Tanári Kézikönyv - Key to a Successful Exam

August 7, 2017 | Author: HorváthDávid | Category: Secondary School, Leasehold Estate, E Books, State School, English Language
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Key to a successful Exam...


Fülöp Gábor

Tanári Kézikönyv A


Level B2



Írta és szerkesztette: Fülöp Gábor

Az angol szöveget lektorálta: Hiba Erika és Steve Szabó

ISBN: 978-963-08-5418-4

Kiadó Danubius Work Kft. 2500 Esztergom, Szent Tamás utca 11. inf[email protected] www.danubiuswork.hu Cégjegyzékszám: 1109019310

Forgalmazó Akadémia Nyelviskola Oktatási és Szolgáltató Kft. 2500 Esztergom, Szent Tamás utca 11. (+36) 33 403 520 [email protected] www.akademianyelviskola.hu Felnőttképzési ny. sz.: 00693-2008 Akkreditációs l. sz.: AL-1954

© Minden jog fenntartva, beleértve a sokszorosítás, a mű bővített, illetve rövidített kiadási jogát is. A kiadó írásbeli engedélye nélkül sem a teljes mű, sem annak részei, semmilyen formában nem sokszorosítható.

© All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of the publishers.

While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.


Contents - Tartalomjegyzék Answer key – Megoldási kulcs Unit 1 The individual


Unit 2 Family


Unit 3 Work and Education


Unit 4 Place of living


Unit 5 Shopping


Unit 6 Health


Unit 7 Sport


Unit 8 Hobbies


Unit 9 Communication and The media


Unit 10 Travel and Tranpsort


Untit 11 Weather and Environment


Untit 12 Social problems


Untit 13 The European Union


Vocabulary list - Szólista


Tapescript - Szövegkönyv



Appendix 1: Irregular verbs


Appendix 2: Phrasal verbs


Appendix 3: Prepositional phrases


Appendix 4: Verb/Adjective + preposition


Appendix 5: Linking words/phrases



Unit 1

Answer key Unit 1 Introducing yourself/Getting to know each other 3. Listening 1.1 (Track 1) Peter 1. Peter is a sales manager and works for a multinational company. 2. He is satisfied with his job and wouldn’t change it. 3. He lives in a little town in a detached house. 4. He is married. 5. He is an only child. He has many relatives and strong family ties. 6. He likes pottering in the garden. He plays football with his friends. 7. They went to the same English course. Suzy 1. Suzy is a second-year student at university. 2. She likes her school because she has always been interested in history. 3. She is living in a dormitory now in Budapest, but her home town is the same as Peter’s. 4. She is single. 5. She comes from a big family. She has three brothers. 6. She likes painting and drawing, going to the theatre, visiting exhibitions and going out with friends. 7. They went to the same English course.

Appearance and personality 1. a) Whoopi Goldberg

b) Danny DeVito

c) Angelina Jolie

3. Age: mid 50s, in his late 60s, in her early 30s Build: plump, stout, slim, slender Height: medium height Hairstyle and colour: jet-black shoulder-length hair, in dreadlocks, bald Face: oval, chubby cheeks, big nose, round, double chin, full lips Eyes: mesmerizing Complexion: lovely Beard styles: moustache

6. Listening 1.2 (Track 2) Aries: 1. dynamic 2. romantic 3. bossy Taurus: 4. realistic 5. intelligent 6. violent Gemini: 7. clever 8. impatient 9. independent Cancer: 10. conservative 11. shy 12. romantic Leo: 13. independent 14. passionate Virgo: 15. serious 16. organised

7. A 1. well-balanced 2. indecisive 3. faithful 4. vain 5. sincere 6. introverted 7. ambitious 8. bad-tempered 9. reserved 10. touchy 11. tolerant 12. witty 4

Unit 1

8. un- : unenthusiastic, unassertive, unfriendly, unpleasant, unintelligent, unsympathetic, uninteresting, unromantic, unemotional, unfaithful, unreliable, unsociable in-: indecisive, inconsiderate, insincere, inhospitable, insensitive, intolerant, inactive, im-: impatient, dis-: dishonest, disloyal

Ages and stages 5. Listening 1.3 (Track 3) 1. touching, watching, tasting and listening 2. recognize and say a few words. 3. feeding themselves, drawing on paper, and using the toilet 4. physical and mental 5. adult supervision. 6. the challenges of adulthood 7. independence 8. their careers, relationships and families 9. try to keep active 10. natural

Daily life 4. Jerry, from the cartoon Tom and Jerry.

Roles in the family 4. Reading 1. D

2. B

3. K

4. G

5. L

6. F

7. A

8. H

Clothes 2. 1. go with 2. match 3. suit 4. fit

3. 1. B

2. D

3. C

4. A 5. E

Fashion 2.B Listening 1.4 (Track 4) 1. It is self-expression. Clothes say something about us. 2. Well-fitted clothes boost our confidence and mood. 3. Fashion shows people’s cultural identity.

5.B 1. c

2. f

3. a

4. d

5. e

6. b 5

9. J

10. C

Unit 1

6. Listening 1.5 (Track 5) 1. C

2. B


4. A

5. A

6. B


8. C

9. B

10. B

Grammar 1. 1. smells 2. are having, wonder, are talking 3. promise 4. Do you think, am being 5. is always picking 6. does your father do 7. Don’t you understand, doesn’t solve 8. always buy, never win 9. are you looking, Am I wearing 10. looks, wears 11. are you staying, come 12. wears 13. is boiling 14. isn’t growing, water 15. learns, is suffering

2. 1. for 2. for 3. since 4. since 5. for 6. since 7. since 8. for 9. for 10. for

3. 1. has drunk 2. have just bitten 3. have taught, have never met 4. have lost, have been trying 5. have done 6. have been listening to 7. has been meowing 8. have cooked dinner, have done the washing up, have been scrubbing the floor 9. has been coughing 10. have been singing, have lost

4. 1. I have never played chess before. 2. Mary is thinking of moving to England. 3. Thanks, but I have already had something to eat. 4. This flower smells wonderful. 5. This is the first time I have been to Japan. 6. Jack has been learning how to play the piano for a year.

5. 1. have ever fished 2. suggests 3. have lost touch 4. have experienced 5. said 6. sells 7. did 8. are missing out 9. hasn’t spent 10. have never had 11. don’t do /are not doing 12. refuse/ are refusing 13. vowed 14.found 15. can

Speaking Picture 1 1. extravagant 2. creations 3. fashion houses 4. prestigious 5. update 6. keep up with 7. name-brand 8. fashion victim 9. occasion 10. vivid

Answers to the questions. a) It is very casual which is unusual as models usually wear unwearable and fancy clothes. b) They make us believe that we can all look like them if we buy the clothes they display. c) On TV and in fashion magazines. d) Ones who follow the latest fashion and buy name-brand clothes, and ones who prefer conventional clothes and disregard what’s in fashion. e) Smart, elegant clothes and at home casual. 6

Unit 1

Picture 2 1. teasing 2. family matters 3. domestic chores 4. pattern 5. breadwinner 6. economic necessity 7. keep house 8. family unit 9. fair share 10. the lion’s share 11. time-consuming 12. maid

Answers to the questions. a) Men are taking on bigger roles in family matters and housework. b) Women. c) Both men and women work and have less time for family life. d) He prefers the old style because mothers could keep the family together. e) He doesn’t like it but he cleans his room.


Unit 2

Unit 2 Family and relatives 1.A Listening 2.1 (Track 6) 1. Siblings: your brothers and/or sisters 2. Aunt: the sister of your mother or father 3. Niece: your sister’s or brother’s daughter 4. In-laws: your husband’s or wife’s family 5. Brother-in-law: the husband of your sister 6. Son-in-law: you become the son-in-law of your wife’s parents 7. Great-aunt: your grandmother/grandfather’s sister 8. Great-great-grandfather: Your grandmother/grandfather’s grandfather 9. Stepbrother: your stepmother’s son 10. Half-sister: your mother’s or father’s daughter from a new husband or wife

2. a) nuclear b) single-parent /one-parent c) immediate d) extended e) close-knit f) dysfunctional

3. Positive: admire, fond of, close to, look up to, respect, worship, idolises, Negative: fallen out with, despises, can’t stand, fed up with, loathe

Relationships 1. 1. best friend 2. acquaintance 3. ex-girlfriend 4. flatmate 5. enemy 6. colleague 7. classmate

4. 1. kindred spirit 2. there are plenty more fish in the sea 3. love at first sight 4. inseparable 5. blind date 6. make it up 7. split up 8. to come into conflict 9. ups and downs 10. talk about me behind my back

Getting married 4. 1. proposed 2. tie the knot 3. stag night 4. hen party 5. civil ceremony 6. train 7. veil. 8. bridesmaids 9. ring bearer 10. objections 11. exchanged their vows12. reception 13.toast 14. newlyweds 15. honeymoon

Getting divorced 1. Listening 2.2 (Track 7) 1. They drifted apart. She didn’t have help. She felt left alone. They quarrelled a lot. He was indifferent towards her. 2. By taking a short break and going to a counsellor. 3. The lost trust. They weren’t successful. The problems were too deep to recover. 4. Money and their child. 5. A divorce can cause long-lasting emotional damage to children. 6. She felt puzzled, bitter and thought her life was worthless. 7. The familiar routine. 8

Unit 2

2. 1. intolerable 2. unrealistic expectations 3. drifted apart 4. a marriage counsellor 5. divorce proceedings 6. custody 7. contact, alimony 8. establish

6.A 1. A

2. G

3. B

4. D

5. C

6. F

7. I

8. J

9. H

10. K

Generations living under one roof 2. Listening 2.3 (Track 8) 1. In a nursing home. 2. Because of financial reasons. / Lack of money. 3. To build an extension to the house. 4. It became faster and busier. Everything turned upside down. 5. It means that parents take care of children and their parents. 6. If Penelope become ill. 7. Invest it or buy another home. 8. They are not isolated and receive loving care./Improves their quality of life. 9. Lack of privacy and sharing. 10. The division of chores, finances and space.

3. Possible answers: Advantages: it’s cheaper to live together, you can save lots of money and invest it later, grandparents can help cook and take care of the children, grandparents are not isolated, they get loving care Disadvantages: lack of privacy, division of housework and bills can lead to arguments, family members may quarrel over unimportant things, like watching TV or going to the bathroom first

Holidays and family gatherings 3. 1. calendar 2. fireworks 3. midnight 4. resolution 5. toast 6. resurrection 7. fasting 8. well 9. egg hunts 10. bunny 11. decorations 12. mistletoe 13. tinsel 14. Father Christmas or Santa Claus 15. reindeer 16. chimney

5.B Listening 2.4 (Track 9) 1. C

2. B

3. A

4. C

5. C

6. A

7. B

6. Hungarian national holidays: - On the 15th of March we commemorate the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848-49. - August the 20th is the day of King Stephen I. On this day we commemorate the founding of our state. - On October 23rd we celebrate the declaration of the Republic of Hungary and commemorate the revolution of 1956. - May 1st is May Day. It is a spring holiday when maypoles are put up. - Whitsun / Pentecost 9

Unit 2

Grammar 1. 1. was I doing, was walking , was trying , answered 2. was working, went out, had to, wasn’t 3. was staring, couldn’t recognise 4. fell, was brushing 5. saw, was singing. 6. were playing, were talking 7. broke up, was always cancelling 8. was driving, stopped, didn’t have 9. did you do, let, did not mean 10. ever did, was doing

2. 1. had never ridden, moved 2. had been looking, was wearing 3. failed, had studied 4. came, fainted, had died 5. couldn’t go, had lost 6. sat, realised, had left. 7. got, had already got drunk 8. Was I walking, had been walking 9. opened, realised, had never seen 10. had you been searching , got

3. 1. used 2. was protesting 3. had glued 4. had bought 5. had hid 6. was giving 7. went 8. clapped 9. had been thinking 10. had to 11. laughed 12. just grinned 13. had been arrested 14. didn’t have

Writing 1. 1. Although 2. however/nevertheless 3. besides 4. In spite of/despite 5. Despite/In spite of 6. otherwise 7. nevertheless/however 8. Despite/In spite of 9. Although 10. besides 11. otherwise 12. In spite of/Despite

3.A 1. To begin with 2. An additional advantage of 3. Furthermore 4. On the other hand 5. As a result 6. However 7. Another reason is that 8. All things considered

B. Arguments for: 1. You can see the facial expression of the person you are talking with. Justification/Example: Without facial expressions it would be difficult to figure out what the person’s meaning behind what he says is. 2. You can tell whether the person is lying or not. Justification/Example: It is not easy to get away with a lie. Arguments against: 1. People have a busy life. They have no time for face-to-face communication. Justification/Example: Calling a friend or sending an email is faster and more convenient than personal meetings. 2. It is time and money-consuming for friends who live far from each other. Justification/Example: Modern ways of communication bring them closer to each other. 10

Unit 2

Speaking 2. Picture 4 1. immersed 2. hang on 3. affect 4. treat 5. put on 6. spare 7. smack 8. verbal 9. neglect

Answers to the questions. a) Because there are many things that can influence children such as friends, TV and school. b) They try to control him and often treat him like a child. c) They are against it. They spare the rod and never smack him. d) His parents let him do what he wants if he learns well and doesn’t neglect his studies. e) He has to do some housework, e.g. keep his room clean and do the washing up. He has to tell his parents where he goes if he goes out.

Picture 5 1. scene 2. proposal 3. popped 4. the knot 5. trial period 6. commitment 7. break 8. institution

Answers to the questions. a) Tying the knot. b) Cohabitation helps the partners to get to know each other better. Secrets are revealed. c) Because they may not have enough money to get married or they are afraid of commitment. d) To concentrate on his/her studies and career until he/she is around 30.


Unit 3

Unit 3 Studying 3. A a) boarding school b) vocational school c) kindergarten d) single-sex school e) secondary grammar school f) technical school g) state school h) public school

4. a) principal (head teacher) b) graduate c) professor d) classmate e) form teacher f) staff g) tutor h) lecturer i) pupil j) learner k) examiner l) candidate

5. 1. heart 2. pet. 3. teach 4. cat 5. rote

6.A Listening 3.1 (Track 10) 1. compulsory and free of charge 2. the government, educational authorities. 3. boarding schools. 4. infant school, the primary 5. close relationship with the class. 6. single-sex or co-educational. 7. General Certificate of Secondary Education 8. vocational, sixth form college 9. want to go to university. 10. undergraduates.

7.A Primary and secondary schools 1. crèche 2. obligations 3. bright 4. standards 5. hopeless 6. truant 7. absent 8. gift 9. admission Higher education 1. lecturer 2. attendance 3. semester 4. seminar 5. assessment 6. core 7. optional 8. exchange 9. thesis 10. ceremony 11. gown 12. diploma 13. correspondence

State vs. private schools 2. 1. B

2. C

3. A

4. C

5. D

6. A

7. C

8. D

3. 1. curriculum 2. pare down 3. maintained school 4. flourishing 5. session 6. expertise 7. on the other side of the fence


Unit 3

E-learning 2. Listening 3.2 (Track 11) 1. full credit and correspondence 2. exceptional students and athletes. 3. access to the web/Internet. 4. a textbook and a learning guide. 5. it’s hard to assess them with objective questions. 6. monitor and contribute. 7. don’t personally cover and study the content. 8. they felt that they were losing their independence. 9. students are admitted to traditional universities. 10. upload printed textbooks online.

Making a living 2. Pink-collar work: connected with low-paying jobs done mainly by women Professional work: connected with a job that needs special training or skill, especially one that needs a high level of education White-collar work: connected to work in offices Blue-collar work: connected to people who do physical work

3. A a) dirty work : necessary but uninteresting work b) dead-end job : a job without a future c) to be snowed under : to be very busy d) work like a horse : work a lot and very hard e) get the boot : to be fired

B. 1. dead-end job. 2. snowed under 3. dirty work 4. worked like a horse 5. got the boot.

4.A 1. income 2. remuneration 3. wage 4. salary 5. commission 6. fee 7. base 8. tip 9. shift differential 10. overtime 11. rise 12 Fringe

5.A 1. job 2. career 3. job 4. work 5. workaholic, 6. job 7. work 8. job 9.career 10. job 11. job 12. job 13. workmate 14. job 15. workhorse 16. career, 17. job 18. career 19. job

5.B 1. job description 2. a promising career 3. workload 4. ruined his career 5. job centre 6. apply for the job 7. workaholic 8. demanding job


Unit 3

Career prospects 3. 1. K

2. E

3. G

4. A

5. J

6. L

7. F

8. I

9. C

10. D

4. a) résumé b) a career counsellor c) internship d) set aside e) keep track of f) foresight

Job Hunting 3. a) cope with b) unemployment rate c) seize the opportunity d) overcome nervousness e) make assumptions f put pressure on sb g) figure out

4. Listening 3.3 (Track 12) 1. C

2. B

3. A

4. B

5. A

6. C

7. B

8. A

9. C

10. C

Grammar: Future forms 1. 1. is going to 2. I am leaving 3. will be seeing 4. leaves 5. are going to 6. arrives7. will have eaten 8. has been 9. Will you help, won’t do 10. will have done

2. 1. am visiting / am going to visit 2. are you going to do 3. will call 4. will visit 5. am playing 6. will give 7. Are you going to decorate 8. will like 9. are planning, will melt, are travelling 10. Will you open 11. Are you going to eat 12. am going to learn

3. 1. will have read. 2. will have been learning 3. will have saved 4. will have been raining 5. will have been 6. will have left. 7. will have been flying 8. will have lost

4. 1 will be doing 2 am going to do 3. will be flying 4. will be 5. will have grown 6. will basically explode 7. will be able to 8. will have been saving 9. is holding 10. are planning 11. will be

5. 1. returns, will give 2. get, will call 3. finish, will have. 4. will have to, can 5. will be, hears 6. will stay, strikes 7. will attack, gets 8. will rob, opens 9. learns, will give 10. will have to, finish 14

Unit 3

Writing 2. Paragraph 1: reason for writing 2: profile and qualifications 3: other skills 4: personal qualities 5: closing remarks

Speaking Picture 2 1. tiresome 2. tough 3. competition 4. fight 5. components 6. skills 7. goals 8. hesitate 9. initiative 10. stuck 11. insecure 12. realize

Answers to the questions: 1. Because the ladder symbolises a ‘career ladder’ and the man would like to get higher on it by building up his career. 2. When they would like to get into a university. 3. Continually expand on your knowledge and skills related to your profession. 4. Determination, persistence, and initiative. 5. They get stuck in their job and are not willing to leave it because they are afraid of what the future holds for them. 6. Patience, planning, a bit of luck and support.

Picture 3 1. acquire 2. capacity 3. regardless 4. opportunities 5. broaden/widen 6. widen/broaden 7. view 8. citizen 9. compulsory 10. intensive 11. all-round 12. eager

Answers to the questions: 1. Because children are open to new things and they can easily learn another language. 2. You have more career choices and you are more likely to be sent on business trips. 3. As a citizen of the EU it is easier to find a job or study abroad. 4. He/she is not very good at learning languages but he/she likes learning them and learning about other cultures. 5. Spend some time in the target language country.


Unit 4

Unit 4 Homes and Housing 1.A 1. terraced house 2. flat 3. caravan 4. bungalow 5. villa 6. farmhouse

3. 1. utility room 2. pantry 3. porch or veranda 4. shed 5. loft 6. patio 7. hall 8. study 9. basement 10. cellar

The place where you live 1.A 1. unspoilt 2. dense 3. stream 4. rocky 5. snow-capped 6. breathtaking 7. fast-flowing 8. open 9. ruins B. 1. skyline 2. golden sand 3. cobbled 4. quaint 5. pavement 6. avenues 7. high-rise 8. inner 9. imposing 10. lively

5. 1. the 2. blank 3. the 4. the 5. the 6. The 7. a 8. a 9. the 10. blank 11. the 12. the 13. the 14. the 15. the 16. a 17. the 18. the 19. a 20. blank 21. a 22. the 23. the 24. an

6. 1. It is located in northern Hungary, 46 kilometres north-west of Budapest. 2. It was the first capital city and Stephen was crowned here. 3. On top of the remains of a ruined castle, the site where Stephen was crowned 4. From the cupola. 5. The two-towered church. 6. The history of water management and the river Danube. 7. With the tourist train, a narrow-gauge railway. 8. Spa and therapeutic.

7. 1. foyer 2. sacred 3. remains 4. cityscape 5. erected Future Homes 2. A 1. D

2. H

3. A

4. C

5. J

6. I

7. G

8. E

9. L

10. B

B 1. hog 2. keep an eye on 3. fade 4. confirm 5. skylight 6. brew 7. command 16

Unit 4

Country vs. city life 4. A Listening 4.1 (track 14) 1B








Renting a property 2.A 1. budget 2. utility 3. research 4. DIY. 5. landlord 6. deposit 7. amenities 8. tenant 9. report 10. tenancy agreement 11. obligations

Buying a home 3. Listening 4.2 (track 15) 1. Financial and emotional disaster. 2. They may pay too much for their home. 3. Because renting gives you more flexibility. 4. People want to be independent, it’s an investment, think paying rent is a waste of money. 5. Survey your spending. 6. Making statistics of your incomings and outgoings. 7. To decide where to make reductions and cutbacks. 8. Good neighbours raise, bad ones cut down the prices. 9. Because it inspires people after a cold and dark winter. 10. That there can be many hidden problems.

Grammar 1. 1) the 2) - 3) the 4) the 5) - 6) the 7) the 8) the 9) the 10) - 11) the 12) the 13) the 14) - 15) - 16) - 17) the 18) the 19) - 20) -

2. 1. a, - 2. a, a, -/the , a

3. a, a 4. a, -

5. -

6. a, a, a

7. a

8. a, -

9. -

10. a, -

3. 1) The…..only problem here is……… that the bill is too high. 2) Can you……play the organ………………. well? 3) The….more junk food you eat, the fatter…………… you will become. 4) This……is the first time I have eaten………………. Sushi. 5) …The British……………………………… read a lot. 6) Is this……..the fastest you can …………… drive?

4. 1. -, the, a 2. the, - 3. -, the, the, - 4. a, the, a 5. a, the, the 6. -, a, the 7. the 8. -, an, -, - 9. The, the, -, the 10. the, the, - 11. The, the, - 12. the, -, the, the 13. the, -, the, the, the 17

Unit 4

Writing 1. a) Present simple b) They don’t eat properly at home because their parents don’t cook. Parents order takeaway food. c) Because the atmosphere is lively and they can meet their friends there. There is a wide variety of food. d) They prepare nutrient dense dishes, serve moderate portions of food, and pack home-made food for them.

2.B 1) small number 2) By far the largest 3) majority 4) Approximately 5) Four times as many 6) minority

Speaking Picture 3 1.fountain 2. facilities 3. necessities 4. entertained 5. livestock 6. closeness 7. pace 8. dull 9. anxiety

Answers to the questions: a) Because the children are playing with the water coming out from a fountain. b) There are a lot of malls and shops with low prices. They are open non-stop. c) There are a lot of social activities, concerts, sport events and places to be entertained. d) They breed animals, keep livestock and grow vegetables. e) They can’t resist the clean environment. They love the friendly neighbours, and they like the closeness to nature and the gentle pace of living. f) When he/she is fed up with the noise and the fast pace of the city.

Picture 7 1. construction 2. tools 3. delay 4. craftsmen 5. handyman 6. mortgage 7. lot 8. a general contractor 9. phases 10. foundation 11. house-warming

Answers to the questions: a) Because there is a delay. / The construction workers won’t meet the deadline. b) The cost of construction. c) Because he is a handyman. d) From the bank and his parents. e)Because the house should suit your lifestyle and budget. f) Because a general contractor hires subcontractors, coordinates the phases of building, and is responsible for everything.


Unit 5

Unit 5 Shopping habits 3. A Countable nouns: green beans, fig, mushroom, peach, grapes, strawberry, raspberry, sour cherry, roll, sugar cubes, blueberry, pickled onion, plum, apricot, tangerine, almond, Brussels sprout Uncountable nouns: spinach, cod, celery, parsley, veal, garlic, hard liquor, blackcurrant, sorrel, pork, kohlrabi, mustard, whipped cream, mutton, minced meat, sour cream, cottage cheese, beef, game, vinegar, broccoli, corn on the cob, preserved fruit, cornflakes Can be countable or uncountable: lobster (countable → a sea creature, uncountable → meat from a lobster), cantaloupe, beetroot, radish, trout, pineapple, cauliflower, watermelon, coconut, cereal, carp, aubergine

5.A 1. Department stores 2. Supermarkets 3. Chain stores 4. Shopping centres/malls 5. Corner shops 6. Street markets

Are you a shopaholic? 3. 1. C

2. H

3. F

4. G

5. A


7. I

8. E

4. 1. urge 2. overflowing 3. by the handful 4. disorder 5. highbrow 6. come in handy 7.relieves the tension 8. go overboard

Retail shops versus Supermarkets 3. 1. out-of-town 2. under one roof. 3. own brand 4. convenience 5. range 6. foodstuffs. 7. value 8. bargains. 9. around the clock. 10. expired. 11. temptation 12. aisles 13. trolley 14. checkout 15. till 16. cashier 17. receipt

Shopping in different ways 2.A Listening 5.1 (track 16) 1. that you do online-shopping with a mouse 2. everything online 3. sat in a room surrounded by screens 4. wear your pyjamas 5. you cannot touch the goods 6. you don’t use your car 7. that you have to post it 8. the warranty 9. the delivery cost was very high 10. buy from secure sites 19

Unit 5

Services 4.A Banking services 1. clientele 2. credit card 3. teller machine 4. insert your card 5. withdrawing cash 6. current balance 7. check balances 8. instalments 9.interest rate 10. mortgage

5.A Post office 1.standard parcel 2. package 3.delivered 4.wrap 5. postal code 6. fold 7.envelope 8.seal 9.mailbox 10. bills

Customers’ Complaints 2.A Listening 5.2 (track 17) 1. bar 2. restaurant 3. clothes shop 4. car mechanic’s 5. Electronic shop 6. furniture shop

4.B 1. stresses and strains 2. faulty goods 3. suffer 4.courage 5. point 6. state 7.claims 8. response 9.stand 10. outcome 11. view 12.threats

5.B a) buy b) prolonged guarantee c) broken d) to examine) small piece f) bad

5.C Listening 5.3 (track 18) 1. B

2. B

3. C

4. B

5. A

6. B

7. C

8. A

9. B

10. C

6.A 1. Know what your rights are 2. Deal with the issue as soon as possible 3. Find and keep all relevant documents 4. Proof of purchase 5. Start at the least formal level

6.B 1. You can choose from a replacement, a refund or a repair. 2. If you don’t take it back, it seems you have accepted the item. 3. You may want to make a complaint to another authority. 4. Record the details of the call. 5. The receipt, a credit card statement. 6. They may have the right to compensate you. 7. Be clear, state the facts of the case, remain objective and avoid giving personal opinions, or comments.

Grammar 1. 1. husband/wife 2 king/queen 3. bridegroom/bride 4. waiter/waitress 5. actor/actress 6. widower/widow 7. duke/duchess 8. host/hostess 9. landlord/landlady 10. hero/heroine 11. nephew/niece 12. prince/princess 13. uncle/aunt 14. lion/lioness 15. monk/nun 16. bull/cow 17. bachelor/spinster 18. son/daughter 19. cock/hen 20. tiger/tigress 20

Unit 5

2. 1. tomato/tomatoes 2. knife/ knives 3. lady/ladies 4. goose/geese 5. child/children 6. safe/safes 7. salmon/salmon 8. zoo/zoos 9. volcano/volcano(e)s 10. criterion/criteria 11. life/lives 12. potato/potatoes 13. thief/thieves 14. leaf/leaves 15. scarf/scarves 16. kiss/kisses 17. fly/flies 18. wife/wives 19. wolf/wolves 20. tooth/teeth 21. mouse/mice 22. foot/feet 23. fish/fish 24. shelf/shelves

3. 1. a box of matches 2. a bunch of flowers 3. a tin of baked beans 4. a packet of cigarettes/paper tissues 5. a bar of chocolate 6. a tube of toothpaste 7. a loaf of bread 8. a roll of film 9. a jar of jam 10. a packet of paper tissues/cigarettes 11. a pint of beer 12. a pair of trousers 13. a can of coke 14. a piece of information

4. 1 have bread 2 often hard work 3 with chicken 4 news isn’t good 5 a bit of advice 6 The police are coming. 7 different weather 8 luggage 9 Let’s go to a club. 10 is good advice.

5. 1. There is litter all over the place. 2. We had good weather on our holiday. 3. There are a lot of people in this city. 4. He has a lot of experience in this field. 5. There was a lot of traffic on the way to Budapest. 6. He had a lot of courage to climb up the tree. 7. As there wasn’t any accommodation, we slept on a bench.

6. 1. hair 2. a hair 3. papers 4. a paper 5. bad luck 6. works 7. baggage 8. experience 9. experiences 10. damage

Writing 1. firstly 2. indeed 3. moreover 4. secondly 5. in spite of 6. to make matters worse 7. although

Picture descriptions Picture 1 1. price reduction 2. at a low price 3. under one roof 4. shopping spree 5. unwind 6. leisure facilities 7. within easy reach from 8. window shopping 9. shop windows 10. on display

Picture 2 1. flea market 2. located 3. stalls 4. wholesalers 5. smallholders 6. bazaar 7. bartered 8. treasures 9. ripe 10. rotten 11. receipt


Unit 6

Unit 6 Food and cooking 3.A Listening 6.1 (track 19) 1. T

2. F

3. F

4. Not Stated

5. T

6. Not Stated 7. T

8. F

9. T

10. F

4. 1. cheap and nasty 2. gastropubs 3. cosy 4. quality 5. bland. 6. jumble 7. deep-fried 8. savoury 9. fillings 10. kippers 11. hearty 12. leans 13. ritual. 14. caffeine. 15. percolated 16. convenience 17. gravy 18. sponge

7.A 1. Spaghetti Bolognese 2. Fisherman’s soup 3. Scrambled eggs

Healthy diet 2. B 1. processed meats 2. lard 3. lean meats 4. wholemeal, refined grain 5. fibre 6. low-fat, skimmed

4. Listening 1. C

2. C

3. B

4. A

5. C

6. B

7. C

8. A

9. A

10. B

Illnesses, symptoms, and treatments 1. Possible answers: Cold: sore throat, runny nose, mild temperature, stuffy nose, feeling tired, sneezing Flu: shivering, sore throat, runny nose, feel dizzy, have high temperature, stuffy nose, pain in the joints, aching muscles, feeling tired, fever, sneezing Migraine: feeling queasy, vomiting, puking, throbbing pain in the head, Heart attack: shivering, feeling dizzy, high blood pressure, pain in the chest Food poisoning: loss of appetite, feeling queasy, upset stomach, vomiting, puking, diarrhoea, Allergies: runny nose, stuffy nose, itchy throat, sneezing

2.B Listening 6.3 (track 21) 1. tonsillitis 2. pneumonia 3. stroke

3. A 1. d

2. b

3. c

4. a

3.B 1. under the weather 2. recharge my batteries 3. on the road to recovery 4. as right as rain 22

Unit 6

4.A A. Common cold B. Food poisoning C. High blood pressure

B. 1. F (There are other possible treatments like resting, chicken soup, etc.) 2. T 3. T 4. F (You have to drink water in small doses.) 5. DS 6. F (Flavoured yoghurt will irritate your stomach.) 7. DS 8. F (It doesn’t take a long time to see a difference.) 9. F (The more weight you lose, the lower your blood pressure will be.) 10. T

At the doctor’s 1. 1. optician 2. dentist 3. plastic surgeon 4. dermatologist 5. cardiologist 6. GP 7. surgeon 8. dietician 9. vet 10. paediatrician

2. 1. cure 2. check-up 3. infection 4. appointment 5. assistant 6. symptoms 7. examines 8. thermometer 9. stethoscope 10. diagnose 11. chemist’s 12. painkillers 13. recovery

At the hospital 1. 1. carry out 2. theatre 3. recovery room 4. surgeon 5. patient 6. anaesthetist 7. operation table 8. suit 9. mask 10. scalpel

2. A. obstetrics B. gynaecology C. oncology D. cardiology E. psychiatry F. Accident and Emergency G. Ear-nose-throat

3. 1. Through taxation and by the HIF. 2. They pay monthly contributions to the HIF from their salaries. 3. Health card. 4. Diseases of the circulatory system, tumours 5. To get better treatment, the attention of the doctor and other services. 6. Private clinics are well-equipped but expensive. Cosmetic and dental treatment is very popular among foreigners because of the price. 7. Duty, ambulance service, patient transport, rehabilitation etc.

Alternative medicine 2. A:4








2. I

3. G

4. H

5. D

6. E

7. K

8. L

3. 1. C


9. F

10. J

Unit 6

6. B 1. got an unusual prescription 2. her husband had to take care of her 3. African medicine woman. / spiritual adviser 4. were revolving around her illness 5. supportive phone call to a friend. 6. to create a website. 7. hungry people and food shelters 8. gives free consulting time 9. walk without a cane 10. depression, pain and fatigue

Grammar 1. 1was stolen 2 entered 3 created 4 be discussed 5 won, was assassinated 6 arrived, was interviewed 7 have been given, had been announced 8. are missed

2. 1 This table is only used at Christmas. 2 Free drinks will be served at the party. 3 My aunt’s cat is going to be looked after. 4 By the time I arrived home the house had been cleaned. 5 You are expected to co-operate with them. 6 The same catalogue was sent to us twice. 7 Some money was being stolen from the till when I entered the shop. 8 A new marketing manager was appointed last week. 9 The famous film star’s life has been saved by bodyguards. 10 A lot of the work is being done by students.

3. 1. has been 2. took 3. was first made 4. made 5. was originally intended 6. be invented 7. sold 8. contained 9. was originally made 10. included 11 had been used 12. sells

4. 1 A glass of wine is thought to be good for you. 2 It is believed that the fire was caused by a drunken man. 3 Cameras are not allowed in the museum. 4 Paul hasn’t been seen since the day of his dismissal. 5 Jack the ripper was being followed by the police. 6 You should get you nails cut. 7 People are going to be excited by the new trend. 8 Were teachers promised a higher salary again?

5. 1. Jane is having her hair cut at the moment. 2. They had their wedding reception organised by caterers. 24

Unit 6 3. He has had his car stolen. 4. I will have my eyes tested 5. I haven’t had my car taken to the garage for a long time. 6. I had champagne spilt over my shirt in the restaurant. 7. I had one of my wisdom tooth pulled out. 8. We are having the new central heating put in on Monday

Speaking Picture 3 1. herbal 2. remedy 3. cure-all. 4. nauseating 5. healing power 6. conventional 7. pills. 8. airways. 9. specialist 10. cure

Answers to the questions. a) When he/she is ill. b) They refuse conventional medicine and prefer alternative ones. c) With less serious illnesses he/she cures him/herself at home and in case of serious illnesses or emergency he/she goes to the doctor. d) With tea, fruits, chicken soup and rest.

Picture 5 1. ward 2. unconscious 3. infusion 4. appendicitis 5. dull pain 6. ambulance 7. anaesthetic 8. stretcher 9. operating theatre 10. fatal

Answers to the questions. a) Because the doctor seems optimistic. b) A time when he was in hospital. c) He felt sick and had dull pain in his stomach. d) They are highly qualified and leave the country.


Unit 7

Unit 7 Types of Sports 4. 1. Play is used with ball games or competitive games where you play against another person. e.g. play: baseball, basketball, billiards, golf, tennis, rugby, poker, etc. 2. Do is used for recreational sports or a non-team sport where no ball is involved. e.g. Do: boxing, judo, aerobics, body building, etc. 3. Go is used with activities that end in –ing. We go somewhere to do something. e.g. Go: sledging, sailing, water-skiing, etc.

