Survey Research in Public Health
Health education plays a pivotal role in creating awareness among the masses, and survey research in public health for...
in Public Health
Re p generaort tion
P. Ramachandran • C.A.K. Yesudian K.R. Thankappan • P. Sankara Sarma
SURVEY RESEARCH IN PUBLIC HEALTH P. Ramachandran, C.A.K. Yesudian, K.R. Thankappan and P. Sankara Sarma
© 2012 by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN-978-81-203-4595-9 The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.
Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus, New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Raj Press, New Delhi-110012.
SURVEY RESEARCH AND THE APPLICATIONS PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEY: THE BASICS 4 Survey Research in Public Health Practice 4 WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT FORMAT OF THE BOOK 7 Chapter 2
PROBLEM FORMULATION Introduction 9 PROBLEM FORMULATION: THE STEPS 9 Identifying Probable Problems for Research 10 Selecting a Problem for Study 10 Formulating the Objectives of the Study 11 Clarifying the Objectives 11 THE FIVE EXAMPLES 16 Example One: Child Health and Related Issues 17 Example Two: Adolescent Health and Related Issues Example Three: Women’s Health and Related Issues Example Four: Non Communicable Diseases and Related Issues 25 Example Five: Communicable Diseases and Related Issues 26
RESEARCH STRATEGY RESEARCH STRATEGY: THE STEPS 28 Step One: Generic Research Strategy 28 Step Two: Specific Research Designs 33 THE FIVE EXAMPLES 34 iii
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
INTERVIEW METHOD 35 Interviewing Techniques and Tools 37 Questionnaire Method 43 Difference between Questionnaire and Interview Schedule 43 THE FIVE EXAMPLES 44 Example One: Child Health and Related Issues Exercises 45 Chapter 5
POPULATION AND SAMPLE 47 Population 47 Sample 48 Census Survey and Sample Survey 48 SAMPLE SELECTION 56 Some Concepts in Sampling 56 Sample Frame 56 Sampling Procedures 57 THE FIVE EXAMPLES 61 Example 1. Child Health and Related Issues 61 Example 2. Adolescent Health and Related Issues 62 Example 3. Women’s Health and Related Issues 62 Example 4. Non-communicable Diseases and Related Issues 63 Example 5. Communicable Diseases and Related Issues Exercises 63 Chapter 6
ANALYSIS DESIGN Exercises
FIELD DATA COLLECTION RESEARCH STUDY: STAGES 70 Recruiting and Training Field Investigators Data Collection 73 Coding 82 HOW TO CODE 83 Open Questions 84 Code Book 85 Exercises 90
COMPUTER DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS USING SPSS
COMPUTER DATA ENTRY AND PROCESSING 92 Creating Files for Computerised Data Processing 92 DATA ANALYSIS 99 Univariate Analysis 99 SEEKING ASSOCIATIONS 103 Bivariate Analysis 103 Tests of Association 104 Exercises 107 Chapter 9
COMPUTER DATA PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS USING EPIINFO
COMPUTER DATA ENTRY AND PROCESSING 109 Creating Variable Names and Code Book 109 Creating Files for Computerised Data Processing 112 DATA ANALYSIS 115 Univariate Analysis 116 Seeking Associations 117 Chapter 10
THE AUDIENCE 120 Researchers and Academicians 120 Community Leaders 121 Policy Makers 121 FORMAT OF A TYPICAL RESEARCH REPORT FOR PUBLIC HEALTH 122 Electronic Citations 125 Chapter 11
PLANNING FOR ACTION
PLANNING 127 Steps in Planning 127 Process of Planning 130 CONCLUSION 133 Exercises 133 References Index
There is an evident need for introductory, elementary yet sound material which the students and the practitioners alike can master in a relatively short period of time and apply them for their dissertation work as well as use them in the field for planning public health programmes. This book is for the public health students and practitioners as well as for teachers and trainers who engage their students and trainees in public health research. The aim of this book is to guide and help the students in conducting research works in public health. The gap this book aims to fill is the short, easy to readable manual which instructors may give to their students or trainees to be used in executing field studies within the restrictive time frame. The postgraduate and doctoral students learn substantially about research methods including knowledge about survey research. But when it comes to apply this knowledge into their dissertations and theses, the students are unable to visualize and apply the same. Gaining knowledge of survey research is something different from translating it into survey research skills and applying it to their dissertations and theses. This book aims to translate the survey research knowledge into a set of simple survey research skills. Public health practitioners come across problems in the field for which they do not have ready answers. They would like to look for the tools in the field to address their problems. However, due to their busy schedule they do not have the time to gain ample survey research knowledge. So, this book aims to fulfill this need of the public health practitioners by giving them simple survey research skills in a step-wise manner, which a practitioner can gain during their training period. 1
2 Problem Formulation
Introduction As in music, we begin with sa-re-ga and in learning english, we begin with a-b-c, in research, we begin with problem formulation. This is the most important stage in research. For, this stage has a key role to play in determining the subsequent stages and steps in research. It is the reference point in deciding the general research strategy as well as the specific designs that will be adopted to execute the study. More the effort put into this stage the more productive will be the outcome of the study. The less effort you put into it and more indifferent you are to problem formulation, your fears will increase as you proceed, especially after you have collected all the information that you have decided to gather. For, you will not know what to do with whatever you have collected.
PROBLEM FORMULATION: The Steps The primary function of the problem formulation stage is to decide, as precisely as possible, the research question(s) to be studied. We have to formulate the research problem or rather the research question(s) for which we wish to find answers. This is best done through the following four sequential steps: 1. 2. 3. 4.
Identifying the probable problems or questions for research Selecting the specific research problem or question(s) to study Formulating the objectives of the study Clarifying the objectives of the study 9
SURVEY RESEARCH IN PUBLIC HEALTH RAMACHANDRAN, P. YESUDIAN, C.A.K.THANKAPPAN, K. R. SHARMA, P. SANKARA ISBN: 978-81-203-4595-9 Pages: 152 Price: R 195.00
About The Book Description: Health education plays a pivotal role in creating awareness among the masses, and survey research in public health forms an integral part of the subject. This book is a step-by-step study guide to educate the researchers and the students on how to conduct health surveys and prepare the reports. The book begins with a discussion on health research and its importance. It then moves on to the sensitive, yet most important health research areas like Child Health, Adolescent Health, Women Health, Communicable diseases and Non-communicable diseases, by citing their sample reports. The examples are cited to explain the methods of data collection, research strategies and problem formulation strategies, besides illustrating the methodologies of sample design, analysis design, and field data collection. The book also helps in learning the advanced tools to conduct researches like SPSS statistics software and EpiInfo software. The concluding chapter shows how to write a report skillfully and in an organised manner. The book is intended for the postgraduate students of Public Health, Management, and Social Work. KEY FEATURES : Easy language and simple presentation Sample Examples taken from the Real-Life cases Chapter-end Questions to judge Students knowledge on the subject Contents: Preface Acknowledgements Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Problem Formulation Chapter 3 Research Strategy Chapter 4 Methods of Data Collection Chapter 5 Sample Design Chapter 6 Analysis Design Chapter 7 Field Data Collection Chapter 8 Computer Data Processing and Analysis Using SPSS Chapter 9 Computer Data Processing and Analysis Using EpiInfo Chapter 10 Report Writing Chapter 11 Planning for Action References Index