Survival Handbook

February 28, 2019 | Author: Tessa Maloney | Category: Fly, Traffic Collision, Mosquito, Map, Weed
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A handbook on how to survive produced by the year 6 class of 2012....

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BY

YEAR 6 2012

Bush Tucker  by Lindsey Carr Accident by Seham Cave Survival by Amberley Clothing by Nicola Cooking by Zahra Dangerous Mammals & Sea Creatures by Caleb Dangerous Insects by Madison Dangerous Reptiles by Baden Disease by Abbie Emergency Services by Frances Finding Food: Plants by Eden Finding Food and Hunting by Callum Fire by Sam & Jake First Aid by Elisheva Navigation by Lauren Plane Crash by Ellen Rock Climbing by CJ

Self Defence by Isabella Shelter by Shelter by Mark Signalling by Zach Snow Survival by Kiara Storms Lightning by Sarah Survival Kit by Le Tools by Robbie Tornadoes by Ben Traps & Snares by Patrick Volcanoes by Henry Water by Water by Amy by Isabel (Water) Reaping the Water  Water by

Bush tucker is made out of native plants, fruits, nuts, spices, meat and more. It is helping for feeding yourself while survival in the bush, it is also used for healing wounds. The native Aboriginals have been using bush tucker for billions of years. So in this chapter will cover the topics of the native ingredients used, medical plants and the location of the native tribes in Australia.

BUSH TUCKER INGREDIENTS You will find that these ingredients are vital to making bush tucker for survival needs.

MEAT The most common meats that you will find/need are kangaroo, goanna, emu, crocodile and witchetty grub. If you are not a trained or a professional hunter/wrestler, don’t hunt or wrestle a kangaroo, emu or crocodile, because it could fight back and hurt you. Try and collect those animals if they are already dead.  Although dead animals that have have not been refrigerated can have E .coli .coli tularaemia which is a type of bacteria.

FRUIT There are many fruit that are used in making lots of bush tucker. These fruit have  Aboriginal names for them: quandong, quandong, kutjera, muntries, riberry, Davidsons plum and finger lime.

SPICES Spices are used to season food or just to add a bit of fl avour to the food being made. Just some of these are lemon myrtle, mountain pepper and aniseed myrtle, but they are just the most common types.

NUTS For years Australians/aboriginals have been putting nuts into food to make different textures and flavours into food. Two are bunya nuts and macadamia nuts.

BUSH MEDICINE Bush medicine is used for treating t reating sickness and injury.

AUS. BUSH MEDICINE Through centauries aboriginals have had experience and have learnt about the healing properties of plants that were found in their area. They all knew how to use the techniques of healing stings, insect bites or any injury that has occurred. In the past aboriginals have been able to deal with any injuries but now some aboriginals are departing from their culture with all the new modern equipment.

ABORIGINAL TRIBES It is predicted that there was about 250 000 to 500 000 000 Indigenous Australian tribes and nearly 600 languages when the British settlers arrived in Australia in 1788There are not as many tribes as there were in 1788 then there are now. So as you see in the that diagram there was quite a lot of aboriginal tribes in 1788.

CONCLUDING In this chapter it has covered the topics of  •

Ingredients of bush tucker 



Australian bush tucker 



The tribes in Australia

Introduction Car accidents are one of the most dangerous things because you might die. However, if you use seatbelts you are less likely to die. If brakes fail white driving don’t just don’t sit there, do something like change gears and apply the handbrake. If  changing gears isn’t good idea, you could go to a safer place where there are no cars because you don’t want them to bump you. If your car can’t stop, you can crash into a fence because fences are strong and it can even stop your car. It is better then bumbing into a wall where it might fall on you. Children should be seated in proper  child until they are enough to wear a lap should belt. What to do after a car accident?  After a car accident, a person may feel a wide wide range of emotions shock, guilt, fear, nervousness or anger all, of which are normal. Take a few deep breath or count to 10 to calm down. The calmer you are, the better prepared you will be to handle the situation. It is important to check if you have any injuries because if you have one it might get worse. Call the police, even if accident is small, move cars to a safer place, out of traffic so other cars won’t crash into it. it. How to avoid a car accident? If you’re in an area where cars rarely slow down or stop, keep in mind that you never  know what could happen. In case, an animal crosses the road or the car in front of  you suddenly stop for any reason, drive carefully. Try to not come too close to the car in front of you. Why do young drives have so many car accidents? Many young drivers often put themselves in potentially hazardous situation. Young drivers are not just danger to themselves; they are also dangerous to the passengers and other road users. Young drivers have many accidents because they don’t have much experience. Some young drivers drink alcohol, which causes car accidents. Some young drivers speed because they don’t have a good sense of a cars speed. Young drivers have to be careful while driving because they are causing greater risk to people around them.

Summary . Young drives that drinks alcohol are more likely to have a car accident. . Young drives are more likely to speed their car up to 80k/ho. . It is important to wear a seatbelt when driving and riding a car. . Keep in mind to not come too close to the t he car in front of you while driving. . After a car accident take a few deep breath or count to 10 to calm down. . Yong drives have to be so careful when driving because they are more likely to cause greater ham to people. . In a small accident, move the cars out of traffic t raffic to a safer place so other cars won’t crash into you. . In a car accident, check if you have any injuries because if you had one it might get worse. . If breaks fail while driving, change gears and apply the handbrake. . Young drivers are more likely to be in in a car accident because they do not have much experience. . Children should be seated until they are grown enough to wear a lap should belt.

Introduction Caving is known by many names such as spelunking and potholing. Most caves are situated underground and are very active with life, they are amazing places to visit because of their life and wonderful recreational fun. The reason many people are attracted to caves is because they are fun and exciting although they are very dangerous if you don’t have the right knowledge or you’re just stupidly reckless.

Lost One of the biggest dangers in caves is getting lost since you will probably get injured trying to find your way out but you should stay where you are (unless there is a serious danger)and if you are in a group stay together at all times. If you are really lost try all communication devices until you get the attention of rescuers. Stay calm and ration food and water around as you wait to be rescued. We should always do something to prevent ourselves from getting lost here are a few ways to do that. Mark the walls of the caves with an arrow pointing the direction you were going. Tell someone where you’re going and approximately what time you will be back and hopefully they will inform rescuers.

Equipmentandclothing Having the right clothing and equipment is of most importance and it would be hard to survive without anything. Some of the most used and convenient types of clothing and equipment are:       

A helmet (preferably with a chin strap) Torch or helmet light Spare batteries and bulbs for the torches Boots with good grip Food that supply lots of energy Radio Protective gear (knee and elbow pads)



Food and water   Old or dirty clothing to wear wear under everything (preferably warm or  water proof)  A pack to put all spare items in Though the amount and/or type of clothing and protective gear you wear depends on what cave your exploring.

Dangers There are many dangers in caves from poisonous creatures to floods here is a few things to do in case you meet that trouble. As soon as you see water rising in a cave get out! As soon as you can of coarse and don’t take any detours because you might get lost and get trapped in the rising water that could drown you. Even if it is raining get out as soon as possible because the water gets stuck in caves if it has know where to go, so it will rise r ise quickly. Most of the creatures living in caves are poisonous and its best to avoid the creatures. Some of the poisonous creatures in caves are: 

Centipedes and millipedes  Spiders  Scorpions  As well as many others. It gets extremely cold in caves and even colder in water, hypothermia is a very common death of those in floods so take extra precaution if you’re going in a cave with water and bring warm water proof clothes.

Summary       

Stay where you are when lost Stay in your group Try all communication devices Warn people of where you are going and when you will be back Have the right equipment Where warm clothing Be aware of rising water 

SURVIVALCLOTHING INTRODUCTION If you are going to a completely different country, it could be hot or  cold, then you would want to know exactly what to wear. In hotter  countries obviously you would want to wear thin and light clothes but the complete opposite in other colder  countries. Imagine having to go to a different country with no suitable clothing? If you keep on reading you will find the right types of clothing for  the right country you are going to.

HOT CLIMATE If you are in a hot destination you should always have, or carry, all of the essentials. These include; sunglasses, to protect your eyes from the burning sun, a broad brimmed hat that particularly blocks the heat from the sun so that your face, and sometimes even your body, don’t burn and wear a long sleeved shirt so that your arms don’t burn, as well as long pants for  the same reason.

COLD CLIMATE Undoubtedly, if in a cold climate, layer every inch of your body, where the clothes are, and put more clothes on over them. If no extra or spare clothes are within reach then stuff  grass, or even moss, between the layers but make sure they are dry before stuffing them into the layers. Newspapers also provide a great source of insulation. If stuck in the pouring rain you would need to find a source of protection. If you want something good, waterproof and durable choose thick bark. Cutting the outer layer of bark reveals the soft pliable inner; if you turn the bark out and place it above you it will provide a good protection barrier from you and the heavy rain.

OCEAN WEAR Wetsuits keep you warm in the colder parts of the ocean. If you are swimming in t he Summer, or even everyday day under the sun, you should always remember to apply multiple layers of sunscreen, wear a broad brimmed hat and find an area where there is full shade, if you don’t do this you could end up getting dehydrated, burnt and in some cases you could even end up with cancer. If you are going snorkelling in shallow water  you should wear; a bathing suit, a snorkel, flippers and a mask. But, in deeper water, you need to wear; a protective suit, a mask, an oxygen tank, flippers and a chained suit. You need a chained suit to protect you from the animals that could live there.

CONCLUSION  Altogether the importance of having the the right suitable clothing in the right destination is one of the greatest things for you to have to survive. If you don’t have the right clothing you could get; diseases, dehydration, frostbite, hyperthermia ext. If you don’t have any extras to wear use your surroundings, choose the thickest and softest things you can find (for the colder weather) and the loosest and thinnest things (for the hotter climate). If you are finding it hard looking for suitable things, look for rags or old pieces of fabric to keep you warmer in the colder countries.

Cooking  If you ever find yourself in survival circumstances you will quickly realise that you will need food. You will not only be able to survive on little mushrooms, vegetables and witchetty grubs, you will need good, healthy protein. Fire is a fantastic way to cook essential food; however some items can be either baked in the sand or eaten raw. You will also find that fish are both delicious and nutritious, but some are poisonous so you will need to be on guard. In this chapter you will not only learn how to cook food, but types of food and ways of cooking.