6.A 1. fishing/angling 2. fencing 3. golf 4. boxing 5. archery 6. football/soccer 7. weightlifting 8. horse riding 9. sailing 10. skiing

6. C 1. pitch 2. stadium 3. courts 4. track 5. course 6. ring 7. pool 8. field 9. rink 10. slope 11. circuit

7. A Idioms a) lay your cards on the table: tell someone honestly what you think or plan to do b) hit below the belt: do something unfair c) do something on the spur of the moment: do something suddenly, without planning d) not in the same league: inferior to someone or something e) play by the rules: follow the generally accepted rule

7. B 1. I always play by the rules when I play poker. I cannot accept cheating in any form. 2. I did it on the spur of the moment. I didn’t want to knock him out. I just wanted to talk with him. 3. He hit below the belt in the argument when he started to criticize her appearance. 4. She thought that it was time to lay her cards on the table and tell him that she had no intention of marrying him. 5. My four-year-old computer is not in the same league as the latest machines.

Sports in Britain 3. 1. I

2. G

3. M

4. K

5. E

6. A

7. D

8. L

Team vs Individual sports 2. Listening 7.1 (track 24) 1. he broke his wrist. 2. favourite sport is 3. solitary sports 4. the thrill of victory 26

9. C

10. H

Unit 7 5. losing and relying on her group mates 6. encourage and motivate him 7. are equally shared 8. trainers 9. organize a session 10. teamwork and leadership

Rules of the game 1. Soccer/football 1. half-time 2. defends 3. goal 4. field 5. strikers 6. dribble 7. referee 8. centre circle 9. score 10. penalty area 11. commits a fault Tennis 1. court 2. indoors or outdoors 3. net 4. racket 5. boundaries 6. return 7. serve 8. game 9. set 10. match Handball 1. attack 2. defence 3. passing 4. permitted 5. trip 6. opponents 7. gain control

Extreme sports 2. 1. D

2 .B

3. D

4. C

5. A

6. A

7. B

8. B

9. C 10. A, C

8. B.

9. A

3. a) coin b) propel c) durable d) assemble e) hurtle

7. Listening 7.2 (track 25) 1. B

2. B

3. A

4. A

5. C

6. C

7. A

10. C

8.A verb equip oppose practise support compete participate achieve train

person --------------opponent --------------supporter competitor participant achiever trainer

adjective equipped opposing practiced supportive competitive --------------achievable trainable

Noun equipment --------------practice support competition participation achievement training

8. B 1. competitor 2. achievement 3. opponent 4. support 5. equipped 6. achievable


Unit 7

Grammar 1. 1. knew 2. would have burnt 3. started 4. would stop 5. have 6. won 7. had 8. had known, would have met 9. would happen, wouldn’t be able to, would happen, wouldn’t be able to see 10. wouldn’t make 11. had told 12. wouldn’t have bought 13. would keep 14. wouldn’t do 15. would buy, had 16. doesn’t stop 17. didn’t use 18. goes

2. a) I wouldn’t……. have got wet if I’d had an umbrella with me. b) Unless ….. people lock the doors of their houses there won’t be fewer burglaries. c) If he hadn’t…forgotten to put his watch on, he wouldn’t have been late. d) If….it is raining, we don’t go for walks. e) If I were….you, I wouldn’t do business with those guys. f) If ….. you hadn’t helped me, I wouldn’t have been able to escape from prison. g) Provided….you leave now, you’ll catch the train. h) If… you hadn’t changed your clothes, you could have got a cold.

4. a) I wish I had studied more at the weekend for the maths test. b) I wish I didn’t spend all my money on clothes. c) I wish I hadn’t been late again. d) I wish I had been more careful. Writing 2. 1. would 2. were 3. would 4.could 5. would 6. go 7. are 8. will 9. would

Speaking Picture 1 1. prolongs 2. reduce 3. stamina 4. social contact 5. obesity 6. ordinary 7. incorporate 8. cope with

Answers to the questions. a) By improving stamina and mental health. b) They become overweight/obese. c) You can cope with ordinary tasks like shopping, gardening, etc. easier. d) She/He can cope with stress easier and she/he doesn’t smoke.

Picture 3 1. slope 2. crazy about 3. resort 4. equipment 5. goggles 6. protect 7. summit 8. descend

Answers to the questions. a) It gives him freedom. b) Up-to-date equipment such as proper skis, boots, poles and goggles. c) You have to warm-up. d) He is more careful now.


Unit 8

Unit 8 Leisure Time 3. Possible solutions: Watch: films, plays, football matches, television, sporting events Listen to: music, CD’s, the radio Play: chess, video games, board games, card games, computer games, golf, tennis Go: jogging, potholing, fishing, angling, shopping, hiking, horse riding, cycling, sailing, canoeing, for a walk, Collect: postcards, works of art, stamps, napkins, antiques, coins, paintings, CDs, magazines, comics Go to: the theatre, the cinema, concerts, shows, the pub, the library, museums, art galleries, football matches, nightclubs, restaurants Read: magazines, books, newspapers, comics, journals Take: photographs

Books/ E-books and the Internet 2. 1. fairy tale 2. travel book 3. romance 4. science fiction 5. autobiography

4. 1. compulsory 2. obligatory 3. library catalogue database 4. audio books 5. archives 6. devour 7. whodunits 8. resist the temptation 9. volume 10. hard-cover 11. paper-backs, 12. position

Books vs. the Internet and e-books What are e-books? An electronic book is a book length-publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, readable on computers or other electronic devices such as e-book readers, mobile phones and PCs.

2. A Listening 8.1 (track 26) 1. Sam: People don’t have enough time to read therefore they want to read things fast because they are always in a hurry. On the Internet they can read many articles quickly. 2. Janet: It is much easier to find information on the Internet. You can also download books easily. 3. Rafael: E-books are much cheaper (or sometimes free) than buying newspapers, magazines or books. 4. Tom: We can save lots of trees if we read on the Internet because there is no need for paper. 5. Alia: E-books are cheap and easy to store. 6. Evelyn: On the Internet you can find all the information you need. It is fast, easy and updated. You can even start your interactive blog.

Musical taste and music trends 2. 1. Heavy Metal 2. Rap 3. Heavy Metal 4. Pop 5. Heavy Metal 6. Rap 7. Rap 8. Rap 9. Rap 10. Rap 11. Pop 12. Rock and Roll 13. Pop 14. Rock and Roll 15. Heavy Metal 29

Unit 8

5.A a) catchy tunes b) debut album c) live performance d) blast out from e) pop idol f) massive hit g) piece of music h) release a CD i) haunting melodies j) musical talent

5.B 1. live performance 2. massive hit 3. musical talent 4. haunting melodies 5. catchy tune 6. released a CD 7. debut album 8. piece of music 9. pop idol 10. blasting out from

6. A Listening 8.2 (track 27) 1. pocket money 2. permission 3. musical film 4. original bands 5. sales alone 6. delayed 7. her basement 8. recording contract 9. abandon 10. disappointed

7.C 1. She is as successful as ever./She shows no signs of slowing down. 2. She started her music career. / Her first album was released. 3. Next 3 consecutive number 1 records. 4. To promote the new album. 5. She would be a guest star. 6. Autobiographical elements. 7. Hip-hop and dance. 8. Originality. 9. Hunger for knowledge and curiosity. 10. To learn from them.

7. D 1. ensure 2. dub 3. staggering 4. a rollercoaster 5. acclaim 6. upstage 7. collaborate 8. out of the ordinary 9. take something for granted 10. via 11. curiosity 12. claim 13. retain

Watching TV 3. 1. screen 2. quarrel over 3. couch potato 4. digital cable 5. channels 6. keeps me informed 7. news bulletin 8. commercial 9. third-rate 10. insipid 11. broadcast 12. sitcoms 13. detective series 14. remote control 15. viewer Are you addicted to watching TV?

2. 1. Her self-esteem, health, career and relationships. 2. To be sociable, to fit in with family and friends. 3. By saying that she could stop watching TV any time. 4. She watched shows about TV addiction. 5. She was relieved. 6. To watch more movies/for more premier channels. 7. She is blamed for watching TV while being pregnant. 8. The media and advertisers.

Films/Cinema/Theatre 2.A 1 film 2 multi-screen 3 selection 4 glasses 5 screen 6 foyer 7 poster 8 office 9 tickets 10 admission 11 promotion 12 usher 13 auditorium 14 aisle 15 down 16 row 17 trailers 18 stars 19 role 20 performance 21 audience 30

Unit 8

3.A 1 theatregoer 2 play 3 in advance 4 cast 5 musical 6 cloakroom 7 usherette 8 curtain 9 out 10 stage 11 orchestra 12 circle 13 acts 14 intervals 15 applause 16 curtain calls

4.B Listening 8.3 (track 28) 1. To create something new. 2. To create characters. 3. He is a fan of these films. 4. Fine arts. 5. He could use his artistic skills./He could create characters. 6. They make ground-breaking special effects. 7. The script, the actors and the director. 8. They are tools to tell the story. 9. To the Bible. 10. It was all about effects. / There was no real story.

Grammar 1. 1. making 2. not to notice 3. to take , rolling off 4. speaking 5. to make, rubbing, be able to live. 6. to see 7. seeing 8. to eat 9. to return, to win 10. staying 11. blaming 12. to become 13. to forget, thinking 14. smoking 15. talking 16. to finish 17. to be working 18. to help 19. cleaning 20. barking

2. 1. Maria ……….. suggested going to the cinema./ suggested that we go to the cinema. 2. My neighbour … threatened to call the police. 3. I ……avoid travelling by plane because...... I’m scared of flying. 4. I …….. regret to inform you that… 5. Did you … remember to lock the door before… you left the house? 6. I …. suggest taking the train ….. instead of the bus in this traffic jam. 7. I… look forward to coming ………. back here next year. 8. She …. warned him/her not to touch…. that wire. 9. Jack.. denied cheating…in the competition. 10. Would you …mind showing me how this CD player…….. works?

3. 1. travelling, to buy 2. talking, to show 3. to tell, working 4. to have, smoking 5. to pay, taking 6. to inform, not going 7. to spend, going out 8. to hurt, shouting 9. taking, to get 10. to talk, making

4. 1. doing 2. to change 3. doing 4. to give up 5. to be 6. telling 7. being 8. doing 9. to possess 10. doing


Unit 8

Writing 1. good/interesting brilliant outstanding superb fascinating fantastic

bad awful appalling dreadful terrible

funny amusing witty hilarious humorous

sad touching sorrowful tragic moving

boring dull tedious

exciting thrilling fast-paced gripping

2. 1.unique 2.perspective 3.unravelled 4.touching 7.fascinating/appealing 8.appealing/fascinating





5. Plot/story

Script Positive Characters Negative

shocking, tragic, engrossing, overcomplicated, boring, entertaining , thrilling, unimaginative, predictable, weak poorly written, well-written, realistic, excellent, unimaginative, original, likeable, humorous, convincing, realistic shallow, weak, predictable,

6. 1. intricate 2. mind-blowing 3. impressive 4. groundbreaking 5. breathtaking 6. incredible 7. blockbusters

Speaking 2. 1. card game 2. bar counter 3. raise the stake 4. hide 5. socialize 6. tension 7. involve 8. beneficial 9. absorbed 10. pursue 11. release 12. pleasure 13. broadens

Answers to the questions. 1. Because everybody is silently concentrating on the game. 2. Because the others always know if he has good cards or not. 3. They can be grouped as passive or active, or solitary or community leisure activities 4. Passive leisure activities are those where we don’t use any physical or mental energy. They are good ways of relaxing but they don’t improve physical and mental health. Active leisure activities involve using physical and mental energy. They are much more beneficial to our health combined with healthy eating and lifestyle. 5. Physical activities help him to release stress and tension.


Unit 9

Unit 9 Communication 3. 1. speak 2. tell 3. tell 4. talking 5. told 6. tell, tell 7. speak 8. say 9. talking 10. say

Mobile Madness 5. 1. G

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. E

6. F

7. A

8. J

9. H

10. K

6. 1 gadget 2 ringtone 3 disposable income 4 unaffordable 5 gimmicks 6 quintupled

Social networking 2.A 1. News Feed 2. Friends Online 3. Share 4. Ad 5. Like 6. Tag Photos 7. Profile 8. Poke 9. Wall 10. Account 11. Log out

4. Listening 9.1 (track 29) 1. B

2. B

3. C

4. A

5. B

6. B

7. D

8. C

Global English 2.A Listening 9.2 (track 30) Possible answers: 1. It is the main language of the media. 2. It is used in science. 3. It is the main language of the Internet. 4. It is widely used in music and literature. 5. It is the language of many governments and organizations.

3. 1. We understand the need for a global language but we also consider our mother tongue important as … it is part of our national identity. 2. Some languages that used to be a lingua franca are still used in.. trade, diplomacy or religion. 3. The political metaphor about the elephant means that the English language… can unintentionally harm speakers of minor languages. 4. Some people are unhappy with the global position of English as they …feel that they might lose their cultural identity. 5. Multilingualism means…using more than one language. 6. Compared to race and religion, linguistic rivalry is…the third most common source of conflict. 7. If people who speak a minor language want to benefit from the global economy, they …should learn a major language.


Unit 9

4. 1. regardless of 2. dishonoured 3. minority 4. identity 5. novelty 6. lingua franca 7. rivalry 8. vernacular tongue 9. reluctance

6. 1. make a speech 2. give your word 3. crack a joke 4. a quick word 5. a brief chat 6. lengthy discussion 7. drop a hint 8. change the subject 9. ask a favour 10. get into conversation

The Press 3. 1. lonely hearts 2. personal column 3. review 4. agony column 5. leading article 6. classified ad 7. editorial 8. centrefold 9. Situations Vacant 10. comic strip

4. 1. By delivery from paper boys and girls 2. It was immediately available via the Internet. 3. They are only published on Sundays. 4. That until the 90s, only newsagents were allowed to open on Sundays. 5. Human interest stories, scandals, sex. 6. At paper-folding. 7. Self-censorship and laws of publication. 8. By using gimmicks, and having competitions. 9. Because of reduced circulation and loss of advertising revenues. 10. It’s free and often delivered directly to homes.


1. a) I told her I had something to show her. b) Rupert said (that) he had been in London for a month but he hadn’t met the Queen yet. c) Peter told Jim they had moved into their flat the day before. d) Michael told me he was going to read a book that week. e) He told Joan she could keep that one if she liked. f) Helen told Alice she had spent all her pocket money the Monday before.

2. a) ‘I lost my purse last night, George,’ said Angela b) ‘I will see you tomorrow, Tim,’ said Graham. c) ‘I couldn’t get into the house because I had lost my keys,’ Bill said to John. d) ‘Christina, I have never loved anyone so much in my life,’ David said. e) ‘By the time I got there everybody had disappeared,’ said the woman. f) ‘I am not going to lend you money again, Jill,’ said Thomas.


Unit 9

3. a) Could you tell me….what you think of Paris? b) Could you possibly tell me… where the railway station is? c) Could you tell me ….if this bus goes to the airport? d) Can you explain…how I get/how to get to the city centre? e) Would you mind telling me… how old you are?

4. a) The policeman asked me… what she had been wearing when I last saw her. b) Amanda asked the examiner…when she would know the results of the examination. c) Anna asked me.. if I had seen the library. d) The guys asked Paul… if he would like to join their bowling club. e) Mr Jones asked the car dealer.. how much a new Ferrari cost. f) The waiter asked me ..if I was enjoying my meal. g) He asked her…why she thought it might be dangerous. h) He wanted to know ……whether/if they had understood what I had said to them.

5 a) warned b) refused c) confessed d) accused e) admitted f) suggested g) advised

6. a) I doubt ..that you are my type. b) Maggie threatened…to pinch me very hard if I wore her T-shirt again. c) Jill apologised ..for being late again. d) Cecilia insisted ….on not helping with the shopping because she had already arranged to meet her friend. e) Wendy reminded ..Sue to buy some milk. f) William denied ..ever having been in prison.

Speaking 2. Picture 1 1. affairs 2. gossip 3. headlines 4. circulation 5. sensational 6. false reports 7. scandals 8. fabricate 9. subscriber 10. gain

Answers to the questions. a) Popular papers because people are more interested in sensational news. b) Sex, sport and crime. c) Because she prefers accurate news, not just hoaxes. d) When there is gossip about her favourite actors or singers. e) By fabricating stories.

Picture 4 1. conveys 2. broadcasting 3. connection 4. updated 5. tool 6. widespread 7. globe 8. journal 9. account 10. gadgets

Answers to the questions. a) The media used for addressing or communicating with the masses. b) Social networking, video sharing and blogs. c) To keep us informed and updated. d) It’s able to change public opinion and influence people. e) Their favourite subjects, accounts of their daily happenings, their favourite links, and comments. 35

Unit 10

Unit 10 Holidays 2. Types of holidays 1. package tour 2. backpacking 3. cruise 4. camping 5. adventure

Picture 1 3 2 5 4

Description B A D E C

3.A Listening 10.1 (track 31) 1. Tony: adventure 2. Suzy: cruise 3. Sam: package tour 4. Peter: backpacking 5. Sandra: camping

3.B a) Suzy b) Tony c) Sandra d) Tony e) Peter f) Sam g) Suzy h) Peter

7. Voyage: b)

Journey: a)

Travel: c)

Trip: d) Break: e)

8. A 1. sunbathing 2. skiing 3. fishing 4. cycling 5. scuba diving

10. B Listening 10.2 (track 32) 1. was to cheer herself up / didn’t have the opportunity as a child. 2. didn’t have enough money 3. going back to your childhood. 4. achieve her childhood dream. 5. a high-speed roller coaster. 6. ghosts and evil spirits. 7. utopian city of the future. 8. Disney character merchandise. 9. roller skates. 10. want to be a child again

Tourism and tourists 2. 1. G

2. C

3. I

4. D

2. b

3. c

4. a

5. A

6. L

7. F

8. E

9. B

10. H

6.A 1. d

6.B 1. lost my heart 2. globetrotter 3. in the middle of nowhere 4. live out of a suitcase 36

Unit 10

Transportation 1. a) trolleybus b) coach c) tram d) double-decker e) train f) taxi g) shuttle bus

2. 1. On the one hand 2. another problem is that/what’s more 3. What’s more/Another problem is that 4. in addition 5. On the other hand 6. However 7. As for

5. For the answers, check the vocabulary list. 6. 1. flight attendants 2. check-in. 3. departure lounge. 4. check-in counter 5. excess fee. 6. cabin baggage 7. boarding pass 8. waiting lounge 9. take off 10. duty free 11 board 12. runway 13. turbulence 14. airsick 15. one-way ticket 16 return ticket 17. ticket inspector 18. punch 19. compartment 20. first class

Driving and Cars 2. a) SUV b) pick up c) estaté car d) hatchback e) saloon f) MPV g) convertible h) lorry

6.A Listening 10.3 (track 33) 1. Because after that age, it’s more and more difficult to learn how to drive. 2. You have to learn a complex series of physical movements. 3. A medical certificate. 4. The Highway Code and basic mechanics. 5 How to check whether the heart is beating / how to give artificial respiration / how to bandage wounds. 6. Driving in the city, because you have to apply everything that you have learned.

7.A 1. downshift into a lesser gear 2. apply the brake 3. release the handbrake 4. move the gear leveler into neutral (position) 5. turn on the ignition 6. fasten your seat belt 7. change gears 8. press the accelerator 9. indicate/signal left or right 10. adjust the position of the seat

7. B a) adjust the position of the seat b) fasten your seat belt c) move the gear lever into neutral (position) d) Turn on the ignition, indicate left or right e) Apply the brake, release the handbrake f) press the accelerator g) change gears h) downshift into a lesser gear

8. 1. the basics and how to drive with a trained instructor. 2. to familiarize yourself with. 3. by a line diagram on the gear shift. 4. still holding the clutch pedal down. 5. use the clutch 37

Unit 10 6. change into a higher gear. 7. press down the clutch. 8. open spaces where there’s no traffic.

Rules of the road 3. 1. the Highway Code. 2. forget to drive on the left. 3. are wearing seat belts or child restraints. 4. are not allowed to drive a manual car. 5. your doctor permits it. 6. slow traffic down. 7. go within the speed limit. 8. you get points for speeding offenses 9. enter traffic or change lanes. 10. safe stopping distances.

6.A 1. dead end 2. at a crossroads 3. road hog 4. hit the road 5. on the right/wrong track

6.B 1. dead end. 2. road-hog. 3. hit the road 4. at a crossroads. 5. on the right track.

Travel-related accidents 1. e) In 2009, 17862 people were injured and 822 people died on the roads.

3. 1. Weather and road conditions, drivers and pedestrians’ behaviour, the condition of the vehicle. 2. They are overconfident, take more risks and believe they can handle whatever comes their way. 3. When passengers don’t wear seat belts. 4. The one’s who is responsible for the accident.

4.A Possible answers: Road accidents: reckless driving, inexperience, inattentiveness, using hand-held mobile phones, loud music, slippery roads, rubbernecking, intoxication, mechanical failure, inclement weather conditions, animals, human error, fatigue, influence of drugs or medicine Aviation accidents: inexperience, inattentiveness, intoxication, mechanical failure, inclement weather conditions, hijacking, human error, turbulence, fatigue, influence of drugs or medicine Rail accidents: inexperience, inattentiveness, intoxication, mechanical failure, inclement weather conditions, human error, fatigue, influence of drugs or medicine


Unit 10

Grammar 1. 1. was able to 2. was able to, can’t 3. Can, could, can’t 4. will be able to 5. been able to 6. be able to 7. can/could 8. can’t, could 9. been able to 10. will be able to

2. 1. you need to pay 2. I will be able to / may /might have a little rest. 3. have to be left outside 4. Ok. 5. should 6. Ok 7. You can’t be serious. 8. Ok 9. needn’t have opened it 10. Ok.

3. 1. I think you .. had better give up…. drinking. 2. He …must have been frightened …… in the haunted castle. 3. .. Do I have to wear this…….. ridiculous dress to the party? 4. You…shouldn’t have sold your…… car. 5. He … can’t be a cheater… He is a very honest person. 6. No one … was allowed to visit … the prisoner since Friday. 7. She…may have seen me drinking ………. in the pub. 8. Sally … might/may not have enjoyed her holiday……… by the sea.

4. 1. Peter should have arrived long ago. 2. Your dog must have broken my expensive wine glass collection. 3. You needn’t have done the hoovering. 4. They can’t have eaten all the sandwiches. 5. Might Jack and Jill have divorced? 6. She might have eaten a lot of ice cream. 7. You mustn’t/can’t park here. 8. Mary can swim freestyle.

Writing 2. 1 has 2 had planned 3 didn’t have 4 had been predicted 5 had packed 6 arrived 7 were 8 had 9 were being played 10 had to wait 11 got 12 wanted 13 didn’t do

Speaking 3. Picture 1 1. precautions 2. economical 3. emit 4. inexpensive 5. burn 6. pass 7. pavement 8. fast-paced 9. commuting 10. environmentalists

Answers to the questions. a) Because they are wearing helmets and are riding in the bicycle lane. b) It is environmentally friendly and economical. It is cheap and healthy and you can go around the traffic. c) It is dangerous as there are many cars on the roads. The air you breathe in is polluted. You cannot use it in all seasons. It’s too slow in our fast-paced world. d) Generally by bus or his/her parents take him/her. Rarely he/she can take the family car. e) Because he/she thinks he/she will never go anywhere without a car in the future. 39

Unit 10

Picture 2 1. terminal building 2. check in 3. holidaymaker 4. accommodate 5. facilities 6. sightseeing 7. relaxing 8. have a break 9. destination 10. jet lag

Answers to the questions. a) No because they have to work and don’t have much time for pleasure. b) Sunshine, the beach, beautiful scenery, and relaxation. c) To relax, have a break, and leave everything behind. d) Advantages: convenient, fast, safe. Disadvantages: can be expensive, jet-lag


Unit 11

Unit 11 Weather 1. Possible answers: shower: d, b downpour: d gale: a heatwave: e breeze: a drizzle: d sleet: b, d blizzard: b hail: d frost: c boiling: e damp: d fog: c chilly: c mist: d storm: a, b, d humid: e blazing: f sweltering: e cloudburst: d slush: b unbearable: e

3. A 1. cats and dogs 2. a storm in a teacup 3. put the wind up me 4. it never rains but it pours 5. on cloud nine

Weather forecasts 1. a) Fish bite more before a rainstorm. b) If the Groundhog comes out of his hole and sees his shadow, winter will last for 6 more weeks. c) bees stay close to their hives when a summer rainstorm is on the way. d) Clear moon, frost soon. e) When a cat sneezes, rain is on the way. f) Dew on the grass, rain won't come to pass. g) Chimney smoke descends, our nice weather ends.

Extreme weather 1.A 1. C

2. A

3. A

4. C

5. B

6. C

3. 1. Because they worry about it. 2. There were lots of heavy rainstorms and floods in Europe and drought in the USA. 3. It would cost the country billions of dollars. 4. They say it is normal, regional changes. 5. By losing coastal lands and destroying forests. 6. Extremes in weather have quadrupled. 7. These gases trap energy, so it can’t go back into space. 8. Human activities. 9. Because the problem needs a global solution. 10. The effects of pollution wouldn’t disappear for at least 100 years.

4. 1. hence 2. impact 3. erratic 4. spare 5. ran amok 6. attributable 7. concern 8. apparent 9. wreak havoc 10. severe 11. quadrupled 12. precipitation 41

Unit 11

Weather and its effects 4. Listening 11.1 (track 35) 1. She is in a good mood. 2. Her shoulder hurts. 3. She just smiles at them. 4. To know if they will feel achy or not. 5. Old, young, and chronically ill people. 6. Arthritis and migraines. 7. Suicide and depression rates. 8. Some feel energetic and excited. 9. By sunlight, exercise, diet, and understanding your body. 10. Recharge yourself with the healing energy of the sun.

Environmental problems and dangers 3.A 1. rainforests 2. cut down 3. cattle 4. habitat 5. barren deserts 6. greenhouse gases 7. droughts 8. destructive 9. glaciers 10. fossil fuels 11. deplete 12. fish stocks 13. natural habitats 14. destruction 15. extinction

3. B 1. Agriculture. Farmers need more space for planting crops or grazing cattle. 2. Certain gases trap heat in the atmosphere and warm up the Earth. 3. By burning fossil fuels and emitting greenhouse gases. 4. To protect humans and other living things from ultraviolet rays. 5. Their natural habitats are destroyed. 6. Destruction of forests: loss of habitat, soil dries out, no absorption of greenhouse gases Global warming and the greenhouse effect: increase in global temperature, more persistent heatwaves and droughts, more destructive hurricanes, destruction of ecosystems, rise in sea level, The thinning ozone layer: causes skin cancer and cataracts, reduces levels of plankton, decreasing fish stocks

3. C Destruction of forests: illegal logging, acid rain, cattle raising, emissions from factories Global warming: heavy traffic, deforestation, burning of fossil fuels, air travel The thinning ozone layer: using aerosol sprays, deforestation, burning of fossil fuels, population growth Extinction of species: destruction of natural habitats, poaching, overfishing

Pollution 5. Possible answers: Air pollution: burning of fossil fuels for heating, vehicles emitting exhaust fumes, incinerators, power plant smokestacks, aerosol sprays Water pollution: oil spills from tankers, ships, detergents in domestic sewage, untreated sewage Soil pollution: illegal dumping (hazardous toxic and industrial waste), spilled fuels and chemicals, chemical fertilizers, mining, untreated sewage Light pollution: over-illuminated buildings, electronic billboards Noise pollution: construction work, loud pubs and bars, the sound of automobiles, trains and aircrafts, the sound of industrial machinery 42

Unit 11

6.C Possible answers: Air pollution: lung cancer, respiratory diseases, acid rain Light, noise pollution: disturb sleeping Water pollution: lakes and rivers are unfit for swimming

Soil: vegetables grown in polluted soil are harmful Environmental protection and green living 2.B Listening 11.2 (Track 36) 1. Earth’s resources 2. washing your vegetables and dishes 3. two-thirds 4. energy efficient 5. they are not being used 6. they are switched off 7. emissions 8. efficiently 9. protect

4.A 1 to dispose of sth, 2. to suffer from sth, 3 in danger 4. under threat 5. harmful to 6. affected by sth/sb 7. responsible for 8. discharge into

Recycling 2. Listening 11.3 (Track 37 ) 1. industrialisation and urbanisation 2. in a throw-away world 3. poisonous substances 4. the hazardous gases produced by burning waste 5. by factories which emit poisonous gases 6. it cannot be disposed of 7. conserving materials and energy by using things again 8. doesn’t decay 9. toilet paper, egg cartons, packaging materials, and paper bags 10. collect waste selectively

3. 1. urbanisation 2. sewage 3. dumping 4. municipal waste 5. dispose of 6. compost 7. acid rain 8. decay 9. conserve 10. hazardous 6.A 1. Operates waste yards in Budapest. 2. Preventative actions. 3. To educate Hungarian Citizens on environmental issues and change their attitudes toward waste management. 4. Consumption and consumption-generating advertisements. 5. If conditions were better. 6. Lack of room. The separation process is complicated. Collection points are too far away. Lack of information.


Unit 11

6.B 3500 – tonnes of waste was selected in 2004 903 – the number of selective waste collection points in Budapest 18 – the number of environmental groups that make HuMusz 70 – the percentage of people who said they would be willing to collect waste selectively if the conditions were right 26 – the percentage of people who said they are lacking information about where to find collection sites 650,000 – tonnes of communal waste in Budapest 1000 – the number of schools and public institutions where there are dry cell battery collection bins Alternative Energy 2. 1D

2 J

3. I

4. B

5. E

6. F

7. L

8. K

9. A

10. H

3. 1. contribute 2. deterioration 3. deplete 4. constant 5. remote 6. abundant 7. damming 8. affordable 9. consumption

Grammar 1. 1. Wrong: that/which I bought last month 2. Wrong: for which or which I paid £2000 for. 3. Ok 4. Wrong: who is very tall 5. Ok 6. Wrong: that goes to the city centre 7. Ok 8. Wrong: whose brother I went 9. Ok 10. Ok

2. 1. which 2. what, which 3. whose 4. whom 5. ----- 6. ------ 7. where 8. ----- 9. what, what 10. which 11. who

3. 1. Thank you very much.... for the postcard which/that you sent me. 2. His new CD .......... , which was released two months ago, is a big success. 3. This is Mr Jones ................., whose son was the champion last year. 4 James ..., who had been driving all day, was tired and wanted to stop. 5. Jack .., whose car had broken down, had to take the train. 6. The book I ...lent you was written by a friend of mine who lives in Hungary. 7. The things, ... which/that I left in my car, aren’t there anymore. 8. My neighbours, ... whose three dogs make a lot of noise, never apologise. 9. The pilot, ...who had ignored the warning messages sent, flew the plane into a storm and crashed it. 10. The new ... car, which I bought, cost me a fortune. 44

Unit 11

Writing 3. 1. Fortunately 2. One way would be 3. therefore 4. Another solution would be 5. By doing this 6. The most effective way to 7. All things considered

Speaking Picture 2 1. unique 2. landscape 3. snowball 4. fancy 5. awakening 6 .blossoms 7. fluctuation 8. mild 9. swelteringly

Answers to the questions. 1. Snowball fights and makes snow angels. 2. Because it’s great to warm up after winter. 3. Summers have become hotter and winters colder. 4. Global warming.

Picture 5 1. smokestacks 2. pollutants 3. source 4. respiratory 5. extinction 6. sewage 7. landfills 8. threats 9. sort 10. reverse

Answers to the questions. 1. Factories and vehicles emitting smoke and exhaust fumes into the air and burning of fossil fuels. 2. Respiratory and other diseases, and it is the main cause of the greenhouse effect. 3. They ignore them and don’t do anything. 4. He never litters and sorts the rubbish at home. He composts organic waste. He uses his bicycle and walks instead of using a car. His family use low flow shower heads and energy saving light bulbs. 5. By having unified and strict laws, and rules to limit pollution and activities causing pollution.


Unit 12

Unit 12 Crime and punishment 1. Possible answers: poverty, addictions, evil nature, hopelessness, an easy way to get money, etc.

2.A 1. f

2. i

3. b

4. d

5. j

6. g

7. a

8. e

9. h

10. c

11. k

2.B 1. blackmailer 2. kidnapper 3. smuggler 4. arsonist 5. burglar 6. robber 8. rapist 9. murderer 10. shoplifter 11. vandal

4.A 1. community service 2. fine 3. jail sentence 4. suspended prison sentence 5. capital punishment 6. life imprisonment 7. probation

5. 1. accused 2. charges 3. jury 4. imprisonment 5. attorney 6. appealed 7. offenders 8. conviction 9.

bail 10. evidence

Addictions 1. Possible answers: • alcohol • smoking • drugs • gambling • food • video games • internet • shopping • work

2.A Drugs: 1. addiction 2. experimentation 3. curiosity 4. ability 5. powerless 6. attendance Smoking: 7. popularity 8. addictive 9. determination Alcohol: 10. accompanied 11. alcoholics 12. withdrawal 13. alcoholism 14. valuable

B. 1. It seems to solve problems and make life better. 2. Out of curiosity, to solve and erase problems. 3. You may lose or gain weight. / It deteriorates. 4. Courage, strength and support from family, friends and others. 5. Under the age of 18. 6. Nicotine. It’s highly addictive. 7. Because drinking is popular in many activities. 8. To avoid withdrawal symptoms. 9. You are more likely to start drinking. 10. To get money for alcohol.


Unit 12

2. Reading 1. J

2. A

3. G

4. I

5. D

6. K

7. C

2. F

3. G

4. B

5. A

6. C

7. D

8. H

9. F

10. E

3. 1. E

Unemployment and homelessness 2. A a) a person who has no home or job b) a place which gives protection c) to go around an area to check that is safe d) money paid to unemployed people e) a person who lives by asking people for money or food f) unharmed

2. B Listening 12.1, track 38 1. on park benches or on the pavement 2. homelessness and poverty 3. give a clearer picture about his work 4. to a nearby church hall. 5. local students / a mobile kitchen. 6. they can make a living from begging. 7. rehabilitation centres. 8. to persuade them to go home. 9. they are always depressed. 10. support.

Grammar 1. 1. between, opposite 2. to, at, in 3. against, in 4. in, During 5. in, at 6. from, to, until 7. at, for 8. by, in, on, over 9. in, in, on 10. in, at , on, in

2. 1. off 2. for 3. without 4. on 5. at 6. by 7. in 8. on 9. out 10. in

3. 1. warning 2. haste 3. person 4. order 5. heart 6. doubt 7. keeps 8. colour 9. theory 10. vain

4. 1. Please forgive me…for breaking your new MP3 player. 2. I blame …you for being late again. 3. I’m surprised that James is …interested in curling. 4. I am very grateful … for your help. 5. I accuse …you of stealing my precious English dictionary. 6. He congratulated…….. Tony on passing his exams. 7. He prohibited.. his son from leaving his room for a month. 8. You are always quarrelling ……… about where to put my dirty socks. 47

Unit 12

5. 1. about 2. about 3. at 4. from 5. at 6. of 7. on 8. to 9. of 10. with

Speaking 3. 1. tribe 2. intoxicated 3. delinquency 4. offences 5. vandalism 6. commit 7. supervision 8. failure 9. alert 10. targeted

Answers to the questions: 1. They have no real reasons; they are jut desperate, futureless and full of tension. 2. Lack of supervision and negligence bear more crime among children and young people. 3. A child shocked his classmates with a taser. 4. Pockets, purses and backpacks.


Unit 13

Unit 13 Member States 2.A 1/C






2.BVocabulary 1. Austria 2. Belgium 3. Bulgaria 4. Cyprus 5. Czech Republic 6. Denmark 7. Estonia 8. Finland 9. France 10. Germany 11. Greece 12. Hungary 13. Ireland

Austrian Belgian Bulgarian Cypriot Czech Danish Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hungarian Irish

German French German Bulgarian Greek, English Czech Danish Estonian Finnish, Swedish French German Greek Hungarian Irish, English

14. Italy Italian Italian 15. Latvia Latvian Latvian 16. Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanian 17. Luxembourg Luxembourg French, German 18. Malta Maltese Maltese, English 19. Poland Polish Polish 20. Portugal Portuguese Portuguese 21. Romania Romanian Romanian 22. Slovakia Slovakian Slovak 23. Slovenia Slovenian Slovenian 24. Spain Spanish Spanish 25. Sweden Swedish Swedish 26. the Netherlands Dutch Dutch 27. the United Kingdom British English

2. C a) Founding countries: France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Italy b) In 2007, Bulgaria and Romania joined the European Union.

3. Explanation: The motto means that via the EU, Europeans are united in working together for peace and prosperity, and that the many different cultures, traditions and languages in Europe are a positive asset for the continent.

