Surge%20Arrester.pdf

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Reference Book on Surge Arresters A Project ofthe Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, Cables, and Accessories

Iloble Engineering Company 85 Walnut Street Watertown, Massachusetts 02272-9 107 (IJSA)

Telephone: (6 17) 926-4900 Fax: (617) 926-0528

www.doble.con~

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

NOTICE This Reference Publication (the "Reference Book) is solely the property of the Doble Engineering and, along with the subject matter to which it applies, is provided for the exclusive use Company ([email protected]) test equipment and services. of Doble Clients (the "Client") under contractual agreement for ~ o b l e @ In no event does the Doble Engineering Company assume liability for any technical or editorial errors of commission or omission; nor is Doble liable for direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of reliance, inaccurate third party information or the inability of the Client to use this Reference Book properly. Copyright laws protect this Reference Book; all rights are reserved. No part of this Reference Book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without written permission from the Doble Engineering Company. Doble and the Doble logo are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and are trademarks of the Doble Engineering Company. [email protected] is providing the information contained herein for reference purposes only. ~ o b l e @ makes no warranty or representation that the Reference Book will meet the Client's requirements. This Reference Book is intended to provide a basic understanding and general application of the principles set forth herein. Comments contained herein relating to safety represent minimum guidelines, and should never be compromised; however, it is foreseeable that the minimum safety guidelines may be supplemented in order to conform to Client's company safety and compliance regulations. Client is responsible for applying the information contained herein in strict accordance with industry as well as Client's company compliance and safety regulations. The techniques and procedures described herein are based on years of experience with some tried and proven methods. However, the basic recommendations contained should be consulted herein cannot cover all test situations and there may be instances when ~ o b l e @ i s responsible for the MISUSE OR RELIANCE ON THlS PUBLICATION; ANY directly. ~ o b l e @ not OPINIONS CONTAINED HEREIN OR AS A RESULT OF MODIFICATION BY ANYONE OTHER THAN DOBLEB OR AN AUTHORIZED DOBLE REPRESENTATIVE. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, MADE WlTH RESPECT TO THIS REFERENCE BOOK INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. [email protected] DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES NOT STATED HEREIN. IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT MUCH OF THlS INFORMATION (ALTHOUGH OWNED BY [email protected])HAS BEEN COMPILED FROM OR CONVEYED BY THIRD PARTIES WHO IN DOBLE'S REASONABLE ASSESSMENT ARE LEADING AUTHORITIES IN THE INDUSTRY, ALTHOUGH DOBLE HAS REVIEWED THE INFORMATION WlTH REASONABLE CARE, THE VERACITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INFORMATION AND IT'S APPLICATION IS NOT ABSOLUTE. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES WILL DOBLE BE LIABLE TO CLIENT OR ANY PARTY WHO RELIES IN THE INFORMATION FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE USE OR APPLICATION OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED HEREIN, ANY INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EXPENSES, LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR OTHER DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USF OF 08 INABILITY TO USE THlS INFORMATION SUCCESSFULY. Sorne states do not allow the limitation or exclusion of liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply.

0Copyright, 2004 By DOBLE ENGINEERING COMPANY

All Rights Reserved

Preface The Doble Arrester Field Test Guide is a project of the Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, Cables and Accessories, The purpose of this publication is to make available to operating personnel a handbook dealing with the construction of arresters, available field tests and their significance, correlation of field test data, and a bibliography of papers presented at Doble Client Conferences. The Guide does not offer any recommendations of the Committee or the Doble Engineering Conlpany, and the dielectric loss data presented are intended primarily as a guide to assist the test engineer in determining the condition of various makes and types of arresters. This Guide is confined to station, inter~nediate,and distribution arresters of unit construction. The Doble Arrester Field Test Guide is a project of the Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators. The purpose of this publication is to make available to operating personnel a handbook dealing with: the construction of arresters, available field tests and their significance, correlation of field test data, and a bibliography of papers presented at Doble Client Conferences.

The Guide does not offer any recommendations of the Committee or the Doble Engineering Company, and the dielectric loss data presented are intended primarily as a guide to assist the test engineer in determining the condition of various makes and types of arresters. This Guide is confined to station, intermediate, and distribution arresters of unit construction. The following is the membership of the Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators at the time of final approval of this edition:

H. H. Blondet, Chairman N. G. Perrey, Vice Chairman D. J. Kopaczynski, Secretary R. A. Bailey J. F. Barresi R. F. Casey Jose Coronado J. D. Crews H. G , Darrou N. W. Grandy

L F. Milliard J. L Jasmin G. F. Lamprecht G. T. Lautenschlager W. E. Lincoln P. Q. Nelson B. F. Plunk R. C. Price G. B. Soule

72A-1972-01 Rev. I3 7104b

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1

................................................................... 1 Definitions ................................................................................................................ 1

Tests and Significance. Identification Data

1.1

1.2 I.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Surge Arrester* ..................................................................................................... 1 Valve Element* ........................................................................................................ 1 Expulsion Element* ................................................................................................. 1 Series Gap* .............................................................................................................. 1 Valve Arrester* ........................................................................................................1 Expulsion Arrester* ............................................................................................... 1 Voltage Rating* .......................................................................................................1 Arrester Classification* ........................................................................................... 2 Station Class Valve Arresters* ................................................................................2 Intermediate Class Valve Arresters* .......................................................................2 Standard Mountings* ...............................................................................................2 Station and Intermediate arresters......................................................................... 2 3 Distribution Class Valve And Expulsion Arresters* ...............................................

.....................................................................................................................3 Standards..................................................................................................................4 Field Tests and Significance ...................................................................................4 Cautions in Handling ..............................................................................................5 Identification Data ................................................................................................... 7 General Electric .....................................................................................................7 McGraw-Edison Power Systems Division (Formerly Line Material) .............10 General

Ohio Brass ............................................................................................................ 10 Westinghouse ........................................................................................................ 12

2

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

3

................................................................................... 43 General ................................................................................................................... 43

Dielectric-Loss Testing of Arresters

...................................................................................... #.43 .......................................................................................................44 Test Connections....................................................................................................45 Safety in Handling "Suspect" Arresters ............................................................. 46 Summary ................................................................................................................ 46 Analysis of Test Results 'Test Procedure

Tabulations of Dielectric-Loss Test Data for Arresters

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

...........................................................49

4

..........................................................................................................................85 A Design and Application ..................................................................................85 B .Discharge Counters ......................................................................................... 88 C .Dismantling .................................................................................................... 3 9 D .Doble Client Committee (Arresters, Capacitors & Insulators) ..................89 E .Extra-High Voltage ...................................................................*..................... 90 F .Failures and Defects ........................................................................................ 91 G .Field Testing .................................................................................................... 93 H .Infrared Scanning .........................................................................................*.99 I .Life Expectancy ................................................................................................. 99 J .Maintenance and Inspection ........................................................................100 K .Metal-Oxide ................................................................................................... 101

Index of Papers .

...................................................................................................102 ......................................................................................................102 N .Test Data ........................................................................................................103 0 .Test Intervals .................................................................................................106 P .Test Programs ................................................................................................106 Q .Testing and Test Schedules ..........................................................................108 R .Tests And Test Equipment ........................................................................... 109 L .Replacement M Standards

4.14 4.15 4.1 6 4.1 7 4.1 8

DIELECTRIC LOSS ............................................................................................. 1 10 IMPULSE .............................................................................................................. 112 INSULATION RESISTANCE ................................................................................ 1 13 1 13 SPARKOVER ........................................................................................................ TYPES OF TESTS ................................................................................................. 1 13

4.19 s .safety .................... . .............................

. . .......................................a.116

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

dm

Tests and Significance, Identification Data

1.I

Definitions

Surge Arrester* is a protective device for limiting surge voltages on equipment by discharging or bypassing surge current; it prevents continued flow of follow cul-sent to ground and is capable of repeating these functions as specified. NOTE:

The term, ARRESTER, as used in this Guide shall be understood to mean SURGE ARRESTER.

Valve Element* is a resistor that, because of its nonlinear current voltage characteristic, limits the voltage across the arrester terminals during the flow of discharge current and contributes to the limitation of follow current at normal power frequency voltage.

Expulsion Element* is a chamber in which an arc is confined and brought into contact with gas evolving material.

Series Gap* is an intentional gap(s) between spaced electrodes; it is in series with the valve or expulsion element of the arrester, substantially isolating the element fi-om line or ground or both under nosma1 line voltage conditions.

Valve Arrester* is an arrester that includes a valve element.

Expulsion Arrester* is an arrester that includes an expulsion element.

Voltage Rating* is the designated maximum permissible operating voltage between the terminals at which an arrester is designed to perform its duty cycle. It is the voltage rating specified on the nameplate.

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGEARRESTERS

Arrester Classification* is determined by prescribed test requirements. These classifications are: Station Valve Arrester Distribution Expulsion Arrester Intermediate Valve Arrester Secondary Valve Arrester Distribution Valve Arrester Protector Tube

Station Class Valve Arresters* are currently nlanufactured in established industry ratings from 3 to 684 kV, inclusive. By design the power frequency sparkover for modern units shall not be less than 1.35 times rated voltage for assesters rated 60 kV and above and 1.5 times rated voltage for arresters below 60 kV. The discharge withstand current is not less than 100,000 Amperes crest with a surge having a 4 to 8 (front) x 10 to 20 (tail) microsecond wave shape. Also, these arresters are capable of performing specified operating duty cycle tests with an 8 x 20 microsecond discharge current wave of 10,000 Amperes crest. (See also the discussion of 1.1 1.11 STANDARD MOUNTINGS.) "Definitions from ANSI C62.M971/IEEE Std 28-1972, An American National Standard, IEEE Standard for Surge Arresters (Lightning Arresters) for Alternating-Current Power Circuits, January 24, 1972.

lntermediate Class Valve Arresters* are currently manufactured in established industry ratings from 3 to 120 kV, inclusive. The minimum power frequency spark over voltage for modern units is at least 1.5 times rated voltage. The discharge withstand current is not less than 65.000 Amperes crest with a surge having a 4 to 8 (front) x 10 to 20 (tail) microsecond wave shape. Also, these arresters are capable of performing specified operating duty cycle tests with an 8 x 20 microsecond discharge current wave of 5,000 Amperes crest. (See also the discussion of STANDARD MOUNTINGS.)

Standard Mountings* for Station and Intermediate all-esters shall be provided so that: 1. Arresters rated 100 kV or less shall not require bracing; arresters rated higher than 100 kV may require bracing. 2. Arresters shall have provisions for bolting to a flat surface. 3. When required, arresters shall have provisions for suspension mounting.

Station and lntermediate arresters These arresters shall be provided with solder less clamp type line and ground tesminals capable of securely clamping conductor diameters of 1 14 to 314 inch (6 to 20 mrn). Line terminals shall provide for both horizontal and vertical conductor entrance and ground terminals for horizontal conductor entrance only. The terminals and tesminal pads for Station arresters, except those with porcelain tops, shall have two, three, or four holes to accommodate 1 /2 inch bolts, with 72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

holes spaced in 1-314 inch (4.5 cm) centers arranged in a line, a right angle, or a square for the two, three, or four holes, respectively. Distribution Class Valve And Expulsion Arresters*

These arresters are currently manufactured in established industry ratings from 1 through 30 and 3 to 18 kV, respectively. The power frequency spark over for distribution valve arresters shall not be less than 1.5 times rated voltage. The power frequency withstand voltage for distribution expulsion arresters shall be 1.5 times rated voltage tested dry for one minute and tested wet for ten seconds. The discharge withstand test currents of all distribution class arresters are not less than 65,000 Amperes crest with a 4 to 8 (front) x 10 to 20 (tail) microsecond wave shape. A low current long duration test also is required for the distribution valve arrester; the discharge current for this test shall have an approximately rectangular wave shape and shall be maintained at a minimum of 75 Amperes for at least 1,000 microseconds. No test of this type is required on the expulsion arrester.

Distribution valve arresters shall be capable of performing specified operating duty cycle tests with an 8 x 20 microsecond discharge current wave of 5,000 Amperes crest. Duty cycle tests shall also be made on each type of expulsion arrester of each voltage rating from 3 to 18 kV, inclusive. The standard duty cycle test shall consist of five unit operations with the circuit adjusted for the maximum power frequency current rating of the arrester, followed by five unit operations with the circuit adjusted for the minimum power frequency current rating of the arrester. Successive unit operations need not be performed at intervals of less than 15 minutes. If the (expulsion) arrester has no minimum current rating, the minimum current tests shall be performed with the circuit variously adjusted to give symmetrical root mean square fault currents distributed substantially uniformly throughout the range from 5 to 100 Amperes during the five minimum current operations. All distribution arresters are designed so they may be mounted in mounting brackets. Distribution arresters shall be provided with either ternlinals or flexible insulated leads for line and/ or ground connections. When tei-nlinal connectors are provided and unless otherwise specified, they shall be solder less clamp type terminals capable of securely clamping conductor sizes from No. 6 AWG solid to No. 2 AWG stranded (0.62 to 0.292 inches, 4.1 to 7.2 lnillimeters diameter). When flexible line and/or ground leads are provided and unless otherwise specified, they shall be 18 inches +1 inch (46 centimeters *2.5 centimeters) long and shall have a current carrying capability equal to or greater than No. 6 AWG solid copper. (The above paragraph is taken from NEMA Standards for Surge Arresters, Pub. No. LA1- 1972) are available for locating test failures.

1.2

General

The surge arrester is one of the most important of protective devices in use on electric systems, ensuring continuity of operation despite repeated overvoltage resulting from lightning and switching. Its function must be that of a circuit breaker, normally open, but closing to discharge transient currents accompanying a disturbance. After discharging transient currents, it must

em

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGEARRESTERS

reopen to prevent the flow of system power that would be destructive to itself and result in system disturbances. It must be an insulator under normal conditions, but at the instant of a disturbance it must become a conductor of low enough resistance to prevent the development of dangerous voltages, which would destroy apparatus it protects. With the passing of the disturbance, it must revert to its role of an insulator. All this it must accomplish in microseconds without the aid of operators or relays. Despite its importance, the surge arrester is probably the least attended of protective devices. This, in part, can be attributed to developments in arresters, which have made possible devices, which are, to a high degree, reliable and trouble free. Failures of modem day arresters are relatively few and, in most cases, can be attributed to one of five causes. These are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Damaged (shipping, installation, etc.), defective, or contaminated units. Direct or nearly direct lightning strokes. Long duration surges resulting from switching, etc. Misapplication. Prolonged dynamic overvoltages.

Of these, the last four are matters of design and application, and not matters for consideration here. Experience has shown, however, that a program of acceptance and routine maintenance testing in the field can minimize failures resulting from the first cause. The methods available for such tests are discussed in the following section to assist the user in considering and establishing a program for routine field testing.

1.3

Standards

The latest standard for arresters is "An American National Standard, IEEE Standard for Surge Arresters (Lightning A rrester-s)for Alternating- Current Power Circuits, "ANSI C62.11971/IEEE Std 28-19 72, dated Janua~y24, 1972. It is not the intention of the Doble Arrester Field Test Guide to duplicate what has already been accomplished. The Standard previously referred to deals primarily with design and factoiy tests, while it is the intent of this Guide to present a manual for use by field personnel.

1.4

Field Tests and Significance

General With the exception of impulse tests, field tests described herein are not tests of the complete protective characteristics of a surge arrester. They are, however, tests of the mechanical condition and insulating qualities of an arrester, and it will be recalled that for most of its life an arrester relies on its ability as an insulator.

Experience has shown that, while they are not tests of the complete protective characteristics of an arrester, certain routine field tests can detect defects that would affect their ability to function as a protective device. 72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Field tests generally in use, some not so generally used, and others contemplated for use in the future, are tabulated along with what significance may be placed on each (Table 1-1). Identification data published on succeeding pages, and tabulations of field test data in Section Two, should be helpful in determining the significance of results recorded for these tests.

