelve years the famine had passed and Rahu1a finally said, "Unfortunately, although I was able to let a shower offood descend, your compassion for sentient creatures was quite small. You had slid backwards on the path of Bodhisattva practice, and now, to atone for your sins, you must erect one hundred and eight monasteries, 1,000 temples and 10,000 shrines." Now as he (Niigarjuna.) saw that it would be most difficult for only one monk to do this, he begged for money from the wealthy yak~a Jambhala. 18 As it was necessary to employ Niigas 19 as workmen, he also thought that he would have to make each and every one of them have faith, and by calling out Kurukullii's mantra, the daughters of the Kings of the Nagas, Tak~aka by name, and their retinue was summoned forth. At a gathering to hear the sermon, two women and their attendants appeared and the scent of the best quality sandalwood pervaded the air for a league around. Furthermore, when they departed the scent also went with them. This happened again and again. The ladies then answered whatever questions were put to them saying, "We are the daughters of the King of the Nagas Tak~aka. To protect ourselves against the corruptions of men we have anointed our bodies with the best sandalwood." Well, the aciirya wanted to erect an image of Tara made of that very sandalwood and had therefore to receive a donation of it. He said, "As you must be my workmates in building this monastery, as has already been discussed, go and ask your father and then come back here." The two Niiginis said, "If the iicarya himself comes to the land of the Nagas it will be in accord with the command of the King of the Nagas. There is no other way of accomplishing it." Then, having realised that he could br-ing back the Prajiiiiparamitii in 100,000 verses20 and it would therefore be for the great welfare of Nagas and men, he went briefly to the realm of the Niigas. In some accounts it is said that he was a monk who had seen the faces of the previous Buddhas Kiisyapa and Kanakamuni. Some say that he had visions of yet other ones, and that they became quite prominent. At an offertory service of the Nagas, many arhats who practised the Teaching of the Bhagavan Siikyamuni said to him, 5

"We are arhats and you have come here as a man with the three poisons," and they asked, "why has no harm befallen you from the Naga's poison?" The acarya replied, "As for myself, I am one who has perfected the mantra of Mahiimiiyilri!" Furthermore, in some accounts it is related that, in accord with the Laws of the Jina, he said that all phenomena are not truly existent at a time when the majority of monks on top of the earth thought the opposite. He asked, "How do you yourself think that things are? Is it your view that Dharmas are self-arising?" Then he spoke of the Buddha's prophecy in which it was said that at a later time the Sravakas who hold such views would indeed become isolated and would be purified by the Madhyamikas. Then he stayed there for a long time and preached the Dharma to the Nagas. He brought the Great Prajiiaparamita, DharaQis21 and Tarkas22 of several kinds away. Some say that a few of the additional verses of the Satasahasrika Prajiiaparamita were not offered to him by the Nagas in the first place and in the second place they were not offered because it was not yet an impure time when an enemy of the Dharma had arisen on three occasions. The latter reason is the more viable one. This is clearly set out in the three chapters of the Chinese padas, found in the text of 20,000 verses and extracted from the Satasahasarika-Prajnaparamita. Thereafter he arrived back on the earth's surface. He prepared many sastras belonging to the "collected" classes of texts and he disputed and confounded all enemies of the Ma!layana-for example the bhik~u Sa.I!lkara23 , etc. Moreover, when many texts composed by the Sendhapa Sravakas24 came to light, and which disagreed with the Mahayana, he collected all those texts together and hid them underground. In a later period, in the south at Jatasamghara, which means "Cutting of the long hair", he subdued theTirthikas. 2 s Having gathered together five hundred Tirthika disputants and engaged them in debate, he finally made them seek their refuge in the Dharma. At that time he founded temples and stupas.Z6 It is said that the stu pas erected by this acarya filled all the directions. He made the Mahayana doctrine shine like the &un. When he wished to change the Rock of the Bell and many of the mountains at Dhinkota27 into gold, Arya Tara said that in the future it would become a source of disputation and so he changed his mind. However it is said that many gold veins did arise there and it is said that the very stones changed to a golden hue. After that, while he was on a road once, he saw 6

many children and he prophesied to one in particular that he would become King. He (Nagarjuna) went to the land of Uttarakuru,28 to other lands and the abode of the Asuras92 for 12 years. When he again returned to Jambudvipa, 30 that boy previously referred to had become a King known as Udayana. 31 The King offered his obeisances to the acarya and moreover the King, supported by the acarya's spiritual advice won the elixir of life and a Yak~a servant. He also erected 500 monasteries as residences for the order of monks. Later he spent about 200 years at Mr. Sriparvata32 in company with a circle of yak~inis, practising the Mantra path. There he received the 32 auspicious signs. 33 It is said that later, because he sent his head as an offering when he was six months short of his 671st year he never attained that age. The youngest son of the King Udayana, known as Su.Sakti, "the Fully Able One", was also known as Saktiman and he wanted the Kingdom. His mother said to him, ''Now your father and the acarya have been blessed so that their life spans are the same, and the acirya has the Vajra body and cannot die. Princes previous to you have not got hold of the reins of power and have died-those between son and grandson will also die." He became very downcast and she said further, "However, there is a way. As the acarya is a Bodhisattva, if you beg him for his head he will arrange it. At the instant the acarya dies so too will your father die and the power of the state will become yours." The prince went to Mt. Sriparvata and begged for the acarya's head, but it could not be cut off by a weapon. As the acarya saw the Karma from a previous time in which he had cut the throat of a creature with a shoot of green grass, he submitted to being beheaded by Ku.Sa grass. A voice arose saying, "I will depart for SukhavatP 5 from this place. Later I will re-enter this body." The earth thereabouts quaked and it is said that a famine arose and lasted for twelve years. The prince, knowing that the acarya had perfected the "Elixir of Life" practice, feared a reunion of head and body, and carried the head to a place many leagues distant from the place of the beheading. From there it was carried off by a yak~i. The head was put on a huge boulder which split and at that place the five stone images of the five gods of the Arya Avalokitesvara tantra came forth by themselves. The Yak~is who owned the head erected a temple for both bead and body. Previously between head and body there had been a distance of about four leagues and now it is said to be a little under one eighth of a league. Concerning that, my Guru, who


has seen it, says that the walls of that magical temple are joined together so that they resemble a great boulder, both parts very huge and without an entrance. It is said that when looking through a chink in the wall one can hope to see the two parts of the acarya resembling fragments of a stone image seated upon the throne. 36 That acarya's student was Mahasiddba Savari. While Nii.gii.rjuna was staying in the East in Bengal, three children of a dancing teacher offered him musical diversion. He summoned them inside and perceiving that they were fortunate beings, he showed them an image of the Bodhisattva Ratnamati. 37 One of them said, "I too want to see it," and being shown a mirror he saw himself held fast in the fires of hell. Highly alarmed he begged for a means of freeing himself from his fate. By being consecrated into S~vara through meditation, his real nature became quite clear. He also saw the visage of the Bodhisattva Ratnamati who said, "Having perfected the practice of Yugannadah, 38 go to the Southern mountains and act like a hunter for the welfare of sentient creatures." Later his two wives called Logi and Guni turned into the 9ii.kiQis39 Padmavati and Jnii.navati, his mahii.mudrii. attendants who were singers of Doha songs. This is borne out by the Tibetan tradition. He lived together with his two wives at the Southern mountain of Sriparvata, and they acted as if they were hunters and trappers. He attained the state of Vajradhara40 and became renowned as Mahasiddha Savari(pa). Now, as he had combined th\ hunting of wild beasts with his consecrated practices he was able to get high realisations by these unsuitable means. This acarya is known as Saraha the younger. His student was Luyipa. His student, in turn, was Dengipa whose was Tillipa, whose was Nii.ropa, whose was the younger I)ox:p.bhi, whose was Kusalibhadra. This is one version of the lineage. Another, stemming from Tilopa, the Siddhas Luyipa, Darikapa and Antarapa also form a lineage. As for Luyipa, he stayed in the Western regions as scribe to the King of 099iyana41 who went under the name ot Kun.du.dge.ba. Once he met Saraha the younger, or Savaripli and the latter sang Doha songs and gave him Abhi!?ekha42 and upadesas.43 He pondered on that, and even though he was still the King's scribe he once went to a charnel ground. On aniving there he placed himself among the rows of assembled Qiikil}.is. He distributed the sundered flesh of one who bad been reborn seven times,44 and he was initiated into the creative maQQala of Vajravarahi who advised him, 8

"Although you may have rejected the pose of outstretched legs and the emissaries of sa.IPsiira, you must repeatedly exhort Vajrasattva the mighty King." He knew that unwavering meditation was necessary and that if he had committed Karmic actions previously, he would have to bear the disruptions arising from them. Furthermore he knew that strenuous practice was necessary if he were to gain its fruits. Although he begged for alms, still the passions of love and bate arose and be thought, "How will I be able to gain my livelihood?" So he went East to the land of Bengal. Near the banks of the Ganges he saw a mound of fish entrails, like a mountain, and eating the fish guts as food, he meditated there for twelve years. He gained the highest Siddhi of the Mahiimudra practice. He knew that it was time to convert the King of Odivisa, his ministers and entourage. As the King was going to meet another King from the Southern regions, he (the King of Odivisa) prepared a throne in a grove and filled the laneways with various objects of worship. When the Brahm.ins who recited the auspicious texts came before the King, on the throne there appeared lying down, a bluish man with shaggy locks, looking as if he had been carried there by the wind. The Brahmins said to him "You there; get up! !" but there came no reply. Despite the 30 Bralupins who pulled at him he would not budge at all and he merely laughed at the powerless Bralupins. The acarya said, "This place is just as big as the Triple World! If, in these worlds, one is a master in one and a servant in the other, still people with good mind can rejoice at the holy deeds of others. E.MA.HO !-Sa.IPsara is full of wonderswhat need is there for many words?" 45 When he had said that to the King the latter cried, "Beat him up ! !" and the acarya laughed aloud at the oncoming soldiers with the sound, "Ha, Ha, Hi, Hi!" and petrified them all. One of the soldiers realised that he was a Siddha and so he paid homage to the acarya and was released from his state of rigidity. He explained the powers to all the other soldiers and they also were freed. The King approached in amazement and asked, "Who are you?" and the other replied, "Who are you, too?" "I am the King." "I too am a King." "You haven't got the Royal paraphernalia " The acarya replied, 9

