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TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION WARNING: These materials are only authorized for the use of AVC Reviewees under Mr. Clarito G. Lopez and others he has personally authorized. Students of other schools and reviewees of other review centers are NOT authorized to use.
Part I 1 What is Transportation? Answer: transportation is the movement or conveying of persons and goods from one location to another. 2 What is ROADWAY? Answer: that part of motor vehicles pass.
3 What is TRAFFIC? Answer: the movement of persons, goods, or vehicles, either powered by combustion system or animal drawn, from one place to another for the purpose of travel. 4 What is TRAFFIC WAY? Answer: the entire width between boundary lines of every way or place of which any part is open to the use of the public for purpose of vehicular traffic as a matter of right or custom. 5 What are the major causes of traffic congestion?
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Answer: 1. 2. 3. 4.
PHYSICAL INADEQUACY POOR CONTROL MEASURES HUMAN ERRORS. POOR MAINTENANCE
6 What are scopes of Traffic Management? Answer: a All public surface facilities traversing and parking, and all types of conveyances for the approving, funding, construction and/or maintaining these public facilities for such movements. b All agencies having responsibilities for ascertaining traffic flow requirements for such movements. c All agencies responsible for licensing, approving, restricting, stopping, prohibiting or controlling the use of these facilities. 7 What are the various agencies involved in Traffic Management? Answer: a Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC) b City or Municipal Engineers’ Office c DPWH d Legislation (Congress/City or Municipal Boards). e PNP f Academic Institution g Courts h Public Information Offices i Citizen Support Groups
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j Media 8 What are the Five Pillars (E’s) of Traffic? Answer: a Traffic Engineering b Traffic Education c Traffic Enforcement. d Traffic Ecology or Traffic Environment e Traffic Economy. This is the most recent of the pillars of traffic which deals with the benefits and adverse effects of traffic to our economy. Primarily, travelling operation is designed to expedite given locality, traffic adversely affect the economic status of the commuting public. 9 What is Traffic Safety Education? Answer: the process of training roads users in the avoidance and prevention of traffic – related accidents. 10 What is Road Safety? Answer: Reduced risk of accident or injury on the roads, achieved through multidisciplinary approaches involving road engineering and traffic management, education and training of road users, and vehicle design. 11 What are the factors contributing to Accidents? Answer: a Human errors include (95%) Going too fast or excessive speed; Failing to give at junctions;
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Following too closely; overtaking improperly; etc. b Road deficiencies that are main contributory factors are: Poor design of layout and control at junctions; Inadequate signing, road marking, and lighting; Slippery roads; and Obstructions on the road such as parked vehicle, on going road construction, etc. c Main vehicle factors are: Defects in tires, brakes, and lights; Absence of non-using of seat belts; and Poorly maintained motor vehicles. 12 What are the three (3) “E”s or pillars of traffic as applied to prevention of traffic accidents? Answer: a Engineering (traffic engineering) Changes in layout at junctions to define priorities more clearly (use of roundabouts, etc); More wide use of road markings to delineate traffic lanes and waiting areas turning vehicles; Improvements in skidding resistance of wet roads; More uniform street lighting; and More highly visible and legible direction, information, and warning signs. b Education (in traffic safety)
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New approach to training and educating young drivers; Training in hazard perception; and Changing of attitudes. c Enforcement (of traffic rules) Strengthening and simplifying the application of the law; New technology to aid enforcement; Enhanced publicity; Education of teenagers in schools; and The development of rehabilitation course like seminars for apprehended traffic violators. 13 What is BIORHYTHM? Answer: the theory which assets that man exhibits a constant variation of life energy and mood states. 14 What are the Importance of biorhythm in the field of the study? Answer: a Assets that people are accident prone if their biorhythm crosses the centerline on a certain day or is totally below the line. b If we know our biorhythm for a certain day, we can psychologically cope up with any situation. If we usually overcome any ill effect by awareness and will power. 15 What is Safety Campaign? Answer: This is a mass publicity aimed to make road users behave more safety. It is also known as road