Food If you are going to cook something, the first thing that you will obviously need is something to cook. Plants, animals and grubs might come to mind, but to make sure that it is not poisonous you will need to know how to cook them properly. (For more on food go to the bush tucker chapter) Meat: The best and most tender part of large animals to cook, for example cattle and sheep, is the fillet of undercut. Unfortunately, this makes up only 1% of an animal. It is ideal for preserving, so make sure to keep some for later use. Try to start cooking the flank quite quickly as it is tough and needs to simmer for quite a while before it becomes tender. You will find the flank on the stomach. Fish: When cooking fish it is nice to know which ones to eat and not to eat. A big hint: all fresh water fish are edible. If one is under 5 cm you do not need to de-scale, gut and skin, etc., because they can be eaten whole. Few other exceptions of fish can be eaten without being de-scaled, but if  you really wanted to know, catfish and eels are smoothed skinned. Good luck catching those, though! (For more on fishing go to the fishing chapter) Vegetables/Plants: Root vegetables, such as cabbage and spinach, are hard to find in the dense forest or barren desert. However, if you do end up with some, a good way of cooking them is baking (find out about ways of cooking later). Try to get the larger ones, as they are more nutrientfilled. Make sure not to overcook them as the more you cook anything the less nutritional value you end up with. Also, part-boiling vegetables will speed up cooking times. (For more on plants and fungi go to the edible plants/fungi chapter)

Heat Sources Fire: The best way to cook. To start up a fire, I strongly recommend against the two-stick method. Try to get a good strong fire going before you start cooking. The worst thing to happen is if you are half way through cooking when your fire dies. A number of techniques are attainable with fire; boiling, roasting, grilling, baking and steaming, just to name a few. When you are making a fire, though, never do it near other flammable material, e.g. plants, trees. (For more on fire go to the fire chapter) Clay: This particular type of cooking uses fire, but it is so simple you needn’t think about it. It requires no utensils and can be cooked when a fire has already gone out, if it has not been too long. After wrapping your food in a ball of clay, place it in the embers of the fire. One plus side is that when you take off the clay, with it brings fish scales, small bird’s hedgehog’s spines, depending on what you are cooking.

Sun: Using the sun to cook is usually only any good if you are trying to cook an egg. However, if  you have an egg or manage to steal one from a nest, you can cook it just about anywhere. Rocks, gravel, anything, although it might be necessary to give it a good scrub first.

How to Boiling: As Boiling:  As boiling obviously requires water, you will need to either find or make a container. Tin cans and metal boxes are perfect. Once you have acquired one of any sort, you will need to make a handle and hang them from a support or just use tongs to take them on and off the fire. After  that, keep cooking! Roasting: The best thing about roasting meat is that it cooks in its own fat. The easiest and best way to roast meat is to put it on a stick and turn it over the still-hot embers or next to a warm fire. To keep the fat moving over all the surfaces, place a drip tray underneath and keep smoothing the fat over the meat. Grilling:  A great way to cook a large quantity of food. The only problem is that you will need something like some mesh or chicken wire to hoist the food up above the fire. If no mesh is available, make a grid of still-very-green sticks. Baking: You will need an oven for baking, so only try this if you have a lot of tie and materials on your hands. Baking is very suitable for hard to cook meat and root vegetables. Steaming: Steaming is great as it preserves essential nutrients and can cook fish and green vegetables excellently. When steaming food, it is almost impossible to overcook your item, but that good aspect is slightly put down when we remind you that you will need a container and water. The best way to make one is to suspend a little container inside a slightly bigger one.

Hopefully you have drawn enough information from the writing above to help you if you are ever in need. As I said before, fire is commonly mentioned with cooking in mind, whether it may be in survival terms or not, so always try to have some m atches around or any other things that will help you. Cooking is an essential skill that will not only help you in survival terms but in everyday life.

DANGEROUS MAMMALS AND SEA CREATURES IN AUSTRALIA

Introduction Dangerous mammals and sea creatures can kill a man and are yet vital to life. Many dangerous mammals and sea creatures are easily avoidable in survival situations. Many dangerous mammals in Australia are feral animals such as water buffalos or pigs.

Avoiding encounters When out camping or in the wilderness you should always be weary of feral animals, for  example water buffalos or hogs. If you encounter a feral animals you should treat it with respect, slowly back away and find a clear path to run down. (If you think it’s going to charge.) Many sea creatures are easily avoidable although hard to escape from. Here is a few facts about animals you may encounter.

AFTERMATH If ever stung by an animal keep calm and call for medical assistance, becoming stressed will only increase your heart rate and send the blood around your body faster. Argo decreasing your life span, many animals are territorial and never approach a wild animal. If out camping animals will raid any food you have, this is why it is important to put your  food in a tree or something like that.

Conclusion Toconclude,themajorityofanima Toconclude,themajorityofanimalsinAustraliaa lsinAustraliaarehighlyterritoria rehighlyterritorialandyoushouldavoidt landyoushouldavoidthem hem atalcosts.Alwayscheckfors atalcosts.Alwayscheckforsightingsofseac ightingsofseacreaturesbefore reaturesbeforegoingswimming,and goingswimming,andavoidbushes avoidbushes andlonggrass.Manythingsyoumayhea andlonggrass.Manythingsyoumayheararenotnece rarenotnecessarilytrue! ssarilytrue! 

Insects come in all different shapes, sizes and colours. Remember size doesn’t matter. Small animals can be as deadly as any larger animal. There are ten deadly and poisonous insects in Australia. These insects are the wasp, hornet, bee, centipede, mosquito, spider, scorpion, fly, ant and tick. Not only can they give you pain, swelling and irritation, they can also give you fevers and diseases. BEES, WASPS AND HORNETS Over time people can develop an allergy to wasp, hornet and bee stings, in the same way they do to other animals. These insects have a highly venomous sac, which is located in their stinger. Hornets are also a type of social wasp. Since hornets are known as a type of  wasp, they are sometimes forgotten that they are actually hornets. Once a bee stings you they will die, but if a wasp or hornet stings you, all they’ll do is just keep stinging you until you go inside or cover yourself. When treating these insects, it’s very important to not panic. If stung by a bee, make sure to remove it straight away. When removing the stinger be sure to not hit the stinger, or the venomous sac will split and the venom will spread through your body. To prevent this, use your fingernails or something with a hard edge, like a bank card. DO NOT use your fingers or tweezers, as 4his will spread the venom. When treating these insects, it’s very important to not panic. If stung by a bee, make sure to remove it straight away. When removing the stinger make sure to not hit the stinger, or  the venomous sac will split and the venom will spread through your body. To prevent this use your fingernails or something with a hard edge, like a bank card. DO NOT use your  fingers or tweezers, as this will spread the venom. TICKS  Australian ticks live on the Eastern edge edge of the continent. Their poisonous poisonous saliva can cause serious allergies in certain people as well as paralyse, that can be fatal. Many animals are also at risk.  After a holiday to a tick country be sure to check check very one, including the pet pet dog for any signs of ticks. Ticks can hide in skin creases and amongst hair, be sure to check for six days. There is also a tick anatoxin available. Ticks should be removed with alcohol to irritate them and than picking them off with tweezers on either side of their mouth.  ANTS  Ants live in large groups called colonies colonies and each member always always has a job to do. Some look after the young in the nursery. In each colony their can be a large number of ants can ants living together. There can be up to 100 000 ants living together. Nearly every ant will have a stinging bit, but the large jungle ant can knock someone out for 24 hours.

MOSQUITOES AND FLIES Flies and mosquitoes are made up of three parts, the eyes and antennae, thorax and abdomen. Most insects have two pairs of wings, but flies and mosquitoes only have one pair which is attached to their thorax. Mosquitoes are the most deadliest creature on Earth. It’s responsible for more than 300 million cases of malaria every year. They can carry diseases like dengue, dengue, yellow fever, encephalitis and canine canine heartworm. The tsetse fly will spread sleeping sicknesses. Mosquitoes, midges and horseflies are the only flying insects that bite people. They all need a serving of blood before they are able to lay their eggs.

ANTENNAE

WINGS

THORAX

ABDOMEN HEAD

COMPOUNDEYES

MOUTHPARTS

LEGS

To sum it all up, there are ten deadly and poisonous insects in Australia. They can give you pain, swelling, irritation, fevers and diseases. Bees, hornets and wasps have a highly venomous sac, if bitten by a tick they can paralyse you, mosquitoes are responsible for over 300 million cases of malaria every year and large jungle ants can knock you out for 24 hours.

Reptiles are among the most adaptable animals on the planet. They have witnessed millions of years of evolution and are still going strong. Reptiles have ruled the planet throughout the dinosaur age; they have shrunk since then but even today a large portion of these creatures pose a big threat to us. Here you will learn the dangers of these incredible animals, how to avoid them and what to do if attacked. The Saltwater Crocodile Saltwater Crocodiles are the largest reptiles in the world and they are common throughout Queensland, the Northern Territory and northern W.A where they grow their biggest. The primary weapon of a ‘saltie’ is it’s bone-crushing bite, the strongest bite-force of anything which has existed, aside f rom the Tyrannosaurs. How to avoid it: Crocodiles will always inhabit estuaries, rivers and lakes. Do not attempt to swim in croc-infested waters. What to do if attacked: It was once thought that one could poke out the eyes of a croc. This is a myth as crocodiles can retract their eyeballs into their skulls. You must play dead and hope hope for the best as the few survivors of croc croc attacks were saved only by a hopeful heart and pure luck. The Mulga Snake The Mulga Snake is a large venomous snake common throughout Australia. It is unusually aggressive for a snake and it has sports the largest venom yield of any Australian snake. How to Avoid it: Do not carelessly remove rocks or look in crevices. If you see one, don’t aggravate it. If it flattens its neck it means that it isn’t mad but afraid. They will bite more frequently if afraid. What to do if bitten: Don’t cut into the wound or attempt to wrap it ; odds are that it will heal itself if it can circulate air.

The Perentie The Perentie is a large monitor lizard, a group of reptiles commonly known as “The Terminators of the Reptile World”. This gigantic goanna lives in the “Red Centre” of  Australia. At 2.5 metres, this predator is powerful enough to devour rabbits, wallabies, other lizards and even venomous snakes. Perenties will also combat with dingoes for food.