"This earth is like a large bed and it is good to cover it with generosity. Thereby many people will trust you. The lamp of the moon sheds its cool light, The wind is most agreeable. The broad sky is my canopy, I embrace my consort who is attached to nothing. 46 Oh! If that's being like a king Then I am the fearless and relaxed King of Yogins!" The acarya empowered both the King and his Minister into the practice of Sax:p.vara, gave them instruction and also gave them the Abhisamaya47 teachings. He said to the King, "In the south at Kumaraksetra is a prostitute- perform servant's duties for her!" To the Minister, a Brahrpin, he said, "In the east, in the town of Pakrananagara is a barmaid who has a son-perform servant's duties for her! Both of you, if you act accordingly, will attain the highest Siddhi within twelve years." Both of them moreover, abandoned Sax:p.sara and acted accordingly. The King became servant to the prostitute and while washing the feet of the men who came there, he meditated all the time. Once, at midnight, a man returned there and saw a blazing light in the servant's grass hut. On looking at it more closely he saw that it was light from the servant's own body and he knew that he had attained Siddhi. Both he and the prostitute prayed for perseverance. The acarya lectured widely in that land on the Vajrayana. Once while thus sounding the bell of the Teachings he made a Vajra Feast. While he was together with an entourage of 16,000 women, soaring in the sky, they all attained the highest Siddhi. The man who was mentioned previously addressed a prayer to the acarya and a prophecy was made to him. In the eastern section of the city there was a stone stele and above it was an elephant facing towards the east. It was prophesied that if every year a measure of mustard seed were to be rubbed into it, then if it turned to the west, Siddhi would be gained. He was known as Siddha Darikapa or Daripa which means "prostitute's servant". The Minister too was servant to the barmaid and by husking rice he saw the nature of his own mind directly. 49 Once while he was in meditation and was fully absorbed in it, the pigeons ate the rice and the barmaid yelled at him. At a different time he sang Vajra songs, and everybody realised Siddhi. He preached the Vajrayana widely and an 10

immeasurable number of people were liberated. Because he harnessed his mind to the rice pounder known as the Dengki, he became renowned as Dengkipa. Later, Savaripa's pupil was the great Lord Maitripa or Maitrigupta. He was a Bra~in Tirthika pal}.~ita, and later, having met Naropa, he became a Buddhist. He begged for empowerments and upadesas from Naropa. He took his ordination at Nalanda and having gone to Ratnakarasanti and other extremely learned Gurus, he became a great PaQ~ita. He finally abided at the monastery of Vikramalasila, known in Tibetan as rNam.gnon.tshul. 49 While he performed the deeds of a pal}.~it and while his Siddha practices flourished, he saw the visage of Vajrayogini. When he realised that he should get acquainted with meditational practice, and while he was studying all the inner, secret studies, a novice monk saw him and a woman drinking beer together and disputes arose within the monastic community over it. The acarya spewed up milk, and as the novice drew near, he vomited up beer with no explanation for his actions. Furthermore, once when the proctors and the rest had heard of this and came for him, the beer turned into milk and the woman became invisible or, as it is said, changed into a ritual bell. Later on while the monks were lying in ambush for him the Siddha was unable to disguise himself with mantras, and so they expelled him. He spread out a hide by the River Ganges and sat down. At that time the proctor was said to have been Atis a. 50 In order to purify those unwholesome deeds the Eminence himself, Atisa, had to further hear the Dharma and it is said that he had to come to Tibet51 and that he also made indestructible votive figures 52 there as purification. Although Maitrigupta found within himself limitless powers, he did not correctly perceive things as they really are and when a prophecy from his tutelary divinity arose, he went and stayed as Sriparvata to find Savaripa. On the road to the Southern regions he met Prince Sakara. They went to Sriparvata together and some local people said, "Formerly Savaripa was a Siddha here. Now where can one find him?" and they prayed to the acarya with a single purpose. In six months they met him. The long hair ofSavari's head was alive and dripping with louse eggs and both his consorts were supplicating him, and so Maitripa lost faith a little. The Prince prostrated at his feet. Savaripa said the mantra "Aya Jara Vala Hu" and dismissed them, turned into a rainbow body, 53 and in both great faith was born. Again, later on both of 11

them saw the consorts killing swine, deer and peacocks, and seeing this they became a little lacking in faith. Instantly all they had seen became invisible. However with the empowerments, upadesas and subsequent upadesas, wisdom was created enabling him to see the situation as it actually was. He became Lord over countless Viras 54 and J:;>akas. 55 He thought, "Now I have gained the eight Siddhis, 56 the sword siddhi and all the rest." When all the signs of perfection had arisen, he thought he should make his life last an aeon and that he would become a Vidyadhara. He obtained all the ritual necessities. Savari pointed his finger at them, reducing them to ashes. Maitripa asked, "What would you do with such an illusion? Explain the profound meaning of this situation!" and, accordingly, having uttered those words he went back to Madhyadesa. After that, the Tibetans, when recounting the story of the debate with Santipa, give the meaning quite incorrectly and in Aryadesa there are not even any oral accounts of it. The following is said about Tibet-"Bhota Svana Baktya Samaya Coteka Siddhi Sadhaka Kya," which means, "What the Tibetans say is like the sounds of dogs barking, or like the sound of a Siddha or Sadhaka who has abandoned his vows". One should know how the common lies of the silly Tibetans have been thus compiled. It is said that this liclirya, who lived in Madhyadesa, was in Samadhi, but there were some who did not believe in him. He explained to them extensively about the main sources on the essence of the practices. People would say, "These are not the thoughts of the tantras," and he would substantiate his upadesas with quotations, mainly from the Hevajra and Guhyasamaja tantras. He was asked from whom did he obtain these teachings, and the Tibetans claim he said, "I, the powerful one, invented this teaching. I teach out of my experiences in a hermitage." He manifested many revitalizations of the dead in the Sitavana Cemetery 57 and whatever he desired was all brought for him by Mahaklila58 in the sky from many hundreds of leagues around whether the things were moveable or fixed. The daughter of the King of Malabar59 was brought to him from out of the heavens and later on she became renowned as the 9akh;ti Gighlidhara. Usually she stayed in the East at Gusula forest as its master. The 9iikiQi transformed herself into a wolf, received gTor.ma offorings, 60 perfected the art of "gazes" 61 and magically transformed her body into various amazing and innumerable forms. Because of the two previous times when he had lost his faith in 12

Savaripa, he found no bodily changes. At 70 years of age he died and in the Bar.do62 period he attained the highest Mahamudra state. At the time when the Master Naropa died, he commenced his own acarya's work for the welfare of beings. Maitrigupta's good reputation and his convocation of students was not by any means inconsiderable and was on a par with Naropa's. He was renowned as equal to the highest of men and of the greatest use to the others. At that time in Aryadesa63 there were many followers and thereafter they diminished. The teachings spread greatly in the Northern areas of Nepal and Tibet. As regards Maitripa's students, the early Tibetan sect, the rNying.ma.pa, says that there were four major, seven middling and ten minor ones. The exact number of middling and minor ones is not really ascertainable for they are not really renowned among the Indians. In general these were many of the Yogin's students who attained expertise and powers. The four major students were all famous-they were Sahajavajra, Sunyatasamadhi, RamapiUa and Vajrapal)i. 64 The first of those was known as Nategana. He composed the Tattvadasaka\ikii. and the Sthiti-samucchaya. 65 The second one was called Devii.karacandra. He composed the main treatise for clarifying insightful wisdom. The fourth was known as "Indian Pii.l)i" and he composed and collected Vajra texts. Those three did not attain the state of Vidyii.dhara. Ramaplila was also known as Nandapala and belonged to that lineage. That powerful being was one who composed commentaries on the Teachings. He was also renowned as being equal in his wisdom to the consort yogini known as Rin.chen.lha.mo. which means "precious goddess." He was famed as one who had half the rank of Gangadhari. He was born in the South at Karnataka66 into the KSatriya caste. From his youngest days he knew many fields of learning and studied for twelve years with the Master Maitripa. When the Master Maitripa had died, Ramapala spent three years in profound mourning for his Guru at the stfipa known as dPal.yon. can and he did not utter a word during that time. He abided there in one-pointed practice of the sadhanas. Then, all the central meanings were made evident to him so he went and lived in the South practising for the welfare of creatures. When Mahakii.la gave him the sword siddhi, without leaving his bodily form he went via a miraculous gateway to the subterranean regions, and it is said that he has even been seen residing in the abode of thr. A.suras. 67 The 13

acarya Kusalabhadra the younger and Asitaghana heard from him the Mahamudrii upadesas. Also the extraordinary disciple PrajiHimitra also heard the exposition from him. Those who adhered to Mahacarya Santi(pa's) lineage praised Maitri greatly and Am.anasila separated and distinguished the highest practices from the lower ones. The first chapter dealing with the Mahlimudrli Lineages, an account resembling a vein of precious stones is finished.