The History of the EU 1. a) A unique organization, an economical and political union, in which countries work together. b) They can live, work and study in any of the member states. c) To promote peace, democracy, equality, human rights and well-being.

3.A 1 member states 2 customs duties 3 joined 4 community 5 expansion 6 official currency 7 borders, abolished 8 treaties 9 Enlargement

3.B Listening 13.1, track 39 1 the Second World War 2 trade 3 the economy 4 1951 5 duties 6 common market 7 Denmark 8 1986 9 internal borders 10 fall of the Berlin Wall 11 euro 12 2002 13 central and eastern 14 assistance 15 peace 16 democracy 17 freedom 49

Unit 13

Panorama of the European Union 2. 1. Equal opportunities for all 2. A greener Europe 3. Jobs and Prosperity 4. Going abroad to study 5. Fewer frontiers, more opportunities 6. Freedom, security and justice for all 7. Euros in your pocket 8. Exporting peace and stability

3. 1. Fewer frontiers, more opportunities 2. A greener Europe 3. Going abroad to study 4. Jobs and Prosperity 5. Equal opportunities for all 6. Freedom, security and justice for all 7. Exporting peace and stability 8. Euros in your pocket

4. 1. When what you buy is not for personal use. 2. No need to exchange money. / you don’t have to pay commission. 3. The EU rewards companies who cut their emissions. / Those who exceed the limit have to pay a penalty. 4. It was dumped in poor countries. 5. Student exchange partnerships. 6. To make Europe a knowledge-based society and to provide a skilled workforce. 7. Creating jobs in disadvantaged regions and providing training for unemployed or under qualified people. 8. Men and women not having equal pay for equal work. 9. Transferring criminals. 10. To prevent wars.

Hungary in the European Union 2. Listening 13.2 (track 40) 1. the Hungarian state was founded. 2. a dominant power. 3. Culture, traditions and language 4. it has seen many wars. 5. Nobel prizes. 6. co-operation, tolerance, and preparation. 7. the influence of the Soviet Union disappeared 8. the candidate countries. 9. new markets. 10. unemployment, terrorism and technological challenges.

3. 1. suppressed, conquerors 2. adapt to, circumstances 3. paved 4. measures, accelerate 5. gained 6. prosperity 7. standpoints

Grammar 1. 1. called off 2. carry out 3. clearing up 4 came across 5. takes after 6. give up 7. make up for 8. face up to 9. turned down 50

Unit 13

2. 1. around 2. after 3. out 4. up 5. away 6. off 7. with 8. up 9. up 10. through 11. of

3. 1. Do you know how... to fill in this form? 2. Anna’s car ...broke down on the motorway. 3. You should ..cut down on salty food. 4. Carlos cheated on his exam and ..got away with it. 5. I ...ran into Philip at the station. 6. I..feel up to .................going to the cinema tonight. 7. I have been ................putting aside money for 10 years. 8. The boys ... get up to mischief all day.

4. 1. over 2. OK 3. OK 4. OK 5. broke down 6. picking on me 7. cut 8. OK 9. come into 10. put up with

Writing 3. 1 apologise 2 resolve the problem

3 Due to 4 offer 5 hearing from you

Speaking Picture 1 1. single currency 2. launched 3. introduced 4. close up 5. low inflation 6. exchange money 7. exchange rates 8. customs duties 9. fluctuation 10. citizens

Answers to the questions. a) Low inflation and little budget deficit. b) It’s the name of the area where you can use the euro. c) You don’t have to queue to exchange money. No exchange rates and customs duties. It is easier to do business. No risk of fluctuation between currencies. d) It’s expensive to meet the criterion you need to introduce it.

Picture 2 1. borders 2. achievements 3. abolishment 4. unified 5. passports 6. extra taxes 7. open borders 8. cross 9. mobility 10. accessible

Answers to the questions. a) Free movement within the borders of the EU. b) It is easy to move around the Union for education, professional, healthcare and other purposes. c) It is also easier for criminals to pass borders. d) The student likes it because it is easier to get to know other cultures and gives the feeling of freedom 51

Szólista Unit 1 The Individual – Az egyén Age middle-aged elderly in his 20s/30s in his mid 20s/30s in his early 20s/30s in his late 20s/30s

Életkor középkorú idősödő húszas/harmincas éveiben húszas/harmincas évei közepén húszas/harmincas évei elején húszas/harmincas évei végén

Build broad-shouldered chubby fat has a beer gut muscular overweight plump slender slim stout thin well-built

Felépítés széles vállú pufók, dundi kövér sörhasa van izmos túlsúlyos telt sudár, karcsú karcsú köpcös, keménykötésű sovány jó felépítésű

Height below average medium height short rather short tall rather tall

Magasság átlag alatti közepes magasságú alacsony alacsony, tömzsi ember magas jó magas

Hairstyle and colour a fringe/ bangs (NAmE) bald bleach blonde blonde curly dyed fair grey in plaits/ braids in a bun dreadlocks jet-black long pony-tail red short shoulder-length

Hajviselet és szín frufru kopasz hidrogén-szőke szőke göndör festett szőke ősz be van fonva a haja kontyban raszta haj korom fekete hosszú lófarokban vörös rövid vállig érő 52

straight spiky thinning untidy/messy (NAmE) wavy white permed

egyenes tüsi haj ritkuló ápolatlan, gondozatlan hullámos fehér dauerolt

Face chubby cheeks double chin freckled have bags under one’s eyes, baggy eyes high cheekbones high forehead long straight turned-up nose snub nose big nose pointed chin spotty thin/full lips thin long round square oval wrinkled

Arc pufók arc toka szeplős táskás szem magas arccsont magas homlok hosszú egyenes turcsi orr pisze orr nagy orr hegyes áll pattanásos keskeny/telt ajkak vékony hosszú kerek szögletes ovális ráncos

Eyes thin eyebrows bushy eyebrows bushy eyelashes thick eyelashes long eyelashes

Szem vékony szemöldök bozontos szemöldök dús szempilla vastag szempilla hosszú szempilla

Complexion dark fair pale tanned

Arcszín sötét világos sápadt napbarnított

Beard styles clean-shaven goatee moustache sideburns unshaven stubble

Szakáll fajták frissen borotvált kecskeszakáll bajusz oldalszakáll borostás borosta

Star signs Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpio Sagittarius Capricorn Aquarius Pisces

Csillagjegyek Kos Bika Ikrek Rák Oroszlán Szűz Mérleg Skorpió Nyilas Bak Vízöntő Halak

Personality adjectives active ambitious bad-tempered bossy conscientious conservative curious determined dynamic eccentric efficient energetic faithful generous impatient impulsive indecisive independent instinctive intelligent introverted materialistic moody passionate patient pessimistic precise proud quiet rational reserved

Belső tulajdonságok tevékeny, aktív becsvágyó, törekvő zsörtölődő, rosszkedvű parancsolgató lelkiismeretes konzervatív kíváncsi határozott lendületes különc rátermett lendületes, energikus hűséges nagylelkű türelmetlen lobbanékony határozatlan független ösztönös intelligens befelé forduló személy anyagias szeszélyes szenvedélyes türelmes borúlátó precíz büszke csendes értelmes zárkózott, kimért, tartózkodó ellenálló romantikus durva, goromba önző, egocentrikus magabiztos komoly félénk őszinte társaságkedvelő makacs

resistant romantic rude self-centred self-confident serious shy sincere sociable stubborn

tolerant touchy/sensitive vain violent well-balanced witty

türelmes, toleráns érzékeny, sértődékeny hiú erőszakos kiegyensúlyozott eszes, szellemes

Ages and stages adolescence adolescent adult supervision adulthood childhood coming of age party crawl disobedient infancy middle age middle-aged milestone observe pension pensioner physical ageing rapid growth rat race rebel reproduction retired retirement scribble talk back toddler

Kor és életszakasz serdülőkor kamasz felnőtt felügyelet felnőttkor gyermekkor 18. szülinapi parti mászik engedetlen csecsemőkor érett kor középkorú mérföldkő megfigyel nyugdíj nyugdíjazás testi öregedés gyors növekedés mókuskerék (mint élet) lázad szaporodás nyugdíjas, visszavonult nyugdíjas évek firkál visszabeszél totyogó kisgyerek

Daily routine and housework air the room apron clean/ brush one’s teeth clean up the mess clear the table comb one’s hair cutlery dig up the garden do the gardening do the vacuuming/ hoovering do the washing up / wash the dishes dry/wipe the dishes dust bunny/dustball dust the furniture feather duster fix the dripping tap

Napi rutin és házimunka

get dressed 53

kiszellőzteti a szobát kötény fogat mos feltakarít leszedi az asztalt fésülködik evőeszköz felássa a kertet kertészkedik porszívózik elmosogat eltörli a tányérokat porcica, pehely leporolja a bútort tollseprű megjavítja a csöpögő csapot felöltözik

hang out the clothes lawn mower lay/set the table make the bed mow the lawn odd jobs ornament oversleep polish put the kettle on repair/mend, fix things rinse the dishes scrub the floor set the alarm clock shovel the snow sweep the floor take a nap take a shower take out the rubbish tea/dish towel trim the hedge vacuum cleaner water the flowers weed the garden breadwinner bring up the children burden butler do one’s fair share domestic matters domestic task economic necessity family unit household device, appliance/gadget keep house keep the family together maid/cleaning lady make a decision responsible for run the household share the housework

kitereget fűnyíró megterít beágyaz lenyírja a gyepet apró javítások, házkörüli munkák dísztárgy elalszik kifényesít vizet melegít megjavít dolgokat

casual catwalk chic conservative dress for the occasion eccentric extravagant fad fashion house fashion show fashion victim fashion designer formal keep up with the latest fashion name-brand plain prestigious

elöblíti a tányérokat felsúrolja a padlót beállítja az ébresztőt ellapátolj a havat felsöpri a padlót szundikál (ebéd után) zuhanyozik kiviszi a szemetet konyharuha lenyírja a sövényt porszívó megöntözi a virágokat kigyomlálja a kertet

háztartást vezet összetartja a családot

split the housework the lion’s share time-consuming Clothing and fashion Fashion and style (un)fashionable baggy

Ruházat és divat Divat és stílus (nem)divatos bő

Idioms to be dressed to kill wear the trousers fits sb like a glove in one’s shoes

Kifejezések hódításhoz öltözött hordja a nadrágot mintha ráöntötték volna valaki helyében

Clothes anorak blazer blouse dressing gown, bath robe (NAmE) dungarees , overalls (NAmE) evening/cocktail dress

Ruházat anorák blézer blúz köntös

flared/ straight trousers

trapéz/egyenes szárú nadrág

fur coat jumper/ sweater long/ short sleeved T-shirt waistcoat / vest

szőrme kabát, bunda pulóver hosszú / rövid ujjú póló

scruffy, shabby

kenyérkereső felneveli a gyerekeket teher cseléd tisztességgel megteszi a magáét családi ügyek háztartási munka gazdasági szükségszerűség családi egység háztartási készülék

takarítónő döntést hoz felelős vm-ért háztartást vezet megosztani a házimunkát felosztja a házimunkát oroszlánrész időigényes

smart sophisticated tight/loose-fitting to be in fashion to be out of fashion trendy vivid colours to fit to suit to match to go with

mindennapi kifutó elegáns, sikkes, ízléses konzervatív alkalomhoz illően öltözik különc különc, furcsa divathóbort, szeszély divatház divatbemutató divat rabja divattervező alkalmi lépést tart vk/vm-vel a legújabb divat márkás áru egyszerű tekintélyes, nagy presztízzsel bíró rosszul öltözött, ápolatlan, szakadt elegáns, csinos kifinomult feszes, testhez álló/laza divatos ódivatú divatos élénk színek illik a ruha vkre (méretre) jól áll vmi vkinek (stílusra) összeillik megy vmvel


munkaruha estélyi/koktél ruha

mellény (öltönyhöz)

Accessories anklet bangle belt bow tie bracelet braces /suspenders brooch costume jewellery cuffs gloves handbag headband scarf shawl tie

Kiegészítők bokalánc karperec öv csokornyakkendő karkötő nadrágtartó melltű bizsu, divatékszer mandzsetta kesztyű kézitáska, retikül hajpánt sál kendő nyakkendő

Underclothes boxer shorts bra briefs / underpants corset knickers/panties slip stockings tights / pantyhose vest

Fehérnemű bokszeralsó melltartó alsónadrág fűző bugyi (női) kombiné harisnya (combfix) harisnyanadrág trikó

Footwear flip-flops boots clogs high-heeled shoes leather shoes platform shoes plimsolls,canvas shoes sandals slippers trainers/sneakers wellingtons, rubber boots

Lábbeli strandpapucs csizma, bakancs klumpa magas sarkú cipő bőrcipő telitalpú cipő vászoncipő, tornacipő szandál papucs edzőcipő gumicsizma

Materials corduroy cotton fur leather linen polyester silk velvet wool

Szövet, anyag kordbársony pamut szőrme, prém bőr vászon poliészter selyem bársony gyapjú

Patterns checked, checkered dotted

Mintázat kockás apró pöttyös

floral plain polka-dotted spotted striped tartan

virág mintás egyszínű, sima pettyes foltos, pettyes csíkos skótmintás

Cosmetics lipstick eyeliner powder mascara eyeshadow nail polish cosmetic foundation make-up lip gloss facial cream blush/blusher compact eyebrow pencil toner powder puff body lotion face mask

Kozmetikai cikkek rúzs szemceruza púder szempillaspirál szemhéjfesték körömlakk bagpipere táska alapozó smink szájfény arckrém arcpirosító púdertartó szemöldök ceruza arctonik púderpamacs testápoló arcmaszk

Unit 2 Family – Család Relatives aunt brother-in-law cousin daughter-in-law father-in-law foster mother/father grandchild granddaughter/son grandfather grandmother grandparents great-aunt/ uncle great-grandmother great-grandfather great-greatgrandfather great great grandmother great-nephew great-niece half-brother/sister 55

Rokonok nagynéni sógor unokatestvér meny após nevelőanya/apa unoka lány/fiú unoka nagypapa nagymama nagyszülők nagynéni, nagybácsi (szülőé) dédanya dédapa ükapa ükanya unokaöcs (unokahúg/unokaöcs fia) unokahúg (unokahúg/unokaöcs leánya) féltestvér (férfi/nő)

in-laws mother-in-law nephew niece sibling sister-in-law son-in-law stepmother stepfather stepsister/brother uncle

házasság útján szerezett rokonok anyós unokaöcs unokahúg testvér sógornő vő mostohaanya mostohaapa mostohanővér/fivér nagybácsi

Types of families close-knit family dysfunctional family extended family immediate family nuclear family single-parent, one-parent family

Családok fajtái összetartó család veszekedős család kiterjedt család közvetlen család szűk család csonka család

Feelings Positive admire

Érzések Kellemes bámulatot,csodálatot érez valaki iránt közel áll vkhez szeret/kedvel vkt bálványoz, körülrajong felnéz vk-re tisztel vkt imád

close to sb fond of idolise look up to sb respect worship Negative can’t stand sb despise fall out with sb fed up with sb/sth loathe Relationships acquaintance best friend blind date classmate colleague enemy ex-girlfriend flatmate inseparable kindred spirit love at first sight make it up with sb split up

Kellemetlen ki nem állhat vkt enéz, semmibe vesz összerúgja a port vkvel elege van vmből, torkig van vkvel, vmvel utál, megvet, gyűlöl Kapcsolatok ismerős legjobb barát vak randi osztálytárs munkatárs, kolléga ellenség ex barátnő lakótárs elválaszthatatlan rokonlelkek szerelem első látásra kibékül vkvel, helyreállítja a jó viszonyt szakít 56

talk about somebody behind one’s back

kibeszél valakit a háta mögött

there are plenty more fish in the sea

Sok hal van még a tengerben (más nő/ férfi is van a világon)

to come into conflict ups and downs

konfliktusba keveredik hullám hegyek, hullám völgyek

Marriage altar assembled bachelor best man bouquet bride, fiancée bridegroom bridesmaid ceremony civil ceremony confetti conduct the ceremony commitment cushion engagement ring exchange vows

Házasság oltár összegyűlt (emberek) agglegény vőfély virágcsokor menyasszony vőlegény noszolyólány szertartás polgári szertartás konfetti levezeti a szertartást elkötelezettség (dísz)párna eljegyzési gyűrű fogadalmat tesztnek egymásnak hozományvadász

fortune hunter (gold digger) flower girl hen party/night, bachelorette party honeymoon institution of marriage newlyweds objection organist pop the question

nászút a házasság intézménye ifjú házasok ellenvetés, kifogás orgonista megkéri vk kezét

proclaim them husband and wife

férjnek és feleségnek nyilvánítja őket

proposal propose prenuptial agreement reception ring bearer spinster stag party/night, bachelor party tie the knot toast train veil wedding dress

házassági ajánlat megkéri vk kezét házassági szerződés esküvői fogadás gyűrű hordozó vénlány legénybúcsú

koszorúslány leánybúcsú

összeházasodik pohárköszöntő uszály (ruhán) fátyol esküvői ruha

wedding march white wedding witness

nászinduló templomi esküvő tanú

Divorce addictions adultery alimony all hell brakes loose broken home

Válás függőségek házasságtörés tartásdíj elszabadul a pokol felbomlott család

contact custody dead end divorce proceedings domestic violence

láthatás szülői felügyeleti jog zsákutca, vakvágány válóper családon belüli bántalmazás eltávolodik egymástól szembekerül, szembe találja magát kapcsolatot létesít

drift apart encounter establish a relationship fall out of love with sb false hopes in favour of indifferent intolerable lack of communication legal procedure

kiszeret vkből hamis remények érdekében, javára közömbös tűrhetetlen, kibírhatatlan kommunikáció hiánya jogi eljárás

long-lasting emotional damage

hosszan tartó érzelmi sérülés

marital problems marriage counsellor prenuptial agreement quarrel reach an agreement residency resolve

házassági problémák házassági tanácsadó házassági szerződés veszekedés megállapodásra jut lakhely megold

unrealistic expectations

megalapozatlan elvárások



Generations living under one roof a host of anticipate credit crunch isolated lack of money parental house

Nemzedékek egy fedél alatt sok,egy csomó előre lát hitelmegszorítás elszigetelt pénzhiány szülői ház

privacy put pressure on sb quality of life schedule wipe out Children and their upbringing compliant conduct consistent day out discipline exert grounding immerse lenient low self-esteem moral values obedience obedient obey outlook praise punish punishment role model scolding smack spank spanking spare the rod spoilt time-out to tell sb off verbal agreement withdrawal of pocket money


egyedüllét,lakáson belüli elkülönülés lehetősége nyomást gyakorol vkre életminőség ütemezés, ütemterv kimerít Gyermeknevelés előzékeny, készséges magatartás következetes kimenő, szórakozással eltöltött nap fegyelem, nevelés alkalmaz, gyakorol helyhez kötött fogság belemélyed, elmerül elnéző alacsony önbecsülés erkölcsi értékek engedelmesség, szófogadás engedelmes, szófogadó engedelmeskedik, szót fogad szemléletmód dicsér megbüntet büntetés példakép szidás, dorgálás pofon elfenekel elfenekelés nem használ pálcát elkényeztetett büntetéssel eltöltött idő (meghatározott helyen) leszid vkt szóbeli megegyezés zsebpénz megvonás

Holidays and family gatherings

Ünnepek és családi összejövetelek

New Year’s Eve calendar clink countdown fireworks midnight resolution toast to sb/sth

Szilveszter naptár koccint visszaszámolás tűzijáték éjfél fogadalom (fel)köszönt vkt/vmt

Easter bunny chimes crucifixion drag fast Lent pail pour resurrection sprinkle tomb well Christmas bauble Boxing day chimney Christmas carol Christmas Eve crib decoration depict fir tree gift gingerbread holly mistletoe nativity play pine tree reindeer sleigh sparkle tinsel Other words church service procession repress declaration maypole Whitsun / Pentecost May Day Thanksgiving wedding anniversary commemorate

Húsvét nyuszi harangjáték keresztre feszítés vonszol böjt nagyböjt vödör önt feltámadás meglocsol sír kút Karácsony karácsonyi gömb dísz karácsony másnapja kémény karácsonyi ének karácsony estéje jászol díszítés ábrázol erdei fenyő ajándék mézeskalács magyal fagyöngy betlehemezés, betlehemes játék fenyőfa rénszarvas szánkó csillagszóró ezüst díszítőszalag karácsonyfára

day nursery, day care, crèche high school (NAmE)


infant school (in Britain) kindergarten, nursery school


private school, independent school, fee-paying school

nem állami iskola, magániskola

public school (in England) secondary school




secondary grammar school


secondary technical school


single-sex school

nem koedukált (egynemű) iskola

state school, állami iskola public school , maintained school (NAmE)

Egyéb szavak istentisztelet menet, felvonulás elnyom bejelentés, kihirdetés májusfa pünkösd május elseje hálaadás házassági évforduló megünnepel, megemlékezik valamiről

vocational/ trade school

szakiskola, szakmunkásképző

Teachers and students candidate/examinee classmate dean examiner

Tanárok és diákok vizsgázó osztálytárs dékán vizsgáztató

form teacher, osztályfőnök homeroom teacher (NAmE)

Unit 3 Work and education Types of schools Iskolafajták boarding school bentlakásos iskola co-educational school koedukált iskola

graduate instructor learner/ student driver, lecturer

diplomás oktató, tanító tanuló/ tanuló vezető egyetemi/főiskola előadó

principal, head teacher



egyetemi/főiskola tanár, professzor iskolás gyerek tanári kar magántanár

pupil staff tutor 58

graduation ceremony semester

learn by rote

Kifejezések írásbeli dolgozatot puskázó diák, vkt utánzó személy bemagol

seminar thesis

diplomaosztó tanulmányi félév (szemeszter) szeminárium egyetemi diploma munka

learn something by heart

kívülről, fejből megtanul vmt

teach someone a lesson

megleckéztet, móresre tanít vkt

the teacher’s pet

a tanár kedvence

Other words admission assist bright calculation certificate curriculum dormitory / hostel dress codes

Egyéb szavak felvétel segít, támogat okos, gyors felfogású számolás bizonyítvány, igazolás tanmenet kollégium öltözködési szabályok

educational requirements

iskolai követelmények

educational standard educational system expertise flourishing full-time student

oktatás színvonala oktatási rendszer szakértelem virágzó, jól menő nappali tagozatos diák

General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)


Idioms copycat

Subjects Tantárgyak art subjects humán tárgyak biology biológia chemistry kémia, vegytan citizenship, civics(NAmE) állampolgári ismeretek computer science informatika core subjects a fő tantárgyak foreign languages idegen nyelvek geography földrajz grammar nyelvtan literature irodalom history történelem information and communication

információs és kommunikáció technology technológiák

mathematics music optional subjects physical education physics religious education science subjects

matematika zene választható tárgyak testnevelés fizika hittan reál tárgyak

Higher education acclimatize attendance

Felsőoktatás alkalmazkodik részvétel

continuous assessment

folyamatos számonkérés

correspondence course/student

levelezős kurzus, levelezős hallgató

degree department diploma exam(ination) period exchange programme faculty gown

diploma tanszék diploma (az oklevél) vizsgaidőszak csereprogram kar talár

gift for something hopeless junior section lag behind

tehetség vm-hez reménytelen alsó tagozat lemarad, nem tud lépést tartani vkvel obligation kötelezettség pare down lefarag, csökkent play truant, play hooky lóg az iskolából postgraduate student egyetemi továbbképző tanfolyam hallgatója pl. PhD, másoddiplomás senior section felső tagozat session edzés, ülés swotting, cramming magolás tertiary/higher education


to be absent truancy tuition fee undergraduate student

hiányzik lógás, iskolakerülés tandíj egyetemi hallgató

Classification of jobs Munkák besorolása blue-collar worker fizikai munkás white-collar worker szellemi munkás 59

skilled worker

szakmunkás, szakképzett munkás


szakképzetlen fizikai munkás, segédmunkás

pink-collar worker profession manual worker

női munkát végző hivatás fizikai munkás

Some trades and professions accountant assembly-line worker bouncer caretaker chimney sweeper clerk conductor

Néhány szakma és hivatás könyvelő szerelő/szalagmunkás kidobó ember házmester, gondnok kéményseprő hivatalnok kalauz

estate agent, real estate agent


freelancer garbage collector information technologist interpreter juggler kindergarten teacher lifeguard locksmith logistics manager mechanical engineer miner private eye, private detective secretary social worker stockbroker traffic warden undertaker, funeral director woodworker, joiner

szabadúszó szemetes számítógépes szakember

Personal qualities accuracy assertiveness cheerfulness competitiveness courage dedication determination flexibility good communication skills

intelligence patience persistence physical strength power of persuasion quick-thinking

értelem, felfogóképesség türelem kitartás fizikai erő meggyőző erő gyors felfogóképesség

Payment, Compensation a well-paid job badly/poorly paid base-pay benefit bonus


gross income net overtime pay pay pay rise, raise remuneration salary shift differential pay starting salary tip underpaid wage

jól fizető állás rosszul fizetett alapfizetés juttatás pótlék, jutalom, prémium jutalék pénzt keres honorárium, díj munkabéren felüli juttatás bruttó bevétel, jövedelem nettó túlórapénz fizetés, bér fizetésemelés díjazás fizetés műszakpótlék kezdő fizetés borravaló alulfizetet munkabér

Job, work, career a promising career apply for a job

Állás, munka, karrier ígéretes karrier állást megpályáz

at the peak of one’s career

karrierje csúcsán

complete one’s work demanding job job advertisement job centre job description job satisfaction

elkészül a munkával megerőltető munka álláshirdetés munkaügyi központ munkaköri leírás munkával való megelégedettség munkakör megnevezése munkát ajánl elindul a karrierje

commission earn money fee fringe benefits, perks

tolmács zsonglőr óvónő életmentő, úszómester lakatos logisztikus gépészmérnök bányász magánnyomozó titkár, titkárnő szociális munkás tőzsdeügynök közterület felügyelő temetkezési vállalkozó asztalos Egyéni képességek pontosság, precizitás öntudatosság, magabiztosság vidámság, jókedv versenyszellem bátorság elhivatottság eltökéltség,határozottság rugalmasság jó kommunikációs képességek

job title offer someone a job one’s career takes off permanent/ temporary job

állandó/ideiglenes munka

ruin someone’s career lerombolja/ tönkreteszi a karrierjét 60

steady job workaholic workhorse workload workmate, colleague

biztos munka munkamániás igásló munkabírás munkatárs

Other words appreciate

Egyéb szavak méltányol, nagyra becsül, értékel

between jobs, unemployed


bootlicker, brown noser



további fejlődést kizáró, reményekkel nem kecsegtető

do overtime duck one’s head financial difficulties full-time job

túlórázik lehorgasztja a fejét anyagi nehézségek teljes munkaidő

hard work bears fruit

a kemény munka meghozza a gyümölcsét

lunch voucher membership momentary insanity monotonous part-time job prospects for promotion recognition of achievement resign, quit responsibility reward rewarding start one’s own business

ebédjegy tagság pillanatnyi elmezavar monoton, egyhangú részmunkaidő előrelépési lehetőségek

subsidised meals suck up (to sb)

étkezési hozzájárulás nyal valakinek

the dole, unemployment benefits

munkanélküli segély

to be appointed to be given the sack, fired

kinevezik kirúgják az állásából

to be involved in decision-making

belevonnak a döntéshozatalba

to be made redundant to be paid by the hour unemployment rate vacancy working conditions working relationship

a teljesítmény elismerése felmond felelősség jutalom kifizetődő saját vállalkozást indít


létszámfölöttivé válik, leépítik óradíjban van fizetve munkanélküliségi ráta üresedés munkakörülmények munkakapcsolat

Career prospects adaptability ambition attractive appearance career counsellor flexibility foresight

Életpálya kilátásai alkalmazkodó képesség ambíció, nagyravágyás vonzó külső karrier tanácsadó rugalmasság előrelátás

influential acquaintance

befolyásos ismerősök

internship keep track of

szakmai gyakorlat nyomon követ

problem-solving abilities

probléma megoldó képesség

set aside


social and financial background talent team spirit

társadalmi és pénzügyi háttér tehetség csapatszellem

Job Hunting candidate CV (curriculum vitae), resumé do research job advert/ advertisement job fair meet deadlines nervousness

Álláskeresés pályázó önéletrajz kutatás végez álláshirdetés állásbörze tartja a határidőket idegesség

recruitment/ employment agency, headhunter

állásközvetítő iroda, fejvadászcég



seize the opportunity

megragadja a lehetőséget

coat rack cooker, stove couch, sofa, settee cupboard curtain doormat dressing table, vanity (NAmE) flower stand kitchen cupboard laundry basket pedestal mat rug rocking chair shower cabinet standard lamp, floor lamp tablecloth towel rack wardrobe washbasin cushion coffee table double bed bunk bed

Unit 4 Place of living Homes and Housing Otthon és lakás Types of Homes Lakásfajták bedsitter, garzonlakás (egyszobás) studio flat, bachelor garzonlakás apartment (NAmE) bungalow földszintes ház block of flats, tömbház apartment building (NAmE) caravan, lakókocsi mobile home (NAmE) castle kastély cottage vidéki/falusi ház, víkendház council flat/house önkormányzati lakás/ ház, közösségi bérház detached house családi ház farmhouse tanyaház flat, apartment lakás houseboat lakóhajó mansion kúria penthouse tetőtéri lakás, felhőkarcoló ill. akótömb tetején lévő luxus lakás semi-detached ikerház skyscraper felhőkarcoló terraced house, sorház townhouse (NAmE) villa villa

virágállvány konyhaszekrény szennyestartó kosár vécészőnyeg, vécéelőke kis szőnyeg hintaszék zuhanykabin álló lámpa asztalterítő törölköző tartó ruhaszekrény, gardrób mosdókagyló párna dohányzóasztal franciaágy emeletes ágy

Other words basic

Egyéb szavak egyszerű

common charges/fees

közös költség lakályos, barátságos szűkös zsúfolt, tömött gazdaságos otthonias, családias elszigetelt magánélet hiánya helyhiány összkomfortos fenntart, karbantart szerény elavult kellemes környék kényelmes vidéki, falusi tágas nyomorúságos, koszos külvárosi, elővárosi városi Lakóhelyed

Places in the home attic / loft basement cellar hall pantry or larder patio or terrace porch shed storeroom study utility room

Helységek padlás, tetőtér alagsor, szuterén pince előszoba éléskamra, spejz terasz fedett veranda kerti fészer, pajta tárolóhelyiség dolgozó, tanulószoba kommunális helység (pl. mosókonyha)

Furniture and home accessories bathtub bedside table, nightstand (NAmE) bread bin cabinet chest of drawers, dresser (NAmE)

Bútorok és lakásfelszerelések fürdőkád éjjeli szekrény

cosy cramped, poky crowded economical homely isolated lack of privacy lack of space mod cons maintain modest obsolete pleasant surrounding roomy rural spacious squalid suburban urban

kenyértartó üvegszekrény, tároló komód, fiókos szekrény

The place where you live avenue breathtaking view 62

fogas tűzhely heverő, dívány, kanapé szekrény, faliszekrény függöny lábtörlő öltözőasztal

sugárút, fákkal szegélyezett sétány lélegzetelállító látvány

cityscape cobbled craftsman dense forest ecclesiastical erect fast-flowing river foothill foyer golden sand high-rise building imposing building impressive sights inner city lively open field open fireplace pavement café quaint remains rocky mountains ruin sacred skylight skyline snow-capped peak stream treasury tree-lined unsightly unspoilt nature Future homes front door storey, floor overlook hustle and bustle picturesque view hydro-massage shower ceiling staircase fish tank, aquarium transparent sauna orchard Jacuzzi kitchen island fade out brew hog confirm command

városkép macskakövezett (út, utca) kézműves, iparos sűrű erdő egyházi épít, emel (épületet) gyorsfolyású folyó hegyláb előcsarnok aranypart sok emeletes lakás impozáns, lenyűgöző épület lenyűgöző látnivalók belváros élénk, eleven nyílt mező hagyományos kandalló kávéházi terasz, teraszos kávéház érdekes, eredeti maradványok (épületé) sziklás hegység rom szent(séges) tetőablak város sziluett, kontúrvonal (városé, épületé) hófedte, hóborította hegycsúcs patak, csermely kincstár fasorral szegélyezett csúnya látványt nyújtó háborítatlan természet A jövő lakásai bejárati ajtó emelet, szint vm-re néz (ablak) sürgés-forgás, zsivaj festői táj hidromasszázs zuhanyzó mennyezet lépcsőház, lépcsőfeljáró akvárium átlátszó szauna gyümölcsös kert dzsakuzzi konyhai pult (a konyha közepén) elhalkul főz (teát, kávét) elfoglal, kisajátít megerősít parancs 63

keep an eye on sb/sg

rajta tartja a szemét, szemmel tart

Cities, towns and the countryside pollution commuting congestion closeness to nature high crime rate amenities agricultural area industrial area vandalism slum homelessness overcrowding incessant roar of vehicles traffic jam roaring

Nagyvárosok, kisvárosok és a vidék szennyezés ingázás forgalmi torlódás a természet közelsége magas bűnözési arány kényelem, komfort mezőgazdasági vidék ipari vidék vandalizmus, értelmetlen pusztítás nyomornegyed hajléktalanság túlzsúfoltság a járművek szüntelen zúgása forgalmi dugó búgó (motor)

Renting or buying a property budget deposit enclosed fully-equipped fully-furnished green belt

Ingatlan vásárlás és bérlés költségvetés előleg, foglaló elkerített, zárt teljesen felszerelt bútorozott zöldövezet

handy for the shops, shops close-by

könnyen elérhetőek a boltok

landlord laundry location modern decor neutral decor obligation maintenance cost the suburbs tenancy agreement do research utility bills yard

háziúr, házigazda mosoda elhelyezkedés modern stílusú semleges stílus kötelezettség üzemeltetési költség külváros bérleti szerződés kutatást végez közüzemi számlák udvar,kert

Getting a loan assess debt down payment interest rate invest lender loan

Kölcsönfelvétel értékel, elbírál adósság kezdő részlet kamatláb befektet kölcsönző kölcsön

credit/loan application mortgage outweigh piggy bank processing repay student loan time span verify Sights of Budapest the Hungarian National Gallery Heroes’ Square the City Park the National Museum the baths the Museum of Fine Arts Chain Bridge Elizabeth Bridge Margaret Bridge Liberty Bridge the Castle District Castle Hill Fishermen’s Bastion The Royal Palace Matthias Church funicular railway Gellért Hill the Citadel Watertown the Tunnel Leopold Town the Hungarian Parliament

Vegetables aubergine, eggplant (NAmE) beetroot, beets (NAmE) broccoli Brussels sprouts cabbage cauliflower celery corn on the cob garlic green beans kohlrabi leek mushroom parsley peas radish sorrel spinach

hitelkérvény jelzáloghitel (ingatlanra) többet nyom a latba, lényegesebb malacpersely feldolgozás visszafizet diákhitel időtartam megerősít, ellenőriz Budapest nevezetességei Magyar Nemzeti Galéria Hősök tere Városliget Nemzeti Múzeum a fürdők Szépművészeti Múzeum Lánchíd Erzsébet híd Margit híd Szabadság híd Várnegyed Vár Halászbástya Királyi Palota Mátyás-templom Sikló vasút Gellért hegy Citadella Viziváros Az Alagút Lipótváros Országház

Unit 5 Shopping Meat/Fish beef carp cod game ham lobster minced meat mutton pork poultry trout turkey veal

Hús/Hal marhahús ponty tőkehal vadhús sonka homár vagdalt hús birkahús sertéshús baromfi pisztráng pulyka borjúhús 64

Zöldségek padlizsán cékla brokkoli kelbimbó káposzta karfiol zeller csöves kukorica fokhagyma zöldbab karalábé póréhagyma gomba petrezselyem borsó retek sóska spenót

Fruits apricot blackberry blackcurrant blueberry cantaloupe, honeydew melon coconut cranberry date fig grapes peach pear pineapple plum raisin raspberry redcurrant sour cherry strawberry tangerine watermelon