How to avoid it: Don’t try to hunt it and stay clear of low caves. This creature will not look for you and will want to stay out of sight. If you see one, observe from a distance if you are interested in this animal. When you are done, silently walk away. What to do if attacked: When lost in the wild, to a tourist a Perentie is fair game. In order to kill it, they will usually try to t o corner it. This is where they go wrong. When trapped, the Perentie will charge its attacker. Attacking the offender with a powerful tail, a set of hook-like claws and turbo-charged venomous jaws. Try to pry it off your  body with your arms. It will run nimbly and quickly out of sight as soon as it withdraws from its attack. Don’t hunt this animal and give the Perentie wide berth.

Hopefully you have learnt now that these creatures are wild and unpredictable. Simply do not anger the snakes and goannas. Don’t intrude on the crocodile’s territory. If you would like to see these animals, visit your local or wildlife park and learn about these fascinating animals and always give them space to do what they must do and what they have be

DISEASES Diseases are abnormal bodily organisms. The symptoms and signs can be obvious but also unapparent. There are different types of diseases: viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa which are small organisms, multicellular organisms (more than one cell) and prion-protein. Diseases can be deadly, contagious and viral. This chapter will be focussing on animal spread diseases, dirty water, and diseases at sea and insect diseases.

Description Diseases come in all shapes and sizes. The different periods are important to recognise. Incubation

The incubation period is between the infection reaching you and the appearance of the symptoms. Latency

This is the period between the infection and the ability for the disease to spread.

Duration of the Disease The duration of the disease can sometimes be helpful for the classification of the disease. Acute

 Acute meaning short lived is a disease disease that doesn’t last for long. Chronic

Chronic diseases are diseases that last longer than six months. Flare Up

 A Flare up is a disease that happens happens more than once so you you can think it’s gone but it’s still there and will come back. Refractory

Refractory diseases are one of the worst. Refractory diseases are diseases that resist treatment. Progressive

Progressive diseases worsen until death or organ failure.

Animal  Animals carry all kinds of deadly diseases diseases even your everyday everyday cat or dog. There are 39 animal diseases. Zoonosis is where an animal passes a disease to a human.

Types

When you think of animal diseases you think of rabies, tularaemia-wild or domestic disease passed on by contact with animal tissue, ti ssue, plague, monkey pox which was identified in laboratory monkeys but is more common in rodents, listeria which you get by eating the food contaminated by the bacteria, anthrax which in most cases is lethal but there are vaccines against it. Often caused by wild or domestic herbivores inhaling or ingesting the spores or carnivores by eating the infected animals. Cat Scratch

This disease is common in children. It is spread by being bitten or scratched. Toxoplasmosis

This is a disease that cats can get outdoors from a parasite. Fortunately most cats fight the disease before it becomes contagious. It is passed on by cats shedding and is seen as egg like forms in faeces. 30-40% of people are affected mostly from eating undercooked meat. Leptospirosis

Is a rodent spread disease that can also be spread by drinking infected water. It gets into your body through a cut. Symptoms- you go yellow, get tired tir ed and an extremely high temperature. Cure- procaine penicillin and tetracycline in medically recommended doses.  Although a lot of these diseases diseases are deadly but fortunately there are vaccines vaccines against a lot of diseases.

Insect Insects are one of the world’s deadliest disease carriers. Mosquito

The mosquito is one of the smallest but deadliest insects. Some diseases that a mosquito can give are: Dengue Fever

Symptoms include- fever and arthritis Cure- observational supportive treatment. Malaria

Symptoms include - headaches and heavy fever. Cure- prevention and anti-malaria

Pogosta Disease (Kareliah fever, Ockelbo disease and Siubis fever)

Symptoms include- rash, fever and arthritis. Cure- Unknown. West Nile Disease

Symptoms- fever and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain). Cure- None

There are lots of diseases from other insects just as deadly. Leishmaniasis

From sandfly. Symptoms- fever, damage to spleen or organ (liver) and anaemia (loss of red blood cells) Plague or Black Death

Spread by rats. Cure- prevention or anti-biotics. Typhus

Spread by tick or lice. Symptoms include- fever and bleeding around the bite. Cure- prevention and antibiotics

Waterborne These diseases are less easy to look for than many other diseases and can be deadly.

Protozoal

 Amoebiasis Comes from sewage or non-treated drinking water. Seen by flies in water. Symptoms- abdominal discomfort, fatigue (exhaustion), weight loss, diarrhoea, bloating (swelling of the abdominal area) and fever. Parasitic

Schistosmiasis

Seen by types of snails in fresh water. Symptoms- blood in urine, rash, itchy skin, fever, chills, cough and muscle aches. Bacterial

Cholera Water contaminated by the bacteria Vibro Cholerae. Symptoms- watery diarrhoea, nausea (discomfort of upper stomach), cramps, nose bleed, rapid pulse, vomiting, hypo-volaemic shock (blood or body fluid is lost and your heart is unable to pump blood around the body causing organ failure), death can come in i n 12-18 hours.

At Sea Life at sea can be pretty tough, with the mutiny, the storms and t he diseases. Scurvy

Caused by lack of vitamin C. this disease was once common in sailors who couldn’t store fresh fruit or veg for long periods of time. Symptoms- malaise (discomfort and uneasiness), lethargy or drowsiness, spots in skin, spongy gums, spots on legs or thighs, suppurating wounds (pus comes out of wounds), loss of teeth, jaundice (yellow skin), fever, neuropathy (damage to nerves in the peripheral nervous system) and this disease can unfortunately lead to death.

Conclusion This chapter has looked at the following. • • • • • •

Periods of different diseases Duration of diseases Animal spread diseases Insect spread diseases Waterborne diseases Life at sea diseases

I hoped you learned something about diseases that may one day help you in your life.

EMERGENCY SERVICES Introduction You will need emergency services for every day life but think about how they there jobs, what they need to protect themselves with and the major emergencies.

Ambulance  An ambulance rescues rescues or saves someone who who is in danger, for instance they may have have a medical problem or have injured themselves then t hey take them to hospital. You may see the blue and red siren or heard it. To get t e job in an ambulance you need to pass physical and personality tests. The highest qualification is bachelor of health science with a major in paramedicine. If you want to be a doctor, you have to do full time study. To recognise the first aid it is the Red Cross. The transportation, tr ansportation, they can use a van, car motorcycle, bike, all terrain vehicles, ship, boat and helicopter. They need lots of medical equipment and you may use two way radio, mobile and for the van or camp.

Fire Brigade Fire Fighters are one of the main emergency services in Australia. They help your  community stay safe and they also give you information to avoid hazards and emergency incidents on people, they environment and the economy. To get the job you need to have a motor vehicle drivers license. You need to sit a test and you need to have a high school certificate. You also need to be ready to work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Fire f ighters save lives, reduce injuries caused by emergencies and disaster. You can volunteer to be a fire fighter or you can be a permanent fire fighter. You have to wear a uniform, and breathing apparatus and a personal protective equipment.

Police Police are a major protection in our world they keep us safe by stopping crime and protecting the public. They patrol all areas and they deal with emergency problems. They have various equipment such as guns, tazers, batons, hand cuffs, and they wear long trousers, short or long sleeved top, belts holder and boots. There transportation is cars, disguised four wheeled drives, motorbike, bicycle, horse, helicopter or boat.

F.E.S.A The FESA stands for five emergency services authority, you may find it in country areas where there is a high expectations of bush fires. To get the job you will have to get a National police clearance certificate. There are three branches (jobs), you will have to be ready to work late hours, and hopefully you will live near the country! There are many different kinds of transportation such as the fire truck, helicopter, medium pumper, which is a medium sized truck, light water tanker which is a ute for car), bronto sky lift (truck with a crane on the back of it) and then the helitac which is a helicopter with a rope on the end to rescue someone in the cliffs so on.

Conclusion I hope you have learned something about emergency services such as working in an ambulance, being a police officer with the equipment they use and also about fesa and the fire brigade and how they helppeople in the countryside and in the city, how they have many tanks with putting out fires and saving animals and people.

FINDING FOOD... PLANTS If you’re out in the wild, you may be wondering what the heck you can eat, if you’re not much of a hunter then these pages could be of your use. If you ever find yourself running out of food then don’t just sit there. Instead you can find some vegetation. But be careful because some plants are deadly poisonous so maybe if you read this you can find out how the heck you can find edible plants.

Inspection 1. LOOK: If you have at all what a certain plant is, then you will need to take the edibility test. Try to identify your plant, if there are worms or grubs on your plant then get rid of it! Worms are an indication that a plant has gone out of date. Some plants, when old, change their  chemical and can become highly lethal. 2. SMELL: Crush up a small piece of the plant and sniff it. If it smells like bitter almonds or  peaches, DISCARD. 3. SKIN IRRITATION: Rub plant or squeeze juice on to a tender part of your body, if any irritation (such as: swelling, rash, burning or redness) is experienced, throw it away and reject it in the future, 4. LIPS, MOUTH, TONGUE: *Put/ rub/ place a small part of the plant on your lips. *Place a small part in the corner of your mouth. *Place a small piece on the tip of your tongue. *Place a small piece underneath your tongue. *Chew a small part. DO NOT SWALLOW. If it hurts/ burns/ stings then reject the whole plant. 5. SWALLOW: Swallow a small portion and don’t eat or drink anything for five hours.

If no bad reactions like: stomach soreness, mouth soreness, lots of burping/ belching, nausea, sickness, stomach pains, vomiting or gripping pains in your lower abdomen are experirnced then that part of the plant may be safe to eat.

Good and Bad plants Here is a list of plants that you should most definately avoid: Black Nightshade, Castor  Bean, Oleander, Rosary Pea, Water Hemlock, Poison Hemlock, China Berry, Death Camas, Lantana, Machineel, Pangi, Physic Nut, Strychnine Tree, Amaryllis, Azalea, Deadly Nightshade, Devil's Ivy, Wisteria and the Elder Berry.  And now that y ou know what to avoid, here i s a list of good pl ants: Alfalfa, R upiamaritim a, China Jute, Climbing Wattle, Paracress, Common Marshmallow, Purple Amaranth,

Common Amaranth, Blank Cress, Sea Beat and Common Borrage.