1.5

Cautions in Handling

The safe handling of surge arresters during inspection, tests or maintenance in the field requires that certain precautions be observed. When an arrester is removed from service, care must be taken that it is coinpletely discharged before personnel are permitted to touch or handle it. The charge stored in an an-ester which has just been disconnected from a line, or following tests, may or may not in itself be sufficient to cause serious injury; however, it could result in a fall with serious consequences. Also, if arresters are to be installed on a "live line," it is of the utmost importance that they be tested to verify their suitability for service; otherwise, a defective unit may fail as it contacts the energized conductor. Extreme precautions should be taken in handling sealed gap or arrester units, which are suspected of being damaged. Residual gas pressures may be retained in such units constituting serious hazards from the standpoint of shattered and flying porcelain. This includes lightning arresters equipped with relief diaphragms in which gas pressures may exist below the rupturing pressure of the diaphragm. Before handling a unit suspected of being damaged, it should be vented to relieve gas pressure. Drilling a small hole in the top casting or through the relief diaphragm, if one exists, in doing this, care should be taken that a spark from the drill does not ignite the gas. Table 1-1: Arrester Field Test Significance

TEST

SIGNIFICANCE OF TEST

VISUAL INSPECTION

Indication of the external No equipment necessaty. Check loose hardware, physical condition of the cracked porcelain, cracked cement, surface dirt, arrester. - ...~ --.. signs of flashover, etc. --. -..

.- - .--. .. AC GRADING CURRENT

.-- -. *:

- -

.

Indication of condition of arrester housi~lgand elements with regard to moisture, foreign deposits, corrosion, broken resistors: pulictured disks, etc.

AC test set necessary, (Dielectric loss test set can be used.) Measure grading current (gap sliuullting resistor current), when practical at rated voltage, and compare with previous test data. Higher or lower than normal results due to excessive leakage current, short circuited resistors, etc., or broken resistors, etc., respectively. Not as sensitive as dielectric loss measurements. . ..-.-. -. --.. ... . ..

Indication of condition of arrester housing and elements with regard to moisture, foreign deposits, corrosion, broken resistors, punctured disks, etc.

Dielectric loss and power factor test set necessary. Compare watts loss at test voltage with previous test data and or table of average, normal values for similar units.

..-..... -.......-. -- -- -.. . ..

--,

POWER FREQUENCY DIELECTRIC I OSS

.

TEST EQUIPMENT-REMARKS

-- --

* This test is rarely applied to Distribution arresters.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

~.

-

a

-- -

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGE ARRESTERS

Table 1-2: (Continued) Arrester Field Test Significance

TEST DC TNSULATION RESISTANCE

POV\rER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND AND SPARKOVER

RADIO INFLUENCE VOLTAGE

SIGNIFICANCE OF TEST

1 Indication of condition of arrester housing and elements with regard to moisture, foreign deposits, colrosion, broken resistors, punctured disks. etc. Indication of condition of gap elements with regard to moisture, foreign deposits, cosrosion, or broken gap shunting resistors.

Indication of condition of arrester housing and elements with regard to moisture, foreign deposits, corrosion, broken resistors, punctured disks, etc. *RADIO INTERFERENCE Indication of condition of arrester housing and elements with regard to moisture, foreign deposits, corrosion, broken resistors, punctured disks, etc. Only test which evaluates ability of unit to function as an arrester from the standpoint of impulse characteristics, -LEAKAGE CIJRREN l Indication of internal condition of housing, gap and valve elements.

TEST EQUIPMENT-REMARKS High or low voltage, DC test equipment necessary. Record insulation resistance andlor leakage current, and applied voltage (below spark over). Compare results with previous test data or data recorded for similar units. May not be reliable at lower test voltages. AC high potential test set with means for current limiting necessaly. Check for non-spark over of gaps at voltages up to 1.5 times rated. Check for sparkover at voltages above 1.5 times rated. Sparkover should occur at approximately 1.5 to 2.0 times rated voltage in modem arrester units, and may be as high as 3.0 to 4.0 times rated voltage for older designs. Apply only to units with gaps. Discharge currents and time of application of over voltages must be limited to prevent overheating anc damage to arrester elements. Check manufacturers' recommendations in this regard. Test equipment described in NEMA Publication No. 107-1964. Recommended test limits are listed in NEMA Standards for Lightning Arresters, Publication NoLA1- 1964. Section LA1-3.02. Record radio-influence voltage in microvolts at rated voltage. Check voltage at which corona starts. Line potential and portable radio receiver are necessary. Results are qualitative and not quantitative.

Suitable test equipment not generally available in the field At present. AC test set necessary. Measure leakage current at rated voltage. Leakage currents in excess of 25 millia~nperesare not acceptable. This test is usually applied only to Distribution Arresters. - - -.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

I.6

Identification Data

General With the exception of some of the newer EHV units, Station and Intermediate Class arresters being supplied cul-sently by the major manufacturers are of the "unit design", where gap and valve elements are enclosed in a porcelain housing resulting in each unit being an independent as-sester. An employ the series gap element with shunting resistors and grading capacitors to shield the gaps and to provide unifosm voltage distribution across the individual gaps and units. The shunt resistors provide sufficient heat to maintain an internal temperature slightly above ambient and therefore help to protect the gaps against moisture.

The valve elements utilize materials displaying non-linear volt-ampere characteristics resulting from the ability of the materials to reduce their electrical resistances when the voltage across their terminals is increased. In each of the arresters described, the shunted gap elements and valve elements make up a series circuit, which is shunted by the porcelain housing. The composite anester has electrical characteristics such as: AC grading current, insulation resistance and dielectric loss, which are measurable. The shunt resistors across the gap elements generally are selected for uniformity so that their contributions to these characteristics are quite consistent among similar units. The valve blocks, being of relatively low resistance, do not have any appreciable effect on the test characteristics of a good arrester. Following is a brief description of the various arresters and their associated valve materials. General Electric General Electric Thyrite* arresters utilize non-linear valve elements consisting of disks or rings made of a homogeneous, inorganic, ceramic material. When the voltage across the Thyrite* valve disk is doubled in the protective range, the discharge current is increased over thirty times.

In the Fosms 1A to 1G station class assesters inclusive (Figures 1- 1 and 1- 2), the Thyrite* disks are mounted above a sealed gap unit in a vented porcelain housing. The Forms 1A to 1G inclusive are all of the graded gap but non-magnetic gap type. A typical 12 kV unit consists of four valve disks together with the sealed gap unit and vented housing. 'The 'Thyrite* valve disk used in Form 1H station class arresters is approximately six inches in diameter by 1V* inches thick. In the Fosm 1H units the entire housing is sealed with the valve disks and magne-valve gap assembly inside. A later Form 1H unit (with red lettered nameplate) incorporates built-in anticontamination circuitry. See Figure 1-3. A 12 kV Form 1H unit consists of four valve element disks mounted two above and two below the main magnetic gap assemblies. Standard stacking units were supplied in ratings of 3, 6,9, and 12 kV. In the Form 3K station class arrester (Figure 1-3), designed for high voltage and extra high voltage (EHV) applications, the valve element rings are 9 inches in outside diameter, 5 114 inches in inside

=

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

diameter, and approximately 1% inches thick. The magne-valve gap units are stacked alternately in series with the valve elements in a sealed porcelain housing. Standard stacking units were supplied in ratings of 42,48, and 60 kV. The Thyrite Alugard* station class arrester has electromagnetically controlled gaps encased in Alurite* plates. Type AA units (Figure 1-4) are individually rated at 3 to 50 kV, and Type BA arresters (Figure 1-5) are designed for higher voltages, 60 to 3 12 kV. Each individual unit with ratings 3 to 3 12 kV is a self-contained unit in a single piece porcelain housing. The gap units are stacked alternately with Thyrite valve elements inside the porcelain shell. Except for some minor mechanical details, Figures -4 and 1-5, showing Models 9L I I LAA and 9L11LBA Alugard* arresters may be used equally well for the 9L11MAA and 9L11MB A Alugard I1 arresters. Changes were made in the gap, valve elenzents, and grading resistors to achieve improved protective characteristics of the Alugard IT, The Alugard*-500 arrester (Figure 1-6) is constructed of multi-stacked units. Four units are stacked for arrester ratings up to 492 kV, and five units are used in the 5 16 k V rating. In each of the upper units the conventional gaps and Thyrite* valve elements are connected in series electrically but are arranged mechanically in two parallel stacks to minimize the height. The base unit of each rating is approximately four inches larger in diameter than the upper units, and contains switched valve sections arranged in four stacks mechanically in parallel. In all units the gaps and valve elements are electrically insulated from the adjacent stacks by contoured porcelain cups. (For additional details refer to the 1966 Doble Client Conference Paper, "Application, Construction, and Field Testing of General Electric Alugard 500 Station Arrester," by Mr. A.R. Koerber, Sec. 9-301.) In the intermediate class arresters, Forms 2D to 2G, Thyrite* shunted gap and valve elements are stacked alternately in series in a sealed unit See Figures 1-7 and 1-8. In the Form 2H magne-valve arresters (Models 9LA2H and 9L12H, Figure 1-8), the magnetic gaps are stacked in sets of two, each set being separated by one Thyrite* valve disk, approximately 3l/2 inches in diameter by one inch thick. The remaining valve disks are placed at the top and bottom of the stack. Intermediateclass stacking units are rated 20,25,30, and 37 kV for Forms 2D to 2G. Form 2H units are supplied in ratings 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 37 kV, and can be stacked up to and including 121 kV rating. Note that the change in model designation from 9LA2H to 9L12H was exclusively to convert the model numbers into acceptable machine data processing formats; this change was made in November 1967. Basically, then, Models 9LA2H and 9L 12H are identical. The latest design intermediate arrester is the Model 9L12L series introduced in August 1971. 'The general internal construction of the 30 kV arrester shown in Figure 1-9 is the same for the 2 1,24, and 36 kV units. In both the station and intermediate classes, the edges of the Thyrite* valve elements have ceramic insulating collars to prevent impulse flashover. The valve elements have flat surfaces metalized for electrical contact.

72A-1972-01 Rev B 7/04

em

All General Electric intermediate class and station class units, Form D and later, have non-linear grading resistors of Thyrite* shunted across each arrester gap. Pressure relief diaphragms are provided in intermediate class arresters, Folms 2G, 2H, and 12H, and in station class Forms lH, 3K, and Alugard*. In earlier station class arresters, Forms 1 D, IE, IF, and 1G, pressure relief is provided by means of vent holes in the bottom cover plate o f each unit. As a general background to help understand the various model numbers, particularly with reference to the newer units, the following points should be helpful; 1. The 9L 11L and 9L 12H models always designate the Alugard* station arrester and magnevalve intermediate arresters, respectively. With reference to the ten-place model number units {for example 9LllLBA096), note the three alpha characters in the fifth (L), sixth (B), and seventh (A) positions. The case of the 9L11L handbook arresters, the 9L11 LA and 9L1 ILB are the original designations for the two constructions shown in Figures 1 4 and 1-5, using brown porcelains. Models 9L11 LAA and 9L 11LBA designate nzetal top arresters, whereas 9L 11LAB designates a porcelain top available only in ratings 3 to 24 kV, inclusive. With the introduction of greyporcelains, Models 9L11LG and 9L1 ILH designate arresters identical to 9L11 LA and 9 L l l LB arresters except the porcelains are grey. 3. Regarding the third alpha, which is in the seventh position in the ten place model number arresters, the following general guidelines apply: a) The letter "A," as in 9LllLBA096, is a conventional metal top arrester having an integral top terminal blade. b) The letter "B," as in 9L11LAB015, designates aporceluin top in the 9L1 ILA design c) The letter "C," indicates a multi-unit arrester drawn and furnished for a specific niultiple rating as on mobile transformers having multiple rated voltages.

d) 'The letter "D," as in 9L11LAD015 and 9L11LBD096, indicates a unit drawn and furnished specifically for a rnz~ltiplearrester stack. These arresters normally do not havetop terminal blades. e) The letter "E," as in 9L 11LAEO 15 and 9L11LBE09G, indicates an arrester specifically designed to be tmderhung; that is, its top end is grounded and its bottom end is at line potential.

-

f)

Correspondingly, successive letters indicate other special arresters. However, for test purposes all 9L11L station arresters of a given voltage rating may be considered equivalent, and all 9L12L intermediate arresters of a given voltage rating may be considered equivalent, regardless of the other two letter designations.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

McGraw-Edison Power Systems Division (Formerly Line Material) McGraw-Edison intermediate arresters have progressed through three designs. The Type DL, introduced in 1948, was replaced by the Type F in 1957, which was then replaced by the Type F2 in 1963. The Type RP special purpose intermediate arrester was introduced in 1971, McGraw-Edison's Type G station arrester was introduced in 1967. In the Type DL (Figure 1-1O), the valve element is mounted between two sections of the gap element in a sealed porcelain housing. The valve element is of Granulon* a refractory crystalline material mixed with a glasslike binder. The material is molded directly in the porcelain housing spaced at intervals through the length of the molded element are lens shape electrodes for distribution of surge currents over the cross section of the valve element. These units were supplied in the ratings of 20, 25, 30, and 37 kV, and can be stacked for higher voltage application. In the Type F unit (Figure 1- 1 1) the gap and valve elements are stacked alternately in series in a sealed porcelain housing. The valve elements are disks of silicon carbide with a ceramic binder. The edges of the disks are raised and have a ceramic coating to prevent flashover. The units were supplied in the same ratings as the Type DL. The Type F2 (Figure 1- 12) is physically similar to the Type F unit. The resistance graded auto-propulsion gap structure is a relatively simple device that works like a Jacobs ladder. The initial sparkover occurs in the small area of the gap and is propelled outward by the magnetic action and eventually splits into four separate arcs that are easily extinguished. The valve elements are pressed silicon carbide material utilizing a silicate binder. An insulating coating is sprayed on the side of each valve disk and a conducting material is sprayed on the ends for good electrical contact. All F2 arresters utilize a pressure relief system. A directional arc transfer vent system was introduced in 1970. Units are available in ratings of 9,10, 12, 15, 2 1, 24,30,36, and 39 kV and may be stacked for ratings up to 120 kV. The Type RP intermediate arrester (Figure 1-13) is a special purpose device with characteristics tailored to the needs of U.D. pole applications and designed to be direct pole and crossarrn mounted. The internal components are identical to the F2 arrester and it utilizes a single direction vent system. Units are available in 9, 10, and 18 kV ratings. The Type G station arrester (Figure 1- 14) utilizes the same resistance-graded gap structure as the F2 and a similarly processed, but larger, valve disk sealed within a one-piece porcelain housing. The gap structure and valve elements, which are electrically in series, are physically placed in three parallel columns in each module (Figure 1-15). Modules are produced in ratings of 30,36, 42, and 48 kV, and have interlocking wedge-action end plates to mechanically support each module within the arrester. The station arrester uses the arc transfer pressure relief system and its high cantilever strength base housing assembly allows double duty as a bus support. Units are supplied in voltage ratings from 60 through 240 kV.