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propaganda which may be intended simply to inform or it may be felt that the public is already aware of the recommended behavior by need to be persuaded into adopting it. 16 What are the TRAFFIC LAWS, RULES AND REGULATIONS Answer: a R.A. 4136. Land Transportation Code of the Philippines b R.A. 6539. “Anti – Carnapping Act of 1972 c R.A. 5448. Imposition of tax on privately owned passenger automobiles, motorcycles and scooters, and a science stamp tax, to constitute a special science fund defining the programs, projects and activity of science agencies to be financed therefrom and for other purposes. d R.A. 8749. The “Clean Air Act” e R.A. 8750. Seat Belt law. f R.A. 7924. Creation of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA). g P.D. 96. Regulating the use of sirens, bells, horns, etc. to private MV. h P.D. 101. Prescribing, redefining or modifying the lines and modes of operations of public utility motor, vehicles. i P.D. 207 – as part of the laws of the Philippines the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, Signs and Signals. j P.D. 612. Requiring compulsory TPL insurance to all type of MV as registration requirement. k P.D. 1181. Abatement of air pollution from MVs (repealed by RA 8749)
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l P.D. 1729. Authorizing the Bureau of Land Transportation to dispose of impounded motor vehicles unclaimed by owners for a certain period of time. m L.O.I. No. 43. Removal of all impediments on roads, streets, and highways. n L.O.I No. 112. Prohibiting freight and cargo trucks from using roads, highways and bridges whose load capacities are in excess of specific allowable limits. 17 What is meant by the term “Driver”? Answer: Shall mean every and any licensed operator of a motor vehicle. 18 What is meant by Professional Driver? Answer: Every and any driver hired for driving or operating a motor vehicle, whether for private use or for hire to the public. Any driver driving his own motor vehicle for hire is a professional driver. 19 What is meant by Gross Weight? Answer: The measured weight of a motor vehicle plus the maximum allowable carrying capacity in merchandise, freight and/or passengers. 20 What is meant by Highways? Answer: Every public throughfare, public boulevard, driveway, avenue, park, alley and callejon, but shall not include roadway upon grounds owned by private persons, colleges, universities, or other similar institutions.
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21 What is Parking or Parked? Answer: Shall mean that a motor vehicle is parked or parking if it has been brought to a stop on the shoulder or proper edge of a highway, and remains inactive in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time. A motor vehicle which properly stops merely to discharge a passenger or to take in a waiting passenger, or to load or unload a small quantity of freight with reasonable dispatch shall not be considered as parked, if the motor vehicle again moves away without delay. 22 Who are Tourist? Answer: A foreigner who travels from place to place for pleasure or culture. 23 Exceeding Registered Capacity (Overloading) of public utility trucks or buses who is liable? Answer: Conductors are held liable for the overloading of vehicles under their charge. 24 What may be allowed to be carried on top of the truck? Answer: only baggage or freight provided that the weight thereof is not more than 20 kilos per square meter. 25 What are the Required Motor Vehicle Accessories? Answer: a Tires b Brake c Horns d Headlight e Tail Light
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f g h i
Stop Light Windshield Wiper Use of Red Flag Mufflers
26 What practices are prohibited: Answer: a Hanging on to or riding on the outside or rear end of any vehicle. b Holding on to any moving vehicle whether on foot or otherwise. c Driver allowing any person to hang on to or ride outside of or at the rear end of the vehicle (Sec. 51) d Driving while Under the Influence of Liquor or Other Prohibited Drugs. e Obstruction of Traffic. Obstruction of traffic by operating a motor vehicle in such a manner as to obstruct, block, or impede the passage of another vehicle is prohibited. This prohibition applies even when discharging or loading passengers (Sec. 54). 27 What are the Duties of Driver in Case of Accident? Answer: a Stop immediately. b Show his driver’s license to inspecting traffic law enforcer. c Give his true name and address, including that of the owner of the vehicle. d Assist injured persons. e Take measures to protect belongings of passengers.
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f Report the accident (Sec. 55) 28 When a driver could leave the area of accident without being held liable for HIT-AND-RUN if? Answer: A driver could leave the area of accident without being held liable for HIT-AND-RUN if: a His life is in imminent danger of being harmed by other person/s by reason of the accident; b He surrenders to proper authority; and c He summons the assistance of a physician or nurse to aid the victim. 29 What are the requirements for Military Driver’s License? Answer: no license or delinquency fees shall be collected thereof – shall bear the words “FOR GOVERNMENT VEHICLES ONLY” plainly marked or stamped in red inks across the face thereof; and does not authorize to operate a privately owned MV (Sec. 20, R.A. 4136) 30 What are the requirements for Professional Driver’s License? Answer: a Must be at least 18 years of age. b Presentation of either the following documents: (1) STUDENT PERMIT – in the possession of the applicant for at least 5 mos. (2) NON-PROFESSIONAL DL – in the applicant’s possession for at least 4 mos. c Medical Certificate from LTO clearance. d A Police, NBI, or Prosecutor’s clearance. e The applicant must pass a WRITTEN EXAMINATION.