Gathering Plants Here are some tips for gathering plants: *Leaves and stems: If you want tastier and more tender plants go for the younger growth (usually paler in colour) SNIP off leaves near the stem for Pro- longed freshness. *Fruit and nuts: NEVER PICK FRUITS IN GROUPS OF 5! Larger plants are usually better. better. You should only pick fully coloured berries, greenish, hard berries cannot be digested. *Seeds and grains: BEWARE! SOME CONTAIN DEADLY POISON! Do not swallow any grains or seeds that you find. Where normal seeds are meant to be some grains have black spurs these carry ergot poisoning which can sometimes be fatal. *Fungi: You should try to avoid fungi if there is any other food available because fungi is not worth the risk. You should be aware of these sighns if possible: 1.Mushrooms which have milky or white juice. 2. Mushrooms which glow in the dark. 3. Fungi which appears to be yellow or orange. 4. Mushrooms with white gills. 5. Mushrooms with a red, smooth, flat top. 6. Fungi which has sm all reddish pores or red anywhere else. 7. Mushrooms with bruises which turn blue or yellow. 8. Fungi that is rotten, overripe, decaying or maggoty.

CONCLUSION Now you can go out and collect some edible plants and NOT get poisoned! So if you ever  need to get some vegies you can use theese pages as a guide. You should turn to the cooking pages for tasty ways to prepare these plants!

FINDING FOOD AND HUNTING INTRODUCTION: Food is an essential thing for almost all living things including humans, animals and insects and if  those living things do not get food they will die. In this chapter you will be taught how to find food in the wild and how to hunt animals and make tools for hunting out of things that can be found in the wild.

WEEDS: Weeds. The first thing that comes to peoples’ minds when they think of weeds is that they grow in your garden and look very ugly. But did you know you can actually eat certain types of weeds which can be very useful in survival situations. This list contains certain type of weeds you can eat.

Name: Turkey Rhubarb Habitat: Wastelands, gardens, roadsides and coastal sand dunes Uses: The leaves and and stems are edible edible when cooked. Name: Cobblers Pegs Habitat: Wastelands, gardens and woodlands Name: Blowfly Grass Habitat: Lawns, roadsides, wastelands, wastelands, pastures and cultivated land Uses: The seeds are edible and the leaves are semi-edible Name: Fat Hen Habitat: Roadsides, crops and wastelands in eastern, southern and central parts of   Australia Uses: Us es: Leaves and seeds s eeds are edible edibl e when cooked Name: Thistle Habitat: Pastures and wastelands from coasts to dry inlands Uses: If the stems are peeled the stems are a fine vegetable that can be steamed, boiled, put in stews etc. (harvest the stalks in summer when the thistle is flowering ) Name: Hawthorn Habitat: Roadsides and paddocks Uses: The fruit on it is edible raw or cooked and the petals are edible Name: Fennel Habitat: Roadsides, drains and wastelands Uses: Used as a herb, the seed tastes like aniseed and the leaves are used in recipes and as garnishes Name: Cleavers Habitat: Gardens, fields, creek banks and eucalyptus woodlands (cooler areas) Uses: Leaves are edible when cooked and the seeds can be roasted and used life coffee.

HUNTING WEAPONS: Hunting weapons don’t have to be big rifles or steel bear traps they can be simple things like stones and spears. In this paragraph you will learn about those simple hunting weapons.There are many different types of spears but here are the main ones that are used for hunting:Simple SpearIs made from a straight rounded stick or small log about 1 metre long with one end of the spear  sharpened. sharpened. Classic Spear- Is made from a straight rounded stick or small log about 1 metre with something sharp like a sharp stone or a sharp knife tied to the end with string or a material like string.Fishing Spear- Is made from a straight rounded stick or small log about 1 metre long with something sharp and barbed at the end like a sharp barbed stone or a sharp barbed knife tied on the end of the spear with something like string. Large rocks can also be used to crush certain animal’s skulls

FINDING ANIMALS: You need to find animals in order to hunt them. But finding animals can be quite difficult because they hide in places likes burrows or they can be quite hard to find in areas like bushlands, forests or woodlands. In this paragraph you will learn about ways to find animals. Most animals leave tracks wherever they go and the clearer the tracks are the more likely they are to be recent. You can use these tracks to find animals. You can also look for gnawed nuts or fruit or berries that have been bitten. Older droppings are usually hard and odourless. Newer droppings are usually wet and smelly. Animals that eat vegetation like cattle deer and rabbits have roundish droppings with straw in them. Meat eaters such as wild cats and foxes have long droppings. You can also find animals by searching for their burrows which are normally on high ground away from water. Predatory animals make their burrows in dense woodland areas. Droppings can also be used to tell you where their burrows are and what animals live in them.

CONCLUSION: *Simple things like rocks and sticks can be used to hunt animals *Certain types of weeds can be eaten *Animal droppings can be used to determine the type of animal that produced it

FIRE Fire is very reactant to flammable materials it can burn with in the second losing air looms, lives and shelter however there are some useful purposes like purifying water, Heat and cooking. Australia is most common for fires due to its climate and many native flowers like the kangaroo paw have found ways to adapt to its many bushfires. Bushfires are uncontrollable fire fighters can only really slow the fire down. But completely extinguishing the fire takes time and practice.

“Burns” the one word we hear around almost every fire. Tragically people are getting burnt every ten seconds along with many lives. S.D.C.R also known as stop, drop, cover, and roll it could possibly save your life in an emergency. People just call fire men “a part of the federal agency” but they save are saving lives 24/7 along with the risk of their  lives really we should be kneeling down.

Uses- although fire can really burn and cause serious scars there are a lot of vital needs like extracting germs , cooking , warmth , scare away dangerous animals , drying and the smoke is good for keeping away mosquitos and other annoying insects many people have forgotten about how fire really is and have started to use it for entertainment. Making a fire- during a strand on a deserted island the only chance of  safety could be a fire so knowing how to make a fire without a match or  lighter could be vital… •

Get something to make a spark or a flare like two stones or a piece of jewellery or cutlery grounded upon a rock if all fails friction might be the way to go.



Find week wooden materials like bark kindling or twigs.

FIRE. •

Get your flare to jump to the kindling and slowly fan or blow the smoke let it be and it should slowly start to light.

In summary fire is dangerous with lives passing by the second. But without fire those live could double. Fire has been a very important part of all mankind for at least 1000,000 years and very useful if  handled with care. If stuck on an island fire will be the first thing you will think about

FIRST AID First Aid is a very useful thing to know as it could save you or your friend’s life and it is bound to in any dangerous situation without a trained nurse or doctor. First Aid is what comes first as you may have guessed from the name so you should make sure that your  kit is well stocked. Here are some tools you can probably get close to home: scissors, sponge, elastic, a piece of large square sail cloth and a good splint. Now read on and find out how to use it otherwise whats the point in owning it!!!

 Always remember to treat people with this list of injuries first - bleeding bleeding from wounds, breathing is fast and shallow, heart beating fast as if they have been running. Help by doing these easy steps: Restore and maintain breathing Stop bleeding Protect burns and other wounds Immobilise any fractures

Tourniquets

Tourniquets are a useful thing to know about if stranded away from medical help yet can be dangerous if applied in the wrong way.

Take a bandage and wrap it around the limb three times and tie with a half knot (see page....). Place stick or similar object over the knot and tie a double knot over that. Twist stick, tightening the bandage until bleeding stops. The tourniquet must be tight to stop the bleeding completely. Warning : never cover a tourniquet when unattended, instead write TP and the time applied on the forehead. Never apply a tourniquet to the head, neck or torso. This method is only for the limbs. Also don’t apply to anyone whose toes or fingers are blue as this could result in loss of a limb.

Other Uses for First Aid Materials 1 Bandages are best not wasted in dangerous situations but if they are not needed and you are camped somewhere that gets cold at night you can cut 2metre gauze strips and wrap them around your hands loose enough to slip a finger in without a struggle. If your  hands are still cold after this try skipping a spare pair of socks on over the top. 2. Survival blanket – this useful piece of foil can be used just as a normal sleeping bag if  you don’t have one and don’t want to risk hypothermia. The survival blanket provides an extra warm layer because it reflects body heat inwards. However the blanket should not make contact with your skin so as to avoid a rash. 3. Band aids can be used to patch up small holes and cracks in foldable plastic such as tarpaulins, sleeping bags, survival blankets etc. Not only will it stop the wind gate crashing it will also be waterproof and durable. 4. The pieces of paper (as long as they don’t have plastic or any sort of wax on them) can be chucked in the fire as fuel.

Introduction There are many ways to find navigation such as the stars and moon. When you hear the word navigation you think maps and a compass, but in this chapter you will learn ways to read the stars and moon.

Man Made Most man made things involve electronic devices such as a GPS or an IPhone. A man made thing can also mean a compass a map or other types of tools. I will t ell you about a compass and how to read details on a map.

Compass  A compass is a navigation navigation tool that measures directions and shows shows you to your  destination. The compass has a frame of Refurence that is “stationary relative” to the surface of the earth. The frame of Reference defines the “cardinal directions” North, South, East and West. The diagram called a compass rose, which shows the direction marked upon the compass. When you use the compass. On a compass there are also other points such as NS (North South), SE (South East), SW (South West) and NW (North West). These points are in between each direction. A compass is a helpful tool, you never know a compass could save your life.

How to read a map Maps are a basic tool of geography, a good map will show you different symbols meaning on a map. E.g. A square with a flag on top usually represents a school or a road. The map of the world is a flat r epresentation of a curved surface of the earth all maps do have this. This basic information will show you how to read map in a survival situation.

Natural There are lots of natural things in the world but today I will tell you the natural navigation ways such as moon navigation and the stars. That’s what I will tell you about in this part of  my chapter.

Navigation Star  Lots of people love the idea of using the stars for navigation. Using the stars can be learned in minutes. Using the stars is much easier then using a compass. To find your  destination all you need to do is to find the star directly above your destination. It will point to the right direction from a quarter of the globe away. But, the star will eventually move and you would like need a new star. Fortunately there is one star in the nights sky which doesn’t move it’s called the “Polaris” or the North Star. The easiest method to fi nd the North star is by finding the Plough, It is a group of seven stars. It is known as “Big dipper” to the Americans. Next you will need to find the pointer star. The north star will always be five times the distance, the true North will lie under that star.

Moon Navigation The moon is a natural navigator to tame. There are fast and slow meathead for finding the direction naturally using the moon, but there are unfortunately no known fat ways to use the moon as a navigation tool. It is no less interesting for t his. The first technique to learn is simple and quick. Although not perfectly accurate it can be guide for getting to your  destination. Mentally draw a line that connects the horns of a crescent moon the extend this line down to the horizon. In northern latitudes this would give an appropriate indication of South. It will work best when the moon id high in the sky, but not to near the horizon, when errors can happen. The reason the method works isn’t completed. The sun and moon move across the sky east-west plane across the sky. In other words when they are not aligned (a new moon) then they are aligned east or west. The moon is a useful thing in a navigation situation.