Ohio Brass Ohlo Brass surge arresters have progressed through five major design stages since their introduction in 1950. These periods are identified as Series I, 11,111, IV, and V. Series V (Dynagap 5) is the current station class Dynagap* type. The series number is shown on the nameplate attached to either the upper or lower end cap of each unit. In cases where the arrester top is porcelain, the series

72A-I972-01 Rev. B 7/04

number appears on the base nameplate. Units of different series are never combined in a multi-unit stack. Thorex* arresters currently in use consist of three types. These are the Type GP intermediate class, and the Types MP and MPR station classes. Type RM arresters are basically Type MP units with elements selected for special applications such as rotating machinery. Certain suffixes may be added to indicate special design features. For example: Suffix "A" indicates a porcelain top instead of the upper end casting; Suffix "H" indicates special internal construction for operation at altitudes above 6000 feet; Suffix "X" indicates high cantilever strength base units. Suffix "A" and Suffix "H" are used in all five series; Suffix "Xu is used only in Series I and 11. All Thorex* units utilize non-linear valve elements consisting of blocks made of silicon carbide crystals in an electrically active binder. The edges of the blocks are coated with an insulating compound to prevent flashover. In the Types GP and MP, the blocks are mounted above and below the gap element in a porcelain housing. See Figures 1- 16, 1- 17, 1- 18, and 1- 19. In the Series I and I11 Type MPR (Figures 1-20 and 1-21, respectively) the valve blocks and gap elements are stacked in physically parallel columns and electrically connected in series by means of jumpers between columns. In the newer Series IV and V Type MPR units (Figures 1-22 and 1-23, respectively), the internal parts of the arrester are arranged in three column construction. Circular crossover plates hold a valve block and a Dynagap assembly in each section and connect the sections in series. Each plate is insulated from the adjoining one by small ceramic cups. In each type the porcelain housings are filled with dry, inert gas and then sealed. Type GP arresters were produced in Series I, 11, and I11 in units rated 3, 6, 9,12,15, 20 (21), 25 (24), 30, and 37 (36) kV. Ratings of 4.5 and 7.5 were added in Series I1 and 111, and a 10 kV unit was introduced in 1966. Units rated 2 1 kV and above are stacked for higher voltage applications up to 120 kV. The Series I GP arrester was introduced in 1950 and met the then existing Station Class Standards, The Series I! GP arrester was introduced in 1953, following upward revision of surge arrester standards. This arrester then met the requirements of the Line or Intermediate Class Standards. The present Series I11 Type GP intermediate class arrester was introduced in 1957. All Series I1 and 111 GP intermediate arresters incorporate a pressure sensitive pressure relief system. 'Type MP station class arresters were produced in Series I and I11 in units rated 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5, 9,12, 15, 20 (21), 25 (24), 30, and 37 (36) kVSeries IV and V were produced in the same ratings as the Series I and lit units plus additional ratings of 40,45, and 50 kV. There is no Series I1 station class arrester. The Series J MP arrester was introduced in 1953. Units of this series rated 20 kV and above were stacked for higher voltage and applications up to 145 kV. The Series 111 was introduced in 1957, and units of this series rated 20 kV and above were stacked for higher voltage applications up to 73 kV. The Series IV MP arresters were introduced in 1963 in single units with ratings up to 50 kV. Series V MP arresters were introduced in 1967 with single units rated up to 39 kV and two high stacked units at 45 and 48 kV. Higher rated stacks are sometimes supplied for special applications. The Series I Type RM-A arrester was introduced shortly after the Type MP in 1953. It was first produced in single unit housings with ratings of 3,4.5, 6, 7.5, 9, 12, and 15 kV, and in two high stacked

dm -

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

units of 16.5, 18, 19.5,21, 22.5, 24, and 27 kV. Series I11 Type RM-A arresters were introduced in 1957, Series IV in 1963, and Series V in 1967. Type MPR station class arresters were produced in Series I, 111, IV, and V, and introduced in 1953, 1957, 1963, and 1967, respectively. The Series I units were available in ratings of 45, 50, and 60 kV, and these were stacked for higher voltage applications up to 276 kV. For ratings above 90 kV the Series I Type MPR utilized resistors of non-linear characteristics to shunt gap and valve elements, and maintain voltage grading among units of multi-unit arresters. Series 111 units were available in ratings of 60, 73, 79, 85, 90, 97, 109, 121, 133, 145, 169, 182, 195, 242, 258, 264, and 276 kV. Units 169 kV and above were enclosed in two-piece porcelain housings; however, there was no electrical connection between the arrester elements and the extenla1 collars which served oilly to clamp the porcelain sections together while the epoxy bond cured in the factory. Series IV units have improved sparkover characteristics with dimensions remaining essentially the same as the Series 111; available ratings range from 60 to 312 kV. The internal construction of Series IV units can be seen in Figure 1-22. Series V MPR arresters were introduced in 1967 with ratings extended to 684 kV. Catalog numbers are six digit starting with 2 lo--- and 2 11---2 lo--indicates brown glaze and 21 1---ANSI-70 grey glaze. Arresters with the same last three digits are identical except for glaze color. Single-unit porcelain housings are used for all ratings through 3 12 kV; above 3 12 kV two-unit construction is used. Series V internal construction, white similar to Series IV, incorporates a completely redesigned gap structure as shown in Figure 1-23. Both Series IV and V MPR arresters have strongly non-linear resistance grading as well as capacitance grading. All MP and MPR arresters incorporate pressure sensitive pressure relief. Westinghouse Westinghouse currently manufactures three station class arresters, Types SV, SVS, and CPL, and one intermediate class, Type IVS, which replaces Type LVS units. Present units are available in voltage ratings from 3 kV for the Types SV and IVS, to higher voltages for EHV systems, using the Type CPL. All Westinghouse Autovalve* lightning arresters utilize non-linear valve elements consisting of silicon carbide granules bonded together with either a ceramic or sodium silicate binder, depending upon the type of arrester. The outer edges of all valve elements have an insulating collar to prevent flashover, and the fiat surfaces are aluminum sprayed for electrical contact. In all types the gap assemblies are in series with the valve elements. In the station class, Types SV and SVS, and intermediate class Type IVS, each Mobilarc* gap electrode assembly contains a permanent ceramic ring magnet to rotate the arc on the electrode surface. The gap assembly for the station class Type CPL arrester uses a magnetic field, from a drive coil at the center of the gap assembly, to drive the arc from the initial sparkover location to lengthen the arc more than 100 times it original length. Type SV station class arresters (Figure 1-24) are available in unit ratings from 3 through 36 kV Units may be stacked into arrester assemblies through 120 kV. In the lower ratings, 3 through 15

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

kV, these are available with castings at both ends or with a porcelain top instead of the top casting. The latter permits closer spacing between units and reduced clearance to ground. Type SVS station class arresters (Figure 1-25) are available in unit ratings from 36 through 120 kV. Units may be stacked into arrester assemblies through 240 kV. The internal electrical components are arranged in a folded pole design with the components electrically in series but mechanically assembled into three columns. The arrester units are filled with SFe (sulfur hexafluoride) gas for contaminatioll protection. The latest design Westinghouse station class arrester is the Type CPL, Figure 1-26, which was described in the 1971 Doble Client Conference Paper, "Improved Reliability in Surge Protection Through Testing & Control," Sec. 9-501. In order to control the sparkover characteristics and protective level of the CPL arrester, a Control Gap is used. The Control Gap consists of two highly polished electrodes permanently sealed inside a ceramic container with a controlled atmosphere. High current magnitudes do not go through the Control Gap. A series of interrupter gaps are also used to perform the current limiting and interrupting functions. The horn shaped electrodes of the interrupter gaps provide a narrow sparkover space for initial breakdown, then the arc is driven electromagnetically to many times its original length. The interrupter gaps utilize alumina ceramic gap plates that cool the arc as it is being elongated. The valve elements of the CPL arrester are composed of ceramic bonded silicon carbide. Non linear grading resistors are used in order to help distribute the arrester voltage equally across each component; grading capacitors are also utilized to offset the effects of stray fields exterior to the arrester, and to improve its performance under contaminated conditions. All GPL arresters have exhaust ports providing directional venting of the pressure relief operation in the event of an arrester failure. For further details concerning the CPL arrester, please refer to Figure 1-26 and to the 1971 Doble Conference Paper referred to above. The IVS intermediate class units (Figure 1-27) are available in the same unit ratings as the SVstation class units with the addition of the 39 kV unit. Units may be stacked into arrester assemblies through 120 kV. Each porcelain unit is solder sealed and filled with a dry inert gas. Type IVS units cannot be stacked with the preceding intermediate class arrester, Type LVS, Figure 1-28: All of the arrester types incorporate a pressure relief device having directional venting with arc transfer by means of side vent ports,

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Figure 1-1: GE Thyrite Station-Class Arresters Forms A Through E 9LA1A-D or DD MODEL NUMBER SERIES

9LAlB-D or DD

9LAl D-

9LA I E-

9LA1C-D or DD PERIOD OF MANUFACTURE (Approximately)

s ~ p T 1930 , to JULY 1934

AUG, 1934 to SEPT. 1939

SEPT. 1939 to OCT. 1941

HOUSINGS-BOLT CIRCLE

12-518"

10-718"

10-718"

MATERIAL IN END FITTINGS FOUNDATION

ALUMINUM

ALUMINUM

ALUMINUM

BASE-MOUNTING BOLT CIRCLE (15 kV AND ABOVE)

19-114"

16"

16"

4-POINT BOLTING

3-POINT BOLTING

3-POINT BOLTING

HOUSING DESIGNED FOR

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

#-m

Figure 1-2: GE Thyrite Station-Class Arresters-Forms F And G

1

MODEL NUMBER SERIES

I 9LAlF

PERIOD OF MANUFACTURE (Approximately)

I

HOUSINGS-BOLT CIRCLE MATERIAL IN END FITTINGS FOUNDATION

I

ern

BASE-MOUNTING BOLT CIRCLE 115 kV AND ABOVE) HOUSING DESIGNED FOR

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

I 9LAlG

NOV. 1941 to MAY 1945

1

10.875"

GALVANIZED STEEL

JUNE 1945 to JAN. 1954

1

10.875"" GALVANIZED STEEL

16u

/ 3-POINT BOLTING

I

3-POINT BOLTING

I

f

I

-:

--"

I.!#-*

Figure 1-3: GE Thyrite Station-Class Arresters-Forms H Model Number Series and Marking

9LAlHBlack Lettered NamePlates and Cartons

9LAl HRed Lettered NamePlates and Cartons

9LA3K Red Lettered NamePlates and Cartons

Period of Manufacture

Feb, 1954 to Feb. 1958

Mar. 1958 to Mar. 1966

Mar. 1958 to Mar. 1966

Housing-Bolt Circle

11"

11"

18-1 14"

Material in End Fittings

Galvanized WeldedSteel

Galvanized WeldedSteel

Galvanized Malleable Iron Castings

Foundation Base-Mounting Bolt Circle (15 kV and Above)

14-114"

14-114"

18-114" (No Base Used)

Voltage Ratings of Stacking Units

3,6,9, and 12 kV

3,6,9, and 12 kV

42,48, and 60 kV

Housing Designed For

3-Point Bolting

3-Point Bolting

3-Point Bolting

Descriptive Bulletin

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

Instruction Book

Not Available

Not Available

Not Available

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

BURN-THRU OlAQH

-

PRESSURE RELIEF DIRECTIONAL APERTURE

THYRITE VALVE Ek

THYAgTE SHUNTING

RESISTORS

ALURITE GAP UM1T

ELECTRQMAGNETiG

PRESSURE RELIEF BIREC-TlOfPbAl APERf URE

BURN-THRU DIAPHRAGM

30 KV RATtNG

HOUSING-BOLT CIRCLE

9L 11LAA and 9L 11MAA Alugard I1 April 1963 to November 1971 for Model 9L1 lLAA, and December 1971 to present for Model 9L 11 MAA 10"

VOLTAGE RATINGS HOUSING DESIGNED FOR

3 to 50 kV 3-Point Bolting

MODEL NUMBER SERIES PERIOD OF MANUFACTURE

*

f-im

Figure 1-4: GE ALUGARD STATIONCLASS ARRESTER -TYPE AA*

Type AB units have similar internal construction, but with porcelain top and center line terminal, with voltage ratings 3 to 24 kV inclusive.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Burn-thrts Diaphragm

' l

Etectromagnetic Csils

/----

Pressure Relief Directional Aperture

THYRITE Shunting

Vibration and Shock

Porcelain insulating Cups THYRtTE Valvs Eiem

Alurite Gap Units

Burn-thru Diaphragm

Pressure Relief Directlsnal Aperture

--

MODEL NUMBER SERIES PERIOD O F MANUFACTURE HOUSING-BOLT CIRCLE VOLTAGE RATINGS HOUSING DESIGNED FOR

9L 11 LBA and 9L11 MBA Alugard I1 April 1963 to November 1971 for Model 9L 1 1 LBA, and December 1971 to present for model 9L 1 1 MBA 16.5" 60 to 312 kV 3-Point Bolting

Figure 1-5: GE ALUGARD STATION-CLASS ARRESTER-TYPE BA

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

dm

Figure 1-6: GE ALUGARD-SO0 STATION-CLASS ARRESTERS

Subassembly for Typical

Base Unit

Subassembly for Typical

Upper Unit Model 9L16AB Alugard-500 1963 to 1971 Unit Ratings 84 to 132 kV

Arrester Ratings 372 to 5 16 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

,,

i:

a:,.

, ,i @:$>.* Y

!,"

--

*

Figure 1-7: GE INTERMEDIATE-CLASS ARRESTERS-FORMS B THROUGH D MODEL NO. SERIES

9LA2B

9LA2C-

9LA2D-

PERIOD OF MANUFACTURE

FEB, 1932 to FEB. 1934

MARCH 1934 to MARCH 1938

APRIL 1938 to SEPT 1941

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

INDIVIDUAL ARRESTERS EXTERNAL GAP

INDIVIDUAL ARRESTERS WITH EXTERNAL GAP

RATINGS

20 to 37 kV INCLUSIVE

20 to 37 kV INCLUSIVE

SEALED STACKING UNITS 20 to 73 kV INCLUSIVE (Basic 20,25,30 and 37 kV units)

END FITTING MATERIAL

ALUMINUM

ALUMINUM

ALUMINUM

------ .-

"Forms A and E were not assigned to production models

72A-1972-01 Rev. 8 7/04

dm

Figure 1-8: GE Intermediate-Class Arresters-Forms F Through H MODEL NO. SERIES

9LA2G-

9LA2H-and 9L 12H

OCT. 1941 to FEB. 1944

MARCH 1944 to MARCH 1955

APRIL 1955 to JULY 971

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

SEALED STACKING UNITS

SEALED STACKING UNITS

SEALED STACKING UNITS

RATINGS

20 to 73 kV INCLUSIVE (Basic 20, 25,30, 37 kV units)

20 to 73 kV INCLUSIVE (Basic 20,25,30, 37 kV units)

3 to 121 kV INCLUSIVE (9 unit ratings)

END FITTING MATERIAL

GALVANIZED STEEL

GALVANIZED STEEL

GALVANIZED STEEL

PERIOD OF MANUFACTURE

9LA2F

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Figure 1-9: GE

ALUGARD

LNTERMEDIATE-CLASS ARRESTER

30 kV RATING Model 9L 121, August 1971 to Present Sealed Stacking Units 3 to 120 kV Inclusive (1 2 ratings) Galvanized Steel

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Figure

McGRAW-EDISON TYPE DL INTERMEDIATE-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 20 to 37 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

V ALVF 131SCS

SEALING c: P. r

II

r l l ,

I %. -----'&

'".'. -%-

---\

" i ,

--.. GAP ELECTRODE *\

-

/-/----

RESISTOR .*---RINGS

McGRAW TYPE F

Figure 1-1 1:

EDISON INTERMEDIATE-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 20 to 37 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Figure 1-12 McGRAW-EDISON TYPE F2 INTERMEDIATE-CLASSARRESTER

Unit Ratings 9 to 39 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 120 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

HEAVY

HlGW-STREllfGTH GLAZED

STEEL

FQRCEI k4N

661%. SZ3R3NG

PRESSURE-SENSfTiVE DIAPHRAGM

Figure 1-13: McGKAW-EDISON TYPE RP INTERMEDIA'I'E-C:LASSARRESTER

Unit Ratings 9, 10, and 18 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

dm

Figure 1-14: McGRAW-EDISON TYPE G STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 30 to 48 kV; Arrester Ratings Up to 240 kV

m C -

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

QbSGED G A P

BUMPER PADS XIMJ~~?liAm Iaraq,

B?J:: 713~117~:dB T i ~ f i j X ~L' WrccrS. anma v ~ ~ r a t t t e s

Figure 1-15: McGRAW-EDISON TYPE G STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Internal View