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f The applicant must pass an actual ROAD TEST. g An applicant form (ADL) filed out by the applicant. h Fees (subject to change) The professional driver’s license is renewable every 3 years. The color of its logo is red. 31 What are the requirements for Non-Professional Driver’s License? (Effect of Sec. 3,e, R.A. 4136) Answer: a Must be at least 17 years of age. b Student Driver’s Permit that has been issued not less than 1 month. c A certificate from an LTO accredited doctor attesting that the applicant: (1) Is physically and mentally sound. (2) Has normal vision and hearing. d Must pass a WRITTEN EXAMINATION e Must pass an actual ROAD TEST. f An application form (ADL) filed out by the applicant g Fees (subject to change) The holder of a Non-Professional driver’s license shall be restricted to operate motor vehicles up to 4500 kgs gross vehicle weight (GVW) and is also renewable every 3 years. The color of its logo is green.
32 What are the requirements for Student Driver’s Permit? Answer: accompanied by an instructor who may either be a licensed professional or non-professional driver (Sec. 30, R.A. 4136). Requirements are:
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a Must be at least 16 years of age b Must be physically sound and in good health with no contagious ailments. c Must be mentally capable. d Must know how to read and write in his native dialect, in Tagalog, or in English. e Must apply personally at any LTO and have with him the following documents: (1) Documents of birth proof that he is 16 years old, either of the following: Joint affidavit by2 not related individuals attesting to the age of the applicant. SSS identification card. Passport Voter’s I.D. (2) Applicants between 16-18, an affidavit of consent signed by the parents or by the applicant’s legal guardian. f 2 pcs. 1 x 1 black and white or color photographs of the applicant. g Fees (subject to change) A student permit is valid for up to 12 months from the date of issue. 33 What are the required points in the Written Examination for securing drivers license? Answer: a Non-Professional – 30 out of 40 questions b Professional – 50 out of 60 questions (45 of 60 – previous) 34 What are the requirements securing drivers license?
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Answer: a Capability of performing a check on the primary components of the vehicle such as the engine, the tires, the battery, lights, windshield wipers, brakes, transmission and clutch, etc… b Proper use and correct positioning of the hands on the steering wheel. c Proper engine control and use of the gear shift lever and the foot pedals. d Proper speed control and observance and practice of road discipline. e Proper knowledge and interpretation of road signs and markings. f Proper turning procedures. g Proper backing procedures. h Proper parking procedures. 35 What are the exceptions to the Speed limit? Answer: a A physician or his driver when the former responds to emergency calls. b The driver of a hospital ambulance on the way to and from the place of accident or other emergency. c Any driver bringing a wounded or sick person for emergency treatment to a hospital, clinic, or any other similar place. d The driver of a motor vehicle belonging to the Armed forces while in use for official purposes in times of riot, insurrection or invasion. e The driver of a vehicle, when he or his passengers are in pursuit of a criminal.
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f A law-enforcement officer who is trying to overtake a violator of traffic laws. g The driver officially operating a motor vehicle of any fire department, provided that exemption shall not be construed to allow useless or unnecessary fast driving of drivers aforementioned. 36 What is Lateral Placement? Answer: Lateral placement means the proper positioning of the motor vehicle while traversing on traffic way or while on parked. 37 What are the rules in overtaking and passing? Answer: In overtaking another vehicle, a driver should pass at a safe distance to the left of the vehicle being overtaken and shall resume driving on the right side of the road only after passing clear of the overtaken vehicle. Exception. On the highways with two or more lanes where traffic goes in one direction, another vehicle may be overtaken on the right (Sec. 39, R.A. 4136) 38 What is the duty of the driver of a motor vehicle about to be overtaken? Answer: The driver of a motor vehicle about to be overtaken must give way to the overtaking vehicle and shall not increase his speed until the overtaking vehicle has fully passed by (Sec. 40, R.A. 4136 39 What are the restrictions on Overtaking and Passing? (Sec. 41, R.A. 4136)
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Answer: a To the left side of the center line of a highway in overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction, unless such left side is clearly visible, and is free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance distance ahead to permit safety overtaking. b When approaching the crest of a grade, nor upon a curve in the highway, except on a highway having two or more lanes for movement of vehicles in one direction. c At any railway grade crossing, nor at any intersection of highways. d Between any points indicated by the placing of official temporary or caution signs indicating that men are working on the highways. e In any “no passing or overtaking zone.” 40 What is Right of Way? Answer: The legal or customary precedence (priority) which allows one vehicle to cross or pass in front of another. 41 What are the Rules on Right of Way? (Section 42-44, of R.A. 4136) Answer: a In case of two vehicles approaching or entering an intersection at the same time, the driver of the vehicle on the left shall yield the right of way; however, the driver of any vehicle travelling at an unlawful speed forfeits this right (Sec. 42,a).