Gyümölcsök sárgabarack szeder fekete ribizli áfonya sárgadinnye kókuszdió vörös áfonya datolya füge szőlő őszibarack körte ananász szilva mazsola málna ribizli meggy eper mandarin görögdinnye

Dairy products cottage cheese sour cream whipped cream yoghurt

Tejtermékek túró tejföl tejszínhab joghurt

Other groceries cereal cornflakes sugar cube

Egyéb élelmiszerárú gabonapehely kukoricapehely kockacukor

bargain bazaar brand by the handful cashier come in handy compulsive convenience food discount disorder eccentric expired flea market highbrow in bulk objectionable overboard overflow pleasant atmosphere preoccupied with queuing reasonable prices receipt relieves the tension retailer ripe rotten seasonal sales second-hand shop window shopaholic

hard liquor, rövid ital spirits, shot (informal) mayonnaise muesli mustard pickled onions preserved fruit roll, bun vinegar almond

majonéz müzli mustár ecetes hagyma befőtt zsemle ecet mandula

Shops baker’s/Bakery butcher’s/ Butcher shop electrical appliances shop haberdashery hardware shop jeweller’s, Jewellery shop kitchenware shop

Boltok pékség hentes üzlet műszaki bolt rövidárú kereskedés vas- és fémárú bolt ékszerész üzlet konyhai felszerelések boltja női/férfi ruhabolt

ladies’/men’s wear shop Chemist’s/ pharmacy(NAmE) stationery shop greengrocer’s sweet shop

papír-írószer bolt zöldséges édességbolt

Goods blender blood/black-pudding bonbon bracelet broom button cold cuts electric kettle engagement ring gummy candy lock needle and thread painkiller plaster salt and pepper mills stove string of beads wooden spoon wrapping paper

Árucikkek turmixgép véres hurka bonbon karkötő seprű gomb felvágottak vízforraló eljegyzési gyűrű gumicukor zár, lakat tű és cérna fájdalomcsillapító sebtapasz só és bors szóró tűzhely gyöngysor fakanál csomagolópapír

Other words aisle around the clock barter

Egyéb szavak folyosó éjjel-nappal csereüzlet

gyógyszertár, drogéria

stall temptation till to be on display trolley under one roof unwind urge utopia value wholesaler window shopping

alkalmi vétel bazár márka marokszámra pénztáros kapóra jön kényszeres, megrögzött gyorsan elkészíthető étel árleszállítás rendellenesség különc lejárt szavatosságú bolhapiac kifinomult nagy mennyiségben kifogásolható túlzásba vitt túlcsordul kellemes légkör elmerül vm-ben sorban állás elfogadható árak nyugta kiengedi a feszültséget kiskereskedő érett rohadt szezonális kiárusítás használt kirakat vásárlási manias/ boltkoros költekező út mezőgazdasági kiskereskedő árusító bódé kísértés kassza ki van állítva kerekes kosár egy fedél alatt lazít ösztönzés, kényszer utópia érték nagykereskedő kirakat nézegetés

Services barber beautician develop a photo dressmaker dripping tap dry cleaner dyed hair electrician

Szolgáltatások borbély kozmetikus előhív egy képet varrónő, szabónő csöpögő csap ruhatisztító festett haj villanyszerelő

shopping spree smallholder


eyebrow plucking hairdresser have a shave have stains removed have eyelash tinting have one’s hair permed home appliance repairer masseur car mechanic MOT test (Ministry of Transport) optician’s photographer plumber shoe heel shoemaker sole watchmaker

szemöldök kiszedés fodrász megborotváltatja magát pecsétet, foltot eltávolíttat szempilla festés daueroltat

recipient seal standard parcel utility bills wrap fragile urgent greeting card sympathy card priority insurance pay compensation subscribe to

háztartási gépszerelő masszőr autószerelő Műszaki vizsga látszerész fényképész vízvezeték szerelő cipősarok cipész talp órás

Customers’ complaints Vásárlói panaszok belongings holmi claim igény, követelés escalator mozgólépcső extended warranty kiterjesztett jótállás faulty hibás fulfil teljesít hub központ ignore figyelmen kívűl hagy inspect nyomoz keep a record of sth feljegyez make a point hatásosan érvel moan siránkozik, nyöszörög negotiator tárgyaló fél outcome végeredmény prompt sb to do sth vmre késztet vkt purchase vásárlás refund visszafizetés, visszatérítés relief megkönnyebbülés replacement csere response válasz shattered összetört stand a chance esélye van stresses and strains stressz és megterhelés summon up összeszedi a bátorságot the courage threat fenyegetés warehouse (áru)raktár

Banking services Banki szolgáltatások asset vagyontárgy automated teller bank automata machine (ATM) clientele ügyfelek, vevőkör credit card hitelkártya current account bankszámla (checking account (NAmE)) current balance folyószámla egyenleg debit tartozik deposit betesz pénzt insert your card behelyezni a kártyát instalments részletfizetés insured biztosított interest rate kamatláb mortgage jelzálogteher refill újratölt related services kapcsolódó szolgáltatások savings account megtakarítási számla withdraw cash pénzt vesz ki Postal services addressee sender bubble-pack envelope cardboard boksz delivery envelope fold item mail mailbox postal code/ zip code

átvevő lezár, leragaszt (levelet) szabványos csomag számlák becsomagol törékeny sűrgős dísztávirat gyásztávirat elsőbbségi biztosítás kártérítést fizet vmre előfizet

Postai szolgáltatások címzett feladó buborék boríték

Unit 6 Health Ways of describing food bitter bland crunchy fattening hearty luscious

kartonpapír doboz szállítás boríték hajt darab, árucikk, tétel postaszállítmány postaláda irányítószám

mouth-watering 66

Ahogy az ételekről beszélünk keserű fűszerezetlen ropogós hizlaló bőséges, kiadós lédús (gyümölcs), zamatos ínycsiklandozó

savoury skimpy slap-up sour spicy stodgy substantial succulent sugary sweet tasteless tasty yummy

pikáns, jóízű szegényes pazar, remek savanyú fűszeres nehéz kiadós, tápláló tápláló, zamatos édes, túlcukrozott édes ízetlen ízletes finom, pompás

Ways of cooking bake

Főzési módok süt (sütőben, kemencében) felforral, vízben főz szétmorzsol süt (olajban, stb) roston süt felmelegít péppé zúz sült, rostélyos lassú tűzön párol, főz

boil crush fry grill heat up mash roast simmer Ways of preparing food chop drain grate melt mix peel pour sauté slice stir

Elkészítés módja felvág, aprít lecsepegtet, leszűr reszel megolvaszt összekever meghámoz önt, tölt hirtelen kisüt szeletel megkever

Kitchen equipment bowl cauldron colander cutlery frying-pan grater ladle lemon squeezer pot potato masher potato peeler rolling pin saucepan scale sieve strainer

Konyhafelszerelések mélytányér üst szűrőedény evőeszközök serpenyő reszelő merőkanál citromfacsaró fazék krumplinyomó krumpli hámozó sodrófa lábas mérleg szita, szűrő szűrő

teaspoon wooden spoon

kávéskanál fakanál

Typical Hungarian dishes “Újházy” chicken Beef stew boiled egg Cabbage rolls, Stuffed cabbage Chestnut puree Chicken Paprikash Cottage-cheese noodles Crêpes Gundel style Dill gherkins, pickles Fisherman’s soup Floating islands Fried chicken Fried dough, Elephant ears fried eggs Goulash soup Jókai Bean soup pepper and tomato stew Plum dumplings Poppy-seed strudel Pork stew Potato noodles scrambled eggs Somló sponge cake Stewed green beans Walnut roll

Jellegzetes Magyar ételek soup Újházi húsleves Marhapörkölt főtt tojás Töltött káposzta

Other words caffeine cheap and nasty cocoa snail cold cuts cuisine deep-fried dessert Enjoy your meal! filling flavour gravy have a sweet tooth jumble junk food kipper, herring lean on main course mashed potatoes percolate pickled vegetables side dish 67

Gesztenyepüré Paprikás csirke Túrós csusza Gundel-palacsinta Ecetes uborka Halászlé Madártej Rántott csirke Lángos tükörtojás Gulyásleves Jókai-bableves Lecsó Szilvás gombóc Mákos rétes Disznópörkölt Krumplis tészta tojásrántotta Somlói galuska Zöldbabfőzelék Diós bejgli Egyéb szavak koffein olcsó és rossz kakaós csiga felvágottak konyhaművészet bő zsírban sütött édesség, desszert Jó étvágyat! töltelék íz, megízesít mártás, húslé édesszájú összekuszál egészségtelen étel füstölt hering támaszkodik vmre/vkre főfogás krumplipüré kávéfőzőn készít kávét ecetes savanyúság köret

sponge cake starter stewed vegetables takeaway food

piskótatészta előétel főzelék elvihető étel

A healthy diet a balanced diet artificial additives carbohydrates curb deprive sb of sth eliminate E-numbers fibre goodies in moderation lard lean meat low-fat nutrient dense nutritionist, dietician

Egészséges táplálkozás kiegyensúlyozott étrend mesterséges adalékanyag szénhidrát mérsékel megfoszt vkt vmtől kiküszöböl élelmiszeradalékok rostanyag nyalánkság, édesség mértékkel disznózsír sovány hús alacsony zsírtartalmú tápanyagban gazdag élelmezési/táplálkozási szakértő, dietetikus bioélelmiszer tartósítószer feldolgozott fehérje finomított gabona sovány tej keményítő teljes kiőrlésű kenyér

organic food preservatives processed protein refined grain skimmed milk starch wholemeal bread Illnesses and treatment

Betegségek és gyógymód

Idioms to be as right as rain recharge one’s batteries under the weather on the road to recovery fit as a fiddle

Kifejezések kitűnő állapotban van feltöltődik

Symptoms aching muscles chest pain cough faint fatigue feel dizzy feel queasy fever have a high/ mild temperature have diarrhoea have high/ low blood pressure

itchy throat loss of appetite nausea pain in the joints sharp/ stabbing pain shivering shortness of breath sneeze sore throat stuffy nose sweating throbbing/ dull pain in the head to feel sick

rosszul érzi magát javulás útján van (lábadozik) makkegészséges Tünetek fájó izmok mellkasi fájdalom köhög elájul fáradtság szédül émelyeg a gyomra magas láz magas/enyhe láza van hasmenése van magas/alacsony vérnyomása van 68

kaparó torok étvágytalanság émelygés, hányinger izületi fájdalom éles/szúró fájdalom hidegrázás légszomj, légzési zavarok tüsszent torokfájás elvan dugulva az orra izzadás lüktető/tompa fejfájás

to have a runny nose upset stomach vomit/puke

rosszul érzi magát, hányingere van folyik az orra gyomorrontás hány, okád

Illnesses appendicitis asthma rubella pneumonia tonsillitis cancer mumps obesity chickenpox diabetes rheumatism stroke measles ulcer tooth decay flu common cold heart disease migraine heart attack allergy

Betegségek vakbélgyulladás asztma rózsahimlő tüdőgyulladás mandulagyulladás rák mumpsz elhízás bárányhimlő cukorbetegség reuma agyvérzés kanyaró fekély fogszuvasodás influenza meghűlés, megfázás szívbaj migrén szívroham allergia

Other words (blood) clot artery bring down a temperature contagious dehydration dizziness eliminate fatigue fluid glands infection inflammation lose consciousness

Egyéb szavak vérrög ütőér leviszi a lázat fertőző kiszáradás szédülés kizár, kirekeszt fáradtság, kimerültség folyadék mandula fertőzés gyulladás eszméletét veszti

nausea numbness over-the-counter medications soothe a sore throat

émelygés, hányinger zsibbadtság recept nélkül kapható gyógyszerek enyhíti a torokfájást

At the doctor’s Types of doctors anaesthetist/ anesthesiologist cardiologist

Az orvosnál Orvosok altató orvos

dentist dermatologist GP (General Practitioner) optician, optometrist paediatrician plastic surgeon surgeon veterinarian (vet) At the dentist’s amalgam/ porcelain filling braces (orthodontic braces) crown dental bridge dental implant dental treatment denture gum removal, extraction root canal treatment sensitive teeth take out, pull out to drill to fill tooth decay, cavity tooth whitening wisdom tooth Other words antifebrile appointment

facelift health card inflamed liposuction mole painkiller prescribe recovery sick certificate, doctor’s note stethoscope swollen take one’s temperature the picture of good health thermometer to put sb on the sick list

szívspecialista, szívszakorvos fogorvos bőrgyógyász körzeti orvos látszerész, optikus gyermekorvos plasztikai sebész sebész állatorvos

arcfelvarrás egészségbiztosítás kártya gyulladt zsírleszívás anyajegy, szemölcs fájdalomcsillapító kezelést ír elő, receptet ír fel felépülés orvosi igazolás sztetoszkóp dagadt, duzzadt megméri a lázát megtestesült egészség lázmérő betegállományba vesz

At the hospital Korházban Hospital departments Korházi osztályok A&E sürgősségi osztály (Accident and Emergency) intensive care intenzív osztály internal medicine belgyógyászat urology urológia psychiatry elmeosztály, pszichiátria cardiology kardiológia oncology onkológia dermatology bőrgyógyászat obstetrics szülészet paediatrics gyerekosztály gynaecology nőgyógyászat ear-nose-throat fül-orr-gégészet

A fogorvosnál amalgám/porcelán tömés fogszabályozó korona híd fog implantáció/ beültetés fogorvosi kezelés műfogsor fogíny eltávolítás, kihúzás gyökérkezelés érzékeny fogak eltávolít (fogat) kifúr betöm fogszuvasodás fogfehérítés bölcsességfog

Other words patient mask scalpel operating gown carry out operation table surgeon operating theatre/room ward gratitude money outpatient referral

Egyéb szavak lázcsillapító (előzetes) bejelentés, időpont kivizsgálás rendelő

check-up consulting room/ surgery, doctor’s office contact lenses kontaktlencse cure meggyógyít, kúra diagnose kórt megállapít, diagnosztizál epidemic járvány examine megvizsgál

Health Insurance Fund 69

Egyéb szavak páciens, beteg (védő)maszk szike műtős ruha, műtőköpeny végrehajt műtő asztal sebész műtő terem (korházi) osztály hálapénz járó beteg beutaló

Országos egészségbiztosítási pénztár (OEP)

mandatory contribution life expectancy lag behind recovery room

kötelező hozzájárulás valószínű élettartalom hátul kullog, lemarad lábadozó szoba

golf handball hockey rugby squash

golf kézilabda jégkorong, hoki rögbi fallabda/squash

Alternative Medicine acupuncture anxiety aromatherapy breathing techniques complementary medicine traditional/ conventional (orthodox) medicine debate emperor herbal medicine hocus-pocus hypnosis insomnia lethargy massage needle osteopathy pioneer reflexology scented oils tissue vitality well-being word of mouth

Alternatív gyógyászat akupunktúra szorongás, nyugtalanság illatterápia légzési technikák kiegészítő gyógyászat

table tennis/ ping-pong

asztalitenisz/ ping-pong



Motor sports formula one go-karting motocross

Motorsportok forma egy go-kart motorkerékpáros terepverseny gyorsasági motorcsónak

hagyományos gyógyászat vita császár gyógynövény gyógyászat hókusz-pókusz hipnózis álmatlanság levertség, fásultság masszás tű csontkovácsolás úttörő reflexológia illatos olajok szövet (emberi) életerő jólét, egészség élőszóval

Unit 7 Sport Athletics


hammer/discus/ javelin throw

kalapács/diszkosz/ gerely hajítás

hurdling long-distance running marathon pole vault relay shot-put sprint triple/high/long jump walking

gátfutás hosszútávfutás maratoni futás rúdugrás váltófutás súlylökés sprint tripla/magas/távol ugrás gyaloglás

Ball games badminton baseball basketball cricket football/soccer

Labdajátékok tollaslabda baseball kosárlabda krikett labdarúgás 70

motorboat racing verseny off-road racing rally

terepverseny rally

Water/Aquatic sports canoeing diving rowing sailing scuba diving surfing swimming snorkelling water-skiing windsurfing water polo

Vízi sportok kenuzás műugrás evezés vitorlázás búvárkodás szörfözés úszás könnyűbúvárkodás vízisí (vitorlás)szörfözés vízilabda

Winter sports bobsleighing, bobsledding curling figure skating skating ski jump skiing sledging, sledding snowboarding speed skating

Téli sportok bobozás curling (jégkoronghajítás) műkorcsolya korcsolyázás síugrás síelés szánkózás hódeszkázás gyorskorcsolya

Other sports aerobics angling archery billiards boating bodybuilding bowling cycling fencing gymnastics

Egyéb sportok aerobik horgászás íjászat billiárd csónakázás testépítés teke biciklizés vívás gimnasztika

mountaineering poker rollerblading skateboarding weightlifting

hegymászás póker görkorcsolyázás gördeszkázás súlyemelés

Combat sports boxing judo karate kick-boxing kung-fu martial arts sumo wrestling

Küzdősportok ökölvívás judo karate kickbox kung-fu harcművészet szumó birkózás

Equipment arrow barbell bow gloves goal goalpost goggles head guard hole hook line mast rein rod rope saddle sail ski stick stirrup sword, sabre weights

Felszerelés nyílvessző súlyzó nyíl, íj kesztyű kapu kapufa (védő, motoros, sí..) szemüveg fejvédő lyuk horog horgászzsineg árboc gyeplő horgászbot kötél nyereg vitorla síléc sípálca kengyelvas kard súlyok

Playing areas athletic track circuit court fairway football pitch green playing field pool ring rink slope stadium

Játéktér atlétikai versenypálya auto-motor versenypálya tenisz, kosár, rögbi pálya golfpálya pázsitos része focipálya golfpálya, pázsit sportpálya medence szorító fedett jégpálya lejtő stadion

Rules of the game attack

Játékszabályok támadás 71

backstroke blow bout breaststroke butterfly stroke centre circle commit a fault defence defender dribble free throw freestyle swimming gain control goal goalkeeper half-time hoop/ring lifeguard midfield player net opponent pass the ball penalty area permit racket score (a goal) shoot a basket/hoop slippery starting block striker swimming cap swimming instructor trip

hátúszás ütés menet (ökölvívásban) mellúszás pillangóúszás kezdőkor hibát követ el, hibázik védelem védő játékos cselez szabaddobás gyorsúszás ellenőrzése alá vonja kapu, gól kapus félidő gyűrű (kosárlabdában) életmentő középpályás háló ellenfél labdát passzol büntető terület megenged, engedélyez tenisz ütő gólt rúg kosarat dob csúszós rajtkő támadójátékos úszósapka úszóedző kigáncsol, elbuktat

Idioms lay your cards on the table

Kifejezések nyílt lapokkal játszik

hit below the belt

övön alul üt / szabálytalanul küzd

do something on the spur of the moment

a pillanat hevében cselekszik

not in the same league

nincs egy súlycsoportban

play by the rules

szabályok szerint játszik

More words backhand bat bowl bring oneself to do sth catch one’s fancy

Egyéb szavak fonák ütő labdát dob (krikettben) ráveszi magát vm-re felkelti az érdeklődését

change one’s mind véleményét cope with crack descend endurance fanatic fast-paced grass stain grunt hydrophobia incorporate inherent danger league obesity persistent physical strength podium posh-looking rely on sb/sth shove ski resort slope splash stamina summit team spirit teammate the hang of sth thrill of victory time-consuming to be keen on tournament vomit/throw up wicket

megváltoztatja a

indoor/ outdoor activities

benti/szabadtéri tevékenységek

keeping pets leisure time photography play board games play cards play chess potholing (caving) relaxed risk taking spare time watch sporting events

háziállatokat tart szabadidő fényképezés társasozik kártyázni sakkozni barlangászat ellazult rizikó vállalás szabadidő sporteseményeket néz

Books/ E-books and the Internet

Könyvek/elektronikus könyvek és az Internet

archives audio book autobiography bookworm bed-time story biography broaden one’s horizons comic compulsory dragon enchantment fairy fairy tale gnome goblin hard-cover

archívum hangos könyv önéletrajz könyvmoly esti mese életrajz tágítja a látókört

Unit 8 Hobbies and Entertainment

library catalogue database

könyvtári katalógus adatbázis

Leisure activites angling available free time

light reading memoirs obligatory outer space paperback poetry position preview reluctance resist the temptation romance short story smart supernatural creatures travel book volume war story

könnyű olvasmány emlékiratok kötelező világűr puhafedelű könyv költészet testtartás, póz előzetes vonakodás ellenáll a kísértésnek romantikus történet novella okos természetfeletti lények

megbirkózik vm-vel repedés leereszkedik kitartás rajongó, megszállott gyors iramú fűfolt (ruhán) morog víziszony belefoglal benne rejlő veszély liga elhízottság, hájasság kitartó testi erő dobogó elegáns kinézetű számít vk/vm-re taszít, tol síparadicsom lejtő csobban, lubickol kitartás, állóképesség hegycsúcs csapatszellem csapattárs csínja-bínja vmnek győzelmi mámor időigényes rajong vm-ért verseny, verseny sorozat hány krikett kapu

Szabadidős tevékenységek horgászás rendelkezésre álló szabadidő challenge kihívás collect coins érméket gyűjt collect napkins szalvétákat gyűjt collect stamps bélyegeket gyűjt companionship társaság creative alkotó DIY (Do-It-Yourself) barkácsolás excited izgatott free time szabadidő gardening kertészkedés go fishing halászni megy go for a walk sétálni megy go hiking túrázik 72

képregény kötelező sárkány bűbáj, varázslat tündér tündérmese manó lidérc keménykötésű könyv

útikönyv kötet háborús történet

whodunit witch

detektívregény boszorkány

Musical taste and music trends rollercoaster acclaim blast catchy tunes chart claim collaborate comeback curiosity debut album dub ensure haunting melodies headbanging hit induct

Zene ízlés és zenei irányzatok hullámvasút éljenezve üdvözöl üvölt, harsog fülbemászó dallam eladási toplista állít együttműködik visszatérés kíváncsiság bemutatkozó album elnevez biztosít fülbemászó dallam fejrázás sláger ünnepélyesen beavat, bevezet élő koncert nagy siker emlékezetes zeneipar zenei hajlam, tehetség szokatlan, rendkívüli zenedarab, szerzemény pop bálvány kiadni egy cd-t megőriz, megtart szólóénekes kislemez elképesztő, meghökkentő acélbetétes katonai bakancs szegecs

live performance massive hit memorable music industry musical talent out of the ordinary piece of music pop idol release a CD retain soloist single staggering steel-toe army boots stud take something for granted

bizonyosnak/ természetesnek vesz valamit

tone upstaged via volume lyric distort orchestra vivacious stem from impact

hangszín hátérbe szorul keresztül hangerő dalszöveg torzít zenekar élénk vhonnan ered/származik hatás, befolyás

cello cymbal bass drum flute guitar harmonica harp organ pan pipes saxophone trumpet violin TV Watching talk show comedy commercial couch potato current affairs programme dependency detective series documentary glamorous goggle-eyed insipid keeps sb informed music programme news broadcast news bulletin out of control quarrel over sth quiz show reality show serial series sitcom soap opera sports programme third-rate TV set victim viewer vulnerable Films/Cinema/ Theatre act action action-packed admission adventure aisle animated

Musical Instruments Hangszerek accordion harmonika bagpipes skót duda 73

cselló cintányér nagybőgő dob fuvola gitár szájharmonika hárfa orgona pánsíp szaxofon trombita hegedű TV nézés beszélgetős műsor vígjáték kereskedelmi reklám tv-mániás aktuális események műsora függőség detektív sorozat dokumentumfilm elbűvölő meredt, kidülledt szemű unalmas tájékoztat zenei műsor híradó hírközlemény irányításán kívül van veszekedik vmin vetélkedő műsor valóságshow sorozat (folytatásos történet) sorozat (minden rész új történet, azonos főszereplőkkel) szituációs vígjáték szappan opera sport műsor harmad osztályú, silány tévékészülék áldozat néző sebezhető Filmek/Mozi/Színház felvonás akció akció dús belépés kaland folyosó animációs

applause artificial intelligence audience auditorium blockbuster blood burlesque burst out in laughter car chase cast circle cloakroom comedy curtain call duel fall head over heels in love foyer heart-stirring hilarious historical play horror interval musical opera orchestra performance play plot poster prairie row science fiction scream selection sentimental soundtrack suffering swinging a lasso tear-jerker theatre-goer thrill thriller torturing tragedy trailer usher violence western witty amusing appalling appealing breathtaking

taps mesterséges intelligencia közönség nézőtér nagy siker vér burleszk nevetésben tör ki autós üldözés szereposztás erkély ruhatár komédia visszatapsolás (a függöny elé) párbaj fülig szerelmes

compelling doomed dreadful dull fantastic fascinating fast-paced gripping intricate likeable melancholic moving outstanding overcomplicated perspective poorly written shallow sorrowful superb tedious touching tragic unique unravelled well-written

előcsarnok magával ragadó nevetséges történelmi darab horror szünet musical, zenés játék opera zenekar előadás színdarab cselekmény poszter préri sor sci-fi sikoly választék érzelgős filmzene szenvedés megpörgeti a lasszót könnyfacsaró színházba járó borzongás thriller kínzás tragédia film előzetes jegyszedő erőszak vadnyugati történet szellemes szórakoztató megdöbbentő tetszetős lélegzetelállító

ellenállhatatlan, lenyűgöző kudarcra ítélt érdekfeszítő unalmas fantasztikus lenyűgöző gyors tempójú izgalmas tekervényes szeretetre méltó búskomor megható kiemelkedő túlságosan bonyolult nézőpont, perspektíva rosszul megírt felszínes szomorú nagyszerű egyhangú, unalmas megható tragikus egyedi kibogoz, megfejt jól megírt

Unit 9 Communication and the Media Communication speak a second language tell the time tell a story talk rubbish tell a joke tell the truth tell a lie speak one’s mind talk nonsense say a prayer Mobile Phones availability capable of (doing) sth disposable income earpiece emergency call expenditure gadget gimmick 74

Kommunikáció idegen nyelvet beszél megmondja hogy mennyi az idő történetet mesél mindenfélét összelocsog, se füle se farka annak amit mond viccet mesél igazat mond hazudik megmondja a véleményét, kimondja amit gondol ostobaságokat mond imát mond Mobiltelefonok elérhetőség képes valamire rendelkezésre álló bevétel fülhallgató segélyhívás kiadás eszköz, készülék ravasz fogás, trükk

hands-free health hazard hectic inexpensive keep in touch with sb purchase quintuple schedule

kéz nélküli, szabad kézi telefonálás egészségügyi kockázat mozgalmas olcsó kapcsolatban marad vk-vel vásárol megötszöröződik időbeosztás


privacy setting prospective suicide valid join approve upload resume life application sign up account upcoming events

Useful mobile Hasznos kifejezések language mobiltelefonhoz Bluetooth connection Bluetooth kapcsolat call key hívásgomb check your voicemail felhívni a hangpostát charger telefontöltő infrared connection infra kapcsolat internet connection internet kapcsolat keypad billentyűzet loudspeaker hangszóró multimedia message multimédia üzenet (MMS) P(ersonal) PIN kód I(dentification) N(umber) P(ersonal) PUK kód U(nblocking) K(ey) power button be/ki kapcsoló gomb ringtone csengőhang service provider szolgáltató set beállít signal térerő S(hort) M(essage) SMS S(ervice) speed dialling gyorshívás S(ubscriber) SIM kártya I(dentity) M(odule) transfer data adatot átvisz voice dialling hanghívás voice message hangüzenet voicemail üzenetrögzítő voice recorder hangfelvevő volume button hangerőszabályzó W(ireless) WAP A(pplication) P(rotocol) dial tárcsáz Social networking friends online advert News Feed profile share tag photos wall log out like

Global English make a speech give one’s word crack a joke a quick word a brief chat lengthy discussion drop a hint ask a favour change the subject get into conversation dishonoured regardless of minority vernacular tongue lingua franca identity reluctance rivalry novelty The Media and the Press absolute gossip celebrity subscribe (to sth) commercial on-air

Közösségi háló ismerősök online, elérhető ismerősök reklám hírek profil megoszt fényképek megjelelölése üzenőfal kijelentkezik tetszik

browsing announcer banner ad banner headline paper boy circulation 75

“bökés, piszkálás” A Facebook tartalmaz egy „poke” funkciót, amely lehetővé teszi a felhasználók számára, hogy poke-ot küldjenek egymásnak. adatvédelmi beállítások leendő öngyilkosság érvényes csatlakozik jóváhagy feltölt újrakezd életet alkalmazás beiratkozik, regisztrál felhasználói fiók közelgő események Globális angol beszédet mond/tart a szavát adja tréfás megjegyzést tesz szót vált vk-vel egy rövid beszélgetés hosszas beszélgetés utalást tesz szívességet kér témát vált beszélgetést kezdeményez szégyenkezik tekintet nélkül kisebbség nemzeti nyelv közös közvetítő nyelv azonosság, identitás vonakodás versengés újdonság A media és a sajtó korlátlan pletyka híres ember (celeb) előfizet (vm-re) kereskedelmi reklám adásban (rádióban, TV-ben) böngészés bemondó szalaghírdetés szalagcím újságkihordó eladási példányszám

convey accessibility impartiality agony column centrefold classified ad comic strip editorial leading article lonely hearts personal column review Situations Vacant sensational headlines journalist small ads broadsheet/ quality paper

közvetít, közöl, átad hozzáférhetőség pártatlanság, tárgyilagosság olvasói rovat (személyes problémákra) óriás poszter (magazin közepén) apróhirdetés képregény szerkesztői rovat, vezércikk vezércikk társkereső rovat személyi hírek ismertetés (könyv, film), kritika álláshirdetés rovat feltűnést keltő főcím (újságban) újságíró apróhirdetés minőségi újság

tabloid/ popular paper

pletykalap, bulvárlap

bulletin censorship daily newspaper pocket money periodical literary supplement readership scandal publish newsagent sport page voracious international affairs hoax

hivatalos közlemény cenzúra napilap zsebpénz folyóirat irodalmi kiegészítő olvasóközönség botrány publikál, kiad újságárus sport oldal falánk, telhetetlen nemzetközi ügyek kacsa (újságban), megtévesztés kitalál történeteket folyóirat kütyü, szerkentyű széleskörű

fabricate stories journal gadget widespread

camping campsite congestion crack of dawn cruise crystal-clear cultural heritage destination excursion explore full/half board gourmet guesthouse hassle-free hitchhiking holiday resort holidaymaker landscape mass tourism mountaineering off the beaten track package tour pottery

táborozás táborhely, kemping forgalmi torlódás korán reggel tengeri körutazás kristálytiszta kulturális örökség célállomás kirándulás, túra felfedez teljes/fél panzió ínyenc vendégház zűrzavarmentes autóstoppal utazik üdülőhely nyaraló, kiránduló táj, vidék, tájkép tömegturizmus hegymászás távoli, félreeső szervezett társasutazás fazekasság (áru), agyagárú put sb up elszállásol vkit put up a tent felállítja a sátrat recreational activities pihenési, szórakozási tevékenységek remote távoli reserve lefoglal rough sea viharos tenger scenery látvány settle the bill rendezi a számlát shelter menedék sightseeing városnézés solitary magányos, elhagyatott spectacular látványos sun worshipper napimádó trekking túrázás trip kirándulás untouched érintetlen unwind lazít voyage utazás (tengeri) wander barangol woodwork famunka youth hostel (ifjúsági) turistaház Holiday activities and equipment bait csali compass iránytű flippers békatalp gloves kesztyű goggles sí szemüveg helmet sisak hook horog insect repellent rovarriasztó line damil

Unit 10 Travelling and Transport Holidays/Tourism all-inclusive holiday break breathtaking campfire

Nyaralás/Tourizmus mindent magába foglaló nyaralás szünet lélegzetelállító tábortűz 76

parachuting parasol penknife/pocketknife pole (stick) reel rod flare skin-diving sun dial swimsuit towel wetsuit Idioms globetrotter in the middle of nowhere living out of one’s suitcase lose one’s heart Transportation cab coach / bus cogwheel railway double-decker bus economic energy efficient reliability shuttle bus suburban train tram trolleybus the Tube Air travel flight attendant aisle baggage reclaim boarding pass cabin baggage/ hand luggage check-in counter cockpit cover a long distance crew

departures/ arrivals/ waiting lounge

ejtőernyőzés napernyő zsebkés, bicska síbot orsó horgászbot jelzőrakéta könnyűbúvárkodás napóra fürdőruha törököző búvárruha világjáró a semmi közepén bőröndből él (sokat utazik) beleszeret Közlekedés taxi távolsági autóbusz fogaskerekű vasút emeletes autóbusz gazdaságosság, takarékosság energia hatékonyság megbízhatóság ingajáratban közlekedő busz H(elyi)É(rdekű)V(asút) villamos trolibusz londoni metró Légi közlekedés légi utaskísérő folyosó (repülőn, buszon, vonaton) csomagkiadás beszálló kártya kézipoggyász jegy és poggyász kezelés helyszíne pilótafülke nagy távolságot tesz meg legénység, személyzet (hajón, repülőn)

duty free excess fee excess weight hijacker lost and found runway security gate turbulence jet lag

vámmentes többletsúly pótdíj többletsúly gépeltérítő talált tárgyak osztálya kifutó biztonsági kapu turbulencia időátállási probléma hosszú repülőút után

Bicycle, motorbike bell chain handlebar mudguard pedal saddle sidecar valve helmet

Kerékpár és motorbicikli csengő lánc kormány sárvédő pedál nyereg oldalkocsi szelep bukósisak

Trains and Buses board compartment conductor dodger express train fake leather first class local train platform punch your ticket ticket inspector upholstered

Vonatok és Buszok beszáll, felszáll fülke kalauz bliccelő gyorsvonat műbőr első osztály személyvonat vágány jegyet kezel (lyukaszt) jegyellenőr kárpitozott

Travel by water anchor disembark ferry life vest lighthouse liner pier port

Vizi közlekedés horgony kiszáll, partra száll komp mentőmellény világítótorony tengerjáró hajó móló, rakpart kikötő

Driving and cars Vezetés és autók Types of cars Autófajták convertible nyitható tetejű autó coupe kétajtós automobil estate car kombi (station wagon AmE) hatchback háromajtós MPV egy légterű autó (multi-purpose vehicle) saloon(sedan (NAmE) négyajtós autó

indulási/érkezési/ váró csarnok


bumper door handle exhaust pipe headlight hubcap/wheel trim indicator, turn signal (AmE) number plate / license plate (AmE) petrol cap or flap sunroof windscreen wiper windscreen/ windshield (AmE)

SUV SUV (sport utility vehicle) (sportcélú haszonjármű) pick up platóval rendelkező személygépkocsi lorry (truck AmE) teherautó, kamion Driving a car adjust brand loyalty change gears

Autóvezetés hozzáigazít márkahűség sebességet vált

downshift into a lesser gear

kisebb sebességi fokozatba kapcsol

fasten your seat belt

kapcsold be a biztonsági övet üzemanyag fogyasztás kezelhetőség

fuel consumption handling indicate/ signal right/left interior space performance release the handbrake turn on the ignition wear and tear neutral position

gyújtást ad kopás, elhasználódás üres (váltó fokozat)

Getting a driving licence

Jogosítvány megszerzése

artificial respiration/ mouth-to-mouth resusitation/ the kiss of life bandage wounds basic mechanics

mesterséges légzés, szájon át történő lélegeztetés

decelerate driving instructor give first aid the Highway Code manoeuvre medical certificate medically fit permit procedure The exterior of the car aerial, antenna alloy wheels bonnet / hood (AmE) boot trunk (AmE) brake lights

lökhárító kilincs kipufogó cső fényszóró dísztárcsa index rendszámtábla tanksapka napfénytető ablaktörlő szélvédő

The interior of the car Az autó belseje accelerator/gas pedal gázpedál air conditioning légkondicionáló brake fék back seat hátsó ülés central lock központi zár clutch kuplung cup holder italtartó dashboard műszerfal emergency light vészvillogó fuel gauge üzemanyag szintmérő gear stick/ sebváltó stick shift / gear shift glove compartment/ kesztyűtartó glove box (AmE) handbrake kézifék headrest fejtámla horn duda ignition key slusszkulcs navigation system navigációs rendszer passenger’s seat anyósülés rear-view mirror visszapillantó tükör rev(olution) fordulatszámmérő counter/tachometer seat belt biztonsági öv speedometer sebességmérő steering wheel kormánykerék sun visor napellenző vent ventilátor wing mirror, oldalsó visszapillantók side-view mirror (AmE)

jobbra/balra jelez, indexel belső tér teljesítmény kiengedi a kéziféket

sebet bekötöz alapvető műszaki ismeretek lassít gépjárművezető oktató elsősegélyt nyújt KRESZ manőver orvosi igazolás egészségügyileg alkalmas engedély eljárásmód

Rules of the road

A közúti közlekedés szabályai (KRESZ) lakott terület sávot vált gyerekülés kerékbilincs

built-up area change lanes child restraint wheel clamp (Denver boot) dead end zsákutca exceed the speed limit túllépi a sebességkorlátozást

Az autó külseje antenna alu felni motorháztető csomagtartó féklámpa 78

fine give way sign/ yield sign (AmE) junction/crossroads/ intersection (AmE) motorist motorway/ highway (AmE) one-way street priority to the right pull out roundabout single carriageway road speed bump (sleeping policeman) speed camera speed limit speeding suspension

büntetés elsőbbségadási tábla

autóvezető autópálya

Weather awful blazing sun blizzard boiling hot breeze changeable chilly cloudburst cloudy damp downpour drizzle dull, overcast fog freezing cold frost gale gloomy hail heatwave humid mild mist nasty roasting hot shower sleet

egyirányú utca jobbkéz-szabály elindul körforgalom egypályás út fekvőrendőr sebességmérő kamera sebességkorlátozás gyorshajtás felfüggesztés

nyűg, bosszúság Közúti balesetek összeütközik ütközés halálos áldozat fáradtság koccanás frontális ütközés repülőgép-eltérítés emberi hiba figyelmetlenség

inclement weather conditions

rossz időjárási körülmények

inexperience intoxication mechanical failure mount the pavement pedestrian prosecution rear-end collision

tapasztalatlanság ittasság technikai hiba felszalad a járdára gyalogos bűnvádi eljárás koccanásos ütközés (hátulról) figyelmetlen vezetés borulás bámészkodás árokba csúszik csúszós út


Unit 11 Weather and Environment


Idioms dead end road hog at a crossroads hit the road on the right/ wrong track a pain in the neck Traffic accidents collide with collision fatality fatigue fender bender head-on collision hijacking human error inattentiveness

reckless driving rollover rubbernecking skid into the ditch slippery road


kilátástalan országúti fenegyerek válaszút, keresztút útra kel jó/rossz nyomon jár

slush storm sunny spells sweltering hot thunderstorm unbearable heat unpredictable windy

Időjárás pocsék tűző nap hóvihar tűzforró szelő változékony csípős felhőszakadás felhős párás, nedves szakadó eső szitáló eső borús köd dermesztő hideg fagy erős szél borongós jégeső hőhullám nyirkos, párás enyhe gyenge köd nagyon rossz idő perzselő meleg zápor havas eső (dara), ólmos eső latyak vihar napos időszakok tikkasztó meleg zivatar elviselhetetlen hőség kiszámíthatatlan szeles

Idioms It’s raining cats and dogs.