Instruction Two As to the second Instruction it is about the Goddess Cao.cjikii. 68 Now as to the teachings of the Goddess Cao.cjikii, there was not a time when they did not exist. It is not certain thatVitupa had not heard them from other gurus. Nevertheless the iiciirya Virupa quite evidently went to Vajrayogini for this doctrine. The aciirya had been a monk and pao.cjita at Nalanda and there he drank beer and lived with women so the Sangha expelled him from that place. Then, on the banks of the Ganges he told the ferryman that he needed a ferryboat. The ferryman told him that he had to pay for such a trip, but Virupa could not find any money and, pointing his forefinger at the River Ganges it reversed its flow uphill and thus he went across it. Then in Odisa he went to a batmaid to buy some beer. She told him that he had to pay. He drew a mark on the ground which showed the edge of the sun's shadow and said that as long as the shadow did not move away from that point he would not pa} the price of the beer. Having pointed at the sun with his forefinger, he held it in position and drank more beer. Then as he did not want to release it, the daytime and the nighttime both went haywire. The barmaid knew that the yogin was showing off his powers, and the King paid the price of the beer and begged the yogin to release the sun. The yogin departed three days later at daybreak, so it is said. Then he became the King of Trilinga's69 household priest and the acarya ate the tops of the piled up offerings made by the Tirthikas and in his turn he did not pay his homages. The King and his entourage started to argue with him and so the iicarya prostrated himself but the Titthika gods burst into fragments. The principal god Visvanatha had an effigy (Linga) which had been erected by the worker's guild in the form of a phallus with four faces, and it is said that it too broke into four pieces. Then he arrived at :Oakinipata,70 the place where the Tirthikas assembled. Whichever commoner came there the trident struck them and the flesh-eating demonesses would offer that person's dead flesh as a feast. The acarya clapped his palms together and the Trisul shattered. When the self-manifested stone image of Cao.c;likli began to quake, he struck its head which slumped down onto the statue's


breast. It is said that right up to the present time the head is there and that the ears still stand erect. He instructed her that thereafter she should never harm living creatures. The Tibetans say that this place, known as :Oakinipata, was in the south, but it is most assuredly in the East. 71 Furthermore, it has even been said that the subduer of this goddess was Gorak~a. Then, he went to Saurasta and at Somanatha72 he found that there was a self-made stone image of Mahesvara, which could perform all manner of miracles. He pointed his forefinger at it to shatter it but it didn't, and he examined why this was so. It is said that there was an image of Avalokitesvara above it. Some say it was an image of Marici. The acarya remove~ it and showed the real form and made it act in accordance with his previous order. He said, "In your temple you should make offering to about 100 monks! Do not receive offering of slain creatures! By means of offerings which are the first fruits you should sacrifice to my image." Furthermore, he said, "As the Doctrine of the Buddha will soon be destroyed, 73 those sacrifices should always come to me. However, for the period in which the Doctrine is still here, you should continue to make offerings to the order of monks." It is said that the acarya received into his hands the gold elixir from the statue and vanished. For some time he was invisible. Thereafter, every day he drew off from the hands of the stone image a tincture of gold essence and by his simply touching bits of iron and copper they turned into gold. Supported by this means the order of monks was thus given sustenance. Once, some time later, a King of Jonaghata begged for 20,000 gold srang thinking, "I will beg for more," but the stone image clenched its fist. A poor Bralu:p.in persistently/4 begged for gold and was given the tincture, being told to return it in seven days. ·•In three days how can I make all the household goods which come my way into gold?" he thought. Two of the King's men who came there began to remove the things. The Brih~pin offered the goods into the hands of the stone image and it clenched them tight. One of the King's men waved a cudgel at the hands and found that his own hand was cut off and he died. The other one said, "Lift that hand!!" and was struck dumb. The King, who was renowned as being very sadistic, became mentally unbalanced and died. Even now there is no order of monks in that place. It is said that in the middle of an almost inaccessible forest there is a stone image, dark purple in colour with a lustrous face on open display. In the meantime, in the 16

King Ramapala's75 time, lived a yogin who was given the name Siropa. In Madhyade5a he practiced whatever befitted the welfare of beings. Having poured out the statue's footbath water as a drink for King Ramapala's elephant, Bhanvadala, it engaged in battle and defeated about 100 Mleccha K.ings. 76 At a later time, in the eastern land of Gora, a yogin was found at the head of a Tajik77 King's bed when he awoke. He was hurled into a river but time aftel' time he came back. He was incinerated but he did not burn. He was assailed by various weapons but was not overcome-indeed the weapons were shattered. He drank six measures of poison given him, and he was guarded by many men for one full day. Having seen that the acarya's strength and complexion became more splendid, they knew he had perfected the Siddhis and they begged to know who he was. "I am Virupa," he answered. Also at that place he gave instruction to several fortunate people. They gave respectful oaths to him and many of them attained the ordinary levels of Siddhi. He stayed in Bengal for four months living openly and meeting all, as was befitting. Later on he disappeared. He got to China in person at about this time.78 Viriipa is renowned to have appeared in the world of men on three occasions and all three of them were in previous times. This aciirya is also known as Sridharmapala, but the Sthavira Dharmapala79 who was abbot of Nalanda is not the same person. Viriipa's student was Kala Virupa who was born in 099iyana. Brought up in the Bra~in caste, it was prophesied by the Brahrpin seers that he would commit the four cardinal sins. Thus he was called "Black". Seven years passed in that place and he was then sent to travel in othet lands so that he might not become one who performs the four cardinal sins. After a long time had elapsed, his mother the Brahrpini Lak~mi, her husband and parents-in-law having died, wandered into other countries after she subsequently had lost her caste. In the East, in the land of Odivisa, she became a be.er seller. Later on, after a while her son also came to Odivisa and went to his mother's house. The mother and son did not know each other and they sinned by co-habiting. On one occasion he wanted water froin a herder. In his thirst he gulped it down but became quite intoxicated. In his wrath he flung the pot at the herder but it missed and hit a cow, which died. In a hiding place he pondered, and at night he flung the corpse of the cow to the jackals to eat. On a


road he hit a wandering Brahmin on the head and the Brahmin died. Then, assailed by doubts, he· questioned himself and realised that the beer seller was his mother. Furthermore, as to the four cardinal sins out of the sixteen which hurt a Bra~in able to expound the Vedas, and which had been previously prophecied-i.e. Bra~in murder, cow murder, co-habitation with one's mother and consumption of alcohol-he knew the meaning of how they had all arisen and had been performed by him in one night. He went to all pilgrimage spots both near and far and made enquiries about their purification but nobody believed him. He met the acarya Jalandharapa. Being given the instmctions of Vajravarahi, by means of it is said that he purified all his sins. Then in the land of Kongkuna, 811 having immersed himself in water up to his neck he practiced self perfection for six months, but no clear signs arose. His rosary snapped off and tumbled into the water. He went to ask questions of the acarya who said, "Practice yet a little more! Siddhi will come quite swiftly." So accordingly he practiced as he had done before. After seven days, one dawn, Vajrayogini arose in the outward form of a girl and said, "Asta Saikate, Naba Saijalana, Kamayiputra, Tumhi Kpngkuna Marana", which means, "Son, where have you come from, spared from the 800 oceans and the 900 rivers? Do you want to die here in Kongkuna ?" The first two ~ords of this are similar. He replied, "Ayi Mata Vajrayogini, Teri Sarana," which means, "I came for my refuge to you, 0 mother Vajrayogini!" Then she placed her hands on the crown of his head and he attained the highest samadhi. Vajrayogini said, "You have a karmic link with Virupa over many lives. Go to Mahrata where he lives!" In that place was Virupa, who had donned the Vajrakapala81 and had attained the highest Mahamudrii Siddhi. He went to various cemeteries and in them he performed acts of asceticism. Even though he had the Vajrakapala he also had a small blue hat. It is renowned that even today he has not abandoned his bodily form and that he abides in Urgyen. 82 It is also said that both senior and junior Virupa were supported and found Siddhi by means of the practice paths of Yamiintaka and Variihi.. Vyadali met the younger Virilpa and begged him for ~truction. Vyadali had previously come from the caste of bird hunters and once he had seen a parrot take fruit into its beak and fly off into the skies. When the parrot was asked, "What are you doing?" it replied, "In this direction lives the Siddha Virapa. I am going to make 18

offering to him." Vyadali pondered, "If even a creature such as this has a virtuous mind what must we who have become humans do to perform virtuous deeds?" He took some fruit to bestow and said, "Offer these to the Siddha." The parrot offered the hunter's fruit and yet Viriipa did not receive them. He said, "0 Parrot, hereafter do not come to me as carrier of such sinful things as that!" Then the parrot carried the fruit back to Vyadali who asked, "Why did you not offer them?" The parrot accordingly repeated that which the Siddha had said. Then having become greatly repentant he confessed his sins, and in that very forest he went ever around and around searching for Virupa. Later on he met the Siddha and was given empowerments and instructions. Vyadali performed one pointed meditation and his deeds of bird hunting agitated his mind. He supplicated the Guru who said, "Although those obstructive, discursive thoughts are really hard to block out, and although you can't produce meditation, you should make bird shapes out of clay, and while cutting their throats, then meditate on samadhi." Doing exactly that, he meditated and finally, after twelve years he attained the most perfect Mahamudra Siddhi. Then, in towns, he manifested the miracle of killing various types of birds and eating their flesh, and the people grabbed hold of the yogin. When they said with scorn, "In such and such a way have you injured living creatures," all the birds which he had previously killed were again revived. Having performed the functions of a bird hunter in such magic ways for twelve years, while at the same time practising mental asceticism, he got the name Siddha Vyadali, for Vyadali itself means "bird hunter." He gave instruction to Kusalibhadra-this was one lineage of the goddess CaQ~ika. Also Virupa instructed J?ombiheruka and although it is well known in Tibet that the latter acarya was a leather worker, it is also said by my Guru that he was King of the Eastern land of Tipura. 83 The acarya VirUpa arrived there and the King with excessive faith begged to become a follower, and so the acarya gave him empowerment and instruction. When the King perfotmed meditation on those things, knowledge of the two degrees was born and multiplied within him. When he then realised that the time for practice had arrived he secretly performed some of the deeds. As had been predicted, a mudra arose and she transformed herself into a woman of the lowest caste. She was known as "Lotus possessor" and so she manifested herself to the world.