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

TREATED SANDED SURFACE VALVE BLOCKS 'SPRING PORCELAiN CENTERING CDLUM N

GLAZED PBRCELAI N H8LISINt

DRY

GAS

-

P

=

RESISTORSPACER L ELECTROOE PLATE

FiLLED

SPARK

GAP S f RUCTiJRE

-

VALVE BLOt MS

PRESSURE REtlEF DIAPHRAGM A M stow-our PLUG "SEcoNDAw SEAL/INC GASKET F S E A L I t J C CAP CEMENT BARRIER

/1

Figure 1-16: OHIO BRASS TYPE GP INTERMEDIATE-CLASSARRESTER

Series I and I1 Catalog Nos. 36000 to 36999 Manufactured 1950 through 1957 Unit Ratings 3 to 36 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 120 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

PRESSURE-RELIEF COVER Figure 1-17: OHIO BRASS TYPE GP INTERMEDIATE-CLASSARRESTER

Series I11 Catalog Nos. GP-A 46700 to 46706, GP 467 10 to 4673 1 Manufactured 1957 to the Present Unit Ratings 3 to 36 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 120 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

VALVE

BLOCK

DYNAGAP

ELEMENT

VALVE BLOCK

PRESSURE-RELiEF COVER

f

Figure 1-18: OHIO BRASS TYPE M P STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Series I11 Catalog Nos. MP-A 46740 to 46746 (3 to 15 kV) MP 46750 to 46768 Manufactured 1957 through 1963 Unit Ratings 3 to 36 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

VALVE

BLOCK

PRESSURE-RELIEF

COVER % -*

Figure 1-19: OHIO BRASS TYPE MP STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Series V Manufactured 1967 to the Present Unit Ratings 3 to 39 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

PLUG Figure 1-20: OHIO BRASS TYPE MPR STATION-G1,ASS ARRESTER

Series I Catalog Nos. 4 1800 to 4 1899 Manufactured 1953 through 1957 Unit Ratings 45, 50, and 60 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 276 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

DYNAGAP ELEMENT

VALVE

BLOCK

PORGELAlbt RETAINERS

PRESSURE-RELIEF COVER Figure 1-21: OHIO BRASS TYPE MPR STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Series 111 Catalog Nos. 46780 to 46796 Manufactured 1957 through 1963 Unit Ratings 60 through 276 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em -

MAGNETIC COlL ASSEMBLY

VALVE BLOCK

ACI TOR

Pi+ATE PORCELAIN' CUP SUPPORT

DYNAEAP ELEMENT

OHIO BRASS TYPE MPR STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Figure 1-22: Ohio Brass Type MPR Station Class Arrester Series IV Manufactured 1963 through 1967 Ratings 60 to 3 12 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

DVNAGAP ELEMENT VALY E BLOCK

PORCELAlM CUP SUPPORT

I

MGNETIC #

I

COlL

ERADING RESISTOR

GRADlNG CAPAClTOR METAL f RANSFER PLATE

Figure 1-23: BRASS TYPE MPR STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Series V Manufactured 1967 to the Present Unit Ratings Up to 3 12 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 684 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

6m

PRESS U RE-RELEEF /,#

DIAPHRAGM

RE^ rw PQW [ VFf,

Figure

WES'TINGHOUSE TYPE SV STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 3 to 36 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 120 kV

e=

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

/'

PRESSURE-RELIEF DIAPHRAGM

Figure 1-25:

WESTINGHOUSE TYPE SVS STATION-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 36 to 120 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 240 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

4m

Definitions: VE: Valve elements-these semiconductor blocks present a low impedance mode to highfrequency, high-current surges and allow them to pass harmlessly to ground. When power current attempts to follow this same path, these electrical "valves" take a high-impedance mode and limit the current to a value low enough for the interrupter gaps (GI) to intelrupt easily. GI: Interrupter gaps-in addition to interrupting power-.follow cui-sent, these gaps work with the grading scheme to accelerate spark over of the arrester on fast rising fi-onts.

resistors foims a voltage divider net~vorlcwliich precisely distributes the ai-sester voltage (Ea) across each valve-gap section.

W,: Nonlinear-grading resistors-the series string of grading

C,: Grading capacitors-the effects of "stray" capacitance on the airester grading scheme are negated by these grading capacitors.

Rff:Fast-front resistor-helps to accelerate arrester spark over on fast-rising fronts. Zh: High-impedance network-acts as a blocking circuit to prevent high currents from flowing through the control gap. G,: Control gap-two planar electrodes in a hermetical sealed casing. Planar electrodes give the most precise spark over possible. Since the gap is hermetically sealed and carries negligible current, the sparkover level stays precise.

Figure 1-26WESTINGHOUSE CPL ARRESTER SECTION

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

SaLUEW SEAL

VENT PORT

-

.

SERtES GAPS

'QVALVE BLOCKS

VENT PORT NAMEPLATE

SOLDER SEAL

BASE CASTING

Figure 1-26: WESTINGHOUSE IVS INTERMEDIATE-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 3 to 39 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 120 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

r!-..y

Figure 1-27: WESTINGHOUSE LVS INTERMEDIATE-CLASS ARRESTER

Unit Ratings 3 to 37 kV Arrester Ratings Up to 120 kV

ern

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

2 2.1

Dielectric-Loss Testing of Arresters

General

At the 1947 and 1954 Doble Client Conferences the significance of maintenance tests oil lightning arresters was reviewed and tabulations of test data Since 1958, periodically revised tabulations of test data have appeared in the Doble Lightning-Arrester Field-Test Guide and Doble Client Conference ~inutes~'!Client experience has demonstrated the effectiveness of dielectric-loss measurements in detecting the effects of contamination (moisture, corrosion, aluminum salts), deterioration, lightning damage, and certain mechanical defects (broken shunting resistors, preionizing elements, and improper assembly) 1,2,5,6. Though the effects of contamination and deterioration will affect the condition of the arrester insofar as its function as an insulator is concerned, the operational ability of the arrester will likely be affected also. If the arrester has been internally damaged by lightning or is mechanically defective, it is also probable that it will not respond adequately when called upon.

2.2

Analysis of Test Results

The tabulated dielectric-loss data are meant to serve as a guide to the operator in establishing a range of losses for the various makes and models of arresters. In cases where data may be lacking, the test engineer can base his or her analysis on losses obtained for similar units tested at the same time and under the same conditions; this is usually possible since similar arresters are normally installed at the same location. Once a range of losses has been established, any deviation, either higher or lower, should be investigated. Incidentally, because lightning-arrester tests are basically resistive in nature and are rated primarily on the basis of the losses obtained, power factors need not, and should not, be calculated. Also, correction factors are unnecessary throughout the range of temperatures in which lightning arresters are normally tested7". Since the results of tests on lightning arresters are affected to varying degrees by surface leakage, analysis of test results should take such effects into account. For example, if the results of tests on three similar units have each shown a corresponding increase over a previous test, it might be logical to attribute these increases to surface leakage due to humidity andlor contamination; it would be advisable to verify the external surface losses. Wiping the porcelain with a clean, dry cloth can usually minimize these losses; however, it may be necessary to resort to the use of cleaning agents and waxes or the use of a guard collar. Additional comments on combating the effects of surface leakage may be found in Section One of the Type MH or Type MEU Instruction Manual.

ern

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Where the effects of surface leakage can be discounted, abnormal losses can then be attributed to one or more of the following. Higher-than-Normal Losses

Contamination by moisture and/or dirt or dust deposits on the inside surfaces of the porcelain housings or on the outside surfaces of sealed-gap housings Coil-oded gaps Deposits of aluminum salts apparently caused by the interaction between moisture and products resulting fi-om corona5, Cracked Porcelain Lower-than-Normal Losses

Broken shunting resistors Broken pre-ionizing elements Improper assembly Analysis of metal oxide arresters should take into account the year of manufacture. The formulation of the MOV disk was modified during the mid-1980s. Arresters utilizing the older MOV material exhibit higher losses than those with the newer material. Ohio Brass lightning arresters use serial numbers to identify the change over; arresters with the serial numbers beginning with the letter B or C employ the older material, and serial numbers beginning with D and up use the new formulation.

2.3

Test Procedure

Before proceeding with the testing of arresters the topic of test potential should be reviewed. To assist the operator in the field, Tables 2-1 and 2-2 review the recommended standard test techniques for lightning arresters installed in single- or multiple-unit stacks and supplement the information presently available in the Doble Instruction Books. Overall tests on complete multi-unit arrester stacks are not recommended, and whle early instructions included test procedures on two units in parallel, certain types of defects, as well as the larger sizes of modem arresters, now indicate the desirability of tests on individual units. As first discussed at the 1960 Doble Client Conference, the introduction of the Low Voltage Switch on Doble test sets has made it possible to test individual units with little more effort than was required to test pairs10. In general the test procedure would be to separate single or two-unit arrester stacks from their associated bus, as shown in Figure 1-1. A single arrester can be tested only by the routine groundedspecimen test (GST) procedure after the associated bus is disconnected. In the case of stacks of three

arresters or more, it is necessary only to de-energize and ground the bus as shown in Figure2, rather than to disconnect the bus.

2.4

Test Connections Figure 2-1: Two Stack Arrester Test Connection Points

Table 2-1: Two Stack Connection Method

Table 2-2: Multi Stack Test Connection Points ENERGIZE

GROUND

MEASURE

GUARD UST

2

1,6,

3

A

3

1,6,2,

4

B

3

1,6,2,

4

C

5

l,6,

4

D

4

E

5

1,6,

Figure 2-2: Multi Stack Test Connection Points

Because the test results on lightning arresters depend upon the applied voltage, it is important that all tests be performed at the recommended potential. Table 2-3: Recommended Test Voltages

Arrester Type Silicon Carbide -

MCOV -.- .- -- Unit Rating Line Volt. Rating (kV) Duty Cycle kV Rating 3.0 4.5 -- --.--- - --. -. 6.0 ~

7.5 9.0 to 10 12.0 and above

Silicon Carbide

3.7 to 10.16 12.7 and above

4.5 to 12.0 15.0 and above

Test Potential (kV) 10-kV Sets 2.5-kV Sets 2.5 2.5 4.0 - --- --.-. ....5.0 7.0 7.5 10.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 10.0 2.5

---

If the applied voltage approaches the MCOV (Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage) rating the arrester will begin to conduct. Depending on the degree of conduction, higher than normal results may be obtained.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

There may be instances when clients with a Type MH test set may wish to perform supplementary tests at 2.5 kV. The equivalent 10-kV watts-loss obtained at 2.5 kV can then be converted to the equivalent 2.5 kV Milliwatts value using the formula: MW = 62.5 x Equivalent Watts.

This may be helpful in cases where limited data are tabulated for a particular make; a supplementary 2.5 kV test would then enable the operator to compare data with both the MH and MEU tabulation. Also, some argue that the 2.5 kV test may be an even more effective and telling measurement because losses in the resistive elements themselves will not have as great an influence on the overall losses. This phenomenon seems particularly true on the lower voltage arresters.

2.5

Safety in Handling "Suspect" Arresters

Extreme caution should be taken when handling sealed arrester or gap units who are suspected of being damaged. References 11 and 12 discuss some of the hazards that may develop in faulty units, which, from all external appearances, seem to be "harmless" and safe to handle.

2.6

Summary 1. Doble tests on lightning arresters are rated on the basis of the Watts-loss recorded; accordingly power factor should not be calculated for tests performed on these devices. 2. Tests should be performed on the individual arrester units and not on units in parallel or on a complete stack in series. 3. In cases where questionable test data are obtained with the MH Instrument andlor where the tabulated 10 kV test data may be minimal, it is recommended that supplementary tests be performed at 2.5 kV, and the results converted to equivalent Milliwatts for comparison with the tabulated Milliwatts data. 4. Because dangerously high gas pressures can accumulate within sealed-type arresters or gap units, one should exercise care when handling units suspected of being damaged internally

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

6m

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGE ARRESTERS

References 1. Oliver, F. S. "Maintenance Testing of Lightning Arresters-A Summary." Minutes of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1947), Sec. 9-201. 2. Rickley, A. L and S. H. Osborn, Jr. "A Review of the Maintenance Testing of Lightning Arresters." Minutes of the Twenty-First Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1954), Sec. 9-301. 3. Almstrong, G. W., Jr, and E. J. Marottoli. "Dielectric-Loss Values for Lightning Arresters (A

Progsess Repost)." Minutes of the Thirty-First Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1964), Sec. 9-20 1. 4. Parker, J. C. and W. D. Morgan. "Lightning Arrester Tests with the Doble Type M 2500-Volt Test Set." Minutes of the Thisteenth Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1946), Sec. 9-101. 5. "Notes on the Grading of Doble Insulation Test Results," GIR 755, General Section, Doble Power-Factor Test-Data Reference Book, Pages 9 and 10.

6. Rickley, A. L. and R. E. Clark. "Variation of Power Factor with Temperature." Minutes of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1 958), Sec. 3-101. 7. Rickley, A. L "Dielectric-Loss Versus Temperature Characteristics of Lightning-Arrester Units." Minutes of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1959), Sec. 9-101. 8. Black, R. G. "Field Testing of Ohio Brass Station and Intermediate Class Lightning Arresters. "Minutes of the Thirty-Sixth Annual International Conference of Doble Clients (1969), Sec.9201. 9. Doble Lightning-Arrester Field-Test Guide, Third Edition, August 1, 1966. Section Two. 10. Rickley, A. L and R. E. Clark. "Application and Significance of Ungrounded-Specimen Tests. "Minutes of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1960), Sec. 3-210 and 3-21 1. 1 1. Bracewell, J. R. "Safety in Handling Faulty Lightning Arresters." Minutes of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1958), Sec. 9-101. 12. Brearley, R. G. A. "Detection of Defective Arresters on a 345-kV System." Minutes of theThrty-First Annual Conference of Doble Clients (1964), Sec. 9-10 1. See also the discussions on Pages Sec. 9-A and 9-C.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

3

Tabulations of Dielectric-Loss Test Data for Arresters

The Tables herein contain the results of dielectric-loss tests perfom~nedom1 arrester units manufactured by the following companies: ASEA Brown-Boveri Canadian General Electric Canadian Ohio Brass Canadian Westinghouse E. M. P. Electric General Electric Joslyn

Line Material (McGraw-Edison) Magrii~i Newmagne Oerlikon Ohio Brass Tokyo Shibaura Westinghouse

The data in Tables I through XXVII are presented as an aid to the test engineer in establishing normal average dielectric-loss values for the various makes and types of station- and intermediatearrester units. All data listed are for tests on individual units both old and new. Data for obviously defective arresters were not tabulated. No consideration was given to the temperatures at which tests were performed since experience to date has shown that very little, if any, temperature correction is necessary throughout the range of temperature at which tests are normally performed on arresters. Tables I through XIX list values of Watts Loss obtained with Doble MH Test Sets. Data for units rated 3.O, 6.0, 9.0, and 12 kV and above were obtained at test voltages of 2.5, 5 .O, 7.5, and 10 kV respectively. Since arresters are non-linear devices, it is necessary that all tests be performed at the recommended test voltages so that the field data can be compared directly with the data tabulated herein. Tables XX through XXVII list values of Milliwatts obtained at a test potential of 2.5 kV using the Doble Type MEU 2500-Volt test set. For a discussion of recommended techniques for testing arresters, including the interpretation of test data, it is suggested that the 1970 Doble Client Conference Paper, "Dielectric Losses for Lightning Arresters (A Review)," Sec. 9-301, be reviewed.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Table 3-1: ASEA

Table 3-2:BROWN-BOVERI

EQUIVALENT 10 kV WATTS LOSS I

I

;

I

TYP~

I kV

Rating

1 'rest kV

No. Untts Tested

0 to .49

.50 to .99

1.00 to 1.49

1.50 to 1.99

I

5

200 to 2 49

2.50 to 2.99

I

300 to 3.49

350 to 3 99

230

HDF 1750

1 (stack)

10

9

3

I

I

72A-1972-01 Rev. I3 7/04

#m

REFERENCE BOOKON SURGE ARRESTERS

Table 3-3: CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class) Type DL, PL Table 3-4: CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class) Model 9L -

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Table 3-5: CANADIAN OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class)

Type

EQUlVALENT 10 kV WATTS LOSS

-

--

Unit Cat. No.