Conclusion Navigation is one of the main tools you will need to know to survive in the wild. Sometimes man made things such as a map or a compass can be very useful. However I personally think natural things such as the stars or the moon can be very useful in the wild.

PLANE CRASH Introduction: Plane crashes, not many things are scarier! They happen all over the world and many are caused by low fuel, faulty engines or bad weather. Lots of people don’t know what to do when faced with a plane crash. They are told to stay calm but end up in a panicked fit! Survival skills are handy in these t hese situations so you can evacuate the plane quickly and know what to do.

Where plane crashes happen most: Plane crashes happen a lot in remote areas or small islands (which is just your luck if  you’re the one who landed there!). A lott of plane crashes happen in the “Bermuda triangle” as well. The reason why has not been figured out but all we know is a lot of air  crashes happen there. Plane crashes also happen in the water, in which case it is important to stay calm. If you do crash you also want to be prepared, tis topic I will talk a bit about in my next paragraph…

How to escape: Escaping a plane crash is mostly about being prepared, listening and staying calm. Before impact it is important to be prepared. You should always know where the exits are, a handy hint is to count the number of seats between you and the closest exit (that way you’ll know where the exit is even if you can’t see it). Another handy hint is to read the safety information. It may be a bit boring but in a life-death situation it might just save yours!!! Before impact you should try and figure out what surface you’re going to “land” on. If you’re going to land on water you should put on your life jacket but DON’T inflate it until you reach the exit! If you’re going to land on the ground you should brace yourself by sitting in one of two landing positions. In both you should have your seat in the upright position and your feet should be flat on the floor. This will prevent you from i njuring your back or breaking your  legs (which will be needed in the evacuation of the plane…).

Seat position No 1If the seat or seat head in front of you is close enough for you to reach you should use this position. Put one hand palm down on the back of the seat. Then cross the other hand over  the first and put that one palm-down as well. Then place your head directly against the back of the seat. It is also recommended to place your head directly against the seat and then lace your fingers behind your head.

Seat position No 2 Another position is to bend over over and put your chest on your thighs and and your head between your knees. Cross your arms and grab hold of your ankles. This position is generally used

for children or people who can’t reach the seat in front of t hem (or obviously if there is no seat in front of them).

Diagram:

How to determine what caused the crash: You may think that determining what caused the crash is not important. All you want to do is go home! However you may need to know how the crash was caused. Sometimes is it obvious because you can see if something sets on fire or falls off, however sometimes it has something to do with the fuel engine or controls. Behind the control panel/s is a little machine called a black box. This machine holds data with what happens with the controls, so if something happens with the controls the black box will have the data. Following any air crash there will be an investigation, in that procedure the black box is retrieved and used to determine the cause of the plane crash. This is important because it will make future flights safer and ensure survival.

Conclusion: I have now explained to you how to survive a plane crash. The tips that I have given you including how to brace yourself for impact and when to put on your life jacket will help you survive when you are stuck in the middle of a plane crash. My advice is to NOT crash…or  don’t fly!!!

Rock Climbing Rock climbing is a skill that would help you survive in an area such as caves, mountains, high ground etc. It is dangerous but helpful to survival when you get stuck on a mountain. The following information can help you with rock climbing so keep reading…… r eading……

Skills/Techniques Descending with rope firmly anchored on top of the mountain it is possible to descend any cliff. With the technique known as abseiling or rappelling it can involve a sit sling and a karabiner for the rope to pass through, but the basic is just using a doubled rope. If the rope isn’t comfortable correct the angle of the rope. Friction may damage skin or clothes.

 Abseiling Loop rope around a firm anchor and test it with full body weight. Avoid the sharp edges it may cut the rope so be careful. Pass both ends of the rope between your legs from the front, bring it around to the left of the body over right shoulder and descend

Safety First Aid Here are some of the things you should bring with you when rock climbing… • • • • • •



Bandages Alcohol wipes Non-latex gloves Pain killers Tweezers Pocket first-aid book  Anti-diarrhea medication

Injuries  Although falls and other accidents accidents do occur, especially in outdoor outdoor climbing where safety measures are up to the individuals, they are rare. Most common injuries come from areas that include the hand, wrist and elbow. Stress rotational force at the fingertips and knuckle joints can cause rupture of tendons. t endons. The positions required maneuvering up a rock face with one-armed holds, causing your shoulder to twist or turn to one side thus putting the shoulder at risk of cutting or hitting the cliff face. In addition, muscle strains in the lower extremity may result from reaching for a small recess or l edge with the legs and hips. As with any outdoor sport, it is best to enroll in a class to learn basic climbing and safety techniques.

Equipment •

Rope



Carabineers

• • •

• •

Quick draws Proper clothing, shoes, Harnesses Belay devices Helmet

Summary • • • • •

Descend Abseiling/rappelling Bandages First aid book Rope

SHELTER Shelter is one of the most important things you need in a survival situation. If you’re in a desert you should try to find shelter and shade before finding food and water but if you’re in a bush or jungle you didn’t need to find or make a shelter before finding food and water  because of the trees and shade there already is. In this chapter you will find out how to make shelters and different types of shelters for the suitable environment you’re in.

Where to set up a shelter  Desert In a desert it’s more important to have a shelter then food and water, but you also have to consider the time and effort that you need to make a shelter. You would also need to start looking for a shelter as quick as possible. As you start looking for shelters remember that you will need materials made from things around you at that time and a large enough and level enough for you to lie down in comfortably. Also you cannot ignore your safety. You must also consider whether the site is suitable for signalling for help, protects you from wild animals, rocks and things that can full on you and is free from insects and reptiles and poisonous plants. Also make sure you find a good spot to find were you might find food or  water.

Forest and Bush When in a forest or bush try to find a spot where there is no sign of wild animals and looks like a good spot to find food or water. As you try to find a good spot to make a shelter also looks for materials like bark, logs, sticks, grass and leafs so when you do make a shelter  you have the materials ready. Also think of types you already know to make.

Types of shelters Desert Some types of shelters in the desert are below ground shelters. Which is a long shelter so your whole body can lay down in it with spare space for the other stuff you have? A below ground shelter can also reduce the midday heat as much as 16 to 22 degrees c. however  building a below ground shelter requires more time and effort than for other shelters. Since your physical effort will make you sweat more and also increase dehydration, construct it before the heat of the day.

Forest When you make shelters in a forest or bush, make use of trees and branches that sweep down to the ground or boughs that is broken from a tree to give basic protection from the wind, but you have to make sure that the tree is not broken too much so it does not come

down on you. Weave in some other twigs to make the cover A little denser. Conifers are more suited for this technique than broad levelled trees, as they require less weaving in to keep rain out.  Another shelter for a forest or bush is a root shelter. The spreading roots and trapped earth at the base of a fallen tree make a good wind and storm barrier, if they are at the right angle to the wind. Filling the sides between the extended roots will usually make the shelter more an effective, and provide a good support for building a more elaborate shelter  from other materials.

How to make a shelter  Desert To make a nice simple shelter in the desert: -find a low spot or depression between dunes or rocks. If necessary, dig a trench 45 to 60 centimetres deep, and long and wide enough for you to lie down in comfortable. -pile the sad you take from the trench to form a mound around three sides. -on the open end of the trench, dig out more sand so you can get in and out of your shelter  easily. -cover the trench with your materials. -secure the materials in place using sand, rocks, or other weights.

Forest and bush -Find 40 sticks about ¼- ½ of a meter and a log about 2 meters long. -out of those 40 sticks find the strongest and the tallest stick and dig a hole 15cm down and stand the stick up in the hole (cover the hole so the stick stands up). -then place the log at the stick and dig a hole at the end of the log (20cm). -stick the log in the ground and pace it on the angle were it can balance on the other stick. -then place or the other sticks 2cm in the ground and lean them on the log (about 19 on each side). -find bark or leaves to cover the gaps on the sides.

Summary - The basic materials you need to make a shelter are sticks, sand, rocks, logs and maybe others. - When finding a place to set up your shelter try to find a place that you can signal easily and there is no wild animal. - Make sure the sticks sticks you find are not weak and can break easily. easily. - When finished making the shelter take a step back and see if a wild animal will attack it. - Make sure when you finish your shelter is strong and should keep you safe.

SIGNALLING INTRODUCTION There are many ways to make signals. Including fire which is a primary use. With rubber  you can make a massive fire if you put the fire on the rubber on the fire it becomes big black smoke.

TYPE OF MATERIALS TO MAKE SIGNALS WITH: . There are many ways to make signals with, and lots of materials you can use fire, metal and clothing items. Fire: you can make fire with rope ,rocks, sticks and many other materials. Once you’ve made the fire keep putting the wood on the fire. Then if you have rubber. Put the rubber on the fire to make it become big black smoke. Keep putting wood on to retain size. Metal: metal is one of the most best ways to signal but but very useful if you get it right. get the piece of metal reflect the sun practise on a tree at start then when a helicopter or  airplane comes by get the reflection refl ection on the viewing window. Clothing items: You can use clothing items to make signals with. Flags are easy to make. You can wave your cloths around Put your shirt on a sick and jokes on your head

CONSTRUCTING SIGNALS: I am going to talk to you about constructing fire, Rock signals and flag signals Fire: you can rub rope and sticks together and you can get a log and put the stick in t he log and twist the stick. If you do this for long enough you will make fire. Rock signals: You can make words out of rocks like sos something colourful will stand out Flag signals: you can use sticks and cloths or just wave something around. You can also put different flags or put rocks down to tell

SIGNALLING AT SEA: Wave cloths: If a plain goes over, you get your shirt and wave it around. Hope that the pilot sees your shirt when your your in the sea. in the sea Keeping warm: a great way to keep warm is to keep still so you don’t get to tiered if you are stuck for a while you need to maintain your floating or you could drown. Lookforlights:youneedtolook:Youne Lookforlights:youne edtolook:Youneedtolookoutfor edtolookoutforlightsespecia lightsespeciallyatnighttime llyatnighttime.Youalso .Youalso needtolookoutforanynoiseit needtolookoutforanynoiseitmaybeanobviouspoint maybeanobviouspointbutifyoudon’tyou butifyoudon’tyoumightnotnowhow mightnotnowhow close youaretosafety.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion signalling is a very useful strategy . The main things you need to know you should of just read. Now you should know about constructing signals making signals and that it can save your life.