Kifejezések esik mintha dézsából öntenék

put the wind up me

ráijeszt vkre, beijeszt vkt kitünő állapotban van hetedik menyországban van

as right as rain on cloud nine storm in a teacup it never rains but it pours 79

bolhából elefántot csinál, vihar a biliben a baj sosem jár egyedül

Weather Forecasts accuracy accurate atmospheric pressure front humidity meteorologist rainfall safety precautions thermometer weatherman wind speed Extreme weather apparent attributable blizzard commendable concern drought dry wells enact erratic flood hailstorm hence hurricane impact plague precipitation quadrupled run amok severe spare tamper tornado unwittingly well wildfire wreak havoc Weather and its effects a long-term solution arthritic joint arthritis assumption clear up cotton wool cloud evident relationship healing energy

Időjárás jelentés pontosság, precízség pontos légnyomás időjárási front páratartalom meteorológus esőzés biztonsági óvintézkedések hőmérő időjós szélsebesség Szélsőséges időjárás nyilvánvaló tulajdonítható hóvihar dicséretes aggodalom aszály, szárazság száraz kutak elrendel, tövénybe iktat kiszámíthatatlan, szeszélyes árvíz jégeső ennélfogva orkán, szélvihar hatás csapásokkal sújt (országot) csapadék megnégyszereződik, négyszeres ámokfutást rendez komoly megkímél babrál vmvel forgószél, tornádó akaratlanul kút futótűz nagy pusztítást végez

migraine reveal the truth rub sink to the horizon solemnly suicide witty

migrén, fejfájás felfedi az igazságot dörzsöl eltűnik a szemelől komolyan, ünnepélyesen öngyilkosság szellemes

Environmental problems and dangers absorb acid rain barren desert cattle raising

Környezetvédelmi gondok és veszélyek

climate change cut down deforestation deplete

elnyel savas eső kietlen puszta szarvasmarha tenyésztés klímaváltozás kivág (fát) erdőirtás kimerít, legyengít

depletion of natural resources

természeti erőforrások kimerítése

desertification destructive drought endangered species environmentalist environmentally friendly

elsivatagosodás pusztító, romboló aszály veszélyeztetett fajok környezetvédő környezetbarát

exploitation of natural resources

természeti erőforrások kiaknázása

extinction face extinction fish stocks fossil fuels glacier global warming green issues

kihalás, kipusztulás a kihalás szélén van hal állomány fosszilis tüzelőanyag gleccser globális felmelegedés környezeti problémák, kérdések természetes élőhely törvényellenes fakitermelés szemét haszonállatok túlhalászat orrvadászat forgalmi torlódás faj üvegházhatás ózonpajzs fenyegetés eltűnik

habitat illegal logging litter livestock overfishing poaching road congestion species the greenhouse effect the ozone layer threat vanish

Időjárás hatásai hosszútávú megoldás gyulladt ízület izületi gyulladás feltételezés tisztáz, eloszlat bárányfelhő nyilvánvaló kapcsolat gyógyitó energia 80

Pollution chemical fertilizers construction work contaminated water contamination detergent domestic effluent dumping emission emit exhaust fumes fertilizer fossil fuels hazardous incinerator industrial machinery landfill site leak lung cancer mining oil spill over-illuminated power plant respiratory diseases sewage disposal sewage treatment smokestack storage tanks

Szennyezés mezőgazdasági vegyszerek építési munkák szennyezett víz szennyezés tisztítószer háztartási szennyvíz szemétlerakás kibocsátás kibocsát kipufogógázok trágya fosszilis tüzelőanyagok kockázatos, veszélyes szemétégető ipairi gépek szemét lerakóhely kiszivárog tüdőrák bányászat olajfolt túlságosan kivilágított erőmű légúti megbetegedések szennyvízelvezetés szennyvízkezelés gyárkémény gyűjtőtartály

unfit for human habitation

emberi tartozkodásra alkalmatlan

Environmental protection and green living

Környezetvédelem és fenntartható életmód

alteration charity compost consume less energy drain

átalakítás, módosítás jótékonyság komposztál kevesebb energiát fogyaszt csatorna

energy efficient light bulb

energia takarékos égő

faucet, tap install ivory low flow shower head standby mode

csap felszerel elefántcsont víztakarékos zuhanyfej készenléti állapot

Verbs with prepositions affected by sth/sb

Igék, előljáró vonzataikkal befolyásolt vm/

harmful to sth/sb in danger responsible for suffer from sth under threat

vk által beleömlik vm-be megszabadul vm-től káros vk/vm-re veszélyben felelős vm-ért szenved vm-től fenyegetés alatt

Recycling flora and fauna bury by-product distribution municipal waste entitle to

Újrahasznosítás növény és állatvilág eltemet melléktermék elosztás, szétosztás városi szemét feljogosít vm-re

selective rubbish collection

szelektív hulladékgyűjtés

toxic waste ultraviolet rays urbanisation wild habitat garbage, rubbish genetically modified habitation industrialisation insulation population explosion man-made

mérgező szemét ibolyántúli sugárzás elvárosiasodás vadonbéli élőhely szemét genetikailag módosított lakóhely iparosítás szigetelés demográfiai robbanás ember által gyártott, mesterséges megőriz, megóv nyersanyag szabályoz kiválogat visszafordít megbirkózik megfojt, mefullad mérgező anyagok szerves szemét elbomlik

discharge into dispose of sth

preserve raw material regulate sort out reverse tackle suffocate poisonous substances organic waste decay Alternative energy abundant affordable available biofuel by-product constant dam demand disrupt drilling 81

Alternatív energia bőséges anyagilag megengedhető elérhető bio üzemanyag melléktermék állandó, változatlan gát kereslet szétrombol, felbomlaszt fúrás

eco-friendly foresee geothermal energy hydroelectric energy mankind

környezetbarát előre lát geotermikus energia vízenergia emberiség

renewable energy resources

megújuló energiaforrások

solar energy vapour windmill

napenergia pára, gőz szélerőmű

life sentence community service fine capital punishment/ the death penalty suspended sentence jail/prison sentence imprisonment Other words accuse sb (of sth) appeal assault attorney bail case charge convict

Unit 12 Social Problems Crime and punishment

Bűn és büntetés

Crimes/ Criminals/Verbs arson/arsonist/ to set fire

Bűntettek/bűnözők/ Igék szándékos gyújtogatás/ gyújtogató/meggyújt vmt

blackmail blackmailer to blackmail burglary burglar to burgle kidnapping kidnapper to kidnap murder murderer to murder rape rapist to rape robbery robber to rob shoplifting shoplifter to shoplift smuggling smuggler to smuggle theft thief to steal vandalism vandal to vandalize

zsarolás zsaroló megzsarol betörés betörő betör emberrablás emberrabló elrabol vkt gyilkosság gyilkos meggyilko nemi erőszak erőszaktevő megerőszakol rablás rabló kirabol bolti lopás áruházi tolvaj (el)lop csempészés csempész csempészik lopás tolvaj (el)lop vandalizmus vandál megrongál

Punishments life imprisonment/

Büntetések életfogytiglan 82

közmunka pénzbírság halálbüntetés felfüggesztett szabadságvesztés börtönbüntetés bebörtönzés

conviction evidence indict sb (for sth) jury offender prosecutor take revenge victim

Egyéb szavak vádol vkt (vmvel) fellebez testi sértés ügyvéd óvadék bírósági ügy vádol elítél, bűnösnek nyilvánít büntető ítélet bizonyíték vádol vkt (vmvel) esküdtszég bűnös vádló bosszút áll áldozat

Addictions addict addictive alcoholic alcoholism attendance ban deterioration determination drug abuse experiment experimentation gambling grunt hermit intoxicated moderate mood swings muttering powerless substance suspicious behaviour teetotaller to be addicted to tremble tremendous withdrawal symptoms

Függőségek függő függőséget okozó alkoholista alkoholizmus részvétel betilt, megtilt megromlás, rosszabodás eltökéltség droggal való visszaélés kísérlet, próba kísérletezés szerencsejáték morog, dörmög remete ittas mértékletes hangulatváltozás mormogás tehetetlen, erőtlen anyag gyanús viselkedés antialkoholista vm-nek a rabja remeg hatalmas, óriási elvonási tünetek

Unemployment and homelessness beggar begging bench debt the dole economic recession go bankrupt

Munkanélküliség és hajléktalanság koldus, kéregető koldulás, kéregetés pad adósság munkanélküli segély gazdasági válság/ hanyatlás csődbe jut

job centre, unemployment centre

munkanélküli központ

patrol poverty rehabilitation centre retraining safe and sound shelter unemployment benefits vagrant

exceed exchange programme exchange rate expand fluctuation frontier fund handicap

achievement border barrier candidate citizen close up common market consumer rights cooperation currency customs duties democracy discriminate diversity economic integration enlargement equality establish

knowledgebased society

tudáson alapuló társadalom

human rights immigration inflation join

őrjárat szegénység rehabilitációs központ átképzés ép és egészséges, épp bőrrel menedék munkanélküli segély

labour legal dispute legislation member states mobility

munka jogi vita törvényhozás tagállamok mobilitás, mozgékonyság mutual kölcsönös official currency hivatalos valuta/ pénznem overpass átlép (határt), áthalad (országon) peace béke personal development személyes fejlődés policy politikai irányelv prevent megelőz promote előmozdít proposal javaslat prosperity gazdagság pursue studies tanulmányokat folytat race faj research and kutatás és fejlesztés development restriction korlátozás spread terjeszt stability stabilitás stimulate ösztönöz tariff díjszabás, tarifa tax adó treaty egyezmény well-being jólét workforce munkaerő

csavargó, koldus

Unit 13 The European Union abolish

joint action justice

túllép csereprogram tőzsdei árfolyam kiterjed árfolyamhullámzás országhatár alapít hátrány, fogyatékosság emberi jogok bevándorlás infláció csatlakozik vmhez/ vkhez együttes intézkedés igazság

megszüntet, érvénytelenít eredmény, teljesítmény határ korlátozás pályázó, jelölt állampolgár felzárkózik közös piac vásárlói jogok együttműködés valuta/pénznem behozatali, kiviteli vámok demokrácia diszkriminál, sokféleség, változatosság gazdasági integráció bővítés egyenlőség megalapít


Tapescript Listening 1.1 (track 1) This is Peter. He is married. He is a 35 year-old-father with a daughter and a son. He is a sales manager and he works for a multinational company. He has been working there for 5 years. As far as I know, he is satisfied with his job and wouldn’t change it for any other. He works very hard because there is a chance for promotion. He is very conscientious, determined and persistent in his work. He lives in a little town close to the capital city. He has a detached house with a big garden at the back and he likes pottering there whenever he has time. As I have already mentioned, he has two children and a wife. He and his wife have been married for 7 years and they have a very good marriage. If I am not mistaken, they met on holiday in Paris. How romantic! His family plays a crucial role in his life. He has a lot of relatives and has very strong family ties. They have many family gatherings every year. He is an only child but I think he would have liked to have a brother or a sister. His parents live far from his town, so they are always delighted when he visits them. Beside his work and family he hasn’t got much free time. He is a very active man and he likes spending his free time meaningfully. He likes sports and plays football with his friends every weekend. They have an amateur football team and they regularly take part in local competitions. We have known each other for about a year. We attended the same English course and had classes twice a week. This is Suzy. She’s 21 and she lives in the same town as me. We signed up for the same language course, which we enjoyed very much. We laughed a lot and we had a great time during the lessons. She’s a student. She’s studying at a university in Budapest. She is majoring in history. She is in her second year and I think she likes school very much as she’s always been interested in history. She may want to be a teacher or a historian. She is living in a dormitory now with other students from the university but at the weekends she always goes home. Her family lives in a flat but I know that she would like to live in a detached house or in a cottage in the countryside. She loves nature very much and she is a little bit fed up with city life. She comes from quite a large family. She has two elder brothers and a younger one. I think she has had a difficult childhood with 3 brothers and must have had some tough times, but she gets on well with them. As far as I know, she is single and is looking for her prince on a white horse. I hope she will find him soon! She is a very creative person. She likes painting and drawing in her free time. She often goes to the theatre and visits exhibitions. She also likes going out with her friends and chatting with them. She is keen on animals. She has a little animal farm at home. Her family has many cats and dogs and she used to have a hamster and a ferret when she was young. Listening 1.2 (track 2) Aries Arians have great force and energy, and they are always ready to take the initiative. They are instinctive and dynamic but sometimes they make big mistakes because of their impulsiveness. Arians are often said to be selfcentred, but it is not so. They can be romantic. They tend to be bossy both in their private lives and in their working lives. Among their possible careers: designer, writer, lawyer, politician, actor and all the posts which give the possibility to lead. Sometimes they express themselves in a rude way. Taurus Taurus represents art, beauty in all its forms and strength, not only physical. Taureans are realistic, security loving and like routine, and all of these characteristics relate to their love relationships as well. In order to obtain security in romantic relationships, they use all their qualities: resistance, quietness, patience and intelligence. They seldom lose control, but when they get angry they can be violent. Among their most suitable careers: interior decorator, teacher, cook and any job concerning the Earth and nature. This sign of the zodiac most of all likes relaxing, but only after having reached a predetermined goal, of course. Gemini They are quiet, clever, active and sometimes pessimistic. They find it difficult to bind for a long time to other persons, things or activities. Their freedom and independence are always in the foreground. Gemini are extremely impatient, they often change their interests and activities and they are eager to know everything in a short time. They like travelling, social life and being in the open air. Suitable occupations are: politician, manager, trader and lawyer. 84

Cancer It is the moon which determines their "lunatic" behaviour: a continuous exchange of moods from bad to good. from bad moods to joy. They are conservative, stubborn and eccentric. They love living in luxury, travelling, taking care of their house and decorating it with old and curious objects. They love the past and tradition. They fear the uncertainty of what's new and of future things, and hate violence in all its forms. They are extremely shy, romantic, and tend to draw people to themselves especially the persons they love. Their most suitable occupations are: interior designer, lawyer, cook and butler. Leo Fire sign ruled by the sun, symbol of strength and pride. They are independent, active, passionate and very generous. Sometimes they trust in themselves too much! Because of their determination they are usually good workers and are able to move easily among various kinds of jobs. Suitable occupations are: actor, diplomat and entrepreneur. They love the pleasures of life and living in luxury. Virgo They are precise, conscientious, efficient, serious and rational. Usually, they think money is very important and they hate waste. They love their homes and furnishing them. They are also very organised. Suitable occupations are: designer, teacher, editor and analyst. They believe in friendship, but it is hard for them to stay in long lasting love relationships. Listening 1.3 (track 3) Infancy Infancy is the first year of life after birth. At this time, a baby grows quickly in weight and in height. In fact, the baby’s weight triples, and the height increases by half. Infants begin to observe the world around them. They do this by watching, touching, tasting and listening. Soon, the baby learns to respond to those nearby. He or she may start to smile and make sounds. The baby learns to reach for objects and to crawl. By the end of infancy, babies can recognize some words and even say a few of them. Childhood Next, a child becomes a toddler. A toddler is a child between the ages of one and two. While toddlers continue to grow in weight and height, they don’t do so as fast as when they were infants. They learn to do many activities. They can feed themselves, scribble on paper, and use the toilet. Their language skills begin to develop, and they begin to talk to others. Toddlers are very curious, and they learn quickly. Pre-schooler and late childhood The toddler soon becomes a pre-schooler, a child between ages two and five. Pre-schoolers begin to develop complex physical skills. For example, they can use a paintbrush, button their clothes, and ride a tricycle. Their mental skills develop too, and they enjoy using their imagination. They like to pretend and to imitate others. The period between the ages of six and eleven is called late childhood. They enter school and continue to develop their social skills. They make friends and participate in social activities. Overall, they learn to do many things on their own and need less and less adult supervision. Adolescence The next stage is called adolescence, usually between the ages of twelve and seventeen. The many physical changes that occur help prepare the body for reproduction. The mental, emotional, and social changes also help prepare a young person for the challenges of adulthood. During adolescence, teens begin to take on more and more responsibilities at home and in the community. Many of the choices they make will help shape the paths they take as adults. Adulthood At about the age of eighteen, the stage called young adulthood begins. The most important change is that many young adults become independent. They often live on their own and begin their careers. Many develop deeper relationships with others, marry, and have children. Then comes what is called middle age. Adults in their thirties, forties, and fifties continue to strengthen their careers, relationships, and families. During and after middle age, adults begin to show signs of physical aging. Some people in their mid-sixties and older may decide 85

to retire. Despite showing signs of aging, many people continue to be very active physically, and often long into their retirement years. They may travel, enjoy new hobbies, and become more involved in their community. In time though, a person’s system begins to weaken and deteriorate, and he or she eventually dies. Death is the final part of the human life cycle. It is important to see dying as a natural part of this life cycle. Listening 1.4 (track 4) 1. I think fashion is important to us because it's a means of self-expression - it enables us to say something important to the world about who we are, or who we'd like to be. The clothes we wear say things about us even to people we don't talk to directly. It addresses the fundamental human need to belong, to identify ourselves with a group of others like us - whether it's a lifestyle, a religion, a profession, or an attitude. 2. Fashion is important to make people feel their best. When you wear clothes that fit you properly and really mirror your taste, it can add a boost to your confidence. When you feel good in what you are wearing, you may find yourself in a better mood, and in turn people will begin to view you differently. Above all, it's amazing what some fabrics can do for our self-esteem! 3. Fashion is important in the world – both traditionally and in a modern way. Everywhere around the world people show their own cultural identity through fashion. Even if you have drifted far away from your home and have had to live in another part of the world, you could show others where you are from. You can preserve your culture through fashion. Listening 1.5 (track 5) Expert: Hello everybody! You’re listening to Anna Scott, the fashion expert, on Radio 1. I’m here to help you. Call me if you have any questions related to fashion, clothing and style. Don’t forget that being attractive starts with your clothes! And my first caller today is a woman who considers fashion important even in old age. So what’s your question? Rebecca: Hello, my name’s Rebecca, I’m an older woman and my question is, can I wear a short dress at age 57? I recently purchased a casual knit dress via mail order and I love it! The soft purple colour looks great on my average size figure. My problem is that the dress is above my knees. Can a woman my age wear a short dress? I want to dress age appropriate, even though I don't feel almost 60! What should I do? Expert: So, Rebecca, there are women at 55 who look a lot more youthful than others at the age of 20. The most important factors are the shape that you are in, your attitude, and how modern you keep your appearance - not your age. If you are in good shape and you keep your look current, there is nothing wrong with wearing a dress that is a couple of inches above your knees. But the dress shouldn’t be a girlish or overly trendy style, find something a bit more chic and sophisticated that suits a woman of experience. If you dress right and stay modern, people will think you look great. Rebecca: Thank you very much, Anna. I think I will wear it. I am satisfied with my shape and am also proud of being in good condition at my age. Thanks again. Bye! Expert: And our next caller is a gentleman who’s ready to date again. We are listening. Jonathan: Hello. My name’s Jonathan, I’m 50 and I’m divorced. I find myself looking at dating again, and it's a little scary... mostly when I look in my closet. I don't know what to wear on a date since it's been almost 10 years since I've had one. I want something stylish, but I am having a hard time picking out casual clothes that aren’t jeans, or end up being not casual enough. It seems that the clothing I like is really for a younger man, 25 to 30, or so. Can you help with some suggestions and perhaps stores to try? Expert: OK, Jonathan. First of all, congratulations! While most folks find it scary to begin a new chapter in their lives, you are brave enough to do it. Style is not about age, but how your clothes suit you. Stay away from obvious teenage fads and opt for a cleaner, sophisticated design in a similar style. Well-fitting jeans are a great choice for a casual night out. Pair them with a single-breasted dark jacket and a sport shirt in a gorgeous colour. Cargo pants paired with an untucked tee is a solid sporty look. On a dressier date, try a dark suit with a plain shirt and forget the cotton sweater or vividly striped shirt. There are so many choices of where to shop, both online and stores. What you want is to find a store with an overall style which appeals to you. It’s easier to start in an environment where everything is sold to work together, rather than a small boutique with specialty items. What counts is that you feel at ease shopping there, and there is sales staff available to help you if you 86

need them. Remember that clothes do make the man, but a woman dates a man who she has fun with, respects, admires, and finds engaging. And Jonathan, good luck! Jonathan: Thanks very much. I’m excited and looking forward to dating again. Bye. Expert: And our last caller has a little bit of a problem with finding her own style. Helen: Hi. I’m Helen and I’d love to be proud of what I wear, but it's hard to feel attractive in my comfort zone of T-shirts and jeans. I also struggle with trying to find a style that I feel is age appropriate for me at 22. I've never considered myself to be very stylish and I tend to stay away from current fads. As for my body type, I'm 170cm and weigh 61 kg. Most of my height comes from my legs, which leaves me with a short torso. I just feel so out of the fashion loop that I don't know where to start. Any suggestions? Expert: I believe that for someone to look good, they also need to feel good in the clothes they are wearing. If you don’t feel right in what you are wearing, regardless of a designer label, you simply will not show selfconfidence. Self-confidence is what carries any look and makes it right. If jeans and a T-shirt are your comfort zone and fit into your lifestyle, that’s fine. Be sure though that they are the right fitting jeans and T-shirt. Start adding colourful accessories, fabulous shoes, and you will have a very chic jeans-based wardrobe before you know it. As you have long legs, start to show them off in skinnier fitting jeans and fantastic flats. Add a well-cut, hip-length jacket with shoulder pads to create a longer looking torso. Pop on an interesting necklace or scarf and you have the makings of a really great classic look. You’ll be super-chic in no time! Helen: Yeah, thanks. I really have little self-confidence, especially when fashion and clothes come to the forefront. Listening 2.1 (track 6) Your closest relatives are: your parents and your siblings, brothers and/or sisters. If your mother or father is not an only child, you also have aunts and / or uncles. An aunt is the sister of your mother or father, while an uncle is the brother of your mother or father. Your female child is called your daughter, your male child is called your son. If your aunts or uncles have children, they are your first cousins. Your sister’s or brother’s son is your nephew, while a daughter is your niece. In-laws When you get married, your husband or wife's family become your in-laws. The mother of your spouse, husband or wife, is your mother-in-law, and his or her father becomes your father-in-law. The term in-law is also used to describe relationships with the spouses of siblings. So, the husband of your sister becomes your brother-inlaw, while the sister of your husband becomes your sister-in-law. If you are a woman, you become the daughter-in-law of your husband's parents, and if you are a man, you become the son-in-law of your wife's parents. The same term, in-law, is used for all generations. The husband of your aunt is still your mother's brother-in-law, for example. Grandparents and grandchildren The parents of your parents are your grandparents – grandmother and grandfather. You are their grandchild – either a granddaughter or a grandson. If your grandparent has a sister, she is your great-aunt. If your grandparent has a brother, he is your great-uncle (and you are either his or her great-nephew or great-niece). The mother of your grandmother or grandfather is your great-grandmother. The father is your greatgrandfather. If you go back another generation, your grandmother or your grandfather was your great-greatgrandmother. The grandfather of your grandmother or grandfather was your great-great-grandfather. Second families If your mother or father remarries, you acquire a new family and set of relatives. For example, if your father marries again, his wife becomes your stepmother. Any children she already has become your stepsisters and/or stepbrothers. If your mother or father remarries and has children, they become your half-brothers and/or halfsisters. You might also hear people talking about their biological brother / sister, etc., to mean a brother or sister who is related by blood, rather than by marriage. Listening 2.2 (track 7) Our marriage died little by little over time. We let our problems develop in our marriage until we couldn’t resolve them. I know some people decide to stay together despite their troubles in favour of the children, or at least until they move out of the house. In our case it didn’t work. Our relationship became intolerable. I could 87

say we were very young when we got married, had big, unrealistic expectations and we just rushed into marriage, but I think it all would be a lie. It happened gradually, we just slowly drifted apart. It’s difficult to find a reason; maybe it was the long working hours he spent in the office or I paid too much attention to our daughter, I don’t know. I had a part-time job, and a whole household to run. I didn’t have any help; I felt I was left alone. He was very indifferent towards me. We had changed and become different people. And there were those quarrels, about practically anything, money, sharing the housework, how to discipline our child and so on. Maybe we were just too young to encounter such problems and cope with them. We tried some alternative solutions to save our marriage; we took a short break from each other to see if our attitude and emotions would change towards each other. We even went to a marriage counsellor. She was very kind and we tried to rebuild the so-called ‘lost trust’ but the roots of our marital problems seemed to be so deep that we couldn’t have a rational discussion. We realised there was nothing that we could do to save our marriage, so we decided to start divorce proceedings. The legal procedure was very long, expensive, and painful. We wanted a peaceful divorce, if it was at all possible. It soon turned out that it was impossible. When finances and our child were the topic of our discussion, all hell broke loose. It was difficult to reach an agreement on money matters. The other big problem was our daughter. Of course I wanted her to live with me but he wanted the same as well. So there was a long fight for custody. Finally, he got regular contact and our daughter can stay with him overnight at the weekends. I got the house and I receive alimony every month. I think the most difficult part was the battle for our daughter’s residency. I worried about our daughter because divorce can do long-lasting emotional damage to children. And what is my life like after the divorce? Well, first of all, I feel relief now. At the beginning, I felt bitter and puzzled. I felt my life was worthless. Now I can accept that my life has changed, sometimes I still miss the familiar routine but if I think back to the sleepless nights and never-ending quarrels, I have to say it was a good decision. I hope I will be able to establish a new harmonious relationship in the future but I’m not in a hurry. I will make a careful decision before starting a new relationship, if I ever do. Listening 2.3 (track 8) I=Interviewer R=Russell I: As the credit crunch bites, the extended family is making a comeback and more families choose to move back to the parental house. Three generation families, or sometimes four, are more common these days. The Slaters are a perfect example. Sons Freddie, 18, and Alexander, 22, might by now be renting or buying their own place. Parents Caroline and Russell, in their mid-40s, would usually be anticipating freedom as the children grow up. For Caroline's mother, Penelope, 82, it might have been time to move to a small bungalow. Instead, they have just spent a year living under one roof – and aim to stay that way. So Russell, why did you decide to move in together? R: Well, the reasons are very simple. Penelope, my mother-in-law, became a widow. She spent a few months in a nursing home and when she went home it was obvious that her house was too big. We didn’t want her to be alone and we wanted her to be under our care. Alexander had just finished his studies and moved home from the dormitory and my wife was expecting a baby. We had been thinking of moving to a bigger house for awhile but because of financial reasons, actually lack of money, we called it off. But finally, we sold the two houses and bought a bigger one. I: And what kind of house did you buy? I mean were you looking for a house which is divided into two smaller ones, a type of house with a huge guest house? R: Well it was a hard decision, first we were thinking of building an extension to our house but we realised it wasn’t an acceptable solution, and it would have been quite expensive. Then we considered buying a house formally divided into three units, but we changed our mind and chose a property where we could live communally. The house can satisfy three generations of grown-ups, it has four large bedrooms, two bathrooms, two living rooms and a huge garden. So everybody has their own space. I: And how has family life changed? R: Life is very busy nowadays. Moving in together changed the dynamics of the household. Everything was turned upside down. When the children weren’t at home we had a peaceful life, I don’t mean it’s not peaceful now, but it was much slower. The mornings are the worst when everybody is in a rush. We are always fighting over the bathrooms. I: As I hear, you didn’t regret it, did you? 88

R: No, to be honest, I’m much happier now. We have a great family life. Before moving in together we hardly ever saw each other although we didn’t have to cover a big distance to see each other. Now we can sit down to lunch every day with everybody, and not just at Christmas. I: And doesn’t a bigger family put pressure on you, the parents? R: Well it’s never easy in a sandwich generation. I: Sorry, what did you say, sandwich generation? R: Yes, it’s an expression used for those families where people, like me and my wife, take care of their children and aging parents at the same time. I: I see. So you are in the middle of the sandwich like the meat in a hamburger. R: Exactly. So, to answer your previous question. We are under more stress and pressure from trying to care for our children and our aging parents. Luckily, Penelope hasn’t got any health problems now because that would make it extremely difficult. We share most of the chores and that helps a lot. Running a multigenerational household can’t be done alone. The burden mustn’t fall only on one person. The fair division of housework, it is not as difficult as you might think. Everybody is responsible for more things in the household, and if you keep some basic rules, there won’t be any problems. I: And on the whole, do you think it is worth moving in together? Are there more advantages than disadvantages, or vice versa? R: Personally, I think it has more advantages. First of all, let’s talk about money. Moving in together can solve a host of financial and practical problems. As it’s much cheaper to live together, money saved on rent or on the bills can fund a down payment on a separate home later or on another investment. Beyond the financial advantages, there are many others. Children get some extra attention from loving adults and grandparents. Grandparents can support the family in many ways; they can help with the daily cooking and in taking care of the children. You don’t need to hire a babysitter. On the other hand, older grandparents who joined the household because they needed care or because it wasn't safe for them to live alone can receive loving care from family members, so quality of life is often better for them. They are not isolated. I: And what about the disadvantages? What makes living together difficult? R: There are many things of course, but I believe all can be solved with patience and respect towards your family members. Lack of privacy can be a major problem. It is very hard to maintain a private life living in close quarters. Another conflict comes from sharing. The division of household bills and chores can lead to some arguments. As for the arguments, there are a lot. They may seem quite silly, such as who goes to the bathroom first or what program to watch on TV, but there can be more serious ones as well. I: And finally, what advice would you give those who are planning to move in together? R: It’s very simple. First of all, you have to decide whether you want to live communally in one house, or whether you want separated units within a house. If you are not 100 percent sure that you will get on well with all of your family, I would choose a house arranged in separate units. That way you can have your own space. Next, you should make a plan. Make a written plan for dividing the finances, chores and space. Some kind of a schedule can be useful. I: Thank you very much Russell. You have given very useful advice and I hope we could help those who are unsure of what to do. R: I would advise everybody to give it a try. There is much more to gain than lose. Listening 2.4 (track 9) Christmas is celebrated all over the world – I’m taking you on a tour round the globe to explore Christmas traditions and festivities in different countries. If you’ve ever wondered how Father Christmas manages to make his way around the world in just one evening, it’s probably because you didn’t have all the facts in front of you. Christmas is celebrated in cultures all across the globe, but sometimes with traditions peculiar to their country and even on a different day! Largely English speaking nations often follow the more European traditions, with the likes of Australia and Canada similar in everything but the weather. Austria is one of the earliest countries to celebrate Christmas with their celebrations falling on the 6th of December! The celebrations in Austria are very musical and a number of the world’s favourite carols originated there. St. Nicholas and his assistant, Krampus may visit on Christmas Day but a day earlier ChristKind, who also helps with the decorating of the tree, brings the gifts. This time is special in Africa as it is a time when all relatives and friends come together and visit each other, regardless of their own personal religion. Often families try to arrive at the ancestral home by Christmas Eve 89

although there is a lot of fun to be had out on the streets after the church service that night. Processions are huge and often led by local bands, and the dancing, cheerfulness and celebrations continue well into the night and for many nights after. On the well-attended Christmas Day services, the story of Christmas is told before children receive presents of chocolates, special crackers and if they are very lucky, clothes or a book. In Denmark Christmas is also celebrated on the 25th of December and it is a big event. The children receive small gifts for every day of in advent and on Christmas Eve presents are lain under the tree. The presents are only given out once the family have walked around the tree and sung many hymns and carols. A series of Christmas lunches are held for the 12 days that follow. Similarly, in Latvia, Father Christmas delivers presents for every day of Christmas starting on Christmas Eve! Advent, the four weeks before Christmas, is a highlight in Germany. The decorations are taken very seriously and candles play an important part in the celebrations. Many houses have little wooden frames with electric candles in them displayed at their windows. It is also common to see nativity scenes in German homes. These will often feature a wooden crib or a small model of the stable where Jesus was born with Mary, Joseph and animals. Their Christmas services take place on Christmas Eve and it is only after this that Father Christmas will visit, leaving presents under the Christmas tree. Russia traditionally celebrates Christmas on the 6th of January with church services and also their ‘Feast of St. Nicholas’, as the saint is especially popular in this country. These celebrations were repressed around the time of the communist revolution, but have returned to make this one of the most celebrated times on the Russian calendar, which runs 13 days ahead of the British one. Christmas in Russia is a time to revel in old folk traditions. After the Christmas Eve church service the attendees carry candles, torches, and homemade lanterns parade around the church, before returning to their places and singing hymns until late, just as their grandparents did before them. They eat their festive feast after the service, of which the most important ingredient is a special dish called ‘kutya’. The use of grains in this dish is to symbolise hope and immortality, and honey and poppy seeds ensure happiness, success, and untroubled rest. The ‘kutya’ is shared around the family in the same bowl, which symbolises unity amongst the family. Source: www.north-pole.co.uk Listening 3.1 (track 10) The basic features of the British educational system are the same as anywhere else in Europe. Full-time attendance is compulsory up to the age of 16. Compulsory education is free of charge, but parents may spend money on educating their children privately by sending them to private schools. The terminology of schools can be confusing in Britain. State schools are free and financed by the government or some local educational authorities. Parents must pay a fee for their children to go to independent school. Many of these schools are boarding schools and confusingly called public schools in England. Today, about 10% of children are educated in the private sector. Basically, there are three stages. The first stage is primary education, the second is secondary education and the third is the tertiary, “further” education at university or college. In England, children start infant school, which is part of the primary school system at the age of 5. It lasts two years. In the second stage of primary education children move to the junior school system for four years. Children are usually placed in classes with one teacher who will be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that year. This teacher may be assisted by specialist teachers in certain subject areas, often music or physical education. The continuity with the same teacher provides the opportunity to build a close relationship with the class. From the age of 11 children go to secondary school. Primary schools usually include both girls and boys as pupils while secondary schools may be either single-sex or co-educational. Traditionally, at the age of 14 students start a programme that lasts for 2 years. After this two year period, students take examinations in a range of subjects at the level of the General Certificate of Secondary Education or short GCSE. Students usually take up to ten, there is no maximum or minimum, GCSE examinations in different subjects, including mathematics and English language. After taking the GCSEs, students may start work; alternatively, they may choose to continue their education at a vocational or technical college. They can also go to a sixth form college 90

where they can take a higher level of secondary school examinations known as A-levels, which are required for university entrance in the UK. In the UK about one third of young people go on to higher education, and an increasing number of "mature" students are studying either full-time or part-time for a university degree. A Bachelor’s degree normally takes three years to complete. While studying for this degree, students are known as undergraduates. Students who have completed a Bachelor’s degree can undertake a postgraduate degree. Postgraduate courses in the UK are very intense. This means that the courses are usually much shorter than in other countries. A master's degree typically takes 12 months to complete, for example an MA - Master of Arts. An MBA (Master of Business Administration) is a high profile Masters course which can take up to 2 years to complete. Applicants will usually be high achievers with at least 2 years managerial experience. A PhD research degree in the UK can take between 2 and 7 years to complete. Listening 3.2 (track 11) Interviewer: Mark, can you tell us a little about Keystone National High School? Why is it so unique and how does the school address online learning? Mark: Keystone National High School is a privately licensed school in Pennsylvania. Our roots are in helping kids in the public schools as well as home-schooled kids. We offer a variety of programs, the full gamut, everything from summer school, full credit and correspondence high school courses to online courses. Interviewer: So a student can actually finish high school taking all their classes online? Mark: That's right. We are licensed to educate students in a certain way, we have certain standards, and more importantly, we grant a high school diploma like any land-based local high school. Interviewer: And what kind of kids attend an online high school? Approximately how many students attend your school? Mark: Actually we have over 25,000 students right now across all of our programs. They really are like any other students you would find in a local high school; they may have learning problems and need additional help. Then we have students who are exceptional, and students who are athletes. They are very busy because all day they are going to meetings or are training; they don't have time to go to a typical school. So Keystone is an excellent option for them. Interviewer: I heard that you had students who were sailing around the world and things like that. Mark: Yeah absolutely! They experience things all over the world but their education is rooted in one place, Keystone. If the student can gain access to the Internet he or she can access our classes. So they can be anywhere in the world but their school, education and teachers stay in the same place. We provide continuity and security. Interviewer: So can you explain how a typical class would work? If I'm a high school student and I sign up for a class, do I have to be there at a certain time? Is there really a teacher on the other side? Mark: It is very flexible. For example, in the case of international students, there are obvious time issues. So a student can arrange with a teacher to meet at a certain time if they want to. And what can be done through chat or a whiteboard session. The instructional model that they receive is a textbook and a learning guide. The learning guide walks them through the content, tells them what to concentrate on, it gives them their reading assignments. So their goal is to do that as an independent learner. Interviewer: So what do they do online? Do they take tests, do they read material, how does it work? Mark: So first about testing. We have a variety of testing methods; the basic one is the question/answer that may consist of multiple choice of true or false questions. It is hard though to assess the students through only objective questions so there is a lot of writing in our online assessments. In addition, students also do projects online that may include journal entries, or research papers. Students also participate in class, through chats and discussion boards that we have for every one of our courses. For the chats and discussion boards, teachers are there to monitor and contribute. Interviewer: Speaking of tests and assessments, how do you really know it's that student on the other side of the computer taking that test and not their mom or dad or an older brother or something like that? Mark: Well the key is that a test that covers our content is virtually impossible to pass if you haven't personally covered and studied the content. If I'm a student in one of these classes and I solicit the assistance of my brother, or sister, or mother to take the test, I'm really not helping myself. Our students understand that if someone is trying to help them through the exam, it is not going to help them. Interviewer: There are a couple of issues with e-learning that people often wonder about. For example, is there student to student collaboration? Is there student-teacher collaboration? Is there team work on projects? 91