The King's caste had been defiled, and so the ministers, subjects, etc., expelled the acarya from the country. Thereafter while practicing asceticism and while wandering in the forests and countryside, he became known as "King" Dombhipa. Moreover, Dombhi means an outcaste, living outside th~ city limits, killing fish, ·birds and deer and eating them. He did not sell their flesh but sang, danced and sold grass and fruit. It is not certain that he did any one specific bad deed but he was certainly one who did perform deeds befitting an outcaste. Although the acarya was not really a I;>ombhi his female consort was a J)ombini and he became thus tagged with the name :Oombhi. J)ombhi was known as one who possessed a woman of the lowest caste. This acarya was particularly powerful and intelli7 gent. Previously Viriipa had given abhi~ekha to him and six years had elapsed since that time, so it is said. Thereafter he practised in various lands. After a long while had passed an epidemic and a famine arose in that former land and various people were suffering. The astrologers calculated and realised that it was because the virtuous "King" J?ombhi had been exiled to other lands and once again they invited him to return. The acarya arrived together with his consort, riding on a tigress and a milking yak respectively and holding venomous snakes in their hands. All present knew that the King was a Siddha and paid homage at his feet. All the evils in the land were calmed and all the fortunate people in the land begged to become his followers. He instructed them with several upadesas and they all attained Siddhi, many of them becoming most perfect practitioners. Then, in the land known as Racjha, known in ordinaty language, as Rara,84 the King there was harming the Buddha's doctrine. However that King was mortally afraid of tigers and poisonous snakes. In order to subdue him, the acarya came and stayed in a grove near the palace, and when the King said, "You evil yogindo not stay here!" then the acarya manifested his previous miracle. He wore snakes whose touch was poisonous, as ornaments; he wore snakes whose look was poisonous, as a whip, and the seven snakes whose breath is venomous, he wore on his head as a hood. He then went before the King who, together with all the townspeople, was terrified out of his wits and he scattered gold and silver flowers 85 before him and begged the acarya to go elsewhere. The acarya changed into the form of the two-armed Heruka and together with a tigress it appeared to most people that he departed into the heavens without even touching the ground. He warned them, "If you do not 20

enter into the Buddha's Doctrine, I will send these poisonous snakes down upon you!" All the people joined the Buddha's religion. It is said that the Tirthika continuance in Rara was thus ended for a while. Then he went to the South at the land of Karnataka where, in a grove together with many of his attendants he abided in meditation. 86 At one time in particular, in a cemetery in A\\ahasa, the King Samucchaya became patron to the assemblage of 500 yogis and yoginis for a six month long gaQa assembly. The Brahrpin monk Susiddhakara lost faith in the activities of the assemblage and, without seeking permission from the acarya, he left. Because he disobeyed the aciirya's orders, he died. It is said that of all the rest of the 500 there was not one who did not attain one or two Siddhis. Close by, a Tirthika King erected 108 stupas to the Tirthika doctrine. Ten thousand long-haired worshippers gathered for the consecration of the stupas. Several heaps of hearts from slain creatures, piled three times the height of a standing man were there as sacrifices. A maidservant of the acarya went to that place and was attacked by the Tirthikas. When the aciirya had pondered on this, that very night all the stu pas were turned upside down and all the sacrificial offerings etc. were strewn in the ten directions. Next morning the Tirthikas and the King were deeply afraid and they begged forgiveness before the acarya. They begged that the stupas might be restored to their former condition and at that the aciirya·said, "Hereafter all of you must not kill even so much as one creature for sacrifices to the gods. If you do engage in killing, all the stupas will be shattered." To demonstrate the power of the Buddha, all those stupas, save for one, resumed their usual position. When they all went back again to see they found that it had all happened accordingly. At a later time a King of that land offered life sacrifices and 107 stupas shattered into two or three fragments. Having been bound in iron, they exist to this very day. Although called "Tirthika stilpas", they are of the type known as "Linga".87 Having worked for a long time in that place for the welfare of beings, he departed into the heavens in his bodily form. His disciples, the most prominent of those who gained Siddhi, were these four: (1) the yogini of the l;>ombhi caste (2) the acarya Alalavajra (3) Hemalavajra (known as gSer.'chang.rdo.rje in Tibetan) and (4) Ratavajrafrom Madhyadesa. There were m01eover, Nags.khrod.pa86 ("He of the Dense Forests"), iicarya Garvaripa, Jayasri, Durjayacandra, Riihulavajra88 and the rest, who, by merely touching the


acarya's feet, attained the finer levels of siddhi. Mahasiddha :qombhipa taught the low-caste yogini who, in turn, taught Ratavajra who in his tum taught Kr~Qacari 89-this became one lineage. Moreover, the yogini of the J:?ombhi caste instructed Caryapa and this made a single lineage. The middle one, Kr~Qacari was the foremost as regards the Instructions of the goddess CaQc;likii. It is said that the low-caste yogini bestowed her four "gazes" on beings for their welfare. She practised the mantras of the four Tantric activities90 and many other practices, and they become supremely powerful in their actions, even down to these days. Receiving many Vajra songs and working for the welfare of sentient creatures, she departed .into the heavens. She was the mudra whom Heruka had predicted to I?ombhipa. Durjayacandra begged her for a vision of Heruka. He was a particularly wise paQc;lit and had heard expositions and studied under many of Dombhi's lineage of students. Later he asked one of the lineage of the Dombhi yogini for upadesas. In Urgyen he met both Dombhipa and his consort while he was practising one-pointed ~editation. He gave the upadesas. There, he erected a small hut in a charnel ground, making it of dried up skulls. A yogini acted as his servant in the practices and a disciple of his fetched and carried food while practicing. Finally, extraordinary realisation was born within him and he saw Heruka's vi:>age and attained the ordinary level of Siddhi. Then on one occasion he made a great Ga9acakra or Vajra Feast and all the c;liikinis and pisakas91 were summoned to gather. In Lahore9 ~ there was a certain woman who, having pulled up all the fruit bearing trees in her house garden by the roots carried them to the Vajra Feast. Her husband realised that she would be unable to stay there for even one night and stayed hidden in a grove under the branches of the mango trees. She ripped out the roots of that tree as well, and carried it to the GaQacakra. Now, the participants at the feast had eaten the Mahamasi:Pa93 etc. and he knew that the yogins were going to perform the secret sexual practices. The husband was not at all happy with the GaQa. The aciirya said to him, "To this, our GaQa, has com' a secretive, malicious being from whom we must be saved." At daybreak she replanted the former trees which had been uprooted. Next day the wife said to her husband, "There is one command of Durjayacandra which you must perfect," and having done so, he died. The acarya had mighty abilities. His consort, Subhoga, asked him for instruction, Danasri


asked her and Vajrasanapa the middle one sought instruction from him. Moreover Kusali also sought instruction from him. These were the great ones of that Oral tradition. Moreover Caryapa94 preached to the yogini of Singhala95 and Durjayacandra sought instruction from her. Also Rahulavajra begged instruction from him. As for Riihulavajra, he was a K~atriya who, from childhood, saw the visage of his tutelary divinity. He was a monk and a pandita of Vikramasila. While he was meditating on the secret mantras a certain Guru commanded him saying, "Renounce everything!" but, because of the power of his pride he did not even renounce one thing, thus bteaking the Guru's command. Later, as he was purifying his sins, even though he practised one-pointedly he was unable to perfect anything at all. Guru Gunaukara said, "Cut off your tongue and :your limbs!" and so, cutting off his tongue and his four limbs Avalokitesvara, Vajrayoginl, Mahiikiila and Tara showed forth their very faces to him and blessed him. Then Guru Jiiiinasagar said, "Immerse yourself in this river for seven days!" While he was doing that, many leeches started to suck his blood and he drew near to death. It is said that by these two penances the sins of disobeying the Guru's orders were purified. Then while meditating in the Southern regions he attained the highest Mahamudra Siddhis. It is said that he stayed in the secret cavern on the black mountain known as "Tree Mountain". This "Tree Mountain" is not on the border of the M6n96 country but is in the Southern regions. It is certain that Dana5ri asked him for instruction as mentioned above. It is said that this is only the caQc;likii of Hevajra. Although it is said that Ratavajra was a pandit of Nalanda, this is not mentioned in any extensive biography. Also certain caryapas intend that Virupa the younger, Kr~Qacari, J?ombhiheruka, burjayacandra and Kusalibhadra certainly go to make up the lineage. It is said that the list is not all that accurate. The second instruction, which is an account which deals with the lineage of the Goddess CaQc;lika, and which is like a vein of precious stones is now finished.