SNOW SURVIVAL Snow is fun and enjoyable winter wonderland but being caught by surprise when a natural disaster strikes it’s no fun at all so survival is a key factor when faced with these sorts of  conditions. To survive well you need to know the slopes well and know what resources with these conditions; face away from the avalanche and stop snow from entering your  lungs. While reading about this topic you’ll learn how to survive in a winter wonderland disasters, or icy deserts gone wild. You’ll also learn about various pieces of equipment that are needed to help you live li ve through snap frozen conditions.

Equipment is vital in these conditions whether or not it’s lame! Certain types of equipment will help you to melt ice/snow, catch food or climb a snow-covered mountain. Objects such as lighters and ice picks are the sort of thing that can help you melt snow/ice, help you climb icy mountain sides or cliffs, create shelters to protect from animals and feisty blizzards but there are two things the shelter can’t protect you from; sea animals and breaking ice. The other objects that a usually suspected for use are food catchers, knives or shovels that would be useful for cutting objects into pieces, killing/catching food and digging your way out of anything covered in snow. Those objects can also be used to make clothing from animal fur or skin that will be insulating and life lasting. Handy contraptions are also the key to sustain your survival so it’s vital to have these in your  survival kit. These useful little devices for example knives, lighters and ice pickswill help you though any destructive disaster or wild wintery weather.

Knowing when, where and why these wintery disasters happen on snowy mountains or in Polar Regionsis the key solution to prevention or not getting hit by a speedy avalanche or  a squally blizzard.  Avalanches – avalanches avalanches usually occur on mountains mountains in North America or Canada and and on mountains that have an angle of 25 to 60 degrees; we might not realize it but t here are over 1 000 000 avalanches per years. Their main cause is, believe it or not, humans: as their camps and climbing dislodge a slab on snow. The slab then starts to fall and smashes like glass taking more snow for the ride down the mountain. Few others occur  without warning however, there are few signs to tell you when snow will race towards you; to illustrate, a snowstorm will usually trigger the avalanche. An avalanche is a speedy

formless mass that affects millions and kills 150 people every year. Once the snow slide stops its sets like concrete and only 93% of survivors are rescued within 15 minutes of the avalanche stopping. Blizzards – blizzards ( also known as large snow storms ) occur in North America and Canada or anywhere where the ground temperature is below 0 degrees and the air  temperature is below freezing. Further more snow areas where to the snow formation conditions are perfect is the very place where most blizzards happen. Although these are like normal snowstorms they affect over 2.5 million people per year. Some dangers to beware of are: heavy snowfall followed by rapid melting can cause flooding, can effect transport routes, cause vehicle accidents, hypothermia and fires. Knowing when these occur, why and where these happen will help you to not get caught and remember to always check the weather forecast before planning your journey.

What’s the weather going to be today? Hot? Cold? Warm? Cloudy?...WRONG!  Very cold with a few snow showers. Weather on the mountains is very  unpredictable from a sunny glare it can turn to blinding fog in seconds. The snow  is of a similar state; unpredictable: there are three different types of snow  - Old snow: is good for stability especially  when it’s thick enough to cover natural  anchors. -

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New snow: is suspected as dangerous so always stay on alert when around  these conditions. Crystal snow: is snow that is made up of many different flake types and shapes (such as the pellet or the needle) creating dangerous and slippery conditions

Not only that, the temperature on snowy mountains is very unpredictable as it ranges from 20 – 25 degrees in summer to -20 degrees in winter and while snowfall might last f or most  of the year, its very rare to see snow falling i n summer due to the temperature. In some cases, snowfall was reported so heavy that many main mountain roads were closed and  all cars had to carry wheel chains while driving up the mountain. Knowing what types of  snow are safe or not and what temperature are in which season will help you to survive I  the snow and prolong your health.

Food and water are vital to survival to help sustain a healthy body, but where do you find them and how do you sustain you health? Its not easy finding food or water in snowy areas or even Polar Regions for that matter. The climate in any polar region is to cold for most animals to stay in so they’re driven to someplace warmer and most lakes are frozen due to freezing temperatures. The best chance you’ve got is finding a frozen lake that contains fish and obviously water.as you can see food and water is a scarce but when in places like  Antarctica or the Artic its easier its find food as there is more frozen frozen lakes and polar bears.

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StormsinAustralia Introduction The two most common and deadliest storms in Australia are cyclones and floods. If you need to survive one of these horrendous storms, these next few pages could save your  life. It will tell you the warning signs of storms, what shelter you need, surviving tips and the first few things that you should do when trying to survive one of these dangerous and horrible storms.

Cyclones  A cyclone is a low pressure area area in the atmosphere when the winds winds spiral inwards. Cyclones can be the size of half of America or only 274 meters wide, when they are this small they are usually called tornadoes. In the Southern hemisphere the cyclones turn in a clockwise direction and in the Northern hemisphere the winds turn in an anti clockwise direction. Cyclones can travel up to 386 to 1,930 kilometres per day. In Australia cyclones mainly occur in Exmouth, Broome, W.A and Queensland. Because a cyclone strikes with terrible force f orce it can cause a huge amount of damage when it’s violent winds can destroy buildings, homes, huge trees and it’s strong winds can even lift up and throw any auto mobile and other really large objects long distances. A cyclone can also lead to other disasters like flooding, heavy rain and fires.

Floods  A flood is when the water level in the creek , river, lake or sea rises or gets over filled to high and the water usually covers most of the dry land. Many different things can cause a flood; the most common one in Australia is heavy rainfall. In Australia floods mainly occur  in the Eastern States. When there is a flood you can’t easily get any transportation because bridges collapse, cars cannot drive through the high water levels and the only way to get around safely is by helicopters, boats and rafts.  A flood can leave many people people and families homeless and can can destroy all of their  belongings. A flood can lift up and carry their whole house kilometres away from its land.

Howtosurvive Cyclones You can tell when a cyclone is coming when the sky has low dark clouds and really strong winds. Also if you have pets you can tell when a cyclone is approaching by if you’re dog is looking really anxious and scared and your cat will be really hard to find. Also if you don’t live near a train station and you hear a really loud train whistle right outside your house. It means it is a cyclone. The first thing that you should do when a cyclone is approaching is gather all your family and loved pets with you. Bring a mobile phone with you and hide straight in the bathtub. If  you hide in the bathtub the pipes and tiles will protect you. If you can try and get a mattress and place it over yourself in the bathtub, this will protect you from falling debris. Stay hidden in the bathtub until you know it’s safe, you can tell when it i s safe when you can’t hear any loud noises or banging. If any of your family is seriously injured call for help straight away.

Floods If you can hear really loud and heavy rain in your area, make sure that you turn on your  radio or TV for information. If you feel like the flood is going to be really bad then immediately move to higher ground. Turn off your electrical power points or main switch board and remove electrical appliances. But remember do not remove any electrical appliances if you are wet or  standing in water. If you have any outdoor furniture that you can easily take inside to a safe part of your house like an attic or basement do so as quickly as possible. If you need to get to higher ground do not drive threw flooded areas because your car will just get stuck and then if more water comes you and your car will get swept away. Once you have reached higher ground and you can tell that the flooding has stopped, return to your home and listen to the radio or TV to make sure that it is perfectly safe.

Conclusion In this book you have learnt some valuable information like: •

What a flood and cyclone is.



Where they mainly happen.



The damage they can cause.



Warning signs of floods and cyclones and how to survive them.

 A survival kit is a bag or package package of survival tools, food, water and first aid equipment. equipment. Usually survival kits will be supplied in military aircraft, life boats and spacecraft. They are very useful in life or death situations such as in the bush or a forest being lost at sea or  trying to survive in the snow or living in a burning desert or starving on an island. If you’re stuck anywhere at any time a survival kit will always help.

Having a survival kit is probably one of the most important parts of surviving in any situations. Survivalist recommended keeping a few different survival kits in different places depending on how big or small the kit is. A good idea would be keeping one in your pocket, one in at home, another one at work and one in your mode of transport for example car, bike or  motorbike. Carrying survival kits are crucial for your survival even though the t he smallest survival kits are still very valuable in any survival situations.

The most important things you will need will be these few things. You will usually bring it in side of a bag, package or supplied in your survival kit. You will need these 5 basic things and they are:

-=FIRST AID KIT=First aid kits are vital for your survival. You will need it if you’re bleeding, cut, broke a bone or for minor injuries and major injuries

-=MULTI-TOOL=There are many different types of multi-tools. For example Leatherman or a Swiss Army Knife. There will be quite a lot of tools and gadgets. gadgets. Inside of that one tool.

-=FLINT =Is a rock with metal elements and when struck with iron or steel. It will still make sparks if  wet or in the rain. The difference between matches and flint is that matches can only be struck and lit once but flint can be struck as many times as possible.

-=WATER PURIFIER= A water purifier is a stainless steel tube that will get rid of all of the bacteria in the water. water. It will be very useful if you run out of water and the water that you find is dirty.

-=ROPE, WIRES AND SNARES=-

You might meed 60-90cm of rope, wire or snare to solve many survival problems. These are some of the 5 main things that will increase your chance of surviving in the wild and many different things as well.

Pack a survival pouch which is too big to fit in your own pocket but keep it in an easy access place in case of an emergency. If you’re on foot keep it out side of your back-pack or carry it on your belt. Your pouch should contain fuel, food survival bag and signalling kit, all packed into one mess tin which protects the content inside and doubles as a cooking utensil. If you fancy a drink or snack, it will be all in your pouch and in an emergency it supplies you with a first aid kit. Anything you use in your pouch will have to be restocked as soon as possible.

-=POUCH=The pouch must be made from a strong waterproof material and be large enough to fit a mess tin. It must have a secure fastening that won’t come undone and a solid tunnel loop to hold it on your belt. Remember your pouch contains matches, solid fuel and flares. They are all life savers but be careful treat them with caution. If you ever have any problems with surviving in the bush a survival pouch will always make your life of surviving a bit easier than if you didn’t have one. When you’re in a survival situation, a survival kit or pouch will always make your chances of surviving in the wilderness to easy. You will have to restock the items quite frequently if  damaged or broken. A survival kit or pouch is one of the most important tool in survival.