Rating

.OO 1 to ,025

No. Units Tested

Test kV

ItV

,026 to .049

,056 to ,074

,075 to ,099

.I0 to .19

.20 to .29

.30 to .39

-

3 M bIPR P

R210424 4 6

7

9

0

1

1 -----

~

l

f

l

~ -

-

-.

.

Table 3-6: CANADIAN OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class)

EQUIVALENT 10-kV WATTS LOSS

12

4

3

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Table 3-7: CANADIAN WESTINGHOUSE (Station Class)

Unit Style No.

kV Rating

Test kV

No. Units Tested

H-47357A H-47359A H-47402 H-79565 H-79567

25 37 25 15 25

10 10 10 10 10

379 383 8 9 47

H-79569 305A982G0 1 305A984G04 305A985G0 1 306555601

37 12 48 60 60

10 10 10 10 10

15 6 18 73 3

306A574G01 306A575G01 306A576G01 41 1A795G01A

25 30 37 48

10 10 10 10

7 6 16 12

0 to .49

EQUIVALENT 10 kV WATTS LOSS 2.50 3.00 .SO 1.00 1.50 2.00 to to to to to to 2.99 3.49 .99 1.49 1.99 2.49 44 298 3

285 17 2

48 4

1

4

23

12

3 1

2

6

4

18 47

26

64

1

2 2 4 6

--

-

1 1 -

3 6

3 5 6 2

1 2 12

12

1

-

-----

Table 3-8: E.M.P. ELECTRIC, LONDON (Station Class)

Unit Model No.

kV Rating

Test kV

p p p p

BTS-180 HTS-303 HTS-700

18 60 73

HTS-1330

48

10 10 10

EQUIVALENT 10-kV WATTS LOSS No. .001 ,050 .I00 ,150 .200 .250 Units to to to to to to Tested .049 .099 .149 .I99 .249 .299 3 35 6

3 2 1

27 4

6 1

18 --

dm

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

.3.50 to 3.99

--

---

Table 3-9: GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

EQUIVALENT 10-kV WATTS LOSS [

Unit Model No.

kV Rating

'I'est kV

.Ol

No. lJnits 'I'ested

to

00

jl.00 to i 4

4.5 0 lo 5.4 9 284

5.5 0 to 6.4 9 140

6.5 0 to 7.4 9 57

7.5 0 to 8.4 9 35

6

18

21

9

6

5 1 5 4 2 3

9

45

119

48

22

13 5

10

86

283

1.50 to 2.49

2.50 I,, 3.49

3.50 to 4.49

3

9

142

I

9LAlAI 1 9LAlA2D 9LAlB116 9LAD2 9LAD4 9LAD6 9LAD8 9LAlAD113 9LAlAD114 9LAlAD116 9LAIEl 9LAlE2 9LA1E3 9LAlE4 9LAlE20 9LAIFI 9LAlF2 9LAlF3 9LAlF4 9LAlGI 9LAlG2 9LA1 G3 9LAlG4 9LAlG10 9LAlG293 9LAlG294 9LAlG398 9LAlG401 9LAlH1

12 6 2 6 12 6 12 3 6 12 3

6 9 12 12 3 6 9 12 3 6 9 12 12 12 15 6 15 3

I0 5 10 5 10 5 10 2.5 5 10 2.5 5 7.5 10 10 2.5 5 7.5 10 2.5 5 7.5 10 10 10 10 5 10 2.5

I

689 2 54 1

148 24 350 71 I6 709 8 25

I

I

/

1

I

I

I

10. 5

1 . 1 2 5

13. 5

11. 4

12. 4

14. 4

,A,,, 13. 4

109

2 l 3

4

j!

2

/

16. 5 to 18. 4

18. 5 to 20. 4

20. 5 to 22. 4

i

1 1 I 13

14. 5 ,o 16. 4

j

3

/

4

9

p -

\

2

42

j

99

201

1 27

3 2

2 1

2

4

6

16

3

2

2

l

3

/

2

5

3 1

!

6

6 841 101 88 57 1537 242 3 57 37 3 108

5 0 lo 10. 4 5

1

I

772 39 39 9

8.5 0 to 9.4 9 14

1

1 40 20

4 165 16

1 230 3

239

78

I 1 1 6 , 10 150 431208344 -

2

1

3

1

I

I 4 8

I I

9 313 83

I

2

9 2 56 2

15 183 27

9

1

5

8

2

2 !

2 I1 1 3

1

i I

I

3 1

27 743 59

1

-----

I

3 235 63 3

4

2

1

1

i

/

!

3

/

4

/

0

26

25

28

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

16

Table 3-9: (Continued) GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

7244-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

REFERENCE BOOKON SURGEARRESTERS

Table 3-9: (Continued) GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

Table 3-9: (Continued) GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

FQUlVALfjNT10-kVWATTS LOSS Un~t

Model No

9LllLAB060 9LllLAB073 9LllLAB090 9LllLAB096 9LllLABO108 9LllLAB120 9LllLAB132 9LllLAB144 9L11LAB180 9LllLAB192 9LllLAB228 9LllLAB240 9LllLAB258 9LllLAB264 9LllLAB276

kV

Test

Ratlng

kV

60 73 90 96 108 120 132 144 180 192 228 240 258 264 276

No ~nlts Tested

10 10

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

001

01 1

016

021

026

031

036

041

046

051

056

061

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

010

015

020

025

030

035

040

045

050

055

060

065

6

14

17

19

10

11

16

23

23

15

28

248 92 16 15 54 ? 14 43 38

1 1 2 18 27 18 28 14 10 3 44 34 33 25 ' I 2 1 2 14 22 8 10 3 ' 3 1 2 2 1 0 8

3

,

9

52 74 273 6 43 91 123 3 12 ?

0 0

18

1 2 1 1 1

5

I I 6

/

?

'3

I

3

1 1

2

I

066 to 070

100

151

to

090

091 to 099

150

to 99

131 10 1 i

11

1

25

6

1

071

081

to

to

080

10 and

above

3

3 8 2 13

23

2

6

18

6

9

4

3 3 1 1

2

2

1

1

1

1

4 2

4

1

1

1

4

2

4

6

'3

4

4 2 11

1

2

I I

4

9 2

3

I 2

4

I 1

i

I I

1

Table 3-9: (Continued) GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

*

The 91 1LG and 9L11LH arresters are identical to the 9L1 I LA and 9L1 I LB units respectively, except that their porcelains are gray instead of brown. Refer to the manufacturer's information in Section One for additional comments concerning the significance of the numbers and letters used to identify the various arrester models.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

REFERENCE BOOKON SURGEARRESTERS

Table 3-10: GENERAL ELECTRIC (Intermediate Class)

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

Table 3-10: (Continued) GENERAL ELECTRIC (Intermediate Class) EQUIVALENT 1 0-kV WATTS LOSS ,001 050 .I 00 .I50 ,200 .250 .300 .400 .SO0 to to to to to to to to to ,049 ,099 .I49 199 ,249 .299 ,399 .499 .599 ----, *9L12HAU003 *9L12HAU009 *9L12HAU012 *9L12HAU021 *9L12HAU024 *9Ll2HAU030 *9L12HAU036 *9LI2HAU012

*

3 9 12 21 24 30 36 12

2.5 7.5 10 10 10 10 10

10

6 9 3 3 3 96 14 I1

1

,600 .700 ,800 to to to .699 .799 ,899

Between 10.1 & 11.0

I

i i

3

1

i

1 3 3

I

3

1

55

7

3.00 4.00 5.00 to to to 3.99 4.99 5.99

6.00 to 6.99

I i

t

31

.900 1 .OO 2.00 to to to ,999 1.99 2.99

6

1

3 3

Ii

j ii

1

1

8

4

The manufacturer states that Model 9LA2H and 9L12H are identical: thus, where data is lacking for a specific 9L 12H type, refer then to the 9LA2H unit of the kV rating in question. (See the manufacturer's information in Section One for additional con~nlentsconcerning the sigficance of the numbers and letters used to identify the various models.)

Table 3-11: JOSLYN

Table 3-12: LINE MATERIAL

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Table 3-13: MAGRINI

Table 3-14: NEWMAGNE

Table 3-15:OERLZKON I

I

: t

kV

Unit

REW I 1 0

1

55

Test kV

No ~nlts Tested

to

12

001 to 004

005 to 009

010 to 014

015 to 019

2

5

5

020 to 024

025

010

Lo

to

020

;A

I

I

7214-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

dm

Table 3-16: OHIO BRASS (Station class)

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

61

Table 3-17: OHIO BRASS (Station Class) Type MP

724-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

'=

Table 3-18: OHIO BRASS (Station Class) Type MPR --

--

--

--

EQUIVALENT 10-kV WATTS LOSS No

Un~t kV Cat No Rating

Un~ts Tested

kV

Type MPR MPR MPR MPR

41842

45

41843 41844 41872

50 60 121

l10 o 10 10

MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR - MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPR MPRH MPRH

46169 46179 46206 46310 46339 46429 46764 46770 46775 46783 46784 46784 46785 46786 46787 46788

108 168 96 300 228 60 108 6919 121 96 409 409 121 4 145 168

10 10 I0 10 10 10 10 10 10 I0

46789 46790 46792 46794 46795 46796 46799 46996 46266

180 192 258 276 60 73 120 601120

25 10 10 10

/'

16985

10 10 1 10 10

10 103 10

026 to .049

050 to ,074

075 to 099

I0 to .19

20 to 29

30 to 39

40 to 69

16 6

;91

1

3 5 3

1

2

3

I

2 6 18 78

7i?

6 48 6 99

90

1

19 6

i

78

1

6s 1U 15

1 1

2

10

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

2 00 to 2 49

I22

14

3

5

3

1 3 13 3

>

2 20 2

4 1

1I

413 3 9

17

22

6

6 11 9 15

3 3

3 11 3 62 49 4 3

19 20

6 4

2 4

1 5 5

1

3 13 18

9

11

13 2 1 7

3

I ,

l

I

1

1 :

I

i

1

I;

1 1

i

1

15

2

34

19

1

I

/

1

i

1

i

I

/ 1

6 I

I 3

I

:

I

3

,

I

1

6

1

I I

2

3

63 i9

I

2

l

i

I

2

I 2 37 11

2

45 3 -+>

1I

1

3

3

I

I

to 1 99

14 i56

1

1

1 50

1

1

,

1

85

6

I

1 00 70 t o / lo 99 1 49

40

6

----10

001 to 025

/ 1

-

2 50 to 2 99

3 00 to 5 00

-

Table 3-19: OHIO BRASS (Station Class)

*

Please refer to the manufacturer's 1969 Doble Client Conference Paper "F~eldTestlng of Ohlo Brass Stahon and Intermcdlate Class I ightning A~restc~\," Scc 0-201. concerning

d~electr~c losses for Dynagap ? dnestcrs

To1

add~tlonallnformat~on

Table 3-100: OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class) Type GP EQUIVALENT 10-kV WA'T'TS 1,OSS

Type

Unit Cat. No.

kV Rating

No.

Test

Ullits

kV

GP

36400

GP GP GP GP GP GP GP GP GP

36402 36403 36404 36405 36406 36407 36408 36617 36633 41834 41835 41836

tiY

GP GP GP

-

42450

3 9 12 15 20 25 30 37 30 37 9

12

,rested

12

7.5 !0 10 10

6 35 57 151 90 511 132 12 80

10 10 10 10 7.5 10 10

1.50 to 1.74

2.00 lo 2.49

1.75 to 1.99

911 1

;

i

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

3.50 to 3.99

4.00 to 4.49

4.50 5.00 to to 4.99 5.40

3

i

i /

I

i 80

6

13

I

j

I

i

100 42 5 20

5 6 250 4 4 17

I I /

8

1

to

8.50 to 0.49

9.50 to 10.4

10.5 to 11.4

11.5 to 14.4

I

30

1

7.40

7.50 to 8.49

5.50

5.50 to 5.49

I

I

II !5

3.00 to 3.49

2.50 to 2.99

Between 13.0 and 18.0

i

i

15

30

1.25 to 1.49

1.00 to 1.24

I

2.5

10

.01 to ,99

35 65 132

58

14 28

7 49 2

36 1 1

5

14

6 '

1I I i

I

3 30

6

4

/!

Sec Cat. No. 4671 9

65

1

Table 3-22: OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class)

TABLE XVI A (Continued) OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class)

66

72~-,972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Table 3-23: Tokyo Shibaura

Table 3-24: WESTINGHOUSE (Station Class)

13clwcen 7.0 and 12.0

Betwccn 1 I .5 and 16.5

dm

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

TABLE 3-24: (Continued) WESTINGHOUSE (Station Class) EQUIVALENT 10-kV WATTS LOSS I

Unit

kV

1151596 1151902 1151903 1151904 1151905

15 6 9 12

Test kV 10 5 7.5 10

15

10

No. Units Tested 12 3 10 23 39

-

/

,050 to ,099

,010 to ,049

1

,100 to ' .I49

,150 to ,199

,200 to ,299

,300 .400 to to .399 _ ,549 _

,550 to _ .699 _

1/ Betwcen 8.5 and I I .O

,700 ,850 to to ,849 _ ,990 _ _ 2

1.20 1.50 lo to 1.40 .OO _ - 1-

1.00 to _1 . 1_ 4

,

2.00 2.50 3.00 to to to 2 2.49 3.49 = 4 2

3.50 4.50 4.00 to to to 3.99 4.49 4.99 -

1 Between 5.0 and 8.5

/

Between 4.5 and 6.5

15

7

13

4

I

1254825 1254829

3 15

2.5 10

6 1

i

1404459 1418181 1418182 1418183 1533140 1533141 1533142 1533143 1533144

1533145 1533146 1533147 1533148 1533195 1533196 1533204 1533207

37 20 25 37 3 6 9 12 15

20 25 30 37 12 15 15 30

10 10 10 10

2.5 5 7.5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

!

51 41 69 96 17 23 44 24 53

/

Between 7.5 and 10.0

:

4

I

1594613 1594614

37 25 3 9 15 12 15

10 10 2.5 7.5 10 10 10

33 241 3 9 6

21 81

I

18

18

13

4 39

6 4 1 7 33

3 3 41 6

I

2 24 I6 5

I 10 1

I

I

I

/,

Between 10.0 and 16.0 Selwecrl 7.5 and 12.0 Between 3.9 and 7.5

I

I

I

1 ! -

3

5 10 41

! 1 I

2 13

p p p p

1

I

4

i 8

I 25

18 100

35

81

80

197

65

23

41 44 !2 14

10

7 4

5 33 I

i6

3

1

5

2 3

8

1 I

i

9 2

3

I 2

I

7 1576589 1584062 1585591 1585593 1585595

1

j

!

78 185 235 347 3 12 6 3

I

j1

(

!

8 6

3 7

48

1 i4s

I

3 3

Between 12.0 and 14.0 2 Units Between 5.0 and 6.0

I

! I

j

1

!

i

i

15 2

3

1

i

1

6

1

5

1

13

37

5 16

-

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

-

13 14

dm

3 1

TABLE 3-24: (Continued) WESTINGHOUSE (Station Class)

*Rotating Machinery Arrester

6m -

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

TABLE 3-24: (Continued) station class

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Table 3-25: WESTINGHOUSE (Intermediate Class)

TABLE XIX

dm 72A-1972-01 Rev. B

7/04

71

Table 3-26: CANADIAN GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

Table 3-27: GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class)

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

dm

TABLE 3-27: (Continued) GENERAL ELECTRIC (Station Class) MILLlWATTS I,OSS @ 2.5 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Table 3-28: B GENERAL ELECTRIC Station Class TABLE XXI

The 9L11LG ---- and 9L11LH---- arresters are identical to the 9L11LA ---- and 9L11LB---- units respectively, except that their porcelains are gray instead of brown. Refer to the manufacturer's information in Section One for additional comlllents concerning the significance of the numbers and letters used to identify the various arrester models.