Instruction Three Thirdly is the Instruction dealing with Karma Mudra. There was the great King Indrabhuti97 who had seen the very face of the Enlightened One. He was by nature Vajrapiini, the Lord of Secrets. 98 One is unable to think about the antiquity or origins of such things. He was master of all the secret mantras of this particular doctrine. Furthermore as King of Urgyen, he rejoiced in his wealthy Kingdom. Once King Indrabhi:iti saw arhats who formed a retinue of the Buddha, flying to and fro to other lands and as it was seen over a long distance, confused, he asked the ministers, "What exactly is that flock of red birds?" The ministers replied, "Your majesty, these are not birds; they are Arhats of the Great Sage, the Fully Enlightened Victorious one." The King desired to see the Buddha but when the ministers told him that he would not come such a distance, the King prayed and at midday inside his palace he set out vast offerings for the 500 Arhat attendants of the Buddha and be begged them for various methods of attaining Enlightenment. The King was told, "Abandon the attributes of desire and uphold the Three Higher Trainings99 and the Six Perfections!" 100 The King said, "Give me some method to gain Enlightenment while I enjoy the five sensual pleasures together with my gathering of women. "It is easier for a sensualist In the forests of Jambudvipa To be reborn a fox; But, 0 Gaulama, I never wanted liberation By abandoning desire." Then the hosts of Sriivakas became invisible and soared off and a voice came from the skies saying, "In this being the eight Pudgalas 101 are no longer in existence and there remains not even a potential of his being a Sriivaka or Pratyekabuddha. The most magically potent Bodhisattvas have manifested themselves in this bodily form." Those voices which had arisen in the heavens became an immeasurable mal}cjala and the King was given empower24

ment, the bodily perfection of Yugannadah and also the Tathagata .himself gave him all the Tantras. Furthermore he instructed all the people of Urgyen quite widely and gathered the Tantras together into book form. Finally, becoming invisible, together with his convocation of consorts, it is said that he became transformed into a Sambhogakaya. 102 Practicing in one Buddha Realm and another, he acted in accordance with the injunctions contained in the Secret Tantra collection. At that time the King, together with his attendants, without any exceptions whatever, including all the people of Urgyen, bhutas, minor creatures, animals, insects-all the above, by means of the path of Great Bliss attained Siddhi, and attained their rainbow bodies. In fact a 9akini, who was around at the time and who saw the King in person, later on became a dancing girl known as Srisukha. Furthermore it is said that she was the Sahajasiddhi 101 (or in Tibetan: Lhan.cig.skyes.grub) dancing girl. 104 However, as for her lineage, it is said that it was quite separate from her blessing lineage, as also were her various different upadesa lineages. The yogini's story goes as follows-and it accords with the commentary on the Sahajasiddhi itself. She was the daughter of a King of a certain part of Urgyen and when she was born, even at that time she was full grown. One day she was wandering in various forest groves together withher500attendantmaidens, when,in that very part ofUdayiina106 the Bodhisattva VajrapiiQ.i was magically residing in the form of an ascetic known as "Giver of breath of beings". When the court ladies caught sight of the ascetic with his shaggy locks they were terrified and, imagining that he was an evil demon, they all ran away. The dancing girl said, "Don't be afraid! Just seeing this person has caused an extraordinary and blissful meditation to be born in my mind, and he is certainly a Great Being." Then all the 500 attendants paid homage to his feet. The ascetic too placed a blessing on the head of the joyous dancing girl and she recalled the knowledge that in another, previous life he had empowered her. Realising quite clearly her mind was Sahaja, she preached to the members of her entourage a:nd they all became great yoginis. At that time, it was due to her, the dancing girl, that each of them attained whatever stage of the Dasabhumi 107 was fitting for them. She, the dancing girl, gave instruction to Mahapadmavajra, 108 he to Anangavajra "the pigpen", he to the middle Padmavajra known as "Lotus", 109 he to the middle Indrabhuti, 110 he to Jalandhari, he to :K:r~J}.acari, 111 he to Kalyiinanatha, he toAmitavajra and he to Kusala25

bhadra. As for Mahapadmavajra he was born in the West in the land of Marum into the Brahm.in caste. He was one who was most learned in the Tripi\aka and in all the sastras. Having gone to the land of Urgyen studying many secret outer Tantras, he became wise and learned. By meditating on them, although he gained the Ordinary Siddhi levels of the Yak~i, elixirs etc., he had not understood things as the} really are. Having gone off to another part of Urgyen, he engaged in deep thought only on this topic and he was empowered by an acarya who had clearly seen the visage of Vajrasattva. Having seen the natural disposition of things, he knew for sure that as for the wisdom of the Mahamudra empowerment, it symbolised things as they really are. However when he thought, "Would that I could see just one Pi~aka which taught this," there arrived and presented themselves before the acarya that abovementioned joyous dancing girl and many lakhs of attendant yoginis. The dancer instructed him in the upadesas of the four mudras113 and in several of the main Anuttaratantrall 4 collections, namely the Guhyasamaja and others and by realising their meanings directly, he immediately attained the highest Mahamudra Siddhi. Finally in twelve months it is said that he attained the very rank of Mahavajradh§.ra. Furthermore he set up innumerable beings from the land of Urgyen into the highest and the ordinary levels of Siddhi by means of his preaching the upade8as. He also wrote the commentary known as "The Secret Siddhi" (Guhyasiddhi). As for Anangavajra, he was a fortunate being who came from a low caste and according to the acarya Padmavajra's good teachings he meditated for twelve years on the Kotampa Mountain. Knowing that he still had to ask his acarya what to do, even though he had impressed on his mind the highest Mahamudra Siddhis he therefore asked him. Back came the reply, "By relying on a certain woman swineherd and by doing a swineherder's work you will gradually become one with Vajrasattva." Then in a town in the North of Urgyen he herded swine for the welfare of sentient creatures~ and having empowered the fortunate ones he gave teachings on the Upadesas of the four mudras, which, in fruition, led to Liberation for them. He was renowned as Sri Pigpen. His student was acarya Saroruha which in Tibetan means "Lotus". He was of the K~atriya caste and was a learned pao9ita who knew all the fields of science. He also know many of the secret Tantras. He also was the King's priest. While be was preaching Dharma to vast numbers of people 26

he saw an old lady wood-gatherer came to that spot collecting wood and she was alternately laughing and weeping. Later on, the acarya went to the home of tho old woman and she said, "The laughter was because you preached the Dharma in the style of Vajradbara himself and as for the ctying, that was because you did not express the very thoughts of Vajradhara." Then Saroruha asked the old lady, "Well then, please dispel my doubts!" and she replied, "I can't dispel them myself-ask the Sri Pigpen." Saroruha asked, "Where may he be found?" and the old lady replied, "In a miserable village in the North." Then the acarya Saroruha departed to those areas to search for him. Once the Sri Pigpen was leading a large herd of pigs out of a tumbl~down Northern town together with the low born woman who was lugging a great load of wood and the acarya met up with them. He knew her by her symbolic gestures and saw the bundle of wood as a symbol which represented the purification of one's state while not abandoning the wrath m which he himself had. The lowborn woman be recognised as a pure symbol of passion and he understood that dismissing the herd of pigs was a symbol of the fundamental purity of ignorance.l 16 He begged to be a disciple and she replied, "I am from a low caste and don't even know how to read. You are simply trying to humiliate me by asking for the Teachings," and angrily struck him. She then entered into the vile and filthy village pigsty in a fit of wrath. In the dead of night, he put his head on the doorstep of the pig pen quite single-mindedly. During the night the pigs fought and ruined the aciirya's possessions, so he beat them. The noble old woman of low caste asked him not to and sent him packing saying, "Purifying those really despicable deeds of yours will be a very difficult affair!!" He stayed there for many days and one day at dawn the acarya said, "This man before the door-why is he there?" The noble lady replied, "He is there, as he himself said, to be led to things as they really are." The acarya said, "As all paJJ9its' deeds are done out of pride, they are not really fit receptacles for knowledge of things as they really are!" Thinking that he could in fact accomplish his aims, Saroruha repeatedly prayed and was granted Abb4ekha and also all manner of instruction as well as the follow-up Commentaries on them. The acarya's daughter was manifested to him in a squalid form and the acarya gave her to Saroruha saying, "act as his Consort! Meditate!" Then the acarya performed the services of Priest to the 27

King as he had done previously and, without allowing his mind to wander he meditated one-pointedly, putting the highest Mahiimudrii Siddhis under his mental control within twelve years. At first he performed all the requisite practices in secret as before, but thereafter his deeds became open and clear to the world. All the people said, "As he is served by a low-caste woman the aciirya is impure; if the iicarya is impure then the King will become impure. As then .all the regions of the Country will become sullied, they will be imperfect. As he is the root of all this impurity, if the iicarya and his outcaste woman are consigned to the flames then things will become pure again." Time and time again they begged the King to be allowed to do this. Once while looking down from the roof of his private apartments he saw the iiciirya and the outcaste woman leave the house. The King commenced punishing them and had a huge heap of wood erected and put the acarya, together with his consort on top of it. When the wood was heaped up, it• was set on fire and the flames blazed continually for seven days. On the eighth day when it had all been reduced to a pile of ashes the people cleared them away and in the midst was a small lake in the centre of which was a vast lotus and on it were seen the acarya and his consort who had become Heruka and his consort, both of them gloriously effulgent. Everybody was amazed, and all the people of Oc;Jc;Jiyana were inaugurated into the Vajrayiina, and the King together with 500 attendants attained Siddhi so it is said. At another time the iiciirya arrived in a certain area of the land of Maru. There, a certain ,man ,noticed that at noon the sandy plain was hot and yet the wild animals were dangerously cold in the .daytime. Realising that a piece of best quality sandalwood must be there, he took it and offered the huge piece of the trunk to the iiciirya who saw that it would be good if an image of Heruka were made and so he started carving and shaping it. He realised that there had to be present with him a woman of the Lotus caste, possessed of the 32 Virtues, but there was no one around like that except that there was indeed such a person among the vast number of wives belonging to the Tirthika King of that country. He summoned her forth each night by his meditations and set to work carving the sandalwood. Once the King caught sight of her arms, which were quite cracked, and said, "As you are quite happy here, why do you have such a thin body and why are your arms so cracked?" She replied, "0 King, don't you know why? Each night a certain iirya summons me


to a mountain cave to make sandalwood paste? At dawn he again brings me back here." The King asked, "In which direction was that?" Confused, she said, "As for the direction; l don't know it.'' When the King thought about that he became quite furious and quite confused himself. He saw the queen going up into the skies with arms outstretched and palms raised. Where she went no-one knew 'and much later she arrived home. 'Late at night she took in her hand a bag of Siildhura (Red Lead) and by moving it to and fro she spread it on the path, and in the morning the King, spc>tting the Sindhura trail, came into the acarya's presence: The King· being furious came forth with hisattendantsto punish him and at that, the acarya drew forth his flaying knife and, having deseribed a circle around the neck of a clay libation pot, the King and his attendants' faces were seen to be reversed. Sorely afraid, the King paid homage at the acarya's feet who said, "Abide by the Teachings of the Enlightened One!" If you don't enter the doctrine, however, your heads will be struck off!" So the King abided in the Enlightened One's doctrine. A Heruka temple was erected and· it was famed for its blessings. If someone with degenerated vow~ saw the face of this Heruka image, he would die vomiting blood. Later on; when the· Tajik army started destroying the temple twelve Tajik cavalry died au· at the same instant. It is said tbat even today that image is.very stern. That acarya worked for the welfare of innumerable sentient beings and is is said that he reached the very attainments -of Hevajra himself: His disciple was King Indrabhuti, the middle one, the one who burned the acarya in the story related'above; but his story will.not be told in full. There will be a passing reference to him in the section on Lva.ba.pa. Moreover, ·in one of the lineal successions that same Indrabhuti, showing his face· to Padmakara, taught him. The acarya Kusala begged him for instruction and Kusalabhadra the younger begged him for them. However, the account of those lineage holders are made known below.. The third chapter, the account.of the lineage of the 100 Karma mudras, which is like a vein of gems is now finished.