TOOLS

Tools we all know that there vital for survival. Some survival tools can come in kits but would you know what to buy if you’re buying them separately. You would want to buy different Hunting Knives, or Swiss/Multi-Tool Knives, you would also want to consider the safety tools such as First Aid kits or Water Purifiers. In this chapter you will find out about these tools and others.

Knives Knives… there the first Survival Tool that pops into most of our heads. There’s many main knives but three of them are the Swiss Army knives, Multi-Tools and Hunting Knives.

Swiss Army Knives The Swiss Knife originally got its name from the Swiss, but they were called Swiss Officers Knives. This was until it got nicknamed by the American soldiers during WWII when the thought Schweizer Offizersmeser meant Swiss Army Knife so they adopted the term.

Victorinox Victorinox is the original Swiss Army Knife. It was founded in the town of Ibach in Switzerland. In 2005 Victorinox acquired their main rival Wenger. Victorinox have been the sole supplier to the Swiss Army since 1884.

Wenger  Wenger is a genuine Swiss Army Knife created in Delmont, Switzerland in 1893. In 2005 Wenger were acquired by Victorinox (there main rival), now they operate under  Victorinox’s License.

Hunting Knives Hunting Knives are used when hunting knives are adapted for other uses in the wild like a camp knife, a machete, a hatchet or a survival knife.

Survival Knives Survival knives are knives intended for survival purposes when in the wilderness, they are often used in emergency situations, such as when you’ve lost your equipment. Military services now issue high tech Survival knives to the army, the Navy and the Air force. Survival knives have many uses but some of the main things they are used for is trapping, cutting wood, hunting and skinning. Some people choose to buy locked in place heavy bladed and thick bladed knives for heavy duty jobs or expeditions, where others choose light weight or fold in knives to save weight when going on long expeditions. Sometimes some knives have a hollow handle to store or hold matches, notes to family or other small

things. This idea is credited to Jimmy Lile, Bo Randall and Chris Reeve. Majority of  Hunting/Survival Knives are designed to set traps, cut branches and skin or hunt animals so the blade tends to be 10cm long – 20cm long. There are many different survival knives some include ASEK knives which are knives designed to cut through metal when in a crash. Another useful survival knife is Bear Grylls survival series which are light weight sturdy knives.

Which Knife is the Best? There are many different knives to chose from and most of them are good but which one is the best? Well that depends on what expedition/trip your going on. Multi-Tools  A Victorinox SwissChamp is an an amazing alrounder with 36 tools in total but really quite quite heavy. A Victorinox Camper maybe, it really does depend on what your doing. There are also models like the SwissChamp or Camper but in different brands. Personally I think the best multi-tool is either a Victorinox Huntsman or Ranger, a Wenger Evolution 17 or a Leatherman Freestyle. Hunting/Survival Knives  Again it depends on what expedition expedition your going on but I personally personally believe that Bear Grylls Ultimate Survival Fixed Blade (with Sheet) is the best as it has the Knife (4.8”) plus a firestarter Knife Sharpener and a whistle on the Lanard.

Water Purification  A survivalmust is clean water but but would you be able to geet clean water. water. You would want to have a portable water purifier. Which id used for purifying awter when there is no drinkable awter.These devics remo ve toxins,chlorine, bad tastes, oders and metal substances.

Hazards of Non Purified Water  Therede are manyreasons not to just drink water from a streem. It could be polluted with sewage effluent or surface runoff. Even small psrings/wells can contain animal waste or  pathogens. The water could also possibly contain bacteria, protozoa or insect larve, which can all cause death or illness.

Katadyn Pocket Water Purifier  There are many water purifiers out there but one of those purifiers is a small lightweight purifier named the Katadyn Pocket. It is made by swiss brand Katadyn. It is extremely long lasting purifier which will even work in extreme climates/Conditions. It is made out of heavy duty materials is still light weight. The Pocket amazingly will 50000Ltrs of water before needing to be washed.

Tools used to Hunt There are many different survival tools but three tools that can be made are Axes, Spears and Fishing Rods.

Axes  Axes have been used used for millenia’s and they are an important survival survival tool. It can be used shape to shape, split or cut wood/branches. There are many forms of axes double sided, Single sided or a splitter. Modern axes have steel heads with either wooden handles, fiberglass handles, or plastic handles. A tommerhawk is basically a small, Military Tomahawks are light weight and fold up.

Spears Spears are a pole Weapon/Tool made out of wood often the pointed end will be made of  molded metal but easier way to make them that.

Fishing Rods Fishing Rods are made of either flexible fiberglass, carbonfibre, graphite or classically bamboo or sticks. The Simplist is a stick with a line and a hook attached.

Making Tools Spear: 1. Colloect a long long dry straight stick (roughly 1m 50 long). long). 2. Find the the easiest easiest end end to carve. 3. Using a simple Pocket Pocket knife to carve the end into a point. point. Make sure to carve away from you. Axes: 1. Collect a teardrop shaped shaped flat rock, a small small sharp rock, a long strong stick (1mlong, 5cm in diameter) a knife and some twine. 2. Using the sharp rock rock chisel at the base of the teardrop teardrop to make an edge. 3. Using the knife knife split the stick down the middle from the top for 12cm 4. Place or jam the teardrop into into were you’ve you’ve split the stick. 5. Using the twine (or what what eve string like material)secure the axe head to it in X pattern. 6. Secure the split at the top and bottom by rapping the twine around the split until secure. Fishing Rod: 1. Collect a 1.5m long stick, a small rock, Twine and either a sharp bit of stick, a hook or a sharp bit of bone. 2. Attach the hook onto onto the ned of the the twine and the rock in the middle (this will act as a sinker). 3. Cut a 3cm long slit at th top of the stick. 4. Jam the twine into the the slit so it wont move move but make sure sure you leave a 5cm-6cm poking of the slit. 5. Tie a knot that is larger than the slit with with the 5cm left at the top.

Fire Fire can be started in many ways ways but these three tools can be used used to start one a Fire Starter(Flint and Steel), Flint and Matches/Lighter.

Fire Starter  Fire Starters or Flint and Steel have been used since the Iron Age. They were a lot more common prior to the invention of matches.The name Fire starter has only come around recently with the invention of having a rod of flint and a striker together  or attached to each other. A fire sstarter consists of flint and steel striking each other and causing a spark.

Flint Flint is a sedimentary Cryptocrystalline in the form of mineral quartz. It occurs mainly as module masses in sedimentary rocks such as limestones. Inside nodules it is a dark grey or black. It is also found in a fire fir e starter kit which contains a steel striker and a rod of flint.

Matches/Lighters Matches are tools used for starting fires in controlled conditions. The 1st match was invented in china in 577 AD. A match catches on fire by being striken against sandpaper to cause fiction. A lighter is a portable device that consists of a small steel roll stricking flint which causes a spark which alights the wick or Liquid.

Summary  Always bring a knife when going on on an expedition. Bring a heavy-bladed thick knife when going on a heavy duty job or expedition. Bring a light-weight fold in knife when going on long hikes or expeditions. The best knife to bring on an expedition depends on what you’re doing. Never drink water from a stream or a water source were a cacus is nearby.  Always get a extremely good quality quality water purifier (It’s worth the extra cash).  Always carry two fire devices on you at all times make sure ones water proof. If Stranded keep you wits about you and use you knowledge to build or find the things you learnt I this chapter 

There aren’t many things that are horrific as tornadoes. They can practically terminate anything; they’re even strong enough to collapse. They’re also known as twisters, cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes. You need to go underground somewhere, that way the tornado can’t catch you. So this clearly demonstrates that tornadoes are one of the worst natural disasters.

Whenever the air is getting heated, it starts to become bigger yet lighter. The heated lighter air normally rises when the heavier air is much colder than the heated lighter air, they form a tornado because when warm and cool air collide they swirl and make a tornado. The name for a tornado does matter on where it originated from and which country because America calls them either tornadoes or hurricanes, Australia calls it either  cyclones or tornadoes and Asia just calls them typhoons. So really most countries call them tornadoes.

The atmosphere can be said to be a blanket of air so it feels like nothing, it surrounds the globe A.K.A. the earth. A tornado is also formed by different types of weather. A tornado is one of the main focuses in weather. Shining brightly throughout the atmosphere the sun’s vigour (energy) can move and push the air and water around the sturdy world. Around the world right now there is roughly 2000 thunderstorms, guess what, some thunderstorms can even cause tornadoes! So really tornadoes can be made by pressure and different types of weather 

 As a start lots of tornadoes have been reported, named and seen in most parts of the world. I’m certain that you know a part of USA has an alley called Tornado Alley. Tornado  Alley in USA has been known as having most tornadoes than anywhere else throughout the world. Quite a lot of warm moist and air floats up and in Gulfs Mexico. In the same precise time quite a lot of cold and dry air drifts down from Canada. Both bits of air normally collide above Tornado Alley. Basically no mountain range can completely slow them down; they mix extremely fast making violently massive thunderstorms.

Tornadoes can happen randomly throughout the year anytime and anywhere, yet they do seem to happen certain times in the year. Tornadoes mainly occur throughout the year  during late spring or early summer. In this time it mainly happens through noon to midnight, it happens after the day has reached its maximum temperature. To work out why this happens and why it’s important, we have to look further, deeper and more closely into our atmosphere.

Ok rule one never build a tornado proof house because #1 too expensive and #2 takes extra-long to build, so honestly the safest place to be when a tornado attacks is mainly underground. Lots of houses schools and hospitals that are in a tornado area usually have very well protected underground shelters. Many families, workers and students practice getting into shelters if a tornado strikes and the goal is to do it quickly and calmly as possible. This set task is called a tornado drill. If there’s absolutely no underground shelter  (basement) then the best place to be is probably the smallest room in your entire house.

In total the names of tornadoes mainly depends on where it originated or which country it comes from, some thunderstorms can cause tornadoes, there’s an area in USA called Tornado Alley, tornadoes usually happen in late spring or early summer and never build a tornado proof house because #1 it’s too expensive and #2 takes too long. To sum it up tornadoes are deadly, horrific, terrifying and causes destruction.

Traps and Snares Introduction Traps are an essential part of most survival techniques. For a survivor trapped in the wilderness, traps may be the only means of getting food. By setting up a number of well placed traps, which you should check regularly, you could save a tremendous amount of energy. Should you become sick, the game trapped around your camp will still be there when you return to your healthy self.