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b In the case of a vehicle approaching but has not yet entered the intersection, its driver shall yield the right of way to vehicles already within such intersection or turning therein to the left across the line of travel of the first mentioned vehicle (Sec. 42,b). c In case of a vehicle on a highway within a business or residential district, its driver shall yield the right of way to pedestrians crossing the highway within a crosswalk, except at crosswalk, pedestrians shall yield the right of way to vehicles on the highways (Sec. 423,c). d In case of a vehicle traversing a “thruhighway”, its driver should bring it to a full stop before crossing. However, if it is clear and no hazards exist, the vehicle may slow down to 5 miles per hour instead of a full stop 9Sec. 42,d). 42 What are the exceptions to the Right of Way Rule of a vehicle entering from a private road or drive (Sec. 43)? Answer: a The driver of a vehicle upon a highway shall yield the right of way to police or fire department vehicles and ambulances when such vehicles are operated on official business and the drivers thereof sound audible signal of their approach. b The driver of a vehicle entering a “through highway” or a “stop intersection” shall yield the right of way to all vehicles approaching in either direction on such “through highway”.
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43 What are the Starting, Stopping or Turning Rules? Answer: driver shall give a clearly audible signal by sounding the vehicle’s horn. 44 What is Hand Signal? Answer: The required signal shall be given by means of extending the hand or arm beyond the left side of the vehicle or by an approved mechanical or electrical signal device. (Sec. 44,b). 45 What are the rules in making a Right Turn (Normal Procedures) – from a four – Lane Street to a four-lane street? Answer: a Signal your intention to turn right at least 100 ft. before you intended to make your turn. b Stay on the right lane of the road c NEVER make a right turn from left lane. d At an intersection with a red traffic light, make a right turn ONLY after coming to a full stop. e If there is a sign prohibiting turn unless the light is GREE, DO NOT turn right while the RED LIGHT IS ON. 46 What are the rules in making a Left Turn (Normal Procedures) – to four-lane street: Answer: a Signal your intention to turn left at least 100 feet before you intended to make you turn. b Stay on the left lane of the road. c NEVER make a left turn from the right lane.
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d At an intersection with a traffic light, vehicles GOING STRAIGHT have the right of way. Wait for them to pass first before you turn left. e At an intersection with a traffic light, make a left turn ONLY WHEN THE GREEN LIGHT IS ON OR WHEN THERE IS A LEFT TURN LIGHT. 47 Making a U-turn on a Two-lane Road (Normal Procedure). Answer: a Make a right turn signal at least 100 ft before you start moving to the right side of the road. b Stay as close to the right side as possible. Come to a complete stop if necessary. Check behind you for traffic. Also check for oncoming traffic on the other lane. c Once all traffic has passed you, initiate you Uturn. See that you can make it on one “sweep”. d Do not move immediately to the middle of the road. Keep to the right side until you have increased your speed sufficiently to move to the middle of the lane. 48 What is Traffic Control? Answer: the procedures, devices, and communication systems that help vehicles and vessels safely share the same roads, rails, waterways, or air space; establishes a set of rules and instructions that drivers, pilots, train engineers, and ship captains rely on to avoid collisions and other hazards. 49 What Traffic Control Transportation?
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Answer: A system of traffic engineering, employing prescribed traffic rules and regulations and devices such as signals, and markings, to relieve vehicular congestion and air pollution to promote safety and pedestrian mobility, usually in heavily populated urban areas. 50 What are the different Highway Traffic controls? Answer: a Traffic Signs – the most extensively used form of traffic control b Pavement Markings c Traffic – Signal d Priority control – one form of transportation is given priority by restricting or banning other forms of transportation. e Restraints – banning traffic, traffic control planners use devices to discourage heavy use of a route. 51 What is Traffic Lights? Answer: any power operated traffic control device by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific actions. Traffic light signals are used to control traffic at junctions and also to stop traffic to provide crossing points for pedestrians and cyclists. 52 What are the common problems Concerning Lights? Answer: Disrespect to traffic signs.