Mark: Our courses are designed to be independent. We have had some courses that we designed using a virtual classroom model but it didn’t work because students felt they were losing their independence. Interviewer: So do your students go on to online colleges or traditional colleges? Where do they go after Keystone High School? Mark: They go to many types of universities and colleges. Most of these schools have online and traditional programs as well, so our students can go to traditional programs in traditional universities and colleges if they want. I think the most important thing is that we see our students being admitted to typical universities just as any other average high school would. Interviewer: Do you think this is going to break apart traditional high school education? Is this the wave of the future? Mark: Well that's a hard question. I think people have to understand that education is not about the time of the day or about the seasons, it's just about getting the education that you need. Why wait for the school year to start, and why wait for the bell to ring? So, I think online education is the future. Interviewer: OK, one more question, are you going to use hand-held devices? Mark: Yeah, we already started looking at handheld devices to get content out to students who are more mobile. Actually what is interesting is that we have printed textbooks and we are working with the publishers to get those textbooks online. So the students would have more than just a textbook online...they would have an interactive online experience. Interviewer: Well thank you, this is a lot of good information, and thank you for taking time out of your busy schedule, best of luck to you at Keystone. Mark: Thank you, I enjoyed the interview. Listening 3.3 (track 12) Presenter: Are you on edge about that big job interview in your future? For many of us, a job interview ranks as one of life’s toughest challenges. For some, an interview is mildly exciting, for others it’s a downright terror. Presenting ourselves in today’s fiercely competitive jobs market may be more important than ever before. Human Resources Manager, Tim Parker, joins me today to give advice and useful tips on how to outshine others at a job interview. Welcome to the programme. Tim: Thanks. Yes, your performance at a job interview in today’s world is an event of great significance. Because of the high unemployment rate and the economic crisis, you may have only one chance to get the right job. So seize every opportunity and show your best. Maybe you wrote a terrific resumé and cover letter but it doesn’t matter if you are called in for the interview. At that stage of the job search, you are the winner. Presenter: So these interviews put a lot of pressure on the applicants and many people are not very good at handling the extra pressure. You know not all of us are among those competitive type adrenaline seekers. Tim: You are right. Being nervous is a pretty unpleasant feeling. Nobody likes to be anxious and lack selfconfidence. Uncontrolled nervousness can alter your behaviour, your body language and what you say. So you have to learn how to control your emotions. Presenter: And what can you do to gain control? Tim: Rehearse. Prepare for the interview as if it was an exam in school or as if you were preparing for a theatre performance. Practise pre-written questions and responses in front of a mirror. It really helps to overcome nervousness. Presenter: So, applicants with acting skills have an advantage. Tim: Definitely, yes. Presenter: And what about having a quick drink before the interview? Alcohol relaxes your nerves, doesn’t it? Tim: Well, of course it calms you down but it may lead to over-confidence, and I think smelling like alcohol is rarely appreciated at any interview. Presenter: So, nervousness can influence your behaviour, but what exactly is correct behaviour during interviews? Tim: Well, there is no written rule for that. For example, your conduct may be observed both before and after the interview. Remember that when you enter the building your interview has started. Be courteous to your fellow candidates and to the staff alike. You don’t know who is going to be the interviewer - the person who you see at reception and wish good morning to or the one who you forget to greet. Presenter: You are right, shutting the door in front of your future boss is not a good way to make a positive impression. Tim: No, it’s not. People start forming their impression of you immediately, looking at your outside and making assumptions about your inside. 92

Presenter: I guess you have some tips for our listeners on how to make a better first impression. Tim: I hope so. New clothes are not everything. It’s true that a good appearance is pretty important and it starts with smart clothes, but it’s not just about that, it’s about the whole impression. Your manner, whether you are friendly and relaxed, is also very important. And there is another thing, your attitude. It also counts a lot. It can be seen on your face how you feel. Presenter: Ok, let’s say you can cope with all these things, but the worst is still waiting for you. The interview itself and the questions you have to answer. As I heard, these questions sometimes can be unexpected, can’t they? Tim: Yes. These questions are to test your reactions and problem solving abilities. In trying to figure out whether you are the right person to hire, interviewers usually open fire with the most uncomfortable questions. If you don’t understand the question or you need some time to collect your thoughts, ask the interviewer to repeat it or to explain what he or she means. But please for goodness sake, avoid saying nothing at any cost. If you don’t understand the question, find an alternative answer or say that you don’t know the answer. It’s better than saying silly things anyway. Actually, the bulk of the questions are about you. There is no reason why anyone should worry about answering these questions. You probably know yourself better than anybody! Presenter: Asking the interviewer questions is probably more difficult, isn’t it? Tim: Right. Most interviews are finished by inviting the candidate to ask questions Presenter: I think that’s the point when most of us feel it’s time to run. Tim: Yes, but don’t do that. Be brave, it’s time to strike back! Ask about the position’s duties and challenges. Ask about the company’s future plans. But don’t ask questions about information you can obtain from the Net or somewhere else. Presenter: Tim, thanks very much for your advice, it’s been very useful. Good luck to all the job hunters out there who were listening to us! Listening 3.4 (track 13) How would your colleagues describe you? I think they would say I’m hardworking, honest and easy to get on with. They would say I’m responsible but sometimes a little bit of a workaholic and perfectionist. They know that I like it when things are going well and we can meet deadlines. And I hope they would say that they like working with me. What are the things you would like to improve about yourself? Well, two things I would like to improve on over the next few years are my computer and language skills. I already know how to use computers well and I can speak English fluently, but I would like to do even better. I want to familiarise myself with the new computer programs and I want to learn another foreign language. I think these skills are becoming more and more important in our modern world. I’m going to take some special courses to help me improve in these areas. Do you ever lose your temper? No, it’s not typical. Of course, sometimes I get irritated but I generally don’t lose my temper. I think I can handle a heavy workload and pressure very well and I know how to keep my temper in the workplace. How do you deal with stressful situations? Over the years I have learned some techniques that help me in dealing with these situations. I know that stress comes with every job. If the source of stress is my colleagues, I am available to deal with any issues contributing to the stress. If the stress is a result of daily workload, I get through the day knowing that the end of the day will renew me both mentally and physically. I do sport three times a week and I have a lot of relaxing hobbies. I try to live a healthy lifestyle, for example, I gave up smoking and drinking too much coffee. Where do you see yourself in five years time? Well, I hope I will have a permanent full-time job. I don’t know what position I will have in the future but I hope it will be a job with responsibilities. What are your weaknesses? Well, sometimes I can be a bit of a workaholic. I mean when I’m involved in a new project I cannot focus on anything else. I like it when a new project is successful. So I do everything to be successful but I cannot stand it 93

not to mention getting frustrated when other members of the team might not be working as hard as me. I’m aware of this problem and I try to be positive and enthusiastic in these situations. What are your strengths? Well, I think my biggest strength is that I can easily get on well with my new colleagues. I’m a sociable person and I also like working in a team. I’m a good team player. My other strength is that I’ve always adapted well to new situations with a great deal of energy and initiative. I like taking on new challenges and working with people who have clear goals in mind. I’m also able to keep focused even in the toughest of times. Listening 4.1 (track 14) Interviewer: So, what made you leave the city to live in the countryside, Rebecca? Rebecca: Well, I suppose my priorities changed with age. When I first went to a big city, I liked the hustle and bustle of the place. But after awhile I needed a break. Over time I became fed up with the noise of the traffic, the horns beeping all the time, the roaring of the planes overhead. I lived in the centre where music was blaring late into the night. Interviewer: Russell, I see you are smiling. Russell: Yes, I had the very same problems in the city. I remember when we moved to the countryside, first we found it so quiet. Maybe too quiet. But it was quite easy to get used to. Now I can say on behalf of my whole family that we prefer living with less noise. And there is another thing, we also like the fact that we don’t have to worry about our children when they go out. I mean there is less traffic. Rebecca: Hmm, OK there is less traffic but I’m not sure that it’s safer outside. There are many crazy drivers in the countryside too. Fewer police cars patrol the streets. I feel I have to keep an even closer eye on my kids than before. What’s more, they can get lost much easier as there are a lot of open spaces. Russell: But that’s where other people come in. I mean your neighbours. Everyone seems to know everyone else’s business in the village. Which I think is not so bad. Some people may see it as an intrusion but I don’t agree with them. Just think about burglars breaking into your house, and your children wandering off. You don’t have to worry about these things. Rebecca: You’re right there. Actually, many times we leave everything unlocked, and sometimes neighbours come into the house without even knocking on the door. But we don’t mind. It’s like having a big extended family. Interviewer: What about the amenities where you live? Russell: The basic amenities are within walking distance: the shops, the school. There is even a gym close to us. Rebecca: I wish I could say the same. We have to use our car all the time. I even have to drive for a loaf of bread. The bus service is infrequent; my workplace is far away, so you really need a car to be able to live where we do. Russell: I agree that it’s impossible to live without a car. We have two cars. Although the basic amenities are close to us, we have to get to work by car. Buses are very rare, we’re actually trying to get the local authorities to have more buses, particularly for the older residents who don’t have a car and sometimes need to go into town. Interviewer: And do you think your kids will like living in the countryside when they are older? Rebecca: I’m actually wondering how they are going to like it when they become teenagers. Probably they will complain of boredom and will want us to go and live in the city again. Russell: Yes, and I think we can’t blame them. At that age I would have been bored out of my mind! No entertainment facilities. No discos, cinemas, no decent cafés. Interviewer: It doesn’t sound very good. Do you think either of you will ever go and live in the city again? Russell: Well, I’d prefer to stay in the village and work at home rather than in an office. After all, I have a computer with internet access, a mobile phone, and a beautiful working environment. So I have everything I need. However, I don’t know what the future holds for us and anything can happen. We’d be prepared to move back to the city if it was to our advantage. Interviewer: And you Rebecca? Rebecca: I’ve thought about it a lot, and I know that living where I do now means spending at least two hours driving to and from work every day. But I don’t mind it. I’d rather do that then give up my life in the country. Interviewer: Thank you both for coming into the studio to speak to us today. After a commercial break, we’ll go on with the daily news.


Listening 4.2 (track 15) Interviewer: For most individuals, the single largest financial decision that they will ever have to make is buying a home. Deciding on which house to choose and which mortgage to take, are just a few of the many decisions that must be made when buying a home. Every month, week, day, we buy things large and small. But when it comes to buying a home, careless shopping can lead to financial and emotional disaster. To avoid this kind of disaster, I’m talking with John Dexter who will offer some help for those who are thinking of making their biggest decision in life. Welcome John. John: Good afternoon everybody. Interviewer: So John, how many houses have you bought and sold in your life? John: Well… thousands or more, I think. But that’s my job you know. I’m an estate agent and I run my own business. Interviewer: I think buying your own home is not easy. What would you advise for first-time buyers? Where and how to start? John: My first piece of advice is that you have to bear in mind that if you’re not willing to invest time, and if you don’t take the advice of the right people, you could end up overpaying for a home you hate. First of all, you have to decide if you are really ready to be a homeowner or not. Interviewer: And when do you know that you are ready? John: Just think about your lifestyle. If you are not sure where you want to reside in the future you may be better off renting a house. It gives you more flexibility. Interviewer: And I think it’s also important that you are clear about why you are buying a house. John: Absolutely! People buy homes for a number of reasons. I think the top of the list is “I want a place of my own”. You are independent from everybody and you can create an environment that reflects your taste and personality. Others buy them as an investment or they think paying rent is just a waste of money. Interviewer: What is the most important thing to consider when buying a home? John: Maybe your finances. You may end up over your head in debt if you are not careful enough. Banks are merciless, they want their money back. So, the first step is to survey your spending. You have to know what portion of your current income you are able to save. Interviewer: It is advisable to make some statistics of your incomings and outgoings so you will get a clear picture of your financial situation. I did the same. John: Exactly, that’s what you have to do. It’s important to write everything on a list including every last penny. When people examine their spending for the first time, they realize and are horrified at how much they spend overall and for what. Your challenge is to decide where to make reductions and cutbacks, but with a little common sense, you can make the best out of the situation. Interviewer: So, you have the money for a home. What should you pay attention to while searching for a home? John: Location, location and location. This is the key word. Actually, the price is mainly determined by location. You don’t simply buy a home, you buy neighbours as well. You have to pay much more for better neighbourhoods, conversely, rotten neighbourhoods ravage home values. Interviewer: But what about the surroundings and facilities near the home? These are very important, aren’t they? John: Definitely, amenities are special features that make a place more attractive and desirable. A picturesque view, parking, shopping, schools, transportation and things like that contribute to high property values. Of course, few people can afford to buy a home in a neighbourhood that has all the amenities. Interviewer: And is it true that some times of the year are better than others to shop for a home? John: I have to say, yes. The best time to go house hunting is spring. After the cold, dark days of winter, flowerfilled spring inspires people to get out and look for new homes. Interviewer: Is there any other advice you would like to give home buyers? John: Yes of course. Look before you leap! When you find the property you want, take a good look at it. There may be many hidden problems, especially in the case of used properties. Take an expert with you who has a better eye for them. Interviewer: And finally, why is it worth going to an estate agent? John: Because we have a big database. You can be sure we can offer you something that is agreeable to your taste. Interviewer: Thank you very much. I think it was a very useful conversation, and don’t forget, your home is your castle.


Listening 5.1 (track 16) Mike: Do you know how to buy online? Jim: Yes. It is very much the same as you would shop normally. You have a shopping basket. You select items to put in the basket, and then you go to the checkout and pay! The biggest difference is that it is all done with the click of a mouse. Mike: You seem to be a regular online customer, aren’t you? Jim: Yes, you are right. And what about you? Mike: I’m not keen on online shopping, but sometimes I make online orders. Can you remember the first time you bought something online? Jim: Sure. It was many years ago. I think I was among the first ones. I still remember when the first online shops appeared; eager analysts forecasted a day when people would sit around all day in their pyjamas, relying on their computers to order everything from dog food to groceries. Mike: I think we mustn’t take these predictions seriously. Remember the same prediction with the Internet. When it started to spread, there was a utopia about a man sitting in a dim room surrounded by many screens, working, chatting and shopping at the same time. It’s true that online stores have become an established part of the retailing world but those early predictions appear unlikely to ever happen. And why do you shop online? Jim: First of all because it’s very convenient. I mean, all I have to do is to sit in front of the screen and click on the article I need while sipping my coffee. You can shop from the comfort of your own home. If it’s hot outside, you don’t have to go out in the heat. If you don’t feel like getting dressed, you can wear your pyjamas. If there is a foot of snow on the roads and you can’t get out, you can still shop. It’s really easy and comfortable. If you don’t feel well, this is definitely the way to shop. Mike: But I think there is something in walking into a physical store and being able to see, touch, and ask questions about a product. You can’t try on clothes online, for example. I think you face the same difficulties when shopping from a catalogue. Clothes will probably look much better on the model than on you. In a store you can see the colours, feel the material. If you enter a shop you can see many more items at a glance. If you know what you want to buy you can find it faster online but if you only have a general idea of what to buy, it can take much longer to shop online. Jim: As for the time, I have to disagree with you. It takes only a few minutes to buy everything you need. If you think about the location of supermarkets, they are out of the city centre. It means you have to drive out of the city. I think this takes more time than the whole process of buying online. Let alone the cost of the petrol. You can save on transportation cost. It is also a greener way of shopping. Computers emit little or no fumes. What’s more, no lines to wait in, nor cranky people to deal with. Mike: Yes, queuing. I have nightmares about it, especially in the summer heat without air conditioning. It’s true you can save some time because you don’t have to use your car but don’t forget that you have to wait for the delivery. Sometimes it takes a very long time. Returns are also more difficult. Once I bought a phone and it was faulty. So, I put it back into the box with the receipt, took it to the post office and sent it back. The entire process takes 10-14 days. Jim: But the same can happen in a simple shop as well. You have to go back many times if your complaint is not recognised. It happened with me. It took almost a month to handle the case. Mike: But at least I have a guarantee if I buy something in a shop. Warranties mean nothing if the store has gone bankrupt. They seem to be here one minute and bankrupt the next. Jim: And what about the prices? Do you think online-shopping is cheaper or more expensive? Mike: I don’t think there’s a big difference. Jim: But if you buy online you don’t have to pay many costs. I mean there is no real shop behind the products, usually just a warehouse, so it makes the products cheaper. Sometimes there is 20-30 per cent difference in price. I think it’s really significant. Mike: But you are forgetting the shipping and handling costs. They can be astronomical. Once I wanted to buy a TV online. It was on sale for £99. However, after shipping was added, the cost came to £169. It’s ridiculous. Altogether it was cheaper to buy it from a store. Jim: You have to be careful with the sales but there are lots of online shops with very attractive delivery prices. Mike: We haven’t talked about another important issue. Security. When shopping online, bank cards are the preferred method of payment. We surly have heard about stolen credit card numbers. How safe do you think shopping online is? Jim: I agree with you that it can be dangerous, but there are some rules you should bear in mind so you can minimize the risk. First and foremost, you should buy only from secure sites. There are many ways you can make certain of using safe sites. 96

Listening 5.2 (track 17) 1. Excuse me, I asked for this with ice, but no lemon. 2. I’m afraid I asked for it well-done, but this steak is rare. 3. Look at this top, there’s a big tear in the sleeve! 4. You said there was just a small problem with the ignition, but you’ve charged me for new plugs and brake pads. 5. I switched on my new LCD TV and I saw that there are many bad pixels. I want to replace it. 6. I bought an unassembled chest of drawers here yesterday. I can’t finish putting it together. There’s a piece missing. Listening 5.3 (track 18) Speaker 1 I purchased an LCD HDTV with a four-year extended warranty as a Christmas present. When I opened the package, I found the screen broken. Two days later, my husband and I drove 2 hours to take the TV back to the shop and waited 30 minutes to find out they could not exchange a shattered LCD TV. We waited another hour to speak to the general manager of the store. He basically said we broke the TV because the box had no physical damage. He said the store opens boxes and inspects the TVs before they are given to customers. While waiting to speak to him, a customer service representative told another customer they are not allowed to open boxes. She also stated that several other customers came into the store that day with the same problem and she could not do anything about the damaged TVs. As I heard there were other customers with the same problem as me, then maybe the TVs were damaged in the factory or in transit to the store. I was highly offended that I had basically been accused of damaging the TV. I’m an honest person and if the TV had been damaged in my possession, then I would have had no problem in paying for it. I was really disappointed that the store could not settle the problem. Speaker 2 We rented a car from Monday ‘till Thursday and put only 30 miles on it. The car was picked up by the car rental company from my husband's place of work. At the time of pick-up no one contacted my husband to look over the car, it was just taken away from the parking lot. Later a message was left on our answering machine stating Enterprise had found a "stone chip" in the windshield and we were responsible for the damage. We went to see the damage and were told the car had been repaired with a new windshield and re-rented. All this in less than 4 hours. Surprising, isn’t it? With no proof, we are being forced to pay for damage we did not do. The person who picked up the car was unavailable to speak to and 2 hours had passed between the time of pick-up and the phone call to our home. Also, if they had called my husband at work he would have immediately gone to the company to inspect the damage. How can a company do this to a consumer? Speaker 3 I bought a pair of gladiator sandals in January. It's not like I rushed to wear them so they sat in my closet for 5 months before I wore them in my home for all of 15 minutes. Three weeks later I put them on again and I noticed that one heel was loose, so I took the sandal off, looked at it but didn't see anything. I put it back on and within about 20 minutes the entire heel came apart from the rest of the sandal. I called the shop and they told me I was lucky because I had a 6 month guarantee to take it back to the shop. So I took it back. First, they sent it to be inspected to see if it was my fault or faulty material which caused the problem. It took almost 3 weeks. The inspection found it was a faulty product and couldn’t be fixed. They offered me a 10 percent discount to buy something else in one of their shops. They were very kind and helpful. I chose a pair of elegant high-heeled shoes. I intended to wear them to fancy parties or balls. I shoved them into my closet. Three months later I wore them to a party. So guess what happened at the first dance? One of the heels broke off. Now I’m waiting for the results of another inspection. Listening 6.1 (track 19) Tom: Maria, you lived in Britain for 10 months and you did a grounded study on British cuisine. Maria: Yes I did. Actually, I spent 11 months there and I just took an interest in British cuisine. I’m interested in gastronomy and I thought I would seize the opportunity and immerse in their eating habits. 97

Tom: And did you lose or gain some weight during your stay there? Maria: I lost some. It was the best slimming diet in my life. Tom: Really? I thought English dishes are fattening, aren’t they? Maria: If you can eat them, definitely, but I think Britain and good food are two things which are not commonly associated. There is one thing that most of the visitors, including me, would agree with - the food is terrible. Tom: I can’t believe it’s so bad! Maria: It’s very difficult to find good British food. Only one percent of restaurants serve British food and they tend to be either very expensive and found in luxurious hotels, or cheap and nasty, in cafés, canteens and other restaurants. Tom: I’ve heard that if you desire a good English dish, pubs are the best places to go. Maria: Yes, absolutely. These places are also called gastropubs, or public houses. They are very unique. Britain would be a less sociable country without them. You can find a good display of typical English food. They have a cosy and welcoming old-style interior. They serve meals at a high standard, to match good restaurants standards. Gastropubs concentrate on the quality of food. Tom: And why do you think English cuisine has such a bad reputation? Maria: That’s interesting. One reason, I think, is that British taste is very different from everybody else’s. However, the most common complaint is not so much that British food has a strange, unpleasant taste, but rather that it has very little taste at all. It is all too bland. Tom: We also hear that modern British cuisine is actually a jumble of international dishes. What’s the truth in it? Maria: Well, British cuisine has always been multicultural. It borrowed a lot from international cuisine. There are many similarities to French, Spanish and German food. Presently, Indian food, which is spicy, has become a favourite with British people. You can also find many Chinese restaurants. They serve lunch-time snacks, steamed or deep-fried dumplings, with either savoury or sweet fillings. Chinese and Indian restaurants are facing strong competition from Thai restaurants. Tom: And what remained from traditional British cooking and food? What about the world famous English breakfast? Maria: Yes, the full English breakfast. They still have it in its traditional form! Of course it’s eaten at breakfast, but now often served at other times of the day too. The two classic components are bacon and eggs but it doesn’t stop there. Black pudding, other sausages, baked beans, kippers and other foods are added. It’s a hearty, kind of stick-to-your-ribs meal. And we mustn’t forget the essential big mug of strong black tea. Tom: To tell you the truth, it sounds terrible! Who can eat all this for breakfast? Maria: Not me! I’m fine with my buttered toast and coffee in the morning. I don’t think this kind of breakfast is widespread on every household’s table every morning. Maybe at weekends they still eat this full breakfast but it’s rather for foreign visitors, served mainly in hotels. A bowl of cornflakes, muesli or other cereal with a cup of tea, marmalade and buttered toast is more common these days. Tom: Tea is everywhere as I’ve heard. Maria: Asking for coffee with your breakfast in the UK is a big no-no. British cuisine leans heavily on tea. Tea is served with any meal and any time in between. It doesn’t matter what the problem is, for the British the answer is always the same: Let’s have a nice cup of tea! Tom: and what is traditional British tea like? Maria: I would use the word strange as everything there. It’s the so-called Builder’s tea - strong black tea served with lots of milk and often two spoonfuls of sugar, usually in a mug. It is for the working class and tea breaks are an essential part of any day. There is a more formal, refined tea ceremony though which even has a special ritual. In recent years, herbal teas and speciality teas have also become popular. Teatime takes place in the late afternoon. Tea is often accompanied with some biscuits or scones. Tom: It sounds interesting. And what about coffee? Do they have it? Maria: Yes, it’s more and more popular but it cannot surpass the popularity of tea. But frankly, it’s horrible. They just drink it for caffeine and not for its delicate taste. Supermarkets offer a wide range of instant coffee, far more than any other country. They are much more popular than percolated coffees. Tom: Let me ask some further questions about meals. How many meals a day do they have and what does a typical lunch consist of? Maria: Contrary to many countries, lunch is not the main meal of the day on weekdays. They have something light, usually convenience food that you have to heat up in the microwave for a few minutes and it’s ready to consume. On Sunday it’s very different. British Sunday dinner served at lunchtime is also known as Sunday roast and is the very heart of British food and cooking. It is the time for families or friends to get together and share good food. A traditional British Sunday dinner is a roast – beef at the top of the list, but pork, lamb or 98

chicken are also popular, with Yorkshire pudding, gravy, vegetables and a dessert pudding in the cold months and another kind of dessert in the summer. Tom: Is it true that British people have a sweet tooth? Maria: Yes, very much, a meal is not complete without some kind of dessert. Sweet things as snacks are very popular. Chocolate is the most popular sweet snack. There are many kinds of cooked desserts. Steamed, boiled and baked puddings. One of the most famous desserts is trifle. It is made of custard, fruit, sponge cake and whipped cream. Sometimes some cherries are added. Tom: And what are some other traditional English dishes? Maria: For example, Bubble and Squeak is made with leftover vegetables from a roast dinner. The main ingredients are potatoes and cabbage but other vegetables such as carrots, peas, and Brussels sprouts can be added. Fish and chips is still very popular as a takeaway. It consists of deep-fried fish, traditionally cod or haddock, in batter or breadcrumbs with deep-fried chopped potatoes. Tom: Thanks, this information was interesting. Now I know what I can expect to eat when I’ll go to England. Listening 6.2 (track 20) Spaghetti Bolognese Heat the olive oil in a big saucepan and sauté the onion and garlic on medium heat ‘till cooked, keep stirring. Increase the heat and add the minced beef. Stir continuously and fry it until it has browned. Crush the tomatoes using a potato masher. Pour in the wine and add the mashed tomatoes and the paste. Stir in the oregano and simmer for about 60 minutes. When the cooking time is up, add the fresh basil. Meanwhile, cook the pasta in a big pot of boiling salted water. Drain and put it on plates. Scatter a little parmesan cheese over the pasta before adding a ladleful of the Bolognese sauce. Fisherman’s soup Salt the fish fillets. Cook the cleaned small fish and rings of onion in enough water to cover them. Bring to a boil and add the paprika. When tender, pass it through a sieve, then add enough water to the pot to obtain a thick soup. Add the green peppers and the tomato. Place the fish fillets into the soup, salt, and simmer for another 20 or 30 minutes. Serve by carefully removing the fish fillets with a strainer and placing them in bowls, then ladle the soup over them. The best fisherman’s soup is cooked in a cauldron over an open fire. Serve dried red pepper on a separate plate along with the soup, or sprinkle the soup with rings of hot green peppers. Scrambled eggs Crack the eggs into a bowl. Add one teaspoon of milk, salt and pepper and beat the mixture for around 2 minutes. Heat a medium sized non-stick frying pan or saucepan over moderate heat. Once the pan is warm, melt 2 teaspoons of butter and pour in the beaten eggs. After, take a wooden spoon and begin to stir, taking care not to burn the underside of the eggs or allowing them to stick to the bottom of the pan. You may add a little grated cheese to the eggs as they are cooking. Another variation is to fry some chopped onions, mushrooms and ham in the butter before adding the eggs. Serve with some buttered toast or as you prefer. Listening 6.3 (track 21) Healthy eating is not about strict nutritional philosophies or depriving yourself of the foods you love. Rather, it’s about feeling great, having more energy, and keeping yourself as healthy as possible – all of which can be achieved by learning some nutrition basics and using them in a way that works for you. Additionally, learning the habits of healthy eating can improve your health by boosting your energy, sharpening your memory and stabilizing your mood. Expand your range of healthy food choices and learn how to plan ahead to create and maintain a satisfying, healthy diet. Now here are some tips for you for your healthy diet. Tip number 1 : Set yourself up for success To set yourself up for success, think about planning a healthy diet as a number of small, manageable steps rather than one big drastic change. If you approach the changes gradually, you will have a healthy diet sooner than you think. Changing everything at once usually leads to cheating or giving up on your new eating plan. Make small steps, like adding a salad to your diet once a day or switching from butter to olive oil when cooking. As your small changes become habits, you can continue to add healthier choices to your diet. 99

Tip number 2: Moderation is the key As you reduce the amount of food you eat, use smaller plates to keep your meals from looking skimpy. Begin a couple of meals each week with an apple or a cup of soup. Either will help curb your appetite. Watch out for the portion-size trap. The sizes of meals in restaurants have grown enormously over recent years. Remember that you don’t need to eat it all. When dining out, choose a starter instead of an entrée, split a dish with a friend, and don’t order supersized anything. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, but limit your choices of everything else, especially snacks. Tip number 3: It's not just what you eat, it's how you eat Healthy eating is about more than the food on your plate - it is also about how you think about food. Eating with other people has numerous social and emotional benefits. Eating in front of the TV or computer often leads to mindless overeating. Chew your food slowly. We tend to rush through our meals, forgetting to actually taste the flavours. Tip number 4: Fill up on colorful fruits and vegetables Fruits and vegetables are the foundation of a healthy diet—they are low in calories and nutrient dense, which means they are full of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and fibre. The antioxidants and other nutrients in fruits and vegetables help protect against certain types of cancer and other diseases. Greens are packed with vitamins and minerals, and they help strengthen the circulatory and respiratory systems. Naturally sweet vegetables add healthy sweetness to your meals and reduce your cravings for other sweets. What you have to avoid is fruit juice, which can contain up to ten teaspoons of sugar per cup. Canned fruit is often in sugary syrup, and dried fruit can be high in calories. Tip number 5: Eat more healthy carbs and whole grains Choose healthy carbohydrates and fibre sources, especially whole grains, for long lasting energy. In addition to being delicious and satisfying, whole grains are rich in antioxidants, which help to protect against some diseases, like coronary heart disease and certain cancers, and diabetes. Studies have shown people who eat more whole grains tend to have healthier hearts. Tip number 6: Drink more water Water makes up about 75% of our bodies and helps flush our systems of waste products and toxins. Yet many people go through life dehydrated - causing tiredness, low energy and headaches. Caffeinated beverages, in particular, actually cause the body to lose water. Fresh fruits and vegetables, on the other hand, contain plenty of water and can help with hydration, especially when you are looking for an alternative to your eighth glass of water for the day. And don’t forget, beverages contain lots of sugar and they cannot replace water. So by following these simple tips, you can have a much healthier, longer and happier life! Listening 6.4 (track 22) 1. It is an inflammation of the glands of the throat. It is an infection either caused by a virus or bacteria. Most types are contagious. It has many symptoms and can vary for each person. The main symptoms are severe sore throat and high fever. It hurts a lot when you swallow. An earache and headache are also typical symptoms. The pain can be very sharp and throbbing. Symptoms like stomach ache, loss of appetite and vomiting are not widely known but you can experience difficulty breathing. It is easy to cure. If it is caused by a virus, the body will fight off the infection on its own. If it's caused by bacteria, the doctor probably will prescribe an antibiotic. 2. It is an inflammation of the lung caused by an infection. If you get this illness, at the beginning you have symptoms of a cold, like sneezing, sore throat. Then it is followed by a high fever with shivering. You experience chest pain - sharp, stabbing, either experienced during deep breathing or coughing. You have a headache, loss of appetite, fatigue and nausea. In some cases you can have problems with oxygen supply, so you feel a shortness of breath. Your skin colour can change and become purplish. People with lung and heart disease are at higher risk for developing this illness. 100