Types of traps: Deadfall There are two main types of traps. A deadfall is the easiest of all traps to construct, but can be advanced or modified if the constructor is smart enough. The idea is simple, a long rock or log propped up by a stick with a cord attached to it. You place some bait under the rock or log and then you wait. When an animal comes, tug on the cord, the rock or log will crush the animal and dinner is served.

Types of traps: Spring Snare The spring snare is a more advanced type of trap. It is used to trap small game and hang them in mid air by their feet. Unlike the deadfall, this trap will not crush or mangle the game’s body, this will definitely make less mess and make it easier on the eyes.

Note worthy Before silencing an animal it may be more humane to knock it out before killing it. There are four angles to traps 1. Mangle 2. Strangle 3. Dangle 4. Tangle 1. A deadfall mangles 2. The snare will strangle 3. Springy saplings can make a trap more efficient and take the game up into the air- it dangles 4. A net tangles Some traps combine two or more of these principals.

How to make a Spring Snare Before constructing any trap, first you must be familiar with the species you intend to catch. When looking for a spot to set up a trap search for the following: runs and trails, tracks, droppings, chewed or rubbed vegetation, nesting or roosting sites, feed or watering areas. To make a spring snare you will need two hooked shaped sticks, some string, a rock weighing between 10-20kg and some bait. Start by hammering the two sticks into the ground with about a rulers length between them. Be sure to do this under a strong limb of a tree. Toss the string over the limb and tie it to the

rock using a tough knot. Make a simple adjustable noose, hook it under the two sticks and place a smelly piece of bait in the centre of the noose. Make sure to leave no sign of your presence and your trap is done.

Summary From reading this information you will have learned much about the different types of traps and how to construct them and also about their importance in survival. Do not use this information on anyone or thing unless in a true survival situation, for a trap may save your life but end something elses.

VOLCANOES Some famous volcanoes are MT Versurius, Krakatoa, Mt st Helena and Thera. When the rock from the mantle melts, it moves up to surface through the crust, which releases gases and the volcanoes erupts.

LAVA Lava is made out of volcanic glass, crystals and bubbles (volcanic gases). When lava erupts out of the volcano it is made out of crystals, liquid and bubbles.

MOLTEN LAVA Molten lava is made out of rock heated up to 700°C, when it reaches the surface scientists call it molten lava. There are many types of molten lava, which depends on the rocks chemical structure. Molten lava is like li ke syrup, because it is very viscous compared to water, molten lava is 100 000 times viscous then water.

MAGMA Magma is a high temperature fluid that can range up to 700°C to 1300°C.

MAGMA CHAMBER The chamber is a pool of liquid rock under the Earth’s surface. If it reaches the surface it makes the volcano erupt. The magma chamber is hard to detect, but is close to the Earth’s surface, between 1km and 10km under the surface.

GASES Volcanic gases can be poisonous and dangerous to people when concentrate. Hydrochloric acid vapour can damage eye and lung tissues, it can even kill you.

EFFECTS BY GASES The gases are harmful to plants and animals. When the gas makes a gas which is water  and toxic chemicals which can turn into acid rain,that is deadly to plants.

Volcanoes can be very deadly and can harm villages vill ages near it, the gases could harm and poison people.

FindingWater INTRODUCTION ‘Finding Water’- A whole lot of questions pop into mind. Well in this chapter almost all those questions will be answered. Anywhere you are water is close by. You just need to know where and how far away it is. Water is vital to life, no water, no life. lif e. If  you’re out in the desert you may think there’s no water but if you think deeper water  is all around us. Underground is a great place to look or just follow the right animal tracks. But water isn’t all about survival it can mean death in any situation. So read on and find out more about this vital yet dangerous liquid.

DRINKABLE WATER

WHERE TO LOOK

The main thing you think about is if the water is ok to drink. Well, the main thing look for the water is fresh or  tastes fine. If the water is tasteless and clear I can assure you that 95% of the time it will be fine to drink but you may need to filter it first.

Bees are a certain sign of water.  Although you may need to look look for  further indications before finding certain water and that brings us to our  next indication for if water is nearby and that is Wild Pigeons. If they are flying low and swift they are looking for  water but if they are flying from tree to tree they are coming back from a drink. The best way to collect water in a wet habitat is but making a bucket and leaving it under a tree with big drooping leaves or out in the open to get fresh rainwater for when it rains but make sure you keep an eye on it otherwise some wild animals are likely to get into it and after that you may not want to drink it. In mountains try looking for water trapped in crevices but look out for dangerous spiders or  insects hidden in these cracks. Grazing animals are never far from water but some travel thousands of  miles to get away from the dry season so it’s probably best not to follow them all the time. If you see ants climbing up a tree they are most likely going towards trapped water so ants are a good indication.

 Always boil water that has come from pools to get rid of any unnecessary bacteria that could make you sick. The first place to look is in valley bottoms because that is where water  naturally drains. But if there is clearly no water nearby try looking for green vegetation and dig there because plants need water to survive, just like all of us, so therefore water is nearby that is helping the plants to survive. So what you’re mainly looking for is water almost exactly the same the water that we’re used to drinking in our  homes from our taps or water-tanks.

HOW TO PURIFY AND GET WATER CONDENSATION Evaporation from leaves will produce water. Choose healthy vegetation such as bushy branches and tie a small, clear plastic bag around that bunch of leaves and wait a while (a couple of days) and this will produce a little amount of water that will be ok to drink. DIAGRAM OF CONDENSATION IN A BAG-

If you have any doubt whatsoever about the water you have collected the best advice to follow is to either boil it or if it is really bad it’s probably best not to drink it at all just in case of any nasty bacteria that could make you sick.

CONCLUSION To sum up, just about any water can be purified and found and always be ok to drink so don’t stress out if you are stuck out in the middle of nowhere and don’t know what to drink because there’s always a way you can get good water!

REAPING THE WATER There’s more to a creek than you may think, under a bush, a cattle Egret. Nestled in an underwater cavern, a school of trout. A feast waits, if you can hunt. You’ll need hooks, nets, knives and a strong stomach, because there will be guts, skin, scales, feathers and blood. Still, no-one will deny you the drumsticks.

FISHING Fish are an ideal source of food to stay alive; they are full of protein, fats, oils, flavour and are satisfying. Fish are also evasive and have the advantage of having light refraction (the water refracts light, making the fish see like a shattered mirror, so they can see you even if you can’t see them). However, with the right equipment, fish will become easier to catch.

HOOKS The most common way of angling (or fishing) is by rod, line and hook. Line and Hook is just as effective. Of  course, neither of these options would work without a hook. Making a hook is simple and can use anything sharp or that can be carved (such as bulsor wood). You can make hooks from pins, thorns, nails, bone and wood. To make hooks from pins, if using stickpin, bend the pin into a hook shape, if using a safety pin, simply open the pin (bend little if necessary). necessary). Thorns can be used singularly or in bunches (they still need to be attached tostem). To make bunch of thorns (or “Harpoon”) tie together at the stem, then use remaining string for line. Nails need to be attached to a base, and then the base is attached to the line. Wood and bone are easy to carve (but best to soak in water before carving, makes the material softer). For line, you can use rope, wire, twine, string or even your own hair.

TIP It is best to fish at dawn or dusk, when fish come out to feed.

PREPARING FISH When Fish is caught, stab it through the head of cut its throat. Fish will flail around for a short time, then go still. This is a natural nerve reflex. To gut fish, make long incision from throat to anus (or, yes, bum) and remove entrails (when done quickly, you won’t gag). Cut out the gills. To scale a fish, run the knife from its tail to its head. Repeat around the fish.Scaling is not necessary, but is good to do if you have extra time. Some species of fish (such as Catfish, Eels and Leatherjackets) need to be skinned. To skin, skewer through head and position so the tail is pointing down. Slice around throat, then grip skin around the cut and pull downward.

WARNING! When fishing, if a dark green fish with yellow eyes and a spike on its head is caught, DO NOT TOUCH THAT SPIKE! This fish is called the Leatherjacket (due to its leathery hide). The spike is full of poison and if spiked, the area will become septic (infected), which could stagger your effort to stay alive. Once horn is removed, however, fish is highly edible and delicious.

BIRDS Water birds have a similar flavour (and sometimes consistency) of common meat like turkey and chicken and sometimes provide more protein, fat or oil. They also provide eggs, which are incredibly good for you. Birds also take flight at the slightest disturbance. Stealth and plans are needed to catch these swift, beautiful creatures. When caught, however, they make a swift, beautiful lunch.

CATCHING BIRDS To find how to trap birds, refer to the chapter on traps. There are two simple ways to catch waterbirds without creating delicate snares. snares. Checks need to be made beforehand to ensure that just the bird will die in the process, but if done correctly, you will have a bird at the end of the procedure . No. 1- Now you see me, now you don’t!You need to quietly (without making too many ripples) swim under the bird in question, grab it by the legs, pull it under with you and swim back to shore. Simple as it sounds, this can get out of hand very quickly. Deep water, long weeds, other, more aggressive water inhabitants (such as crocodiles) crocodiles) or an aggressive target may make it harder to return to shore (or live, for that matter). Checks will be necessary before hand. Get a long stick (5 meters at the shortest) and place it as close to the middle of the pond as possible. The amount of stick submerged will give you a rough clue as to how deep the water is. If all the stick is submerged and the bottom is out of the question, then using a trap may be easier. The same stick can be waved around in the water. If no reeds are on it, then you are unlikely to be strangled, a few reeds, more possible, loads of reeds, you’re in trouble. Crocs are more likely to lurk in rivers or creeks, not billabongs or pools. Using the same stick still, bash the surface of the water. If anything surfaces, surfaces, then don’t risk it. No.2- Save the children!A mother bird on a nest is easy pickings. Look around. If you see bird tracks, follow them. Look under bushes and in holes. When you see a bird, seize it at the neck. Wring the neck and take the eggs.

PREPARING WATERBIRDS There are two ways to gut a bird. You could A. Stick your hand up its bum and pull them out, or B. Use the fish gutting technique. Pluck the bird (relieve it of its feathers) and remove the skin if food is plentiful. Once cooked (see cooking chapter) enjoy, but chop its head off first. Bones are dangerous to eat but can be re-used as fish hooks and will provide more food.

SUMMARY If you are starving, find a waterway. It will provide food as well as water, and even possibly shelter. shelter. If you find dead animals and fish around the waterway, try to find another one and don’t eat any of the carrion (dead creatures). They may be poisoned (by the water way) or carry disease. Heed the information from this handbook and STAY ALIVE.

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