53 What are the classifications of Traffic Signal Lights?
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Answer: a Traffic Control Signals – designed primarily to control and regulate traffic flows. b Special Pedestrian Signals – provides regulation for pedestrians like the “WALK” and “DO NOT WALK” signal lights. c Train Approach and Gates Signals d Other Special Traffic Signals – installed on traffic ways where special regulations are emphasized like “YIELD TO VEHICLES COMING FROM THE LEFT”, and other similar regulations. 54 What is the Traffic Signal Systems? Answer: a The fixed-time System – traffic is alternately commanded to stop and permitted to proceed in accordance with predetermined time schedule. b Progressive System – at successive intersections along the artery are timed to change from red to green at slaggered intervals, permitting a vehicle that maintains a constant speed to proceed without interruption under normal circumstances. c Computerized Control of Signal Networks – Signal changes and are ordered by the demands of traffic and are directed by computers that operate on the basis of traffic information relayed from vehicle sensors on the streets. 55 What are the Specific Meaning of Traffic Lights? Answer: a Steady Red STOP at the designated line.
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Vehicles will be crossing from the “other side” Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrian lane. If specified, you can TURN RIGHT after a FULL STOP to clear traffic coming from the left. b Steady Green It is the turn of the vehicles on the other side to STOP. Pedestrians are not allowed to cross the pedestrian lane in front of you. Unless specified, you can move up to the middle section of the intersection and make a left turn when clear. Vehicles GOING STRAIGHT have the right of way. DO NOT ANTICIPATE A GREEN LIGHT. c Study Green Arrow GO Vehicles turning left can do so. On coming straight traffic is still RED to give way for the vehicles turning left. DO NOT ANTICIPATE A GREEN ARROW d Steady Yellow. PREPARE TO STOP It is the turn of the vehicles on the other side and will be given the GO signal shortly. DO NOT BEAT A YELLOW LIGHT.
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e Flashing Red. This is the same as a STOP SIGN. STOP at the designated line. Vehicles will be crossing from the “other side”. Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrians lane. PROCEED WHEN CLEAR. f Flashing Yellow. This is the same as a YIELD SIGN. Proceed through the intersection with CAUTION. You have the right of way over a flashing RED LIGHT. Vehicles on the other side will proceed after coming to a FULL STOP. g Steady Green and Steady Left/right Arrow. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the left lane can make a left turn. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the right lane can make a right turn. The RIGHT GREEN signal might or might NOT have a road sign disallowing a right turn while the RED light is ONE. 56 What is Pavement Markings? Answer: all lines, patterns, words, colors, or other gadgets except signs set into the surface or applied upon or attached to the pavement or curbing or to objects within or adjacent to the roadway, officially placed for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic.
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57 What are the types of Pavement markings and Markers? Answer: a Pavement Markings – the lines usually white and yellow or a combination of yellow and white officially set on the roadway as separation for motor vehicles travelling in the opposite direction or the same direction in case of twolane one-way street, two-lane two-way street or four-lane two-way street. b Curb Markings for Restriction – markings placed on the curbs or edges of the traffic for restriction or for parking regulation purposes. c Object Markings – markings placed on objects on the road or beside the road like humps, rocks or similar hazardous objects on the side of the road. d Reflectorized Markings – are markings or gadgets designed to reflect and become luminous when hit by vehicles headlight; installed in the middle of the roadway to supplement separation lines or on object at the side of the roadway which are too near or within the road pavement itself 58 What are the specific Meaning of Pavement Markings? Answer: a Single White Dotted Line On two lane road, it separates traffic moving in opposite directions. On a one way street, separates traffic moving in one direction. Overtaking is possible when other lane is clear of oncoming possible.
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b Single white Continuous Line in A Two-lane Traffic Way. Separates traffic moving in opposite direction. Could be find in road sections that are dangerous. Passing and overtaking can be made but ONLY under circumstances when there is no oncoming traffic. c Single Continuous Line On a Four-Lane Road - on four-lane streets, indicates: When there are slow and fast lanes, NEVER overtake by passing over the solid white line. Lanes 1 & 4 (outer lanes) for slow moving vehicles. Vehicles on this lane should not be BELOW the minimum speed limit. Lanes 2 & 3 (inner lanes are usually for faster moving vehicles. d Double Yellow Line or Double White Line. ABSOLUTELY NO OVERTAKING Overtaking is extremely dangerous Stay in your lane until you pass the end of the solid lines. e Single Yellow/White Line. A yellow or white line with a dotted white line means: That you cannot overtake if the solid line is on your side. If you overtake, return to your lane BEFORE the solid line. f Yellow Continuous Line on Road Provided with a Passing Lane.