3. The blockage of an artery in the brain by a clot is the most common cause of it. The signs and symptoms vary from person to person, but they usually begin suddenly. As different parts of your brain control different parts of your body, your symptoms will depend upon the part of your brain that has been affected and the extent of the damage. The most typical symptoms are: sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arms or legs, especially on one side of the body, dizziness, communication problems, and difficulty talking and understanding what others are saying. Problems with balance and coordination, in severe cases, loss of consciousness. Listening 6.5 (track 23) Presenter: What would you do if your world fell apart? One month after getting married and full of plans, 32year-old Cami Walker was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. She found herself in hospital. She couldn’t see with her right eye and she could barely move her hands. Feeling depressed, Cami called a friend for support but instead she got an unusual prescription. Stop thinking about yourself, and start giving 29 gifts in 29 days. Cami Walker is the author of the book 29 Gifts. How a Month of Giving Can Change your Life. Cami, Good morning to you. Cami: Thank you. Presenter: When I read your story I found it unbelievable. Just by giving, you can change your life. So let’s go back to 2006 when you were diagnosed with MS. You were 32 years old, just married. How quickly did the disease have an impact on your life? Cami: It progressed really fast. Two years after my diagnosis I had a problem with walking; my marriage was under a lot of strains because my husband was taking care of me all the time and I was in a lot of pain. I was too sick to work. I'd been in the hospital five times in three months, so I was in a deep depression. Presenter: And in your lowest moment you called a friend. You were looking for some sympathy but you got something very different. Tell me about that conversation. Cami: Well, she is actually a spiritual adviser of mine, so not just a friend. She is an African medicine woman. I started talking to her about my problem and she interrupted me and said you have to stop focusing on your problem. And she said she had a prescription for me. She predicted it would help me to get rid of my negative thoughts that revolved around my illness. Presenter: And this was 29 gifts in 29 days. What was your initial reaction? Cami: I thought that was just crazy. I didn’t understand how giving could help me feel better. First, I put this idea aside, but things were even worse and I was willing to try anything. I just woke up one night because the pain was so strong. So, I decided in that moment that I was going to go ahead and do it. I gave my first gift that morning, which was just a supportive phone call to another friend. Presenter: Then you began to feel changes? Cami: Yes, I did. I experienced a change in the quality of my thinking. I started to focus on what opportunities I might find to give every day when I get up. By the midpoint, around day 13, my life was much better, and I was so inspired that I decided to launch a website and send out an email to some of my friends, and I said, "Hey, I've been doing this interesting thing where you give away 29 gifts in 29 days, and it's really helping me. You should try it." A week later 120 people had signed up. And now, we have over 5000 members on the website. So, that's how this all started. Presenter: And what are the things that people can give? Cami: You can give anything to anyone. If it's a material thing, we like to encourage you to re-gift items that you own. So, go through your book collection and take books to the library, or pass them on to someone in the street, or whatever. Some people, for example, made 29 snack packs and then took them out and gave them to people who were hungry, or to food shelters. Presenter: And what about non-material things? Cami: They can be things like doing something nice for someone, or volunteering some time. I'm a marketing consultant, so a lot of times what I've done is give away small amounts of free consulting time to people who couldn't afford to pay me. The gift can be for someone that you know or it can also be for a stranger. Presenter: What is the most favourite gift that you have ever given? Cami: There are a lot of gifts that I've enjoyed. I really enjoyed giving flowers. I decided to go and buy four dozen roses. I went out to a really busy street corner and gave away all these roses to strangers. That was awesome. Presenter: And how has this treatment changed you? 101

Cami: When I started doing this, I literally couldn't walk. I was very, very ill. And, by the 13th day of giving I was actually back on my feet and walking without a cane. Presenter: You must have been very happy. Cami: Yes, getting my health back has been a huge gift, for sure. My relationship with my husband has dramatically improved. A lot of wonderful things have happened in my life. I don't claim this cured my disease. I take medication and I live a very healthy life. But all that depression, pain and fatigue have gone now. I wake up every day happy and excited. I can't help but believe there's a connection here. Presenter: It seems to be a very powerful prescription. So, on behalf of all my colleagues, let me give you a bunch of flowers. Cami: Oh, thank you. I will give these flowers to people outside. I actually have a gift for you too. Presenter: Oh, thank you very much Cami. Listening 7.1 (track 24) Todd: So, my first obvious question is what kind of sport do you usually do? Janet: Well, I think I’m a sporty person. I do yoga, go swimming, go jogging and sometimes I do aerobics. And what about you? Are you a zealous sportsman who pursues sport in all his available free time? Todd: To tell you the truth, yes I am. No I’m just kidding. When I was younger, I mean a teenager, I used to do plenty of sports. I tried almost everything.- water-polo, basketball, and football of course. Once I even went rock climbing and I broke my wrist. I never did it again. It was very adventurous. As time was getting on I grew out of sports. But one sport has a secret place in my heart. Guess what it is? Janet: Oh I know you well, it must be football! Todd: Yes, yes it is football. It is my love for a lifetime. As I see you rather like individual sports. Yoga and swimming are in this category. Janet: Well, you are right, I prefer solitary sports. I have always loved them. But you support the other side, don’t you? Todd: Yes, I am not keen on individual sports. Janet: And what is it about team sports that you like? Todd: Er, there's something about team sports. It's such fun. Like you have camaraderie. You have friendship, you know, like you share the thrill of victory or you share, you know, when you lose, the pain of the loss. I just love that. So it is the community aspect of team sport. You have people to train with and measure yourself against. When you do something individually, you just don't have that. Janet: Definitely, you don’t have it. But when I do sports I'm very competitive, so when I get into a group, that is full of my friends I sometimes feel furious when we lose. I hate losing. It’s true the atmosphere is excellent, but I don’t like the fact that I have to rely on my group mates. Todd: It’s interesting how different we are. I am much more competitive in a team. This helps me to push myself further, to push beyond my limits. The others motivate me. There is always a sense of group spirit and teammates tend to encourage one another to achieve their absolute best. You have just told me an interesting thing. You are sometimes furious when you lose. In that case, do you put the blame on your teammates? Janet: To be honest, yes. Maybe I am too competitive but I cannot cope with the thought that I lose because somebody cannot do his best. If I am alone, I know there is no one to blame but myself. Todd: Yes, as for responsibilities in team sports, they are equally shared out between all members of the team. That way, if one player is off form, then failure is not inevitable. I can recall many football matches where I couldn’t do my best but the team won. Of course I wasn’t proud of my performance but at the next match I could compensate my team with a brilliant game. Janet: Another advantage of individual sport is that you can just go out and do it whenever you want, without having to wait for others. If you are a runner and want to go running, you can just pull on your trainers and get going. Likewise, if you are a swimmer, you can head to the pool. You do not have to wait for a training session or worry about getting a team together to play with. Todd: You are right, it is much easier to do sport alone; I mean sometimes it is very complicated to organize a session. If you want to play football, you need two teams and for two teams you need many people. Janet: And what about skills? Do you think you need different skills for team sports than individual ones? Todd: Good question. I think if you have certain physical skills, like being strong and fast, doesn’t depend on team or solitary sport. You are fast in a team and alone as well. Janet: I must agree. It is social skills, such as teamwork and leadership, which can determine whether you are a team sport or an individual sport kind of person. 102

Listening 7.2 (track 25) Interviewer: In today’s edition of Sports Showcase we are talking to 20-year-old Susan Harris, one of the country’s rising stars in the fast-growing sport of snowboarding. How long have you been into snowboarding, Susan? Susan: As I remember, I first did it when I was on holiday with my parents. When I was younger, I used to go skiing every year with them and then one year I tried snowboarding, and I haven’t skied since then. That was five years ago. Interviewer: And, why did you change your skies to a board? Susan: Well, I didn’t have any special reasons. I went to a ski camp with my parents. I enjoyed skiing and I was pretty good at it, not outstandingly good but I had a talent and my parents always told me I had a future in it. But then one day I was just watching those guys sliding down the slope doing incredible tricks like 180, rock-n-roll grinds and so on. It was breathtaking, so elegant. They were riding the slopes with ease. Next day I decided to give it a try and I haven’t strapped my feet out since then. So, that’s how it started. Interviewer: And was it difficult to ride the slopes with different equipment on your feet? Susan: Not so difficult but I had some problems acclimatizing myself to the snowboard. You know the biggest difference is that in skiing you can use both of your legs independently, but on the snowboard both of your legs are fastened to the board. It requires different movements and balance. Interviewer: As far as I know, there are many styles in snowboarding? Which one do you pursue? Susan: Yes, you are right, there are various styles, each with its own equipment and technique. The most common styles are free ride, freestyle and race, just to give a few examples. I usually practise freestyle. Interviewer: And what are the differences? Susan: In freestyle, we use different terrain features such as rails, boxes, jumps. It includes mostly aerial-like spins, flips. It is the most popular style in the snowboard industry. It is all about the tricks. Another style is free ride, it is the real extreme snowboarding. There are no restrictions, it is said to be the soul of snowboarding. It gives you the freedom to ride. You are in nature and use what mountains offer. Interviewer: Would you say that there are any particular qualities or strengths you need to have to be a snowboarder? Susan: Well, co-ordination first of all, and balance of course, but you don’t have to be born with them. If you practise for a few days, you’ll get it anyway, even if you are not naturally sporty. Some basic skills are very important but I think it’s not impossible to acquire them with regular practise within a short span of time. You have to be well prepared and well trained. Interviewer: And have you ever had any nasty falls? Susan: Yes, unfortunately it’s inevitable. When you are getting better and better you try to push yourself beyond your limits. Of course it involves more danger and bigger falls. I hurt my back a few years ago on a dry slope. I was doing a jump and I fell really badly, but I didn’t break anything. So far I’ve been really lucky, unlike my friends, who’ve all had bad injuries. Broken limbs, those kinds of things. No doubt I cannot avoid fate and I’ll break an arm or a leg soon! It’s just a question of time. Interviewer: I hope it’s not gonna happen. You are a woman in a world where mainly men dominate. How many girls are there compared to guys who snowboard? Susan: I wouldn’t say this sport is exclusively for men. There are more guys, that’s for sure. When first I started snowboarding you hardly ever saw any girls, but now there are loads of them. Not as many as guys, but almost. Interviewer: Is it true that you don’t really get paid? Susan: No, I get a few hundred pounds from some of my sponsors just to help me to pay for my lift pass. They also give me a few boards a year and then, you know, when I get photos published in a magazine when I’m on a board, it’s basically a free advert for the company. So, all of my equipment is given to me and that’s very useful of course. I can also get some money if I take a good position at a competition. I have been on the podium a few times and I won a big sum of money but it’s hardly enough to make ends meet. If I am able to gain good positions in the future, I will be able to establish financial security. And if you win, you raise other sponsors attention and they invest more money in you. That’s how it works. Interviewer: What sort of advice would you give to a girl who wants to take up snowboarding? Susan: First of all, wrap yourself up warm because it can get quite cold out there. And if you can’t get out to the Alps, try going to a local dry slope, where you can get lessons and hire equipment, or you could try a snow dome, which is like a big indoor fridge with real snow, and practice from dawn to dusk. That’s the most important. You have to be a fanatic if you want to reach something in this sport. Interviewer: We hear you’ve been doing some modelling work as well. Is that right? 103

Susan: Yes I have. I was on a cover of a fashion magazine a couple of months ago and I’m hopefully going to get some more work because of that. I enjoyed it very much. Apart from snowboarding, modelling was another childhood dream. It could be useful for the future. Interviewer: You might go on to become a full-time model? Susan: Who knows? If my luck runs out with the snowboarding, then why not? Interviewer: Well, good luck with snowboarding and we’ll certainly be looking for you on the catwalk. Listening 8.1 (track 26) Sam I think the Internet has utterly changed our reading habits. People want to read things faster, easier or don’t want to read at all. People want to skim articles, as fast as possible so that they can get to the next website. They are in a hurry. With many couples both working, and taking care of the kids, millions of people don't have time to read books. We have to clean the house, make dinner every night. Therefore millions of people turn to the Internet everyday to access the info they want. Suddenly it seems the entire world has changed their reading habits. Book sales are down, and Internet usage is up. Janet Connecting to the Internet to access your information is a lot easier then reading the newspaper, or reading a book. All you have to do is find several websites, read the information as quickly as possible and you can find out the information you desire. If you want to get a book, all you have to do is to click on download and a few seconds later you can read the book. I think it’s very convenient. Rafael Reading habits have been changed by the Internet. People aren't buying many newspapers or magazines anymore, why should we buy a book, newspaper or magazine when we can get it for almost free on the Internet? Downloading an e-book is very cheap or sometimes free. No cost of publishing, storing, printing, etc. Tom: I would like to approach the question from an environmental point of view. Books and newspapers are printed on paper. I guess it is well known that for making paper we have to cut down lots of trees. If everybody read ebooks on the Internet, deforestation would decrease and we could preserve trees and forests for the future generations. Alia: I have plenty of books lying on the shelves at home. Actually half of my living room is taken up by bookshelves. I certainly like traditional books but since I read my first e-book, I haven’t bought any. I don’t have to spend a fortune every time I want to read a new book and to be honest, I wouldn’t have enough space for that. E-books are very easy to store. You just need some space on your hard drive. Evelyn: The Internet has all the information you want right at your fingertips. It is fast, easy and often fun. You can make instant comments for millions of people to read while reading a newspaper. Certainly you can do a large degree of reading every day. You can get the information you want, not what is decided for you. You will also get more updated information than you would by reading a magazine or a newspaper. You can even start your own interactive blog, or website and read other people's comments when you desire. You can't do any of that with a book, a magazine or a newspaper. Listening 8.2 (track 27) Interviewer: Today we are talking about some of the extraordinary changes in the music industry over the last fifty years. My guest is Daniel Jones who is a music historian and expert on the subject. These changes may affect anyone who is interested in music – and well, I think that means everybody! Welcome Daniel. Expert: Thank you. Interviewer: First, could you tell us how you first got involved in popular music? Expert: Well, I have always liked music and I used to buy loads of singles when I was a teenager. I spent all of my pocket money on CDs. But I suppose it was Abba who got me into the history of it all. I used to like them in the 70s and then recently, their music has become really popular again in new adaptations. I find them 104

fascinating. Even Madonna has used Abba’s music in her own stuff. I have to add here, that was the second time Abba had ever let anybody use one of their tracks. Madonna’s song Hung up is based on Abba’s Gimme Gimme Gimme. She had begged Abba for permission to use their music. Interviewer: Yes, Abba was a big hit this summer. The Mamma Mia musical film was a blockbuster. It was extremely popular, wasn’t it? Expert: That’s right. The musical is all based around Abba’s music and it raised people’s interest in the group again. Obviously they don’t actually play together as a group anymore, but there are a number of tribute bands, who do concerts. They sound and look like the original bands. Interviewer: You mentioned that you used to buy singles. It must be very different now. I mean nobody buys singles anymore. Expert: Well, no..everything has shifted over to downloads. The biggest change took place around 2005 or 2006. It all started with the song Crazy by Gnarls Barkley. Interviewer: Yes, I remember. It was a very successful song. Expert: So, it was the first song in the UK to reach number one on the charts that was based on download sales alone. You couldn’t buy the song in shops. For the first weeks after it was released it was only available as a download. In the first week it shot to number one. Interviewer: That recalls some memories about a Scottish singer, Sandi Thom. Do you think it’s true that she became a star without ever leaving her own house? Expert: Yes, it’s really true. It’s just another case where the influence of the Internet has been huge. She had some problems with her music recording company and the release of her debut album was delayed. She couldn’t afford to go on tour or pay for her own promotion so she came up with a very unique idea. She installed a webcam in the basement of her house and broadcast live music concerts via the Internet. Interviewer: How successful was it? Expert: Incredibly, successful. Her “tour” consisted of 21 performances. On the first day she had an audience of around 60 or 70 people and at its peak rose to a claimed 70,000. As I heard, the idea popped into her head after her car broke down travelling from a gig to Wales. Interviewer: Well, that sounds like it was a very good idea. Expert: Yes, she got what she really wanted which was a million-pound recording contract with one of the biggest recording companies, Sony. Interviewer: And what do you think about the future of the music industry? Expert: It strikes me as being ironic that a new technology, digital music, may have accidentally forced record labels to abandon releasing albums and return to the past, selling singles. I sometimes think that the biggest mistake the record industry ever made was abandoning the pop single in the first place. Customers were forced to buy albums to get the one or two songs they loved; how many albums can you say that you truly love, or love even 50% of the songs — 10? 20? But now the people have spoken: they want one song at a time. Interviewer: I entirely agree with that. I have been disappointed so many times when after hearing a great hit I bought the CD and the only track that was worth listening to was that one. Expert: Unfortunately that led to a war between music companies and illegal downloads. People just download one particular piece of music without paying for it. I think that’s why selling singles for a cheap price would be the best solution against illegal downloads. Why take the risk if you can get it for almost free? Interviewer: I hope you are right. It could completely change the music industry. Thank you very much Daniel, for coming in to talk to us today. Listening 8.3 (track 28) Nicole: In today’s interview, we’re talking to a special effects technician who participated in the making of many famous blockbusters. Welcome Stan. Stan: Hello Nicole. Nicole: You are very famous for your creature designs, in films like Aliens, Predator and the Terminator. You’ve often been quoted as saying that the challenge is in giving the audience something they haven’t seen before. Stan: Yes, it’s very important to me to find a way to do something new, that hasn’t been done before. For example, to create a character that is new and fresh. If we’re doing what we did yesterday it would be boring for everybody and for me too. I feel I have to do something that is challenging. Nicole: I’ve heard you saying you don’t see yourself as a special-effects technician, although you are said to be the best. So, how is it exactly? 105

Stan: Yes, you’re right. I don’t consider myself to be a special-effects man. I’m actually techno-ignorant, although I own and operate one of the most advanced companies. I use all of the technology at hand, but it’s not for the purpose of special effects, it’s for the purpose of creating characters. Every time there’s been a fantastic character that has either been created by an actor in make-up, or an effect, it’s always been about that character – it’s never been about the technology. Nicole: You started your career as an actor, didn’t you? Stan: Yes, I came out here as an actor, which has influenced my entire career. I have also been a fan of science fiction, fantasy movies my entire life – from King Kong to The Wizard of Oz. Anything that had fanciful or fantastic dramatic characters in it. I failed as an actor, even though at the same time I was a fine arts major in college. Nicole: And how did it all start? Stan: Well, I decided to take up an apprenticeship as a make-up artist, which would allow me to use my artistic skills. I’ve always wanted to create fantastic characters that tell fantastic stories and the methods that I use to do that can be as simple as a make-up on an actor to as extensive as the robot dinosaur that is in Jurassic Park. That dinosaur, for me, is not an effect; it’s an actor, a character. Nicole: And what you have available is what you use to create a character? Stan: Also, to create what I don’t have available. In my studio we’ve broken ground through the years, and so what we have done, in the world of ‘Special Effects’ is ground-breaking. If you are going to be a part of the filmmaking business, you must understand the priorities of what makes a good movie. Nicole: And what are these priorities? Stan: There are three of these that run parallel to each other. Firstly, there is nothing more important than the script and the story. If you are not telling an interesting story, it’s going to be a forgettable movie. The characters, the actors that are telling that story have a significant importance. Stories are about characters. Characters tell the story. So, a wonderful story told by dramatic and wonderful characters, directed by a creative director who understands how it all has to come together. Without the director everything is chaos. Nicole: So you think special effects are not so important? Stan: The fact is that movies are not about effects. Effects are tools that are used to tell the story. I use those effects to help create characters that help tell the story. Nicole: How do you feel then about films where effects, whatever their nature, are foregrounded? Stan: Well, it is complicated. With effects only you cannot make a good film. For example, The Lord of the Rings is probably the most well-read book and one of the most universal stories since the writing of the Bible. The performances in Lord of the Rings were wonderful and the direction by Peter Jackson was brilliant. Now, in order to tell that story, they needed to create a world we’ve never seen, to create creatures we’ve never seen. There was a need for special effects, but it wasn’t about special effects. On the contrary, I thought the first Matrix was an extremely interesting story and used effects in ways that we had never seen before to tell one. I think the second part, The Matrix Reloaded, is just a lot of effects without real story. Nicole: I’m sure you have been asked many times, but aren’t we getting too effects-heavy? Stan: No, not really. Bad filmmakers who don’t understand what a good story is or how to tell it will put a lot of effects in something and it will still be a bad movie. Nicole: Thank you very much and I wish you more and more challenging work for the future. Stan: Thank you. I hope we will be able to keep enchanting audiences. Listening 9.1 (track 29) Presenter: First of all, let’s start with a guide for beginners on Facebook. It allows you to create an online personal profile that other people can view. All you need is a valid e-mail address. You can enter as many details as you like, including your birth date, your relationship status, where you went to school and even your favourite books. You then start searching for people you know. If they’re already on the site you can ask them to be your “friend”, but if not you can invite them to join Facebook and be your friend. While someone can look you up and see who your friends are, they can’t access your profile unless you have approved them as a friend. You can change your privacy settings to limit the information that people on the site can see. Friends can send messages to each other, write on each other’s “walls”, personal message boards, buy virtual gifts and drinks, and upload photographs and videos. Every time you log on you can view your “News Feed”, which alerts you to what your friends have been doing on the site – groups joined, messages posted, new friends made, etc. But can online friendships ruin real-life relationships? Some users of a very popular social networking site believe so – and that’s why they’re taking drastic action. Stephanie Painter’s death was swift and painless. At 9.10pm on 106

February 11 she bid her 121 Facebook friends goodbye with one last “poke” ,mood: sorrowful, then left the virtual world peacefully with a quick click of the mouse. Stephanie: It was hard to kill the profile I’d spent so long creating, but I felt it was the only way out. Facebook was damaging my relationship with my boyfriend to such an extent that if I hadn’t done it we wouldn’t be together now. Presenter: Stephanie found that what had seemed like an innocent way of reconnecting with old friends and colleagues, had in fact opened a huge can of worms. Stephanie: Within a couple of months a number of ex-partners and people that I’d had random flings with were asking to be my “friend” on Facebook. I didn’t feel I could decline them and I admit I was interested to know what they were up to. It made my boyfriend, Danny, incredibly insecure. As one of my friends, he could view my profile page, my list of friends and my ‘wall’, which is the area on which messages are posted. Reading my ex’s flirty messages, however innocent, made him insanely jealous. In the end, Facebook was causing so many arguments between us that I decided the best thing would be to log off forever. As soon as my Facebook profile died, our relationship improved. Presenter: Stephanie is not the only one who has committed what is being dubbed “Facebook suicide” among the social networking site’s 31 million users. Although it’s impossible to estimate exactly how many people have “deactivated”, there are a growing number of Facebook suicide groups on the site. One, the Facebook Mass Suicide Club, encourages members to “cancel your account before it consumes you. Join this group so we can do it together! ” Started in 2004, Facebook is now one of the most used search engines in the world, with two million members in the UK and 150,000 new people signing up every day. So why are people deciding to put a virtual noose around their online necks? Clare Missingham, 34, a yoga teacher, logged off forever a month ago when she realised how pointless her online profile had become. Clare: I’d already kept in touch with the friends I wanted to, so apart from communicating with a few people overseas and some old acquaintances I didn’t really like, it wasn’t much use to me. It didn’t make me feel more connected and I’d rather spend quality time with people in person than sit in front of a computer turning them into vampires or buying them virtual presents, both are online applications you can add to your profile. Presenter: Yet other users say they’ve ended their lives in the virtual world for far more prosaic reasons – so that they can resume life in the real one. According to Facebook, users spend an average of 20 minutes a day on the site although a survey found that others spend more than ten hours a week on virtual networking sites, the equivalent of 24 days a year. Think how many pub lunches with real friends could be enjoyed in that time. Based on an article from Time magazine, September 15, 2007 Listening 9.2 (track 30) Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of the modern era, and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. If you speak English you can speak with people from all over the world. First of all, it is the main language of the media. Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world. English is the most commonly used language in the world of science. Most films are in English and in most households at least some English channels are available. The main language of the Internet is also English. Millions of people surf the net every day reading articles written in English, visiting English sites. If you want to access to the latest information on all topics, such as health, politics, sports, and so on, you need to be able to read in English. Secondly, it is the most widely used language in music and literature. International music bands and singers mainly sing in English and most publications are in English. On the radio, pop music carries the words of English to almost every corner of the Earth. Finally, English is the language of many governments and international organisations around the world. It is also prominent in education, communication and business. Big and small businesses on a global scale exchange emails in English to make communication easier. 107

Listening 10.1 (track 31) 1. Tony Well, I like almost any kind of holiday, but especially backpacking, camping, walking in the mountains, that kind of thing, but this year we had a very different one. I had never been on something like that before. I don’t like holiday resorts, I prefer somewhere off the beaten track. I like untouched places with breathtaking landscapes with a little bit of excitement. So we went to a place which was next to a very rapid river that has crystal-clear water. It was a little bit cold for the season but we didn’t mind. We stayed in a little cottage; it wasn’t the most luxurious one but it was ok. After all, these kinds of holidays are not about comfort and luxury, but about facing new challenges and the dangers of nature. The first day was horrible, I was terrified, but after the first ride I enjoyed it very much. It is really great fun and I will never ever forget that trip. I hope I will do it again! 2. Suzy This year we wanted a bit of luxury and lazing around, so we surprised ourselves with this trip. It was definitely among the most expensive vacations in the world but I can certainly say it was worth the money. We visited many ports. The first was in Egypt, then came Greece and so on. The only thing I didn’t like was that we were controlled too much. We had an exact schedule when to leave the boat and when to board. We could dine whenever we wanted though and were able to have breakfast on the open deck. Unfortunately, I couldn’t enjoy the first few days because of the rough sea. I was seasick and vomited many times but after 2 days I got better. The crew was exceptionally good, all were smiling and eager to please. The service was generally far better than you can find ashore in an equivalent hotel. 3. Sam I like when everything is arranged for me. I do not have to spend time on finding accommodation, organizing programmes. I like resorts and clubbing so I always go to a place where there is nightlife. The noisier the better, you know. I usually go to bed at the crack of dawn and sleep until noon. In the afternoon I take part in organized programmes like visiting spectacular places. I work a lot and hard so holidays are my only chance to unwind. I generally book last-minute holidays and try to find the best deal. That’s what I’m going to do next year too. 4. Peter I was travelling alone. My original plan was to travel through Europe. I arrived at a small airport in Germany. I found a cheap hostel where I stayed a night. Usually I stay in hostels because they are the cheapest type of accommodation. I always have a camera with me and grab it whenever I see something interesting. I have large photo collections from almost every part of the world. I couldn’t follow my original plan because I ran out of money and time. I spent a lot more time in Germany. I like hitchhiking. I always meet lots of people on my way but you have to be careful, there are many insane people on the roads. Luckily, most drivers take you on your way with pleasure. At least they have somebody to talk to. I have no clue where I’m going next year but I’m sure the only thing I’m going to take is myself and my bag as usual. 5. Sandra Well, we have three young children so we have to choose a holiday with them in mind. Two years ago we went on a package tour, but the children didn’t enjoy the hotel in the middle of a big city and the congestion. So we decided to try something new. We joined my husband’s cousin and her family. We found a beautiful valley with a lake in the middle. A perfect place for spending some time in nature. The scenery was awesome. We had a great time there. We got away from everyday chores at home. We may have enjoyed it more than our children. No schedules to keep, nothing to disturb you. We told scary stories around the camp fire and enjoyed each other’s company. We will go back again next year. Listening 10.2 (track 32) Peter: Walt Disney World. A world of fantasy, a complete escape from reality and the most popular holiday destination on Earth. Good morning everybody! I am Peter Thomas from Radio One and we continue our series of special holiday destinations to give you ideas for the summer vacation. I am in the studio with Katie Andre, 108

who has just come back from the world of magic, Florida’s Walt Disney World, and we are going to talk about her experiences. So, welcome to the studio Katie. Katie: Thanks. Good morning everybody. Peter: Good morning Katie. So my first question is: Why did you choose Walt Disney as your holiday destination? As far as I know, you haven’t got any children yet. Am I right? Katie: You are right Peter. I’m single now. I have just broken up with my boyfriend and I was a little bit depressed and I felt like doing something special this year to cheer myself up. When I was a child I didn’t have the opportunity to visit this amusing magical place although it had always been a dream for me. My parents could hardly make ends meet, so we couldn’t afford it. Now I am grown up and I could invest in the holiday myself, so I thought why not? Let’s have a special adventurous holiday full of entertainment. Peter: I know Walt Disney World is every kid’s fantasy and parents spend millions every year to make it come true. But what do you think makes Disney World number one? Katie: Oh, it is very simple. It is a place where your dreams become reality and it is very entertaining. On the entry tunnel you can read the following words: "Here you leave today and enter a world of yesterday, tomorrow, and fantasy.” I think it tells everything about this place. You are surrounded by sheer magic and you fly back to your childhood and meet your childhood’s favourite cartoon characters. When you enter this place, you feel you open a gate to a different world where everything is possible and where you can meet Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck, and where you feel like a child again. Peter: The resort is comprised of four main theme parks – Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney-MGM Studios and Animal Kingdom. So there is bound to be something to keep you amused. But actually, what did you enjoy the most? Katie: Well, it’s a really difficult question but I had a number one. When I was a child I always wanted to climb Everest, but for most of us it is nothing more than a pipe dream. But luckily Disney has brought us closer to achieving the dream. Expedition Everest, within the Animal Kingdom theme park, is a brand-new attraction. I wandered around Tibetan-styled villages, and the most thrilling experience in my life was the high-speed roller coaster ride. It goes around a snow-capped mountain and sends you right into the Himalayas. Peter: It must have been really frightening. I wouldn’t have enough courage to try it out. Katie: Believe me, I had thought about it twice as well. Peter: Apart from Everest, was there anything else you enjoyed very much? Katie: Well, the Magic Kingdom. It’s like a small world. Peter Pan’s flight, the Jungle Cruise and Pirates of the Caribbean were all very entertaining. As far as I know, this inspired the later film of Jack Sparrow and his crew. The Haunted Mansion was also great. Ghosts and evil spirits scare the life out of visitors. Peter: And what about Epcot? Katie: Epcot, yeah. We mustn’t forget about that. Over Epcot was the best fireworks and laser light show I’ve ever seen in my life. 3000 fireworks were launched into the night sky. Breathtaking that’s all I can say. Epcot, I think, is a vision for a utopian city of the future with a little touch of Disney. It is fascinating. Peter: And what about accommodation, where did you stay? Katie: Luckily, there are hotels to suit every pocket and taste at Disney. I stayed at BoardWalk Inn, it is within walking distance of Epcot and Disney-MGM Studios. I didn’t have to leave the hotel to keep myself amused. It has an old-fashioned charm. There are lots of facilities, a huge pool complex, a 61 metre long water slide, cafés, boutiques, everything you want. There are stores that specialise in Disney character merchandise. When the temperature cools down, the nightlife heats up with street performers, food vendors, midway games and lots of live entertainment. Peter: What about food? As far as I know some very special dishes are served. Could you tell us a little bit about them? Katie: Yes, of course. Actually, it wasn’t the food that I found interesting but the restaurants and the way they served the dishes. You can combine eating with a spectacle at the Dine-In Theatre Restaurant. They serve simple American cuisine for lunch and dinner that includes burgers, sandwiches, ribs, seafood, pasta, steak and salads. The domestic beer and wine was also very delicious. Peter: And why is this restaurant so special? At first it seems like a typical American fast-food restaurant? Katie: At first yes, but you can sit in a drive-in cinema watching old black and white movies under the stars, as roller-skating waitresses deliver your hamburgers. It’s also very famous for its shakes. The tables you sit at are old American cars. Amazing. Peter: I see you are still mesmerized by your holiday. Are you planning to go back? Katie: Yes, it was really impressive. It's still said to be the ‘Happiest Place on Earth’. Well, I’m not planning to go back in the near future. If I have any children, I will definitely take them there. It is a must see holiday destination. I recommend it to anybody who wants to travel back in time and wants to be a child again. 109

Peter: Thank you very much Katie. I bet our listeners have found this all very interesting. Listening 10.3 (track 33) Well, first of all, you have to be old enough to drive a car. In Hungary you have to be 17 to get a licence but in other countries like America you can obtain your permit at a younger age. The best age to get a licence is between 17 and 25 because as time passes learning becomes more and more difficult. Don’t forget that driving is not only theory but practise as well. You are required to learn a complex series of physical movements which after a certain age, is pretty tough to learn. There is no upper age limit restriction and everyone needs to obtain a medical certificate, which certifies that one is medically fit to drive. The next step is to find a school you like on the internet, or just walk around in the city a bit, and you'll see several advertisements. The procedure of getting a licence differs from country to country. When you decide to start, you first pay the fee which includes the classes and about 30 hours of driving. First you'll learn the rules and laws that a driver must obey. You also learn some theory about the basic mechanics of the car such as how the engine works. After this, you take a written test on the Highway Code. Secondly, you have to learn how to give first aid. In the course you learn how to check whether the heart is beating, how to give artificial respiration, the kiss of life, in other words. You are expected to be able to know how to bandage wounds, and so on. After a successful written test, you can get in a car. You have to take a technical so-called "routine" examination. In the course you learn and practise manoeuvres with the help of a driving instructor, and step by step to park, to accelerate and decelerate quickly, to turn, to stop and get going again on a slope, and so on. And only after that will you be allowed to drive in traffic to take your final exam. Let’s be honest, that’s the most difficult part. You have to apply all the knowledge you gained in practise. Many students fail this exam. If successful, you'll just have to do some paperwork and in about 2-3 weeks you can claim your driver’s license. This whole procedure takes about 2-3 months. So as you can see, it’s very simple to get a driving licence! Listening 10.4 (track 34) Step 1: Getting started. It is always advisable to sign-up with a driving school where you will be taught the basics and learn how to drive with the help of a trained instructor. Driving schools also take care of all formalities connected with getting a driver's license and help you in clearing the final driving tests. Step 2: Learning the basics. When you first sit in the driver's seat, take some time to familiarize yourself with the various controls and parts you will use while driving. The first thing you need to do is to adjust the position of the seat and the distance from the steering wheel, in order to ensure that you are in a comfortable driving position. On the floor in front of the seat, there are three pedals - the clutch, brakes and the accelerator or gas pedal. While driving, your feet will move between these three pedals based on the action you will be taking while driving. Next to the driver's seat on the right is the gear lever, which you use to change gears while driving. On top of the gear lever is a line diagram which shows where to move into each gear, beginning from the first gear on the top left to the reverse gear on the bottom right of the diagram. The neutral gear falls in a line between the top and bottom gears. In case you are driving a car which has a fifth gear, an additional line next to the third gear will be depicted. Step 3: Starting the car. The first step when you get into the car is to fasten your seat belt. Never forget it. It saves lives. Next, check that the parking brake is on. Press the clutch pedal fully down and move the gear lever into neutral position. Turn on the ignition to start the car. After that, check the rear-view mirrors and indicate left or right. Step 4: Moving into first gear. While your left foot is still holding the clutch pedal down, move the gear lever into first gear. This will be a movement from neutral towards the first top line. Apply the brake using your right foot and release the handbrake. When you're ready to begin moving, move your right foot from the brake to the accelerator pedal, release the clutch pedal slowly and simultaneously press the accelerator. Releasing the clutch and pressing on the accelerator will be a slow, concurrent motion. The car will now begin to move forward. 110