Instruction Four As for the fourth Instruction it is the Upadesa of the Clear Light. The acarya Vajragha:v.ta, while in Urgyen begged the Vajra~kinis for the upade8as. Furthermore let us treat the lineage at length. It was the Mahacirya rTa.mchog who attained the highest Siddhi levels of the Mahamudra. Contemplating the meditation of the inconceivable clear light, he built a straw hut close to, in fact in front of, the city gate of a certain town in Urgyen, and there he lived. Often the King's subjects despised and reviled him. Once, the great land of Urgyen, including the mountains and valleys, was completely filled with horses and they devoured all the fields and groves. The King's subjects were to lead the horses away, but when they were almost ready to be taken they could not grab any at all. Eventually, when several more horses arrived and were seen entering the acarya's grass hut, the King's men went to inspect, but not even a single horse was found there. They knew that it had been a magical illusion and realised too that the acarya had certainly attained Siddhi. However, the acarya had, with his magical powers, gone soaring away to the abode of the asuras and the King and his subjects begged upadesas at the feet of the acarya's pupil, who was known as Vi9apa, or in Tibetan Pi. wam. 117 Now as to that particular acii.rya, firstly he was of the Royal lineage. When the acarya rTa.mchog gave him empowerment and the upade8as, he asked, "If I can give up the activities of Royalty, I cannot give up the sound of the Lute! What should I do?" The acarya gave him the upade8a known as "The Teaching which enables the mind to grasp hold of the sound of the Lute". As a result it is said that he attained inconceivable Siddhis. His student was the beer seller known as Vilasyavajra, which in Tibetan is sGeg. mo.rdo.rje. She was beer seller to the King of Ur.gyen and when she was sixteen years old :Qombhiheruka came to that place and preached the Dharma. The King was quite happy with the Tirthikas and as l_!e could not be converted, the acarya came to the place where the beer seller was and asked her about it. She replied, "If you threaten him with snakes he will convert." The acarya manifested his psychic powers in the form of venomous snakes, poisonous even to touch, 30

and they circled the King's chambers. The King, absolutely terrified and bereft of any protection, was told by the beer seller, "As these Tirthika acaryas are unable to protect you, direct a prayer to :r;>ombhipa!" As the King was earnestly praying to :r;>ombhipa, the acarya arrived there and the venomous snakes went underground. The King and his retinue were made to have faith in the Buddha. It is said that for a long time offerings were made to the acarya. Seeing that the beer seller had become a fit vessel for teachings, both :r;>ombhipa and ViQapa empowered her and bestowed on her the upadesas. When she had become an able yogini, the Noble Lady Lak~mikara 118 taught her the Mahasukha upadesas. The acarya ViQapa taught her an inconceivable number of upadesas and she became chief of the yoginis who were blessed with a clear light Vajra mind. Working for the welfare of innumerable sentient creatures she became famous as the yogini Cinto. She gave instruction to VajraghaQtapa. That particular acarya was of Royal lineage from near Odivisa. He was ordained at Nalanda and received the name of Srimatigarbha.119 Later he became extremely learned and after defeating Tirthikas in debates he became renowned as "The god who is completely victorious over his enemies". It is said that on one occasion he was installed as abbot of Nalanda. There he met the Siddha Diirikapa. He requested empowerments and direct contact with things as they are, and while meditating a prophecy arose in his mind that by going to Urgyen he would attain Siddhi. Going to Urgyen, he met the yogini Vilasyavajra there, and she had adopted the ways of a swineherd. She instructed him in the method of producing the Mahamudra in the mode of inconceivable desire. Having mastered all the Tattvas, while meditating in a forest in the East at Odivisa, the two most superior degrees of realisation (Karma Mudra) were aroused in him. The King of that country came to that particular forest while hunting wild animals. Seeing him there he felt sorry for the provisionless monk and he begged him to come to the city. Darikapa said, "You should not mock a scholar who has seen things as they are. If you try and bind such a one with a few possessions, which are less than tiny grass tips, you will be unable to. If one stands near a ceaseless flow of beer one becomes 31

tainted black at the edges. You cannot bind elephants with fine ropes made of lotus flowers! ! " Thus, as the acarya spoke, the King thought, "This monk despises me," and having plotted the monk's degradation he made it known about town that whoever could cause the forest-dwelling recluse's downfall would be given a great gift. The beer-seller accepted and she always brought food to the acarya thereafter. At another time he took the beer-seller's daughter, who was born with all the requisite signs of a Padmini, as his mudra and meditated with her. After twelve years the acarya attained the state of the highest Mahamudra Siddhi. In order to erase the faithlessness of the city folk he set up a self-wrought stone image of sPyan.ras.gzigs (Avalokitisvara) for the sphere of merit of future sentient creatures. In order that the teachings of the secret Tantras might spread widely, on one occasion he magically created a son and a daughter. When the King heard that story, he told the beer seller: "Call the acarya to the city!" Many people gathered at the eastern portal of the city and when the acarya came there from the forest, many beer pots were strung together and put on the road. When his consort summoned him forth by means of a horn sound, the magic boy ran by his right side and the girl by his left. Then when they arrived at the east gatt. of the city the people of that land sang songs derogatory to the King, saying, "The King invited the acarya to come forth but he did not come. When the beer-seller called him he came. What then, is all this?" And they clapped their palms together. The aciirya turned the mouth of the horn toward the ground and seven fissures opened up .with mighty rivers flowing out of them. The aciirya and his consort were transformed into Heruka and his consort, the boy and girl were changed into Vajra and Gha:t~\ii and, with the aciirya clasping them in his hands, they soared off into the heavens. The people, when the waters had almost drowned them, beseeched the aciirya who said to them, "Address your prayers to sPyan.ras.gzigs !" When all the creatures intoned the mantra "Namo LokeSwaraya" a selfcreated stone image of sPyauas.gzigs arose in the midst of tho waters. The waters swirled around it seven times and ran back underground. The aciirya preached the Vajrayana widely to many citizens of that country and there also arose many students who attained Siddhi. 32

He preached to Lva.va.pa. As for that acacya, he was the son of a King. This country was a part of Urgyen, so it is said. However, some say it was Odivisa. When he was older he took holy orders in a temple and became most learned in the Tripi\aka. Later on he came eastwards and met the acarya VajraghaQtii who empowered him into the maQ-;lalas of Cakras~vara, etc. So, he meditated on the upadesas as instructed and attained the highest discriminating wisdom. When be went westwards to Urgyen, the abode of the -;lakinis, the Tirthika -:Jakinis presented him with a floral rosary. When he took it, Buddhist -;lakinis came and said to him, "Son, taking these flowers was not a good thing to do. They are Tirthika yoginis and you will have to follow those who gave the flowers." He replied, "Oh well then, you will have to protect me!" Now, in this place it is said that non-Buddhist and Buddhist -:Jakinis had made a pact that whoever was touched first by their flowers had to become their follower. The acacya stayed in that very spot in deep meditation and at midnight a mighty noise arose. When he looked, the Tirthika -;lakinis had hurled a great shower of boulders. By meditating on the Utpattikrama 120 protection wheel, there was no damage to the meditation site. If this was the power of the Utpattikrama he thought, then he would manifest the powers of the Sa:q1pannakrama, 120 so he remained in the equanimity in the meditation on non-conceptual mind. 121 As a result all the boulders shattered in the sky. One boulder was left unsupported in the sky. Another boulder with a smooth surface, like a mirror, had many stone fragments attached to it. It is still there today. Thus the assaults of the -:Jakinis did not hinder him at all. Then, when he stopped while on alms collection, if he met the King from time to time in front of the city gate, then on each occasion the King would ask him questions. The acarya gave no reply at all. Once the King said, "You foolish, ignorant monk! Why do you continually wander about? It would be better if you had a long sleep instead!" Then the acacya felt it proper to revert to a long session of sleep, and so he slept for twelve years before the King's gate. If all the people who went there did not salute the acacya they were frozen into Iigidity-the King and all his retinue saluted too, while passing on their way. Twelve years passed and he awoke. The King said, "Why did the acacya sleep?" and the acacya replied, "The King himself ordered me to!" Then the King became vecy full of faith and established many of his countrymen into the Vajra33