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These are common on mountain roads. Slow moving vehicles such as buses and heavy trucks should always use the outer lane. Inner lane is for vehicles to pass without having to use the other lane for vehicles coming from the opposite direction. Vehicles coming from the opposite direction should not use the inner lane at the other side for overtaking. g Crosswalk or Pedestrian Lane. For pedestrian to cross. Stop for pedestrians on an intersection with no traffic light. DO NOT STOP on pedestrian lane specially to load or unload passengers. Pedestrians should ALWAYS cross a street on a crosswalk. h Directional Arrows. Directions of permitted traffic movement. When approaching intersections where pavement arrows are used, you should enter the lane where the arrow points in the direction you want to go. If you get in the wrong lane, you should keep going in the direction indicated by the arrow until it is safe to turn of and get back on the street or highway which will carry you to your destination. Some have double headed arrows which means the lane is for traffic going in the two directions indicated.
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i Stop Lines. Where these lines are present, you should stop behind the stop line. j The Barrel Lines. A new concept in reducing the seriousness of accident. The barrels are engineered to act as impact cushion. Usually installed in front of a solid obstacle or traffic island at an area of high accident frequency. 59 What is Traffic Island? Answer: areas within the roadway constructed in a manner to establish physical channels through which vehicular is guided. 60 What are the Functions of Traffic Islands? Answer: a Segregate pedestrians and vehicles; and b Control streams of traffic in order to minimize conflict, expedite traffic flow or increase safety. 61 What are the Classifications of Traffic Islands? Answer: a Pedestrian Island (Pedestrian Barriers). These are constructed between the pedestrian sidewalk and the road pavement. b Traffic Island. These are the raised portion in the middle of the traffic way constructed to separate the streams of motor vehicles traversing on opposite directions. 62 What is Traffic Supervision?
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Answer: It is the keeping order on the streets and highways within existing regulations to make their use safe and expeditious. It’s objectives are: a To prevent collisions or congestion through proper allotment of time and space, b To move traffic speedily and safely, c To use road fullest extent, and d To uphold that roads are primarily built to move traffic and not for carnivals. 63 In the allotment of the objectives of traffic supervision, what are the needed three (3) police activities ? Answer: a Traffic Law Enforcement, b Traffic Direction and Control, and c Traffic Accident Investigation. 64 What is Traffic Law Enforcement action? Answer: Traffic Law Enforcement action is part of enforcement involving the arrest, issuance of Temporary Operator’s Permit (TOP) or Inspection Report Summons, or warning of any person who is believed to have violated a law, ordinance, or regulation pertaining to the use of traffic roads. 65 What are the Two major Functions Enforcement. Answer: a Police Traffic Law Enforcement b Court Traffic Law Enforcement
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66 What are the Three Important Goals of Enforcement Activities? Answer: a To increase safety level b To increase traffic efficiency c To insure harmonious and comfortable environment 67 What are the Major Elements of Traffic Enforcement System? Answer: a Enforcement System b Road Users System (Traffic Way User). c Road System (Traffic System). 68 What is Traffic Citation? Answer: a means of having violators appear in court without physical arrest. 69 What is Traffic Warning? Answer: enforcement action which does not contemplate possible assessment of penalty by the court or otherwise as a result of warning alone: Visual Warning; Verbal Warning; and Written Warning. 70 What is Road Check Answer: another enforcement activity where involves the conducting of actual inspection vehicles, and motorists on the road.
71 Define Intersection. Answer: As applied to a street or highway means the space occupied by two streets at the point where they cross each other.