Step 5: Changing gears. Change gears while driving each time you have reached one speed level and are ready to move on to the next level. Every time you change gears remember to press your foot down on the clutch. Not doing this will crank up the gears and cause wear and tear or immediate seizing of the engine. Pay attention to the engine noise to know when you need to change gears. If, at a certain speed, the engine appears to sputter, you need to move into the next lower gear. If the engine makes a high screeching noise, it means you're going at a higher speed than the gear is capable of, in this case, immediately move into the next higher gear. Step 6: Slowing and stopping. Take the pressure off your right foot which is on the accelerator when you want to reduce speed and press down on the clutch to downshift into a lower gear until you've reached the second. Then apply the brake while slowly releasing the clutch pedal. When stopping, you should press down the clutch just before stopping fully. Learning how to drive a car takes time and patience. Start driving with a trained instructor to guide you when you are first learning and practice in wide open spaces where there is no traffic. Once you've gained some confidence, you can slowly start driving in traffic to get used to frequently changing gears, slowing down and stopping, and moving again as per the traffic flow. Listening 11.1 (track 35) Katie: Good Morning! This is Katie White. It’s 9 o’clock and it’s time to talk about our health. We have beautiful sunny weather this morning and I’m in a really good mood. But is there a connection between the weather, our mood and our health? Today I’m talking to Dr. Dominic Lawson who is going to reveal the truth, here in ‘Morning Health Corner’. Katie: Welcome to the studio Dr. Lawson. So, is it true that we can be 'under the weather'? Dr. Lawson: Definitely, yes. I think many of us have an older relative who claims to have an arthritic joint with the power to forecast tomorrow’s weather. Like my great-grandmother who stares out of the window on a pleasant, sunny day, rubbing her painful shoulder, and saying solemnly, ‘A storm's a coming'. Katie: I’ve also heard it from my granny many times and I always smiled but to tell you the truth, most of her predictions were right. I was wondering if she could really forecast the weather? Dr. Lawson: Well, I don’t think such predictions are very reliable. Katie: The weather has been, among other things, blamed for many illnesses. Could the weather really be responsible for everything that goes wrong in a person's life? Dr. Lawson: Well, more and more people believe such a link between the weather and their overall health does exist. Furthermore, those with serious health problems now tend to consult the weather forecast in an attempt to predict whether they might feel achy in the near future. They even arrange their day according to the weather. In fact, in many countries a 'bio-weather' report is available. Katie: What is a bio-weather forecast? Dr. Lawson: It tries to explain the connection between the weather and your health, and predicts what health condition you will be under the given weather conditions. Katie: And how is it that similar weather conditions have different effects on us? Dr. Lawson: Our bodies react differently to the weather depending on our age, sex, or general state of health as well as where we actually live. One in three people are thought to be sensitive to the changing weather but the old, young and the chronically ill suffer more, and women are generally more sensitive than men. Katie: And what are the most typical illnesses that can be explained by changing weather? Dr. Lawson: Arthritis and migraines are the most typical complaints but I think everybody knows that heatwaves in summer are very dangerous for those who have heart problems, especially elderly people. Allergies are also a sign of the relationship between weather and health, as the weather has some influence on pollen season. Katie: I heard even depression can be intensified or eased by the weather? Dr. Lawson: People tend to take a lot of pills for depression although one hour of walking a day would be enough to decrease depression. The sun is the most important source of vitamin D. Shortage of vitamin D can be responsible for depression. For example, suicide and depression rates increase during winter months. Sunlight is the best antidepressant on the market. Katie: And what about rainy days, why do we feel so sleepy and exhausted? 111

Dr. Lawson: Most people have experienced difficulty having enough energy on cloudy days. For some, that difficulty hits a lot harder than for others. Those exhaustive sunless days affect us as immediately as they come. Sleepy cloudy days plus the therapeutic sound of rain on the rooftop is very tiring. But on the other hand, think about how energetic you feel when there's a storm outside. Our bodies reflect the energy of lightning. Storms excite some people, filling them with adrenaline. Katie: Oh, that’s really interesting. I can never sleep when there’s a thunderstorm. And can we do anything to avoid being affected by the weather? Dr. Lawson: Yes, of course. With sunlight, exercise, diet, and an understanding of your body's sensitivity to the climate you live in, you can be healthier than ever, even in winter. With a concentrated effort towards making lifestyle changes, you can achieve a long-term solution that drugs cannot offer. On cold, cloudy days, remember the healing effect of exercise and on sunny days, don't let the free healing energy of the sun sink to the horizon before getting recharged! Katie: Dr Dominic, thank you very much for your advice. I think you have cleared up many assumptions. If our listeners have any questions, Dr Dominic is available until noon. Call us and ask our expert! Listening 11.2 (track 36) Green living is living in a way that helps take care of the Earth. It also means using only what you really need of the Earth’s resources. For example, do you like to take long showers? Or do you leave the water running while you are brushing your teeth? Both long showers and leaving the tap running waste our Earth’s water. Here are some easy ways you can reduce pollution and protect the environment. So first of all let’s start with water. It is a valuable resource and by making a few simple alterations, you can save hundreds of litres. Don't let water run down the drain. You can fill the sink with some water to wash your vegetables and then use the same water to wash dishes. You can install a low flow shower head. It can cut your water usage by two-thirds! Apart from water you can save lots of electricity as well. For example, did you know that about 6 % of your electricity bill goes into your light bulbs? So, why not buy energy efficient light bulbs? Although they are more expensive to buy, they last much longer and consume less energy. It goes without saying that you should turn lights off when they are not in use. DVD players, coffee makers, and TVs still use a small amount of power even when they are switched off. So don’t leave them in standby mode. Drive less and drive smart. Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving fuel, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. When you do drive, make sure your car is running efficiently. And finally, buy recycled products. When you use a piece of paper, you are using a natural resource. If you use a recycled piece of paper, you are protecting our trees. Source: www.greenlivingtips.com Listening 11.3 (track 37) Presenter: A lot of people feel that pollution has become one of the biggest problems in the world today. But what exactly do we mean when we talk about pollution? Expert: Well, when you pollute something, you make it dirty or harmful to other people or animals. Urbanisation, industrialisation and population explosion are also responsible for the increase in pollution but actually the main reason is waste. Waste can be many things. It can be yesterday’s newspaper, an old car, or your dirty bath water. Presenter: In that case we are in big trouble since everyone makes a lot of waste. Expert: Yes, you are right. There are five billion people in the world. They all need to eat, dress and travel. On top of everything, we live in a throw-away world. Every year, we create more and more waste and it seems we are suffocating under the weight of our own garbage. Presenter: It is disappointing. And, what about the disposal of waste? Can proper treatment of waste help us? Expert: We often talk about waste disposal, but disposal is really the wrong word, because you cannot really dispose of waste. Apart from dumping, most of our domestic waste is incinerated. Buried rubbish can produce 112

poisonous substances which leak into the soil and when it is burnt, hazardous gases are produced that are a main contributing factor to the greenhouse effect. Untreated sewage is also a big problem. It pollutes water. Presenter: And you are just talking about municipal waste or industrial waste? I guess industrial waste is a bigger threat, isn’t it? Expert: Some industrial waste is definitely very dangerous. Some factories emit lots of poisonous gases which make acid rain that kills trees and pollutes water. Sometimes toxic chemicals leak into rivers and soil. Power stations are also very dangerous. When nuclear power stations were first built, people were pleased because they did not pollute like old power stations. But they produce nuclear waste, which produces radiation. Actually, with our present knowledge, it is impossible to dispose of nuclear waste. Presenter: Is there anything we can do to improve the situation? Expert: Yes, of course. If you want to do something better than dumping, you can change waste into something different, something useful. Recycling waste is more expensive than dumping it, but if we don’t do something soon, our waste will poison our world. Presenter: And what is recycling? Expert: Well, let me give you an example. When you turn off the lights in the daytime, you are conserving energy. Recycling means conserving materials and energy by using things again, instead of throwing them away. It reduces pollution, and saves money and natural resources. Presenter: And is it possible to recycle all kinds of materials? Expert: Well, the bad news is no. We usually separate reusable and non-reusable waste. Plastic, cardboard, bin bags, glass, and metals are reusable waste. Old car tyres are non-reusable. We also classify biodegradable organic waste. It’s also called green waste. Presenter: What products can we make from paper and plastic? Expert: First, let me say some words about plastic. It is a wonderfully strong, long-lasting material which is very difficult to destroy. Most plastic does not decay, like wood or paper. At the moment, we use plastic wastefully because it is so cheap to produce. We can make garden furniture, bin bags, or insulation for example. Toilet paper, egg cartons, packaging materials, paper bags, even books are good examples of possible recycled paper products. Presenter: And what can people do to help to recycle, and manage their rubbish in an environmentally friendly way? Expert: The most important of all is selective waste collection. You can sort out your rubbish. Separate glass, metal, plastic and paper into different containers. Organic waste can be collected separately but people who have gardens can make compost of it. But there are also other ideas to help the environment. First of all, don’t waste water, energy, and materials. Buy recycled, green products if you can. Try to avoid buying plastic bags, take your own bags when you go shopping. Listening 12.1 (track 38) Interviewer: Every night in London, hundreds of people sleep outside, using shop doorways, park benches or even the pavement for a bed. Under the railway arches near Waterloo train station, rough sleepers have built temporary shelters. Paul, a police officer who works in that area, faces homelessness and poverty there every day. Paul, how long have you been working as a policeman? Paul: For too long, I think. I’ve been an officer in London for 3 years, and I go on patrol around Waterloo station every day. Interviewer: And do you try to help the homeless? Paul: Of course I try. I do everything I can. I have a story to tell you from which you will understand how difficult the situation is, and you may get a clearer picture about what we do. There was a guy, called Matthew, aged 21. He had been living in a shanty town for six months. Interviewer: Sorry, did you say shanty town? Paul: Yes, it’s a shelter, built from planks and crates, roofed with old rugs and plastic sheeting and raised off the ground with wooden pallets. The nearest running water is in a nearby church hall. There’s no electricity. Interviewer: So, who was this Matthew? Paul: He was a guy, who lived with his girlfriend, Nicky, who was younger than he was and three months pregnant. They had been living on the streets for half a year by then. Interviewer: And how can these people live on the streets? I mean, where do they get food, for example?


Paul: Matthew and Nicky didn’t go hungry. A mobile kitchen brings soup and rolls every night. Students from King’s College, across the river, regularly bring food and other stuff. On the face of it, they wouldn’t have given up this life for anything. Interviewer: And, do they have any money? What about unemployment benefits? They get them, don’t they? Paul: They don’t bother with the dole. Matthew once candidly said that it was a waste of time when they could make do by begging in the West End. Interviewer: As I heard, this is what brings them into conflict with you, the police? Paul: Yes, I caught Matthew begging once; I gave him a warning and told him if I caught him again I would fine him. You know, some people think that the Vagrancy Act is obsolete and should be scrapped. But while it’s there, we have to enforce it. And we have to think of the nuisance to other people. Interviewer: What do you mean by nuisance? Paul: I mean most commuters find the beggars and their dogs frightening. Many think the police should evict the vagrants and clear away the shanties. But the fact is that we owe a duty to these citizens too. Our real work with the shanty dwellers is not the cat and mouse game of trying to catch them with their palms out. It’s the work the public never sees: helping to get someone a hospital bed, encouraging those who need to visit drug and alcohol rehabilitation centres. Interviewer: And do you have any help, or do you try to cope with these problems alone? Paul: We have some help, we put our heads together with social workers, housing officers, welfare and benefits offices, and voluntary organisations, to direct newly homeless people to hostels and free kitchens. Interviewer: And do you know some homeless people personally? Paul: Yes, a lot. We spend hours talking to homeless people finding out about their lives and their problems, where they’ve come from, if their families know where they are. And we try to persuade the young ones to return home. Actually, we try to give them the respect that every Londoner is entitled to. Interviewer: And what are local inhabitants’ attitudes to the homeless? Can they tolerate people on the streets? Paul: Well, I think it’s a very difficult situation. Unfortunately, many people tend to be overly sympathetic to the point of feeling sorry for homeless people. When you pity someone, you don’t see them as a whole person. If you’ve never spent any time with homeless people or street youth, you may jump to some false assumptions. You may think that they are always depressed. Street youth aren’t sad and miserable every minute of the day. They’re also joyful, happy and excited. I see people give them food and money, sometimes they donate a big sum of money. It’s a great help but some efforts should be made to change the way they see the homeless. Interviewer: Let’s go back to Nicky and Matthew, what happened to them and their baby? Did Nicky give birth to the baby in the street? Paul: No, thank God, no. As a result of our help, they ended their life on the streets. They moved to a flat before their baby was born. As far as I know, Matthew got a job and the baby is safe and sound. They will be a valuable part of our society and I’m very happy they had the chance to get their lives back. Interviewer: It’s very good news. I think their dreams came true. And finally, would you like to say anything to our listeners. Paul: Yes, listening to this, you may be in local government, a social worker, architect, counsellor, teacher, or anyone with an interest in the plight of the homeless. So, if you would like to know more about how we can work together to ease the problem of homelessness, please call the Metropolitan Police and support us. Interviewer: Thank you Paul. We are happy that policemen like you are watching and taking care of us. Listening 13.1 (track 39) The History of the EU The historical roots of the European Union lie in the Second World War. The idea came about because Europeans were determined to prevent such killing and destruction from ever happening again: countries would not attack their biggest and most valuable trading partners. In the early years, it involved only six countries, and decisions mostly concerned trade and the economy. Now the EU embraces 27 countries and 490 million people, and deals with a wide range of issues related to everyday life. By the time World War II ended in 1945, Europe was in ruins. The difficult task of rebuilding and planning a better future began. 1950 brought a period of new beginnings, and Robert Schuman, the French foreign minister, gave a speech outlining a vision of a plan building lasting peace in Europe. A year later, at the Treaty of Paris, 114

the European Coal and Steel Community was founded. A common steel and coal market freely set prices without import and export duties. Later, in 1957, the Treaty of Rome set up the European Economic Community to integrate member countries’ economies as a whole. Its aim was to create a common market. The European community continued to grow with the extension of Ireland, the UK, and Denmark in 1973. The relationship and the attention given to Latin America was strengthened by Spain and Portugal joining in the 80s. The Single European Act was signed in 1986 in Luxembourg. Its aim was to complete the internal market by creating a single European market by abolishing internal borders and tariffs. From the 1980s Europe took an increasing role in world affairs. In 1992, the Maastricht Treaty was signed. This treaty was a result of some external and internal events. The most important events were the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe, and the fall of the Berlin Wall. It states that the Union has to be more than an economic union. It must develop into a political union, a union of citizens. This treaty created the European Union and introduced a single currency, the euro. The euro officially replaced the national currencies in many EU countries in 2002. Today about half of the member states use it as their official currency. The biggest, the fifth enlargement of the EU, took place from 2004 to 2007. Ten central and eastern European countries, together with Malta and Cyprus, joined the EU in two successive waves, in 2004, and 2007. So, in 2007, the EU had expanded to 27 member states, effectively pushing the Union’s border further east to a new set of neighbours. Today the EU provides the world’s largest amount of development assistance, accounting for more than half of the world’s official aid. For 50 years the European dream has ensured peace on most of the continent in a world of global threats and challenges. The Europe of the 21st century will continue to tackle the current concerns of its citizens, such as the economy, quality of life, and security. It will also become a stronger global player committed to multinationalism using its foreign policy, trade, and economic agreements to promote human rights, democracy, and freedom throughout the world. Listening 13.2 (track 40) Expert 1: First let me give you some statistical information about Hungary and Europe. In Europe there are about fifty countries with a total population of more than 700 million people. Hungary’s population is about 10 million, and there are about three more million Hungarians living in the neighbouring countries. Therefore 1.8 per cent of the total population of the continent is Hungarian. Does that constitute too much or too little? Do you think Hungary and Hungarians in general mean anything in Europe and to Europeans? Expert 2: Yes, of course. Maybe more than we think, but it is quite a complicated question. First of all, we should look at our past. Ever since the ancient Hungarians came down the Carpathian Mountains on horseback and founded the Hungarian state, Hungary has been a part of European history and has shaped the fate of the continent. It has been both a dominant power and a country suppressed by foreign conquerors. I think now we are ranked somewhere in the middle by size of the fifty European states. Expert 1: It’s true but size alone cannot be taken as a determining factor. It is more important that Hungary has its own culture, traditions, and a very special language. This country is in the heart of Europe and because of it’s geographical location, it has seen more wars than any other European country. Expert 2: Yes, and from this aspect it is more remarkable that Hungary was able to preserve its national characteristics and identity. I think Hungarians learned how to adapt to the given circumstances and how to make progress. Expert 1: And talking about culture, as I see, Hungary has already contributed to European culture. For example, in the field of music, Béla Bartók and Ferenc Liszt are well-known international names. We have Nobel prize winners like Imre Kertész in literature and the economist János Harsányi. They are all part of the national heritage. Expert 2: Let alone, Ernő Rubik and his world-famous magic cube. I think I could continue the list for awhile. But on the other hand, Hungary has received a lot from Europe and from the rest of the world as well. Several nationalities settled in Hungary over the centuries and they also contributed to Hungary’s wealth and culture. Over the centuries we adopted foreign values which paved the way towards becoming a member of the EU in May 2004. Expert 1: And we mustn’t forget that this was hard work which required co-operation, tolerance and extensive preparation. As I see, joining the Union proved to be the only way for Hungary to preserve and strengthen its traditions, customs and culture. Following the Stalinist period and after the revolution in 1956, it was recognised that Hungary is unquestionably part of Europe. It actually became possible to restore Hungarian and Western 115

European relations when the influence of the Soviet Union gradually disappeared, and steps were taken to restore independence. Expert 2: Yes and I think the late 80s can be regarded as some kind of a milestone. Western Europe became more powerful and Hungary also benefited from this. Besides the rapid increase of trade, a new form of economic cooperation was established and by signing the European Agreement and joining NATO, Hungary had made it clear that its main objective was accession to the Euro-Atlantic organisations. Expert 1: And remember 1994, when Hungary submitted its application for EU membership. The government made extraordinary measures in order to accelerate catching up to the European Union’s standards. The aim in the 1990s was to prepare Hungarian society and its economy to meet the membership requirements of the EU. Expert 2: But the EU also had to prepare itself to admit the new nations. In 2004, the large number of candidates was exceptional, but their economies were relatively poor compared to the majority of the member states. Expert 1: Yes, and EU accession is a long process in terms of time, and requires preparation and efforts from both sides. Of course, the candidate countries need to undertake the heavier burden, since they have to fully adapt themselves to the Union. Expert 2: There is another important thing we have to understand. Membership does not bring automatic prosperity. Accession means we enter into a new market and this brings results to those who really got prepared. The Hungarian national market gained access to the whole internal market of the Union, moreover, it became easier to reach the world market as well. Expert 1: But the enlargement in 2004 was given a special importance because it was a giant step towards unifying the whole of the continent. Never before have the people of Europe worked in such numbers to create prosperity and solve common problems like unemployment, terrorism and technological challenges. I think these problems can be solved effectively only by a unified Europe. Expert 2: Exactly. Hungary is continuing its integration into community work. Hungary and the other new members have had the opportunity to express their opinions and to protect their standpoints.


Appendix 1: Irregular verbs Hungarian meaning létige legyőz, megver válik vmvé elkezdődik meghajlít harap vérzik fúj összetör hoz sugároz (adást) épít éget, ég szétrobban, széttép megvásárol megfog, elkap választ jön kerül valamibe csúszik, mászik vág, megvág oszt (kártyát) ás csinál, tesz rajzol, döntetlent ér el álmodik iszik vezet eszik elesik etet érez, tapogat harcol, küzd megtalál repül megtilt elfelejt megbocsát fagy, fagyaszt kap ad megy, jár növekszik akaszt, lóg birtokol meghall elbújik, elrejt megüt megfog, tart fáj, megsebez, megsért tart letérdel tud, ismer lefektet,

Infinitive be beat become begin bend bite bleed blow break bring broadcast build burn burst buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay

Past was/were beat became began bent bit bled blew broke brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid

Past Participle been beaten become begun bent bitten bled blown broken brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid 117

hajol, nekidől lean tanul learn elhagy, otthagy leave kölcsönad lend megenged let fekszik lie világít, meggyújt light elveszít lose csinál, készít make szándékozik, jelent mean találkozik meet (ki)fizet pay (oda)tesz put olvas read lovagol ride cseng, csenget ring felkel, emelkedik rise fut run mond say lát see elad, árul sell (el)küld send (le)tesz, helyez set (meg)varr sew megráz shake kifényesít, fénylik shine (meg)lő shoot (meg)mutat show (össze)zsugrorodik shrink becsuk, bezár shut (el)énekel sing (el)süllyed sink ül sit alszik sleep csúszik slide szagol smell bevet (földet) sow beszél speak (le)betűz spell költ (pénzt), tölt (időt) spend kiönt spill köp spit hasít, megoszt split tönkretesz, elkényesztet spoil szétterjeszt, szét ken spread ugrik spring áll, állít stand (el)lop steal (le)szúr sting (meg)üt, csap strike káromkodik swear söpör sweep (meg)duzzad swell úszik swim lenget swing visz take tanít teach

leant learnt/learned left lent let lay lit lost made meant met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spat split spoilt/spoiled spread sprang stood stole stung struck swore swept swelled swam swung took taught

leant learnt/learned left lent let lain lit lost made meant met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent spilt spat split spoilt/spoiled spread sprung stood stolen stung struck sworn swept swollen swum swung taken taught 118

elszakít (el)mond gondolkodik dob, hajít megért felébred, felébreszt hord, visel sír (el)nyer, győz ír

tear tell think throw understand wake wear weep win write

tore told thought threw understood woke wore wept won wrote

torn told thought thrown understood woken worn wept won written


Appendix 2: Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs with two particles

Hungarian meaning

Catch up with - utolér, felzárkódzik You have missed a lot of lessons; you have to work hard to catch up with us. . Come up against - beleütközik I’m afraid we have come up against many difficulties. I don’t know how to solve them. Come up with - kigondol, előhozakodik Have you come up with an answer yet? Cut down on - csökkent I have decided to cut down on eating fatty food. Face up to - szembenéz, szembeszáll vkvel You have to face up to the truth. I will never be with you. Fall back on - visszatér vkhez/vmhez He fell back on the old argument again. It’s so tiring. Feel up to - kedve van vmt megtenni, alkalmasnak érzi magát vmre I don’t feel up to doing my homework. I’ll do it in the morning. Get along/on with - kijön vkvel Do you get along/on with your new colleagues? Get away with - szárazon megússza I know he has stolen the money but probably he will get away with it. Get up to - rosszalkodik What are you getting up to again? Go in for - érdekli, hobbiként elkezd Do you go in for golf? Grow out of - idővel elhagy egy szokást He grew out of playing with computer games. He prefers reading. Live up to - méltó vkhez, vmre, megfelel a várakozásnak He felt he could never live up to his fame. The concert didn’t live up to my expectations. Look back on - visszatekint a múltra I always look back on my teenage years. They were fantastic. Look down on - lenéz, megvet My boss looks down on his subordinates. He thinks he is better than everybody. Look forward to - nagyon vár vmt, előre örül vmnek We are looking forward to our holiday. Look up to - felnéz vkre I really look up to my brother. Make up for - kompenzál, ellensúlyoz vmt I sent her some flowers to make up for my appalling behaviour. Put up with - elvisel, eltűr I can’t put up with this noise anymore, it’s driving me mad. Stand up to - szembeszáll vkvel You have to stand up to your boss. Be brave!

Inseparable phrasal verbs ask after sb - érdeklődik vk felől I met Suzy at the party. She asked after you. ask for - kér vmt, beszélni akar vkvel There is somebody at the door asking for you. break out - megszökik The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren’t looking. call for - érte megy 120

I’m going to cinema with James. He is calling for me at 6.00 so I must be ready by then. call on - meglátogat I called on my friends at the weekend. We had a great time. come across -ráakad vkre/vmre, véletlenül találkozik vkvel I came across these old dolls in the attic. come into - örököl She unexpectedly came into a fortune when her uncle died. count on - számít vkre I’m counting on your support at the election for the new assistant manager. deal with - foglalkozik vmvel I think we should deal with this problem. There must be a solution! do without - megvan vm nélkül I think we have to do without a holiday this year. We are having financial difficulties. get at - céloz, sugall What are you getting at? get over - túlteszi magát vmn, kihever I know you will get over this. You will find someone else soon. go through - keresztül megy vmn You can’t imagine what I went through when I was standing by your bed in the hospital. look into - kivizsgál His death is a mystery so the police are looking into it. look after - gondoskodik vkről, gondját viseli I have to look after my sick grandmother. pick on - beleköt vkbe, heccel vkt I don’t understand why you are picking on me all the time. Choose someone else. run into - belebotlik vkbe Imagine who I ran into yesterday! My old friend Thomas. stand for - eltűr, elszenved, jelentése van I won’t stand for this behaviour. What does this sign stand for? take after - hasonlít vkhez I take after my mother. We are both very forgetful.

Separable phrasal verbs bring down - elszomorít This music brings her down all the time. I don’t know why she listens to it. bring up - felnevel We brought up her child. carry out - végrehajt You have to carry out my instructions without hesitation. call off - visszavon, érvénytelenít The boss called off the meeting. clear up - kitakarít, kitisztul (idő), tisztáz (félreértést) I’m clearing up my room in the afternoon. It ‘s a big mess. The weather is clearing up. NO OBJECT. do up - tataroz, rendbe hoz When I do up this room I’ll paint the walls yellow. fill in - kitölt (űrlapot), helyettesít You have to fill in this form if you want to apply to this course. Who is filling in for you while you are away? NO OBJECT. find out - felfedez, rájön In the end I found out what was wrong with my car. get back - visszakap She finally got her lecture notes back from her roommate. give away - elajándékoz, elárul He won the lottery and gave all the money away. Incredible! 121

He said he was English but his accent gave him away. give up - abbahagy, felad I tried to climb up the hill but after I had failed two times, I gave up. NO OBJECT. I gave up drinking beer before breakfast. knock out - kiüt I bumped my head and it knocked me out. I was unconscious for awhile. look up - kikeres, javul I have to look this word up in the dictionary. Things are looking up. Don’t worry. NO OBJECT. let down - leenged I let my hair down. Isn’t it nice? make up - kitalál (történetet), kibékül I think you just made up the story. I don’t believe you. After the argument they made up. NO OBJECT pick up - felszed I will pick you up at 7.00. Be ready! put aside - félretesz, spórol I put enough money aside to buy a new motorbike. put off - elhalaszt They put off the barbecue party because of bad weather. put up - elszállásol Call me if you want to visit me in the summer, I will put you up. show around - körbevezet Let me show you around the office. take up - elkezd, felvesz I took up tennis last month. think over - átgondol I can’t decide right now. I have to think it over. turn down - visszautasít I applied for the job but they turned down my application. wear out - kimertít, elkoptat I have been working all day. It wore me out. work out - megold, megfejt, kidolgoz This is a good plan but we have to work out the details. Separable phrasal verbs without an object back away - eltávolodik, meghátrál The child backed away from the rabid dog. break down - elromlik, letör (lelkileg), megrendül (egészség) My car broke down in the middle of the night. I had to wait till morning to get it fixed. come out - megjelenik (könyv, újság) When her new novel came out it was an immediate success. fall out - összezördül, veszekszik I think they have fallen out again. They are not even looking at each other. give in - beadja a derekát At first I didn’t want to but she was so persuasive that I gave in and bought her a new car. look out - vigyázz! Look out! It’s going to fall down. show off - kérkedik, henceg He was annoying again. He showed off during the whole party. I hope he will grow up soon. take off - felszáll What are you still doing here? Your plane has just taken off!


Appendix 3: Prepositional phrases in advance - előre in agreement with – egyetértésben in aid of - jótékony célra, támogatásul in any case - minden esetben in brief - röviden in comparison with – összehasonlítva in conclusion - végezetül in danger - veszélyben in debt - adósságban in detail - részletesen in doubt - kétségek között in full swing - javában, teljes gőzzel in future - jövőben in good time - idejében in haste - sietve in other words - más szóval in person - személyesen in pieces - darabokban in practice - gyakorlatban in principle - elvben in progress - folyamatban in reality - valóban in return - viszonzásul in ruins - romokban in safety - biztonságban in secret - titokban in self-defence - önvédelemből in short - röviden in some respects – bizonyos szempontból in tears - könnyekben in the beginning – kezdetben in the end - végül in the flesh - teljes életnagyságban in the hope of - reményében in the long run - hosszú távra in the meantime - időközben in theory - elméletben in turn - felváltva in vain - hiábavalóan

At at a glance - egy pillantással at all costs - bármennyibe kerül is, mindenáron at any rate - mindenesetre at dawn - hajnalban at first - először at first hand - első kézből at first sight - első látásra at hand - kéznél at heart - szíve mélyén at large - egészében, szabadlábon at last - végül, utoljára at least - legalább at once - azonnal, rögtön at one’s best - legjobb formájában at present - jelenleg at short notice - előzetes bejelentés nélkül at the same time - ugyanakkor By by accident - véletlenül by chance - véletlenül by far - messze, váratlanul by force - erővel, erőszakkal by heart - kívülről, fejből by means of sth - vm által, segítségével by mistake - tévedésből, véletlenül by nature - természeténél fogva by now - mostanra by oneself - egyedül by order of sb - vknek a parancsára by profession - foglalkozására nézve.. by request - kérésre by the dozen - tucat számra by the way - mellesleg For for a change - a változatosság kedvéért for ages - hosszú ideje for certain - biztosan for fun - viccből for good - véglegesen for instance - például for keeps - örökbe for nothing - hiába, a semmiért for once - ez egyszer for one’s sake - vk kedvéért for the time being - pillanatnyilag In in a moment in a nutshell in a tick in a word in addition to

On on account of - következtében on behalf of - vk nevében/érdekében on business - üzleti ügyben on credit - hitelre on duty - szolgálatban on fire - ég, lángokban áll on foot - gyalog on horseback - lóháton on one’s own - egyedül, önállóan on purpose - szándékosan on schedule - terv szerint on the agenda - napirenden on the contrary – ellenkezőleg on the dole - munkanélküli segélyen él

- egy pillanat múlva, azonnal - dióhéjban - egy pillanat alatt - egyszóval - ráadásul, azonkívül 123

on the one hand - egyrészt on the other hand - másrészt on the way - útközben

off off colour off duty off the peg off the record

Out of out of breath - kifulladva out of condition - rossz erőnlétben out of control - irányításon kívül out of date - korszerűtlen out of doors - házon kívül out of order - nem működik out of the ordinary - szokatlan out of place - nem helyénvaló out of reach - elérhetetlen, távoli out of season - idényen kívüli out of shape - formán kívűl van out of sight - nem látható out of step - nem tartja a lépést out of turn - soron kívül out of use - használaton kívül out of work - munkanélküli

- sikamlós vicc, beteg - szolgálaton kívül - konfekcionált ruha - bizalmas

under under age - kiskorú under arrest - letartoztatás alatt under one’s breath - halkan, suttogva under control - irányítás alatt under pressure - nyomás alatt under repair - javítás alatt under the weather – rosszul érzi magát without without fail - késedelem nélkül without delay - késlekedés nélkül without success - siker nélkül without warning – figyelmeztetés nélkül


Appendix 4: Verb/Adjective + preposition About annoyed about sth- bosszús, mérges anxious about - aggódik, nyugtalan argue about sth - vitatkozik vmről ask about - kérdezősködik boast about sth - dicsekszik vmvel crazy about - bele van bolondulva curious about - kíváncsi dream about (of )- álmodozik vmről enthusiastic about - lelkes excited about - izgatott vm miatt forget about - megfeledkezik vmről hear about - hírt kap vkről/vmről quarrel with sb about sth– vkvel veszekszik vmért talk about - beszélget vmről uneasy about - nyugtalankodik vm miatt upset about - nyugtalanítja vm wonder about - csodálkozik worry about - aggódik vm miatt At angry at bad at clever at ben excellent at glance at glare at good at guess at

To according to - vk/vm szerint addicted to - vm a rabja (ital stb.) allergic to - allergiás vmre apologise to sb for sth – bocsánatot kér attend to - figyelmet fordít vk/vm-re belong to - tartozik vkhez, vmhez contribute to - hozzájárul cruel to - kegyetlen vkhez, vmhez equal to - egyenlő, azonos faithful to - hű marad vkhez familiar to - ismerős grateful to sb for sth – hálás vknek vmért heir to sb - vknek az örököse indifferent to - közönyös, közömbös prone to - hajlamos rude to - goromba vkvel sensitive to sth - fogékony vmre From absent from - hiányzik, nincs jelen abstain from - tartózkodik vm-től benefit from - hasznot húz vmből depart from - elmegy vhonnan differ from - különbözik, eltér exempt from - felment, mentesít expel from - kizár (iskolából stb.) flee from - elmenekül, elszökik hear from - hírt, üzenetet, levelet kap vktől hinder from - visszatart, meggátol prohibit sb from doing sth – eltilt vkt vmtől recover from - felépül, meggyógyul refrain from - tartózkodik vmtől shelter from - megvéd (széltől, esőtől, stb.) suffer from - szenved vmtől

- dühös, mérges vkre/vmre - ügyetlen, rossz vm-ben - okos, intelligens, tehetséges vm- kiváló vm-ben - rápillant vk-re - ellenséges tekintetet vet vkre - jó, ügyes vmben - találgat

On bet on - fogad vmre/vmben blame sth on sb - vkre ráken vmit comment on - véleményt mond, megjegyzést tesz compliment sb on – bókol vknek concentrate on - figyelmét összpontosítja congratulate sb on sth- gratulál vknek vmhez count on - számít vkre emphasis on - kihangsúlyoz, kiemel impact on - hatás, befolyás vmre insist on - ragaszkodik vmhez keen on - rajon, lelkesedik vmért operate on sb - operál vkit rely on - számít vkre In believe in delay in delight in fortunate in lucky in persist in

For beg for - könyörög vmért blame sb for sth - vkit hibáztat vmért eager for - buzgó, türelmetlen excuse for - elnézést kér, mentegetőzik forgive sb for sth – megbocsát vknek vmért hope for - reménykedik vmben leave for - elmegy vhová long for - vágyódik vm után pity for - szán vkt praise sb for sth - dicsér vkt vmért sorry for - sajnál vote for - szavaz vkre

- hisz vmben - késlekedik, habozik - örömét leli vmben - szerencsés vmben - szerencsés vmben - makacsul ragaszkodik vmhez 125

tired of worthy of

Of accuse sb of sth – megvádol valakit vm-vel afraid of - fél vktől, vmtől approve of - helyesel, jóváhagy vmt ashamed of - szégyell vkt/vmt aware of - tudomása van róla beware of - óvakodik vmtől capable of - képes vmre, kitelik tőle complain of - panaszkodik vmről conscious of - tudatában vmnek consist of - tartalmaz vmit, áll vmből die of - meghal vmben envious of - irigy vkre/vmre fond of - kedvel vmt/vkt frightened of - rémült guilty of - bűnös vmben jealous of - féltékeny lack of - hiánya vmnek proud of - büszke vmre regardless of - tekintet nélkül vmre remind sb of sth – emlékeztet vkt vmre suspect sb of - gyanúsít vkt suspicious of - gyanakvó terrified of - megijedt tire of - elun, beleun

- elege van vmből - méltó, érdemes

With acquainted with - ismer vkt, járatos vm-ben agree with sb - egyetért valakivel bored with - megun vmt busy with - vmvel el van foglalva charge sb with - vkit vádol coincide with - egybeesik collaborate with - együttműködik, összejátszik collide with - összeütközik, nekimegy comply with - eleget tesz cope with - megbirkózik vmvel, szembeszáll vkvel crowded with - zsúfolt, tömött vmvel deal with - foglalkozik vmvel dissatisfied with - elégedetlen vmvel familiar with - jártas vmben furious with - mérges vkre mix with - emberek közé jár provide sb with sth – ellát, felszerel vkt satisfied with - elégedett trust sb with sth - rábíz vmt vkre


Appendix 5: Linking Words / Phrases Personal opinion:

In my opinion/view, To my mind, As far as I am concerned, I think that, It seems to me that, I am convinced that, From my point of view

To list advantages and One advantage of, Another advantage of, A further advantage of, The main disadvantages: advantage of, The greatest advantage of One disadvantage of, Another disadvantage of, A further disadvantage of, The main disadvantage of, The greatest disadvantage of

To list points:

Beginning – Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To start/begin with Continuing – Secondly, After this, Afterwards Concluding – Finally, Lastly, Last but not least

To add more points:

What’s more, Furthermore, In addition to, Moreover, Besides, …not to mention the fact that..

To express effect:

consequently, as a result, as a consequence, therefore, so

To emphasise a point:

Indeed, Naturally, Obviously, Of course, Needless to say

To express reality:

As a matter of fact, It is a fact that, Actually, Indeed

To give examples

For instance, For example, Let me give you an example, as follows, hence

To make general statements:

Generally, In general, on the whole

To make contrasting points:

yet, however, nevertheless, but, even, nonetheless, Although, Even though, In spite of the fact that, Despite the fact that, on the contrary, on the other hand, in contrast to,

To clarify:

In other words, To put it another way, That is to say,

To express condition:

on condition that, provided, as long as, otherwise,


in the same way, similarly, too, likewise


after, after a while, afterwards, at last, at the same time, currently, earlier, before, in the meantime, in the past, initially, meanwhile, now, presently, previously, since, simultaneously, until, until now, whenever, while,

To conclude:

Finally, All in all, Taking everything into account/consideration, All things considered, In conclusion


In short, Briefly, To put it briefly, To sum up, To summarise, To put it in a nutshell


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