REFERENCE BOOKON SURGEARRESTERS

Table 3-29: GENERAL ELECTRIC (Intermediate Class)

* The manufacturer states that Models 0ldA211 and 91,1211 arc identical, thus, where data is lacking for a specific 9L12H type, refcr thc~nto the 9L A211 unit of thc ltV ~atlng111 cluestion (Rcfei to the manufacturer's informat~onIn Secuon One Ibr additlondl conmmcnts concerning the significance of the numbers and letters uscd to rdci~tlfyt l ~ cval I O L I ~nlodcls ) Table 3-30: MAGRINI

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Table 3-31: Ohio Brass (Station Class)

Table 3-31: Ohio Brass (Station Class) continued

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

72A-1972-01 R e v 6 7/04

TABLE 3-31: OHIO BRASS (Station Class) MILLIWATTS LOSS @ 2.5k\' Unit 01. Arrester Cat. No.

Type *IvIPR

*MPR

*MPR

*MPR

*MPR

No. Units Tested

kV Rating

-325

-334 21 1 210 -336 21 1 210 -337 21 1 210 -340 21 1

60

6

6

144

4

4

180

3

3

192

3

3

258

3

3

*MPR

210 -342 21 1

276

3

3

*MPR

210 -343 21 1

288

3

3

*MPR

210 -345 211

*MPR

210 -346 211

*MPR

210 -422 21 1

-

2.0 to 2.9

3.0 to 3.9

4.0 to 4.9

5.0 to 5.9

6.0 to 6.9

7.0 to 7.9

8.0 to 8.9

9.0 to 10.9

--

3 00 ...

-

-

3

.

3

--- -- --

312

-_. -

"

~

3

-----

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

---

3

_ __^___I_._

-.----.---.----.I--_. ^

120

.

3

3

Please refer to manufacturer's 1969 of DobIe Client Conference Paper, " Field Testing o f Ohio Brass Station and Intermediate Class Lightning Arresters." Sec. 9 - 201, for additional information concerning dielectric-losses for Dynagap V arresters.

ern

11 to 20

210

.

*

0 to 1.9

1

Table 3-32: A OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class) TABLE XXV A OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class)

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

TABLE 3-32: B OHIO BRASS (Intermediate Class) MILLlWATTS LOSS @ 2.5 kV

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Table 3-33: WESTINGHOUSE (Station Class)

82

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

dm

TABLE 3-33: (Continued) WESTINGHOUSE (Station Class)

1

em

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

MILLIWATTS LOSS GI 2.5 kV

I

83

Table 3-34: WESTINGHOUSE (Intermediate Class)

1123818 1151682 1151683 1151684 1151685 1225409 1225410 1225411 1225412 1225413 1743267 1743271 1743273 258B943G01 258B943G02 258B943G04 505D342G01 505D342G02 505D342G03 505D342G04 505D342G05 506D419G01 506D419G02 506D419G03 506D419G04 507D021GO3 507D021GO4

20

1

25 30 37 15

20 25 30 37

1

6 3 9 3 6

3

4

1

9 12 29

26

25

96

3

1

82 206 2 12 6 12

3 4

1 3

12

12 20 30 37 40 20 25 30 37 30 36

i

3

18 13 6 3 3 6 29 73 33

jI1

31 20

8 13

I

I

2 3 2

2 12 3

/

Between 290 and 410

I

Between 610 and 680 Between 205 and 440

1

I

I

5

14 1

24 82

4 8

32 90

13 9

r

4

2

! 1

1

4

1

1

1 8

I

7 1 1

1

1

1

11

2

1

1 3

1

2

1

I

17

5

37

3

1 3

46,

i

1

I

\

1 1

'

i

1 3

8 2 1

1

1

1

1

1 8

1

I

3

3 9

2

8 1

10 36

3

2

12

4

1

3 1

1

1

2

Index of Papers

Paper Title, Description

Year

Section

Performance Determination in the Laboratory and in the R. Ximenes E. L. S. deMelo Field of Existing Instrumentation for Zinc Oxide Arrester Maintenance J. N. Figueiredo This paper discusses the function, characteristics, and advantages of using zinc oxide arresters. It also provides a comparison of leakage current test data obtained both in the laboratory and the field on zinc oxide arresters using various commercially available current detectors.

1989

9-3.1

V Pargaonkar G. Paar This paper presents a digital computer model that is capable of simulating substation and transmission line parameters and providing a computer plot of the voltages across the protected equipment. The computer results can be used to determine the optimum type of arrester, along with the number of arresters need and their location. The

1989

9-5.1

4. 1

Authors

A - Design and Application

J. Caron A. Dutil G. Ouellet A. Petit On December 17, 1987, two metal-oxide arresters short-circuited and one of them shattered in Albanel substation. These sacrificial arresters have a nominal voltage of 550 kV. They are used to limit the over voltage level on the 735 kV transmission system during a system separation. Because this application is rather unusual, these arresters have been designed and thoroughly tested to clearly demonstrate that they will not shatter in the event of an internal short-circuit. Therefore, that event was carefully investigated in order to understand how it happened and to make sure that the application of sacrificial arresters is still acceptable from a safety standpoint. Failure of Two 735 kV ZnO Arresters in Albanel Substation

S. S. Savic Practical Application of an Expert System for Overhead R. Levi Lines and Hight Voltage Substation Lightning Performance Estimation An expert system for the overhead lines and high voltage substation lightning performance estimation was designed to help engineers perform insulation coordination in the lightning overvoltage computation and system modeling in fast transient simulations. This paper describes the expert system's analysis of two catastrophic substation failures.

Digital Computer Based Insulation Coordination

Year

Section

1982

9-201

1982 1982

9-201A 9-201B

Characteristics, Application and Field Testing of Westinghouse Gapless Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters

Westi~~ghouse Electric Corporation In this paper, internal construction of the Westinghouse SMX30 gapless arrester is described along with a brief explanation of how it operates. Protective characteristics are covered over a range of wave front times, including a discussion of 60 Hertz temporary overvoltage capability. Aging parameters are also presented. Finally, recommendations are made for installation and field testing of the completely gapless metal-oxide arrester.

1982,

9-301

Improved Reliability in Surge Protection through Testing and R. W. Tanner Control The reliability of modern power system depends in large measure upon the ability of its lightning arresters to protect the system repeatedly from overvoltage surges. With the Type CPL Station Class Lightning Arrester, Westinghouse offers a new generation of surge protection devices. By combining the inherent advantages of the current limiting gap with a unique method for controlling the protective level of the arrester, while assuring that the switching surge discharge voltage will not exceed the switching surge sparkover voltage, the CPL Arrester offers greater protective margins for system insulation. By coupling stringent design objective with detailed production testing and quality control, the DCPL offers a new standard for reliability. Accelerated life tests of all aspects of the CPL Arrester design have verified the success of this reliability program.

1971

9-501

New Thorex Arrester Incorporates EHV Progress at all J. B. Enrietto Voltages The new Dynagap 5 arrester (Ohio Brass Company), with the introduction of a new design gap structure and mounting chamber is described. The changes incorporated over the previous Dynagap arresters are designed to increase switching surge sparkover performance. The paper also points out that extensive modification had to be introduced to secure the protective characteristics essential to 500 kV and higher voltage systems and that these modifications have been carried down to the lower voltage rating arresters. Discussion W. M. McDennid Comments J. B. Enrietto

196'/

9-301

1967 1967

9-312 9-312

1966

9-101

Paper Title, Description

Authors

computer model can be used to simulate a single substation or whole system. The computer model, input requirements and the program outputs are discussed. Application and Field Testing of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters R. G. Black General application information and service environment considerations for metal-oxide arresters are addressed. In addition, this paper discusses field testing possibilities and presents information on expected capacitance and watts-loss values as measured by normal field testing equipment for Ohio Brass metal-oxide surge arresters. Discussion E. C. Salcshaug Closure R. G. Black

Tests on Distribution-Class Lightning Arresters with Gap-

D. D. Colker

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

Application, Construction, and Field Testing of General A. R. Koerber Electric Alugard-500 Station Arrester The constmction, switched valve section, unit ratings, leakage-grading cusrent, field testing, and maintenance are discussed in this paper.

1966

9-301

Lightning Protection With Cougnard Deionizers (A Progress A. J. Devereaux Report) This is a report covering an experimental installation of Cougnard Deionizers on a 34.5kV line which is 14.9 miles long. Conventional lightning arresters were removed from both terminals of the line and Cougnard Deionizers were installed on the pole adjacent to each substation. It is reported that from the experience to date it cannot be stated that Cougnard Deionizers gives superior protection to conventional lightning protective equipment. They do show considerable promise, however, and careful records will be kept on their operation for the next few years.

1960

9-101

Field Experience on the Number of Operations of Lightning J. R. Bracewell Arresters This paper points out that there are more frequent discharges than is commonly thought, in efficient lightning arresters. Several tabulations of field test data are included in the paper.

1959

9-201

General Electric Lightning Arresters W. H. Eason This paper discusses the new Form 3K high-voltage Thyrite station-class arrester, reports of damage to transformer-mounted arresters due to vibration, switching arresters on or off an energized bus, factory routine tests, and recommended field acceptance tests.

1959

9-501

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters Edward Beck This paper discusses connecting arresters to the system, tests in the factory and field, and damage to arresters caused by vibration.

1959

9-701

A Solution to the Problem of Arrester Porcelain Contamination W. H. Eason This paper describes the effect of contamination on lightning arresters and General Electric Conlpany's solution to the problem insofar as their arresters are concerned.

1958

9-201

Thorex Dynagap Arresters A. G. Yost This discussion covers the more important arrester design objectives and improvements including protective ability, over voltage interrupting ability, surge-current durability, and freedom from exterior contamination failure, installation economy, and improved pressure relief performance.

1958

9-401

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters A. M. Opsahl This discussion covers the design, operation, failure, and maintenance of Westinghouse

1958

9-501

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Grading Resistors This paper presents the experience of the Dayton Power and Light Company in field testing the E5, 10-kV, direct-connected valve arrester, manufactured by Line Material Company.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Paper Title, Description

Authors

lightning arresters. Design Considerations of Pressure Relief and Long Duration W. J. Rudge Surge Discharge Capacity in Modern Lightning Arresters This discussion of GE lightning arresters includes the results of an investigation that has shown that pressure relief can be accomplished with greater speed and reliability by making use of a bum-through principle that can be associated with the nature of arrester failure rather than with just the pressure developed during the period of failure.

Year

Section

1957

9-201

1938

8-15

1937

9-3

1980

9-101

1975

9-201

Field Testing and Maintenance of Line and Station-Type W. J. Rudge Thyrite Arresters The characteristics of Thyrite arresters and the ability of such arresters to protect are discussed. Various types of tests and types of trouble are also discussed. Discussion The general story of the origin and characteristics of lightning and the protection of a power system against lightning was presented to the group in the form of a motion picture entitled Lightning, prepared by the General Electric Company. Lightning Arrester Testing: The Problem

E. A. Walker

A lightning arrester is a device to divert surges from apparatus connected to a power line. In performing this function, however, the arrester should not add any new hazards to the safe operation of the equipment. There are, therefore, two questions to ask about any arrester :(I) Does it protect the equipment? (2) Does it present a hazard to safe operation? (2) Any test that will give data to help answer these questions is valuable. Lightning Arresters from the Testing Viewpoint

E. H. Povey

Among the possible applications of the Doble Insulation Test Set is the detection of certain types of faults in lightning arresters. While this field may not have the possibilities that circuit breakers and transformer insulation present, it is interesting and of some value. The various types and makes of lightning arresters show considerable variation in construction. To be able to discuss testing technique and test results, it is essential to have a general idea of the constructional details of the arresters under consideration.

4.2

-

B Discharge Counters

Utility Experience with the Application of Arrester Counters

W. M. McDermid B. G. Solomon

The practice of one utility in the application of arrester counters is outlined with an indication of the usefulness of the data obtained Performance of Arrester Counters

W. M. McDermid

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

Year

Section

1974

9-101

1974

9-20]

1959

9-201

Dismantling Surge Arresters in the Field

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators This paper reports the responses of arrester manufacturers to a Committee questionnaire concerning the practical aspects of field disassembly and reassembly of the larger, more complex units and the safety aspects involved.

1974

9-101

Notes on the Testing of Lightning Arresters and Carrier F. S. Oliver Current Capacitors This paper discusses detection of a problem with the Thyrite Lightning Arrester using Doble 10 kV Test Set. The problem was identified and corrected, and the unit was reassembled.

1943

9-201

1982

9-101

Paper Title, Description

Authors

This paper briefly outlines the evaluation of two types of arrester operation counters. Basic differences are stressed, as they affect performance. Experience with Canadian General Electric Alugard 564-kV W. J. Fenlihough Arrester Units and Discharge Counters Discussion Comments and discussions were made with reference to Mr. W. J. Fenlihough's paper, Experience With Canadian General Electric Alugard 564-kV Field Experience on the Number of Operations of Lightning Arresters This paper points out that there are more frequent discharges than commonly thought in efficient lightning arresters. Several tabulations of field test data are included in the paper.

4.3

4.4

J. R. Bracewell

-

C Dismantling

-

D Doble Client Committee (Arresters, Capacitors & Insulators)

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators This report presents the answers received to 11 questions posed to American manufacturers of metal-oxide arresters at the request of the Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators Committee. Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters,

Life Expectancy of Arresters

6-rn

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Doble Client Committee on

Year

Section

Ambient Temperature Standard for Arresters

Doble Client Coinillittee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators The aim of this report is to call attention to the fact that 40°C is the maximum ambient temperature specified in the current IEEEIANSI Standard for Surge Arresters. Therefore, units exposed to temperatures above this level are operating under nonstandard service conditions. It has been verified that many arresters, primarily those installed above the radiators of transformers or in the airflow from the radiators, very likely will operate in ambient in excess of 40 "C during at leas: a portion of their lifetime. Excessive temperatures tend to accelerate the aging of arrester moisture seals, and it has been suggested that excessive temperatures also can affect the grading circuit adversely.

1975

9-101

Dismantling Surge Arresters in the Field

1974

9-101

1981

9-101

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators This report summarizes manufacturers' responses to questions asked by the Committee relative to the life expectancy of arresters.

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators This paper reports the responses of arrester manufacturers to a Committee questionnaire concerning the practical aspects of field disassembly and reassembly of the larger, more complex units and the safety aspects involved.

4.5

-

E Extra-High Voltage

J. Caron A. Dutil G. Ouellet A. Petit On December 17, 1987, two metal-oxide arresters short-circuited and one of them shattered in AIbanel substation. These sacrificial arresters have a nominal voltage of 550 kV. They are used to limit the over voltage level on the 735 kV transmission system during a system separation. Because this application is rather unusual, these arresters have been designed and thoroughly tested to clearly demonstrate that they will not shatter in the event of an internal short-circuit. Therefore, that event was carefully investigated in order to understand how it happened and to make sure that the application of sacrificial arresters is still acceptable from a safety standpoint.

Failure of Two 735 kV ZnO Arresters in Albanel Substation

In-Service Tests of EHV Lightning Arresters E. H. Hunter The paper describes testing of EHV (345 kV system) lightning arresters using the

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

Section

1964

9-101

1964 1964

9-A 9-A

1994

9-3

1988

9-3.1

1988 1988

9-3.1A 9-3.1B

magnitude and wave form of the arrester grading current. An oscilloscope samples the grading current and a Polaroid camera permanently records the trace for measurement and provides for future comparison tests. Detection of Defective Arresters on a 345 kV System R. G. A. Brearley This discussion covers the description, safety, field test data, field test equipment, and test technique. Discussion D. M. Smith Closure of D. M. Smith Discussion of the R. G. Brearley Paper

4.6

-

F Failures and Defects

Experience with Leakage-Current Testing of 380 kV MOV Paul Lemans Guy Moulaert Surge Arresters in the Field, Utilizing an LCM Portable Instrument It has been shown that premature aging and failures of MOV surge arresters can be attributed to degradation of the coating on zinc-oxide blocks, due to corona discharges in the air gap between the porcelain and the blocks. Measurement of in-service leakage current may be considered to be an effective diagnostic method. This paper presents experience with the application of a leakage current monitoring device and the results of investigations conducted on suspect units. Requirements for installation of the measuring device and surge arresters that will be tested by this method are discussed.