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72 What is Police Traffic Direction? Answer: It is defined as telling drivers and pedestrians when, how and where they may or may not move or stand at a particular place, especially during emergencies or period of congestion. 73 Who are tasked to direct and guide traffic? Answer: Traffic officers are usually deputized by the Land Transportation Office who normally comes from: a The PNP – TMG, b Police auxillaries, c MMDA Traffic Management Section, and d In some, volunteers coming from barangay security forces and other civic organizations 74 What is Traffic Patrol? Answer: This refers to the observation of road conditions, the behavior of the drivers and other uses of vehicles for the purpose of traffic supervision and law enforcement and providing authorized traffic-connected services to the public. 75 What are the types of Traffic Patrol? Answer: a Line Patrol. This involves observation either in moving or stationary observation at a certain route or point of a major street in a city. Usually, this is done by foot patrol officers. b Area Patrol. This involves observation either by moving patrol or observation in a certain area which included a number of streets, roads
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or sections of a highway. Area patrolling is usually the job of mobile police officers as well as those motorcycle cops. 76 What is Traffic Accident Investigation? Answer: SOMETHING WENT WRONG on the highway, either a wrecked car, somebody injured or possibly killed. 77 What are the Common Words and Phrases Used in Traffic Accident Investigation? Answer: a ACCIDENT. It is that occurrence in a sequence of events which usually produces unintended injury, death, or properly damage. b TRAFFIC ACCIDENT. An accident involving travel transportation on a traffic way. c MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT. Refers to any event that results in unintended injury or property damage attributable directly or indirectly to the action of a motor vehicle or its loads. Include: Accidental injury from inhalation of exhaust gas; Fires; Explosion; Discharge a firearm within the motor vehicle while in motion; Collision between a MV and a railroad train or street car on stationary rails or tracks, and
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Failure of any part of the motor while the vehicle is in motion.
Collision of a motor vehicle with an aircraft or water – craft in motion; Injury or damage due to cataclysms (flood or sudden physical change on earth surface), and Injury or damage while the motor vehicle is not under its power, is being loaded on or unloaded from another conveyance. KEY EVENT – event on the road which characterizes the manner of occurrence of a motor vehicle traffic accident. DEBRIS. the accumulation of broken parts of vehicles rubbish, dust and other SKID MARKS. These are marks left on the roadway by tires which are not free to rotate, usually because brakes are applied strong and the wheels locked. TRAFFIC UNIT. Any person using a traffic way for travel, parking or other purposes as a pedestrian or deriver, including any vehicle, or animal which he is using. It applies also to: a Pedestrians; b Cyclists; c Street cars; d Horse-drawn (animal-drawn) vehicles; e Farm tractors; and f Other road users in almost any combination. Example: A traffic accident could involve a cyclist and a pedestrian.
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h HAZARDS. This is generated when a critical space-motion relationship between a traffic unit and another object develops due to the movement of either or both. Example: A curve in the path is a hazard. Another traffic unit in the path is also a hazard. i SAFE SPEED. The speed adjusted to the potential or possible hazards or the road and traffic situation ahead. It is determined by the road rather than the particular driver of a vehicle. Example: A curve ahead is a hazard and a safe speed for it is a speed at which it can be taken comfortably. j STRATEGY. It is the adjusting of speed, position on the road, and direction of motion, giving signals of intent to turn or slow down, or any other action in situations involving potential hazards. k TACTIC. It refers to any action taken by the traffic unit to avoid hazardous situations like steering, braking, or accelerating to avoid collision or other accident. l IMPACT. It is the striking of one body against another or a collision of a motor vehicle with another motor vehicle. m CONTACT DAMAGE. Damage to a vehicle resulting from direct pressure of some foreign object in a collision or roll over. It is usually indicated by situations, rub-off of material or puncture. n FACTOR. Any circumstance contributing to a result without which the result could not have occurred or it is an element necessary to
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produce the result, but not by itself sufficient. PRIMARY CAUSE. A misnomer loosely applied to the most obvious or easily explained factor in the cause of an accident or the most easily modified condition factor. CAUSE. The combination of simultaneous and sequential factors without any one of which result could not have occurred. ATTRIBUT. Any inherent characteristics of a road, a vehicle, or a person that affects the probability of a traffic accident. MODIFIER. A circumstance that alters an attribute permanently or temporarily.
78 What are the Kinds of Traffic Accidents? Answer: a Non-Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident. b Motor Vehicle Non-Traffic Accident c Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident 79 What are the Classification of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident According to key Event. Answer: a Running off road b Non-collision on road c Collision on road. Examples of this are motor vehicles colliding with: Pedestrian; Other motor vehicle; Parked motor vehicle; Railroad train; Bicycle;
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Fixed object; & Other objects 80 What are the Causes of Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident Answer: a Simultaneous Factors: Road and weather conditions; Drivers attitude or behavior b Sequential Factors: Speed is greater or less than safe; Detective vehicle c Perception Factors: Driver’s inability to reach promptly to a situation; Driver’s faulty action to escape collision course 81 What are the Chain of Events in a Vehicular Accident? Answer: a series of an expected events leading to damage or injury. One event usually leads to another so that the series can be spoken of as a “chain of events.” a Perception of Hazard. It is seeing, feeling, or hearing and understanding the usual or unexpected movement or condition that could be taken as sign of the accident about to happen course or otherwise avoid a hazard. b Start of evasive action. It is the first action taken by a traffic unit to escape from a collision course or otherwise avoid a hazard.