yAna. The particular King is said to have been the middle Indrabhuti. Then. at a time when the acarya was performing his ritual practices in chamel grounds, 500 of the chief mantrika ladies from the land of Urgyen went wandering around them searching for him. Among those mantrikas was one called Mandrapadi who was known as Sahaja, and she was blessed with the power of mantras. She was also a flesh-eating c;lakini most skilled in uttering curses. The mantrikas wanted to harm the acarya and when they had sought him out, in the acarya's empty place they saw nothing but a Lva.va, that is, a blanket. She said, "Oh look at this monk's magical illusion. He has transformed his body into a woollen blanket. Cut it up and everyone must eat a fragment!" The blanket was divided into 500 bits and each one was gulped down. At that, the acarya who had manifested his body cursed them and scattered them, and the 500 mantrikas became 500 sheep. Those 500 sheep went before the King and said, "A monk who resides in the charnel ground did this to us! 0 King, give us a means of escape!" At that the King summoned the acarya who arose before him naked, and said, "King, mantrikas of your country have eaten the one possession of a monk-his Lva.va, his blanket. So, summon those mantrikas !" They were all summoned and came, except for three, and the acarya brandished before each of them a threatening finger gesture. Their heads were transformed and they vomited up bits of the Lva.va. When they sewed them together a little bit did not fit. The acarya said, "There are three more bitsbring them forth!" Among the retinue of the Queen were those three c;lakinis and they came forward. He made them vomit the Lva.va bits as the others had done previously. Those bits they vomited up he placed on his body and he became widely known as Arya Lva.va.pa. He gave King Indrabhuti the empowerments and by meditating on their upadesas the King attained Siddhi. Then the acarya spent twelve years in a rocky cavern pondering on the meditation on non-conceptual mind. By means of the path of Clear Light he worked for the welfare of beings who chided him, saying, "You speak on the Dharma as Ignorance!" 122 Now the King Indrabhuti spent each day sporting with his 500 women and the people reviled him. Once the King handed one of his ladies a full serve of vegetable broth. "Offer this to the acarya Lva. va. pa so that it won't get cold!" As she would be for many days on the path with the vegetables she asked why the vegetables would not get cold. The King said, "The acarya has a spell. Say these words with eyes closed: 'If it is true that 34

the iicarya Lva.va.pa practices the ascetic act of not sleeping, then may I go right now directly to the rocky covern of Kotambha,'" She acted accordingly and it is said that when she opened her eyes she had arrived in front of the acarya. The acarya gave upadesa instructions to several disciples but as he was totally absorbed in it she could not think of offering it for a long time. Having eaten most of what was brought he handed over the rest, which was minute and was only slightly warm, and said, "Do take this to the King by hand, 123 so it might not lose its warmth." "The road measures twelve dPag. tshad. 124 in length", said the girl, "why is it that the vegetables do not get cold?" "If you want to get there quickly, just say, 'If it is true that King Indrabhuti is a perfect Bra~acarya, then may I go before him right now!' " She thought, "This acarya speaks lies. Whoever from the world of sentient creatures would believe in such words which contradict the manifest truth?" However, acting as she had been instructed, she found that in a trice she was whisked along the roads-a sign that this statement was true. She arrived, carrying the bowl, before the King who was amidst 100,000 beings. She offered him the remains of the vegetables. In previous accounts it continues thus-she also brought forth ochre from the rock-cavern in Kotambham mountain, ankle bracelets full of reddish-yellow waters from the river known as the "Perfect river", various efficacious medicines from the I-Loi mountain, three fruits from the Gajakhajura forest, three types of grain from the Skyu.ru.ra. 125 forest and variegated lotuses from the "Perfect lake" as signs of the truth of her story. She showed them to the people who were amazed and knew from the start that the King had Siddhi. Later on, both the King and the acarya taught upadesas to the people of Urgyen and very many of the people became Siddhas and yogins, and it is said that in that land their nurnbets grew near to 1000. This oral account disagrees somewhat from the Sahajasiddhi Commentary as it occurs in Tibet. Just as there are many disimilar accounts of certain people gaining liberation in the Sutras, there is another account in which Indrabhuti's and Lva.va.pa's 126 spheres of activity seem to resemble each other. This is inconsistent. Furthermore, in Tibet itself, in several of the commentaries on the Sahajasiddhi, it seems that that particular account does not appear and it does not even rate a mention in some Indian commentaries. Moreover, there are even suspect Indian sastras and accounts of different lengths which are refuted by


the.Blue'AmialS'etc. -and a-re·showrito~be without substance: This account of the ·lineage of the Clear Light, the Fourth, chapter, which is like a vein of gems is now finished.

The Siddha Jalandharipa recei\'ed from acaryas IndrabhUti 127 and Lva.va.pa the: upadesas on the Clear Light as well as the Mahasukha 128 • As for the country where the acarya Jalandharipa was born, it was in th~ We-stern land of Sindhu129 in the town of Nagarathatha. He was born into the Sudra caste. However, by means of his. merits he had a lot of wealth. Later, after a while he became a monk in a temple. He received the upadesas from acarya Lva.va.pa and once when he was meditating, a noise was heard in the heavens; It said, "Go to Urgyen and meditate there! You will accomplish the siddhis you desire." He went to Urgyen and he heard all the upadesas of the .Tantras from King Indrabhuti, the Lady Lak~mikara and the acarya Kacapada. Once when he was meditating, on the lOth day of the month he went to a cemetery. There he encountered the Mat;~Qala of Sri Heruka quite clearly and, being empowered by many-vajra Qiikinis, he attained the realms of the very highest Mahii.mudra siddhi. Then, while he was in that land for a long time. he worked fully and variously for the welfare of beings. Once while he was in a. town called Kotambha, the inhabitants often rebuked him. For a long while the acarya displayed no anger. Later, some three or four members of the city's leading caste went to a road junction. When they saw the acarya there seated in meditlition, one of them said, "This yogin is blind." Another one said, "This is not a yogin, it is a dumb thing." Yet another said, "It is a dead corpse." The acarya said, "You lot.........change!" and cursed them. One became sightless, another dumb and the other died. At that, everybody became quite terrified and put it about he had .reached Siddhi. When their relatives came they begged the acarya, who restored them. Then the acarya stayed in the land of Jalandhara at the place where fire blazes from between rock and water. 130 After a long time. had passed, he was crowned with the name of the country and was known as.the Siddha Jalandharipa. At a place in Nepal near a st.lf-created stUpa131 was a miraculous Linga of ISvara and there he prayed persistently for seven days. He saw with 36

his acute spiritual vision, powers, subtle activities of causing increase and especially his powerful capabilities which were immediately perfected after seven days meditation, that the aforementioned ISvara Linga was going to interfere with the Buddhist Doctrine. It was in order to.subdue it that he came to that place. Once while the King had come thrice to make offerings to the Linga, the acarya too went there in the midst of a crowd of many hundreds of thousands of people. By means of a threatening gesture made at the Linga with his little finger, its head tumbled to its base and when he blew at it, it shattered into many fragments. Furthermore, all the people knew that he had attained Siddhi and they paid homage at his feet. Then, on one occasion he departed for the land of Samparna 132 and there an evil King had commenced the destruction of many viharas. A certain gifted lute player had come before the King's gate. The King heard that the master lute player wanted him and was calling out for him, so he summoned him forth. The Master played many songs and melodies and while the King and his entourage were enjoying then the player changed into a yogin and departed. At that, the King said, "These Buddhists fool us with their magical tricks." The acarya praised the Buddhists and rebuked Tirthika&, even the King himself. The King said to his attendants, "Cut off this man's head," but though they attacked him with various kinds of weapons they could not wound the acarya's body, even once. Although 500 men started to tie him up they could not even move his body. The acarya clapped his palms together and the King's palace split into two pieces. He caused the King's entourage to become terrified by fixing them with a ritual gaze and petrified them into rigidity. The King himself paid homage to the acarya's feet and asked, "What shall I do?" The acarya replied, "To expiate your former unwholesome Karmic deeds you must erect viharas twice the number of the previous ones! You must double the number of monks living in them! Offer provisions to the Sangha as long as you live! For seven generations of your children make them offer provisions to the Sangha! Make a copper plate to that effect." Accordingly, the King did so. At another time. in the land of Malava the King Legs.sbyar or Bhartahari 133 , known in present-day colloquial language as Bharthari, had amassed 1,800,000 horses and 1,000 women and lived amidst vast wealth. Knowing it was time for the King's conversion, the acarya settled in a place not far from the town. One night, 37

many brigands came there and encircling the acarya they then went off to plunder the town. They got a lot of wealth and they did no injury in the various places they got it. They thought that this was due to the power of that previous yogin and all of them thus made him offerings. They offered him openly pearl necklaces, each pearl worth many 100,000 srang, 134 and other things too. Then they departed. The people told the King who sent investigators who saw that. the acarya had lots of wealth. They considered the acarya to be the thief and submitted him to the King. Without investigating the matter, the King impaled the acarya on a stake. In the daytime the acarya's body remained thrur.t through with the impaling stake and at night, getting down from it, he remained in meditation. 135 And so when seven days had passed the King went before him. The stake appeared to be piercing him and yet the acarya broke the stake and went to the river bank to wash. The King was amazed and having begged for pardon he asked to become a follower. The acarya said to him, "Abandon your state and perform Avadhoti. 136 Then I will give you upadesas." The King completely abandoned his realm and accordingly, later on, followed the acarya. At a different time the acarya gave him the upadesas and after meditating for a long time with no hindrances he became a powerful yogin. Even later, with a retinue of 500 he soared off into the heavens. As far the previous emanations-the acarya Jalandharipa performed most of his deeds as if he was a child and he was renowned as Balipada 137, or "Child's Foot". Then, at a later time, when he wanted to convert the people of the Eastern regions, he adopted the likeness of a street sweeper from a village of Satigrama in Bengal. Not a long time had passed since Gobicandra138 , the young King of that country, had acceded to the throne. As his body was beautiful he was a sensualist and he looked in mirrors and was generally dissolute. Once at dawn, when the King's mother was looking, the acarya had gone over the fence into the King's orchard and, having gone to the base of the trees there, he intoned, "Narikela Bhik~avo". The fruit of the trees came down before the acarya. When he had drunk their juices he intoned, "Narikela Uparajahi," and the fruit onct again hung from the tree as it had been before. When she saw him going about so often the King's mother knew he had attained Siddhi and she thought, "This person will convert the King." She went before the King with tears welling 38