J. Caron A. Dutil G. Ouellet A. Petit On December 17, 1987, two metal-oxide arresters short-circuited and one of them shattered in Albanel substation. These sacrificial arresters have a nominal voltage of 550 kV. They are used to limit the overvoltage level on the 735 kV transmission system during a system separation. Because this application is rather unusual, these arresters have been designed and thoroughly tested to clearly demonstrate that they will not shatter in the event of an internal short-circuit. Therefore, that event was carefully investigated in order to understand how it happened and to make sure that the application of sacrificial arresters is still acceptable from a safety standpoint.

Failure of Two 735 kV ZnO Arresters in Albanel Substation

Detection of Premature Aging of Gapless ZnO Arresters W. McDermid In the summer of 1986, a number of gapless zinc oxide arresters rated 96 kV (MCOV '78 kV) were installed on a 115 kV grounded system. In the Spring of 1987, failures of these arresters began to occur. Tests on other units from the same group in service revealed a significant reduction in the voltage required to produce a resistive current of 1 rnA (peak) through the arrester and a corresponding increase in the resistive current at normal operating voltage. There was no change in the case of similar units stored outdoors but not energized. Discussion J. Caron Closure W. McDermid 1988

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

Section

1987

9-301

1987 198'7

9-301A 9-301B

1973

9-301

1971

9-601

General Electric Lightning Arresters W H. Eason This paper discusses the new Form 3K high-voltage Thyrite station class arrester, reports of damage to transformer-mounted arresters due to vibration, switching arresters on or off an energized bus, factory routine tests, and recommended field acceptance tests.

1959

9501

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters Edward Beck This paper discusses connecting arresters to the system, tests in the factory and field, and damage to arresters caused by vibration.

1959

9-701

1958

9-201

Defective Weather Seal in Metal Oxide Arresters W. D. Shead Houston Lighting and Power experienced two failures of 138 kV, metal-oxide arresters after being energized for less than one month. This paper describes the failure and the immediate investigation by the manufacturer and Houston Lighting and Power, which ultimately resulted in tightening of QAIQC checks. Discussion R. H. Gunning Discussion G. A. Heuston Defective General Electric AIugard 468-kV Arrester Units E. H. Hill Investigation of high Doble readings on General Electric Company Alugard 468-kV Model 9L 16ABD6 Arresters resulted in the discovery of cracked diaphragms and water. in four arresters. General Electric has made field fixes as well as design changes.

I. Alcocer J. Ortiz This paper describes the in-service failures of a set of Oerlikon 230 and 400 kV lightning arresters, the tests made, and the corrective work actually performed by the manufacturer. Failures on Oerlikon Arresters

Defective Seal in a 588 kV Lightning Arrester Detected by A. A. Carlomagno Doble Testing This report covers the reason for removal of the arrester, a summary of the field and factory tests, a review of the internal examination of two units, and resulting conclusions.

J. 0. Lang Lightning Arrester Failures at Time of Unusual System Conditions This report covers the failure of lightning arresters and describes the tests and investigations which have been made. J. H. Walter Lightning Arrester Mechanical Failures (Oak Creek Power Plant) This report covers vibration in two power transforn~ersand the damage done to the transformer and to lightning arresters ~nountedon the transformer tank.

A Solution to the Problem of Arrester Porcelain Contamination

W. H. Eason

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

Year

Section

Experience with Effects of Switching Surges on Lightning R. M. Wilson Arresters The failures of three 69-kV lightning arresters are believed to have been caused by switching surges of relatively low current but long duration. The failures, investigations made, and corrective steps taken as a result are described.

1952

9-102

Tests on Station-Type Thyrite Arresters as Affected by C. G. Friddle Previous Weather Conditions This study covers the variations of tests made on a defective Thyrite arrester unit at several voltages and under different conditions of humidity, temperature, location, and previous weather. The paper also suggests an explanation of these variations. Discussion Discussion The general story of the origin and characteristics of lightning, and the protection of a power system against lightning was presented to the group in the form of a motion picture entitled Lightning, prepared by the General Electric Company.

1947

9-101

Paper Title, Description

Authors

This paper describes the effect of contamination on lightning arresters and General Electric Company's solution to the problem insofar as their arresters are concerned.

4.7

1947 1944

-

G Field Testing

Experience with Leakage-Current Testing of 380 kV MOV Paul Leemans Guy Moulaert Surge Arresters in the Field, Utilizing an LCM Portable Instrument It has been shown that premature aging and failures of MOV surge arresters can be attributed to degradation of the coating on zinc-oxide blocks, due to corona discharges in the air gap between the porcelain and the blocks. Measurement of in-service leakage current may be considered to be an effective diagnostic method. This paper presents experience with the application of a leakage current monitoring device and the results of investigations conducted on suspect units. Requirements for installation of the measuring device and surge arresters that will be tested by this method are discussed.

1994

9-3.1

Failure Modes of Metal Oxide Surge Arresters and Possible John G. Anderson Stephen R. Lambert Methods of Detection The paper discusses ZnO surge arrester (MOV) failure modes such as cracked blocks resulting from physical damage or an excessive rate of energy input, collar failure, and punctures due to high current. Various detection techniques are examined including those using electrical, mechanical, and chemical approaches. Criteria for acceptable technique application are presented including consideration of arrester location, whether or not arresters are energized, and the test equipment required.

1992

9-4.1

Dielectric-Losses for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters (A D. J. Kopaczynski Progress Report) M. J. Rizzi The primary purpose of this report is to give Doble Clients an up-to-date tabulation of dielectric-loss (Watts-loss) data on metal-oxide arresters. Some important principles

1989

9-6.1

Cm - 72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

1987 1987

9-201A 9-201B

Testing of Zinc Oxide Arresters W. McDermid This paper reviews Manitoba Hydro's experience with various test methods for zinc oxide arresters, both for commissioning and routine maintenance purposes. Test methods on which experience is reported include impulse, partial discharge, 60 Hz VII, and 60 Hz watts loss.

1986

9-201

Dielectric-Losses for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters (A E. J. Marottoli. Progress Report) G. A. Heuston The purpose of this report is to present a tabulation of the dielectric losses measured by the Doble Client Group for metal-oxide arresters. The report also reviews the test procedures and discusses test experience to date.

1983

9-301

Application and Field Testing of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters R. G. Black General application information and service environment considerations for metal-oxide arresters are addressed. In addition, this paper discusses field testing possibilities and presents information on expected capacitance and watts-loss values as measured by normal field testing equipment for Ohio Brass metal-oxide surge arresters. Discussion E. C. Sakshaug Closure R. G. Black

1982

9-201

1982 1982

9-201A 9-201B

1982

9-301

Paper Title, Description

Authors

concerning analysis of results for arresters generally are reviewed along with field experiences. Field Test of Zinc-Oxide Arresters Leakage Current J. Caron Measurement Aging of ZnO arresters may be closely monitored by precise measurement of leakage current at voltage in the range of MCO V. For that purpose, Hydro-Quebec is now developing two different test sets: (1) A 150 kV transformer test set, to measure offline the leakage cui-rent of each arrester section at MCOV. A prototype of that test set has been hlly tested and is now used successfully for field testing. (2) A portable meter, to measure culrent on live arresters by means of a clamp-on transformer on the ground loop. This second meter is under preliminary design now, but bench tests gave good results and a prototype will be built very soon. The paper presents basic schematic of both meters, test results for test set No. 1, and proposed routine tests for arrester maintenance. Discussion W. McDermid Closure J. Caron

Westinghouse Electric Corporation In this paper, internal construction of the Westinghouse SMX30 gapless arrester is described along with a brief explanation of how it operates. Protective characteristics are covered over a range of wave front times, including a discussion of 60 Hertz temporary overvoltage capability. Aging parameters are also presented. Finally, recommendations are made for installation and field testing of the completely gapless metal-oxide arrester. Characteristics, Application and Field Testing of Westinghouse Gapless Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters

72A-1972-01 Rev. 6 7/04

Paper Title, Description

Authors

R. G. Black Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters This paper presents the operating and design principles of metal-oxide surge arresters. It will also include comments on the field testing and on insulation-coordination utilizing arresters of this type. Discussion W. J. McNutt W. M. McDer~nid Field Impulse Tests on Station Class Arresters The paper describes the construction of a test set suitable for performing impulse sparkover tests on arresters installed in switchyards. The highest amester units which can be tested are those rated 258-kV rills in a single porcelain. Typical test results are also presented.

R. Gordon Black Field Testing of Ohio Brass Station and Intermediate Class Lightning Arresters Present manufacture of Ohio Brass arresters is related to data contained in the 1966 Doble Lightning Arrester Field-Test Guide. In order to relate field-test measurements through factory data, a discussion of lightning arrester grading circuits in factory test methods is included. D. D. Colker Tests on Distribution-Class Lightning Arresters with GapGrading Resistors This paper presents the experience of the Dayton Power and Light Company in field testing the E5, 10-kV, direct-connected valve arrester, manufactured by Line Material Company. A. R. Koerber Application, Construction, and Field Testing of General Electric Alugard-500 Station Arrester The construction, switched valve section, unit ratings, leakage-grading current, field testing, and maintenance are discussed in this paper. Lightning Arrester Contamination and Failure W. L. Gronberg This report covers the contamination, testing, and inspection of various types of arresters.

R. G. A. Brearley Comparison of Various test Methods as Applied to ASEA XRSC-160 Arresters This paper deals with the detection of deteriorated insulation in Swedish XRSC-160 arresters by the Doble test, Megger test, 60- cycle sparkover, and IUV tests. It is pointed out in the paper that these data may be applicable to similar arresters produced under license in other countries. R. G. A. Brearley Detection of Defective Arresters on a 345-kV System This discussion covers the description, safety, field test data, field test equipment, and test technique. Discussion D. M. Smith Field Test Set for Lightning Arrester Performance Tests

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

M. H. Simmons

Year

Section

1980

9-301A

Year

Section

1963

9-10]

Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data, which could lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces.

1960

9-40]

Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set Mr. Bracewell reports that tests made on lightning arrester units in the field have proven that abnormal watts loss indicates a faulty unit, which could result in a failure of the complete arrester and other nearby equipment.

1960

9-30]

Field Testing of General Electric Lightning Arresters W. H. Eason The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data, which could lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces.

1960

9-401

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters Edward Beck The principal subject covered by this discussion is this company's views on the methods of testing lightning arresters in the field. Tests for insulating quality and valve element tests are covered in some detail.

1957

9-301

Lightning Arrester Testing (A Progress Report) W. Bridegam This report covers tests made on a number of different types of lightning arresters from 1952 through 1956. The tests made to date seem to indicate that the effort and time spent in Doble testing of lightning arresters of all types is certainly justified.

1957

9-401

1956

9-301

1947

9-101

Paper Title, Description

Authors

0. R. Compton The need for a portable lightning arrester test set is discussed. The paper explains the test set in detail with circuit diagrams and the method of use and also presents field test results. Discussion Following the presentation by M. H. Simmons, the discussion brought out that the arresters tested were in stock because several lines had been uprated in voltage. It was also brought out that it was not known how many, if any, had been returned to the shop because of insufficient or improper dielectric qualities. It was further pointed out that this test does not delilonstrate the ability of an arrester to dispel large values of surge current.

General Electric Lightning Arresters This statement covers the field testing of General Electric lightning arresters.

F. H. Judkins

Tests on Station-Type Thyrite Arresters as Affected by C. G. Friddle Previous Weather Conditions This study covers the variations of tests made on a defective Thyrite arrester unit at several voltages and under different conditions of humidity, temperature, location, and

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em -

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

previous weather. The paper also suggests an explanation of these variations. Discussion

1947

Section

Maintenance Testing of Lightning Arresters- A Summary F. S. Oliver The types of tests made on station and line-type lightning arresters are reviewed, with particular attention to the experience of the Doble client group in making A.C. loss tests and in correlating the test results with deterioration. A bibliograpl~yof 36 references is included.

1947

9-201

Lightning Arrester Tests with the Doble Type M 2500-Volt J. C. Parker Test Set W. D. Morgan Presents graphically the results of tests 011 12 kV and 23 kV station-type arresters and 4 1tV line-type arresters. Theories as to the cause and effect of corrosion are discussed. The results of investigations and the methods of reconditioning are included.

1946

9-101

Field Experience in the Testing of Thyrite Lightning R. E. O'Leary Arresters This paper includes some typical test results obtained in the field. Test results are correlated with physical examinations and conclusions are reached as to what types of faults the test will and will not reveal Discussion The general story of the origin and characteristics of lightning, and the protection of a power system against lightning was presented to the group in the form of a motion picture entitled Lightning, prepared by the General Electric Company.

1945

9-101

1945

F. S. Oliver Notes on the Testing of Lightning Arresters and Carrier Current Capacitors This paper discusses detection of problem with Thyrite Lightning Arrester using the Doble 10 kV Test Set. The problem was identified and corrected, and the unit was reassembled. Utility Testing of Station Lightning Arresters H. H. Marsh, Jr. This report states the fundamental operating problem in connection with station lightning arresters and outlines various test methods together with selected illustrative results. No attempt has been made to designate any particular method or combination of methods as a recommended guide for utility testing.

1942

9-101

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters H. J. Lingal Paper discusses manufacturers information for various type of Westinghouse Lightning Arresters. The positive and negative aspects of Doble power-factor tests on arresters are also discussed.

1942

9-201

Tests on Lightning Arresters by the Doble Method H. C. Marcroft This report covers, service and Doble testing experience with both Thyrite and AutoValve type arresters.

1940

9-3

A Discussion of Auto-valve Arresters - Station Type H. L. Cole Paper discusses the information gained from factory and field test data relating to the

1940

9-3

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Year

Section

1940

9-9

1939

9-4

Discussion of Lightning Arrester Testing Those taking part in the discussion were Mr. Merriman of Northern States Power Company, Mr. Rawls of Virginia Electric & Power Company, and Mr. Schlottere of Philadelphia Electric Company.

1939

9-5

Testing Pellet Type Lightning Arresters S. A. Coxhead Our experience in testing line type lightning arresters has been on principally General Electric 9-15 kV pellet types which had been in service for periods ranging from approximately six to nine years. These arresters were installed on a 13.8 kV system with the neutral grounded through a grounding transformer. Before we started testing, several arresters exploded, impressing on us the necessity for testing them.

1938

8-19

Lightning Arresters from the Testing Viewpoint E. H. Povey Among the possible applications of the Doble Insulation Test Set is the detection of certain types of faults in lightning arresters. While this field may not have the possibilities that circuit breaker and transformer insulation present, it is interesting and of some value. The various types and makes of lightning arresters show considerable variation in construction. To be able to discuss testing technique and test results it is essential to have a general idea of the constructional details of the arresters under consideration.

1937

9-3

Paper Title, Description

Authors

serviceability of Auto-Valve lightning arresters. Testing Station Type Lightning Arresters with the Doble I E. L. Schlottere Tester This paper will supplement the original discussion of the above subject as recorded in the Minutes of the Fifth Annual Conference of Doble Clients held in 1938. The testing of lightning arresters was continued during 1938 and it was found that the arbitrary acceptance and rejection values established after analysis of the 1937 data were still satisfactory. Several Auto-Valve arresters which had been recommended for removal failed in service. Subsequent investigation indicated that moisture was the direct cause of failure.

H. M. Wade Testing Station Type Westinghouse Auto-Valve Lightning Arresters with Doble Type I Tester Because of several electrical and mechanical failures of 33 kV and 132 kV Auto-Valve lightning arresters in recent months, the Doble Type 1 tester was used for testing our station type arresters. As we had limited data on tests on arresters, it was necessary for us to test all the arresters we have in order to establish some standards. A Lightning Arrester Testing A Discussion J. H. Merriman For the last three years we have been making periodic tests on lightning arresters. Many of these arresters were old when the initial tests were made so we did not have base values to work from. During the last two years, however we have installed about 80 new or factory rebuilt arresters on circuits having line to line voltages ranging from 13 to 110 kV.