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c Initial Contact. It is a first accidental touching of an object collision course or otherwise avoid a hazard. d Maximum Engagement. It is greatest collapse or overlap in a collision. The force between the traffic unit and the object collided with are greatest at maximum engagement. e Disengagement. It is the separation of a traffic unit in motion from an object with which it has collided. The force between the object ceases at this time. f Stopping. This is when the traffic unit/s involved come to rest. It usually stabilizes the accident situation. g Injury. It is receiving bodily harm. This event does not necessary occur after the accident but within any of the chain of events. h Other events that may occur during an accident. Point of Possible Perception. The place and time of which the hazard could have been perceived by a normal person. It precedes actual perception and is the beginning of perception delay. Point of no Escape. It is that place and time after or beyond which the accident cannot be prevented by the traffic unit under consideration. Perception Delay. The time from the point of possible perception to actual perception. Final Position. It is the place and time when objects involved in an accident finally come to rest without application of power.
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82 What are the Five (5) Levels of Activity in Accident Investigation? Answer: a Reporting – basic data collection to identify and classify a motor vehicle, traffic and persons, property and planned movements involved. b At – Scene Investigation - all action taken at the scene of the crime or accident. c Technical Preparation - delayed traffic accident data collection and organization for study and interpretation. d Professional Reconstruction efforts to determine from whatever information is available, how the accident happened. e Cause Analysis - final analysis on the causes of accident which are bases for the prevention of similar accident. f Steps Taken by the Police During Traffic Accident Investigation 83 What is meant by Hit-and-run Answer: Evading responsibility is a term commonly applied to a traffic accident in which a driver fails to comply with any of the duties required by Sec. 55 of RA 4136. 84 When drivers can only leave the area of accident? Answer: Drivers can only leave the area of accident if he: a Is imminent danger of being seriously harmed by any person or persons by reasons of the accident;
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b Reports the accident to the nearest officers of the law; or c Driver has to summon a physician or nurse to aid the victim.
85 What is a Skidmark? Answer: The sudden application of brakes which a result in the locked wheel condition places such a great pressure between the brake shoe and the brake drum that the frictional force at this point becomes greater than the frictional force between the tire and the road surface. When this condition exists, the wheels skid. Skidmarks as a Tool in Traffic Accident Investigation. To get some idea how fast the car which left these marks was going prior to the accident. 86 What are other Tire Marks? Answer: a Centrifugal skid mark. A marking on a roadway left by a rotating tire and wheel of a speeding vehicle on a curve when the speed of the vehicle is above the critical speed of the curve and the centrifugal force entirely or partially overcomes the friction between the mass of the vehicle and its tires and the surface of the roadway. b Impending skid marks. Marks caused by the forward rotation of the wheels being slower than the forward movement of the vehicle. The shadowy beginning of a skid mark along the approach path of the vehicle is the impending skid mark (a.k.a. as tire shadow marks), while the darker markings are the skid marks which begins in the
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impending skid mark and ends at the point of collision or position or final rest. Yawn mark. A scuffmark made while a vehicle is yawning the mark made on the road by rotating tire which is slipping in a direction parallel to the axle of the wheel. Skid mark. A braking skid mark interrupted at frequent regular intervals; the skid mark made by a bouncing wheel on which brakes keep the wheel from turning. Compare with gap skid. Side skid Mark (Scuff Mark) - it is a roadway marking left by the tire and wheel of a vehicle sliding sideways as a result of force other than centrifugal force. Gap skid. A braking skid mark which is interrupted by release and reapplication of brakes or which terminates by release of brakes before collision.
87 What are other Marks and Impression Left by a Motor Vehicle either on the Road surface or on the Other Motor Vehicles? Answer: a Ruts. A sunken track worn by a wheel, as in road; hence, a groove forming a path for anything. b Gouge. A groove made by a hard part of a motor vehicles to another car after side-sweeping each other or it may be left on a road surface by a motor vehicle which over turned then slid on the road surface. c Paint Strips. When a vehicle collided with other object, it sometimes transfers its paint to the object. -oOo-