in her eyes and the King asked, "Is anything the matter?" She replied, "Although you have surpassed your father's body strength, and intellect by more than ten times, it is still taught that phenomena are impermanent. Even you are not beyond the rule of death!" The King replied, "Well, are there no means of avoiding death?" His mother teplied, "Your own street sweeper has such a means." The King went before the sweeper and ~id, "You must give me the upadesas to avoid death!" The acarya replied, "There is such an upadesa. If you do not renounce yout state you will not accomplish it." At that the King replied, "Well now, first of all gi-ve me the upadesas and later on I will relinquish the State." Both the King and the acarya went alone to an isolated forest where the acarya gave the King an empty earthenware vessel and said, "Put your hand in it!" When the King had put his hand inside the iicarya said, "What is in there? Tell me quickly, quickly!" When the King said that there was nothing whatever in it the acarya replied that in it there was indeed the Path to the Deathless State. Although the King asked three times, the acarya answered as before each time and the King did not believe him, thinking he was being fooled. Then he put the acarya into a deep hole in the ground. It was surrounded by thorny branches and filled with the dung of elephants and horses, and ii was closed off in secret 139 • The acarya had manifested two bodily displays-in the land of Jalandhara he worked by means of complete renunciation for the welfare of sentient creatures and he also manifested himself in Bengal and taught there. Then after a while when the acarya l(r~Qacarya arrived in the South at Katalik~etra, or in Tibetan Chu.shing.gi.zbing or plantain field, which in the colloquial tongue is called Katsali, his disciples said to the many yogins who were on the road, "Wake up! Get up! The Siddha l{r~Qiicarya is coming!" The others roused themselves but the Siddha Gora~a did not arise. At that the acarya himself arrived and when be conversed with Gorak~a, the latter asked, after a while, "Who is your Guru?" The acarya replied, "It is Jalandharipa," and Gorak~a replied, "Well, twelve years have passed since Jalandharipa was buried in an earthen hole by King Gobicandra." The yogin together with 1,400 practicers in his retinue went to the East and set himself down in a fury before the gate of King Gobicandra. No sound rose from musical instruments. Horses and elephants ate no grass. Even young children drank no milk. The King, knowing it was due to the acarya's powers and


that he was beaten, went outside and begged that the aciirya together with his attendants come inside for a banquet. The acarya said, "As I have with me a retinue of 1,400 you will be unable to fill them," and the King replied, "If I am able to satisfy my many 100,000 soldiers at all times, then why should I be unable to feed the acarya and his attendants?" The acarya answered, "Oh well, first of all fill my two disciples Mahila and Bhadala. If they are satisfied then later on we too will come." When the King had 500 K.hal 140 weight of rice made, both Mahila and Bhadala came there. All that food simply disappeared and even though they poured it into their gourd-bowls, they were not filled. The King was amazed and having gone before the aciirya he begged for the means of attaining the Deathless State. At that the acarya gathered up the requisites, which measured twelve elephant loads, for the creation of the mal)ombipa, and from time to time he brought milk and butter to Naropa. Then acarya


Naropa taught him the Cittotpada, 163 and having given him the empowerments for the Hevajra mal}c;lala he also taught him the means of meditating on it. Once when I;>ombipa was meditating he was carried off by floodwaters and a fish gulped him down. Seeing Heruka's ma]jc;Jala inside the fish's belly he came to no harm and was vomited up. Then he practised a life of complete relinquishment at the acarya's feet, and performing one-pointed meditations he entered the thought realms of the highest siddhis and his understanding of all dharmas and of all aspects of the unique Vajrayana became vast. He taught many pupils and they attained Siddhi. Having had to compose many commentaries, he learned to write and he defeated all the Tirthika and Buddhist paQc;litas who reproached him, by means of teachings taken from the Dharma. His fame pervaded all dhections. He was the Guru of Atisa. 164 Although Tibetans say that Jo.bo. (Atisa) did not meet him, yet Atisa did hear the Mi.gyo.ba.dam.pa.sgrub.pa. which he composed, hearing it spoken by I;>ombipa. Those sastras are four in number 165 • As for those commentaries written by the Jo.bo., they indeed agree that he did receive those dharmas directly and they are in agreement with those compiled by learned Indians. I myself have even seen those commentary volumes in Indian format 166 in the hands of the acarya Nirva:Q.asri. The younger Kusalibhadra received instruction from the acarya, the younger I;>ombi. That particular acarya was born in the western regions of India in a place pnown as Mevar. From his youth he knew many areas of learning. He begged a great Tirthika Guru for ordination but he would not instruct him, and so he thought he must defect all those Tirthikas. He took Buddhist ordination from Vajrasanapa 167 and studied, becoming very leamed in all the Pi\akas. Moreover, he returned to the land of Kamaru 168 disguised as a Bra~n and, together with six Tirthika and Brah.qlin paoc;Jitas he studied and became learned in the Tirthika doctrine. He also studied and perfected the magical practices of Kamaru, many mantras of the Vijegiripa doctrinal system, many of the cursing mantras of the c;Jakinis and many of the mantra class belonging to the Shyang.nga.ri sect. Then he went off to the west where those previously mentioned Tirthika pa:Q.c;litas were. There was there a King called Karta who was set up as adjudicator. About two thousand Buddhist yogins and pa:Q.9itas and eight thousand Tirthikas assembled there and the debate began.


As the acarya was of fine intellect and knew the Tirthika system he defeated each and every one of them. They therefore made a magic contest and one of the Tirthika yogins manifested the vision of bringing to earth two stars out of the heavens. It is said that these were houses shaped like human heads and were black in colour. Then the acacya saw that it was all only an illusion, and reciting mantras of destruction both stars were transformed into lumps of coal. Everybody saw that this too was an illusion. Some Tirthika!. manifested themselves with blazing bodies and he brought water down on them and they were drenched. He defeated each of their magical tricks with his own magic and they were subdued, so it is said. Finally the four chief Tirthikas were transformed into cats by the acarya who intoned mantras. By means of the Shyang.nga.ri mantra all the household goods of the assembled Tirthikas were changed into stone. Thus the Tirthikas were defeated and in a short time the Buddhists spread widely in that land. Even today it is said that there are many Buddhists there. Then the acarya thought, "All these magical deed& which I have done are not magic and with those various mantras I have indeed deceived many people, and have committed many grave offences. All my previous deeds of hearing and thinking were committed by the power of passion and aggression," and he pondered about this. He thought, "Now I will fully renounce all of them!" and he became a caryapa yogin. 169 He met Sri Param I;>ombipa while he was meditating and begged that he might be given empowerment into the mandalas of Sa~vara and Hevajra .• As a result of his entreaty he got all the necessary upadesas. He went before all the various Gurus of the above mentioned lineage. and as before he delighted all of them. He received the upadesas and meditated on them for a long time and he met many of the Mahasiddhas who have been mentioned above, namely the MaMsiddhas Kr~Qacarya, Virupa, Vyadapala, etc. They also gave him upadesas and he spent twelve years in the eastern regions, in a forest at Sarabhanga. Having cut off his attachment to food, and drinking only water and meditating, his experiences became as wide as the skies. He leaped from precipices like a bird, he could travel a month's journey in an hour, wild animals paid him ho.mage, demons became his bondsmen, he saw the faces of many of his tutelary divinities and he knew the very thoughts of creatures. In harmony with them he preached the dharma to them. At about that period he is regarded as being the greatest in India as far as 51

upadesas go and he was famed as a Siddha. Once having met the iiciirya K.r~9iicarya in the flesh, Kr~1;1iicarya said to him, "Perform your actions with conceptualisation! You will become chief of all the caryiipas who are my disciples. I bless you!" This was the prophecy that he made. For thirteen years, together with twenty attendant consorts, the younger :Qombi practised his conceptualised deeds widely in various lands. All the other caryiipa yogins touched his feet in reverence. Finally he resided for seventy two years in the monastery at Devikota. It is said that this acarya lived for one hundred and fifty-seven years. He was one who adopted the tenets of the later caryapas and set them out in order. His pupils were many-acarya Asitaghana being just one among them. Asitaghana was at first a Tirthika yogin, and was born in the land of Prayaga. 170 He was learned in Sanskrit and dialectics, and having practiced the sadhana of Mahesvara, 171 he was given the quicksilver siddhi. He went to the realms of the Asuras many times and as long as he lived his body did not age at all. He perfected both fierce and violent rituals by means of many mantras which belonged to the Matrka and Bhuta172 demons. Once when he became somewhat proud of himself he vied with a caryapa yogin and his quicksilver siddhi vanished. Not even one of his fierce ritual practices remained and so he gained faith in Buddhists. He begged upadesas from the PaQ~it Prabhavarma, the Mahacarya Ratnarak~ita, Vibhuticandra, Devakara and many others too. Having requested the following five things he mastered them all. As well as Tantras they were, treatises on Sa:q1vara, Hevajra, Vajrabhairava, the Four Brab:qla Viharas and Guhyasamiija. Moreover he met the younger Kusalibhadra who gave him all the upadesas of all the Instructions. As he was meditating in a state of one-pointedness, his mind came under the malignant influence of the sensual pleasures and for seven years he meditated in a forest while he was beset with these difficulties. There he met in person Luyipa, Vyadala and many of the above mentioned siddhas and he received their upaddas. They said to him. "Go to the city! There you will find success in your desires!" In the morning he went to the city and there he saw many singers and dancers who were performing their songs and dances. Taking all this as a cause, his mental continuum became completely liberated and he attained siddhi. Then by magical means he departed and taught the Dharma widely to sentient creatures. Then in various countries he demonstrated a few miraculous visions to a few for52

tunate people and clarified their essential meanings to the people. As a result inconceivable 173 numbers had their mental continuums liberated. For two-hundred years he remained in that self same bodily form. This iicarya put his ideas into song form and it appears that he wrote many small sastras on Tantras and taught them widely. He taught Jfianamitra, and although he certainly formed a vast lineage of pa;;t
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