Tests on Lightning Arresters, Wood Hot-Line Sticks and

E. W. Whitmer

1935

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

dm

Year

Section

1989 1989

9-8.lA 9-8.1B

Experience with the New Hughes Infrared Imaging System P. W Brunson This discussion offers a history of infrared imaging experience covering the past decade followed by a technical discussion of the Hughes Probeye 7100. Discussion D. L. Johnson

1988

9-8.1

1988

9-8.1A

Analysis of Replies to the 1988 Technical Questionnaire on Arresters and Coupling Capacitors

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators

1988

9-2.1A

Analysis of Replies to the 1986 Technical Questionnaire on Arresters and Coupling Capacitors

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors and Insulators

1986

9-101

1981 Doble Technical Questionnaire on Arresters, Capacitors, Doble Client and Insulators Committee on Arresters, Capacitors and Insulators

1981

9-66

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Wood Switch-Poles A limited number of lightning arresters have been tested. Our experience does not warrant any definite conclusion regarding these tests, althougb certain faults in enclosed gap units have been indicated. These faults were caused by corrosion, which formed a conducting path in parallel with a series of gaps.

4.8

-

H Infrared Scanning

D. E. Bates Experience with the New Hughes Infrared Imaging System An Update the This paper is an update of our paper from last year and begins by briefly equipment used. The remainder of the paper covers actual field experience and our effort to develop diagnostic techniques concerning problems located by the infrared scanning method of testing. A. J. ROY Discussion General Discussion

4.9

-

I Life Expectancy

Life Expectancy of Arresters

=

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Doble Client Committee on

-

-

--

REFERENCE BOOKON SURGEARRESTERS

Year

Section

Defective Weather Seal in Metal Oxide Arresters W. D. Shead Houston Lighting and Power experienced two failures of 138 l a , metal-oxide arresters after being energized for less than one month. This paper will describe the failure and the immediate investigation by the manufacturer and Houston Lighting and Power which ultimately resulted in tightening of QAIQC checks. Discussion R. H. Gunning Discussion G. A. Heuston

1987

9-301

1987 1987

9-301A 9-301B

Tests on Distribution-Class Lightning Arresters with GapD. D. Colker Grading Resistors This paper presents the experience of the Dayton Power and Light Company in field testing the E5, 10-kV, direct-connected valve arrester, manufactured by Line Material Company.

1966

9-101

Application, Construction, and Field Testing of General A. R. Koerber Electric Alugard-500 Station Arrester The construction, switched valve section, unit ratings, leakage-grading current, field testing, and maintenance are discussed in this paper.

1966

9-301

W. L. Gronberg

1965

9-101

Distribution Lightning-Arrester Testing (A Progress Report) I,. M. Patridge This report outlines a method of testing distribution lightning arresters in the stockroom where the arrester units are stored.

1954

9-201

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters A. M. Opsahl This discussion covers the design, operation, failure, and maintenance of Westinghouse lightning arresters.

1958

9-501

Field Testing and Maintenance of Line and Station-Type W. J. Rudge Thyrite Arresters The characteristics of Thyrite arresters and the ability of such arresters to protect are discussed. Various types of tests and types of trouble are also discussed.

1954

9-401

1952

9-102

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators This report summarizes manufacturers' responses to questions asked by the Conilnittee relative to the life expectancy of arresters.

4.10

-

J Maintenance and Inspection

Lightning Arrester Contamination and Failure This report covers the contamination, testing, and inspection of various types of arresters.

Experience with Effects of Switching Surges on Lightning Arresters

R. M. Wilson

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

Paper Title, Description

Authors

The failures of three 69-kV lightning arresters are believed to have been caused by switching surges of relatively low current but long duration. The failures, investigations made, and corrective steps taken as a result are described. Discussion The general story of the origin and characteristics of lightning, and the protection of a power system against lightning were presented to the group in the form of a motion picture entitled Lightning, prepared by the General Electric Coillpany.

4.1

Year

Section

1944

-

K Metal-Oxide

J. Caron A. Dutil G. Ouellet A. Petit On December 17, 1987, two metal-oxide arresters short-circuited and one of them shattered in Albanel substation. These sacrificial arresters have a nominal voltage of 550 kV. They are used to limit the overvoltage level on the 735 kV transmission system during a system separation. Because this application is rather unusual, these arresters have been designed and thoroughly tested to clearly demonstrate that they will not shatter in the event of an internal short-circuit. Therefore, that event was carefully investigated in order to understand how it happened and to make sure that the application of sacrificial arresters is still acceptable from a safety standpoint Failure of Two 735 kV ZnO Arresters in Albanel Substation

M. deNigris C. Masetti A. Bargigia As surge arresters are among the most important protective devices in use in electrical systems, it is fundamental that they perform their function with a very high degree of reliability. Even though they are often considered to be relatively trouble-free components, failures of both gas and metal-oxide types of surge arresters have been reported. The present paper intends to illustrate the most recent laboratory and field tests developed in Europe for such components. Particular attention will be given to the contamination and simulated aging tests designed to verify the performance of the new generation of metal-oxide surge arresters. Discussion J Caron ~ o s t ' ~ e c e Developments nt in Surge Arrester Testing

Performance Determination in the Laboratory and in the R. Ximenes Field of Existing Instrumentation for Zinc Oxide Arrester E. L. S. deMelo Maintenance J. N. Figueiredo Paper discusses the function, characteristics, and advantages of using zinc oxide arresters. It also provides a comparison of leakage current test data obtained both in the laboratory and the field on zinc oxide arresters using various commercially available current detectors. Discussion J. Caron Defective Weather Seal in Metal Oxide Arresters

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

W. D. Shead

1989

9.-4.lA

1989

9-3.1

Year

Section

1987 1987

9-301A 9-301B

Characteristics, Application and Field Testing of Westinghouse Gapless Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters

Westinghouse Electric Corporation In this paper, internal construction of the Westinghouse SMX30 gapless arrester is described along with a brief explanation of how it operates. Protective characteristics are covered over a range of wave front times, including a discussion of 60 Hertz temporary overvoltage capability. Aging parameters are also presented. Finally, recommendations are made for installation and field-testing of the completely gapless metal-oxide arrester.

1982

9-301

Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters R. G. Black This paper presents the operating and design principles of metal-oxide surge arresters. It will also include comments on the field-testing and on insulation-coordination utilizing arresters of this type. Discussion W, J. McNutt

1980

9-301

1980

9-301A

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Houston Lighting and Power experienced two failures of 138 kV metal-oxide arresters after being energized for less than one month. This paper will describe the failure and the immediate investigation by the manufacturer and Houston Lighting and Power, which ultimately resulted in tightening of QAIQC checks. R. H. Gunning Discussion Discussion G. A. Heuston

4.12

-

L Replacement

Analysis of Replies to the 1992 Technical Questionnaire on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators

1992

9-2.1A

Analysis of Replies to the 1990 Technical Questionnaire on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators

1990

9-2.1 A

1975

9-101

Doble Client Committee on Arresters, Capacitors, and Insulators The aim of this report is to call attention to the fact that 40 "C is the maximum ambient temperature specified in the current IEEEIANSI Standard for Surge Arresters. Ambient Temperature Standard for Arresters

Year

Section

1989

9-3.1

1989

9-3.1A

Dielectric-Losses for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters (A D. J. Kopaczynski Progress Report) M. J. Rizzi The primary purpose of this report is to give Doble Clients an up-to-date tabulation of dielectric-loss (Watts-loss) data on metal-oxide arresters. Some important principles concerning analysis of results for arresters generally are reviewed along with field experiences.

1989

9-6.1

Field Test of Zinc-Oxide Arresters Leakage Current J. Caron Measurement Aging of ZnO arresters may be closely monitored by precise measurement of leakage current at voltage in the range of MCOV. For that purpose, Hydro-Quebec is now developing two different test sets. (I) A 150 kV transformer test set, to measure offline the leakage current of each arrester section at MCOV. A prototype of that test set has been fully tested and is now used successfully for field testing. (2) A portable meter, to measure current on live arresters by means of a clamp-on transformer on the ground loop. This second meter is under preliminary design now, but bench tests gave good results, and a prototype will be built very soon. The paper presents basic schematic of both meters, test results for test set No. 1, and proposed routine tests for arrester maintenance. Discussion W. McDermid Closure J. Caron

1987

9-201

1987 1987

9-201A 9-201B

1983

9-301

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Therefore, units exposed to temperatures above this level are operating under nonstandard service conditions. It has been verified that many arresters, primarily those installed above the radiators of transformers or in the airflow from the radiators, very likely will operate in ambient in excess of 40 "C during at least a portion of their lifetime. Excessive temperatures tend to accelerate the aging of arrester moisture seals, and it has been suggested that excessive temperatures also can affect the grading circuit adversely.

4.14

-

N Test Data

Performance Determination in the Laboratory and in the R. Ximenes E. L. S. deMelo Field of Existing Instrumentation for Zinc Oxide Arrester Maintenance J. N. Figueiredo This paper discusses the function, characteristics, and advantages of using zinc oxide arresters. It also provides a comparison of leakage current test data obtained both in the laboratory and the field on zinc oxide arresters using various commercially available current detectors. Discussion J. Caron

Dielectric-Losses for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters (A E. J. Marottoli Progress Report) G. A. Heuston The purpose of this report is to present a tabulation of the dielectric losses measured by the Doble Client Group for metal-oxide arresters. The report also reviews the test

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

A Review of Maintenance Testing of Lightning Arresters

A . Rickley S. H. Osborn, Jr. As a11 aid to the test engineer in establishing field-testing criteria, the results of tests on approximately 13,000 line- and station-type lightning anester units are tabulated. The test procedure effect and selection of test voltage are discussed, and the recon~n~ended for lightning arresters is outlined.

1954

9-301

Dielectric Losses for Surge Arresters (A Progress Report)

D. J. Kopaczpnslti E. J. Marottoli The tabulated data presented in this paper supplements the data published in the 1970 Doble Client Conference Minutes and in the Doble Arrester Field-Test Guide. A brief sumnlary of dielectric-loss data for newer arrester types is presented.

1948

9-101

Dielectric Losses for Lightning Arresters (A Progress Report)

D. J. Kopaczynski G. W. Armstrong, Jr. This paper reviews test procedures and updates of data tabulations published in 1949, 1950, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1962, and 1964 Conference Papers.

1970

9-301

Detection of Defective Arresters on a 345-kV System R. G. A. Brearley This discussion covers the description, safety, field test data, field test equipment, and test technique.

1964

9-101

Dielectric-Loss Values for Lightning Arresters (A Progress G. W. Armstrong, Report) Jr . This author presents a summary of 2759 lightning-arrester field tests on units, which were not included in the tabulation published in the latest Lightning-Arrester Field-Test Guide.

1962

9- 10 1

Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set It is reported that tests made on lightning arrester units in the field have proven that abnormal watts loss indicates a faulty unit, which could result in a failure of the complete arrester and other nearby equipment.

1960

9-301

Field Testing of General Electric Lightning Arresters W. H. Eason The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data, which could

1960

9-401

Paper Title, Description

Authors

procedures and discusses test experience to date.

Dielectric-Loss Values for Lightning Arresters (A Progress Report)G. W. Armstrong, Jr., E. J. Marottoli This report is an up-to-date tabulation of lightning arrester test results, which includes data for both new and older types of arresters.

7214-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

Dielectric-Loss Versus Temperature Characteristics of A. L. Rickley Lightning-Arrester Units Plots of dielectric-loss versus temperature for lightning arrester units of various makes, models, and voltage ratings are shown and discussed.

1959

9-101

Dielectric-Loss Values for Lightning Arresters (A Progress A. L. Rickley Report) S. H. Osborn, Jr. The results of approximately 2300 tests on lightning arresters are listed in four tables.

1957

9-101

J. W. Kalb Field Testing of Ohio Brass Lightning Arresters The various types of tests made on Thorex lightning arresters are discussed, and the results of tests on a number of units of different voltage ratings are tabulated.

1954

9-501

Acceptance Testing of Distribution-Type Lightning Arresters E. R. Coop Sixty-cycle withstand, breakdown, and leakage-current tests on distribution-type lightning arresters are described. The results of tests on 561 units are tabulated. A circuit diagram and photographs of the test equipment are included.

1951

9-101

1949

9-101

Paper Title, Description

Authors

lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces.

Discussion Following his presentation, Mr. Coop pointed out that the tests described were not attempts to simulate surge tests, but rather inexpensive (estimated cost at less than 25 cents per arrester) acceptance tests that so far have been applied only to valvetype arresters.

H. A. Walsh Values of Watts Loss for Various Types of Lightning Arresters A. L. Rickley Watts-loss values obtained for tests on approximately 4,400 units are tabulated according to style or type numbers and voltage ratings and presented as an aid to test engineers in establishing average values. Values of Watts Loss for Various Types of Lightning H. A. Walsh Arresters M. D. Costello Watts-loss values obtained for style or type numbers as an aid to test engineers in establishing normal watts-loss values tabulates approximately 3600 lightning-arrester units during 1948. Discussion The general story of the origin and characteristics of lightning, and the protection of a power system against lightning was presented to the group in the form of a motion picture entitled Lightning, prepared by the General Electric Company, Tests on Lightning Arresters, Wood Hot-Line Sticks and E. W. Whitmer Wood Switch-Poles A limited number of lightning arresters have been tested. Our experience does not warrant any definite conclusion regarding these tests, although certain faults in enclosed gap units have been indicated. These faults were caused by corrosion, which formed a conducting path in parallel with a series of gaps.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

1944

1935

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGE ARRESTERS

Year

Section

Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set It is reported that tests made on lightning arrester units in the field have proven that abnormal watts loss indicates a faulty unit, which could result in a failure of the complete arrester and other nearby equipment.

1960

9-301

Field Testing of General Electric Lightning Arresters W. H. Easoiz The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data which could lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces.

1960

9-401

Utility Testing of Station Lightning Arresters H. H. Marsh, Jr. This report states the hndanlental operating problem in connection with station lightning arresters and outlines various test methods together with selected illustrative results. No attempt has been made to designate any particular method or combination of methods as a recommended guide for utility testing.

1942

9-101

Review of Arrester Test Program W. M. McDermid The results of a six-year program of field tests on station and intermediate class arresters are summarized. Follow-up investigation of selected units is reported.

1983

9-201

Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data, which could lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces.

1960

9-401

Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set It is reported that tests made on lightning arrester units in the field have proven that abnormal watts loss indicates a faulty unit, which could result in a failure of the complete arrester and other nearby equipment.

1960

9-301

Field Testing of General Electric Lightning Arresters W. H. Eason The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data, which could

1960

9-401

Paper Title, Description

4.15

4.16

106

Authors

-

0 Test Intervals

-

P Test Programs

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

Section

1959

9-501

lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces. W. H. Eason General Electric Lightning Arresters This paper discusses the new Form 3K high-voltage Thyrite station-class arrester, reports of damage to trans former-mounted arresters due to vibration, switching arresters on or off an energized bus, factory routine tests, and recommended field acceptance tests.

Distribution Lightning-Arrester Testing (A Progress Report) L. M. Patridge This paper provides a method of testing distribution lightning arresters in the stockroom where the arrester units are stored. J. W. Kalb Field Testing of Ohio Brass Lightning Arresters The various types of tests made on Thorex lightning allesters are discussed, and the results of tests on a number of units of different voltage ratings are tabulated J. Oliver Lang Ten Years Experience in Testing Distribution Lightning Arresters Selection of the test method, test procedures and rejection values, costs of tests, and results of tests are among the important points discussed in this paper. A sample testdata sheet is shown.

Acceptance Testing of Distribution-Type Lightning Arresters E. R. Coop Sixty-cycle withstand, breakdown, and leakage-current tests on distribution-type lightning arresters are described. The results of tests on 561 units are tabulated. A circuit diagram and photographs of the test equipment are included. Discussion. Following his presentation, Mr. Coop pointed out that the tests described were not attempts to simulate surge tests, but rather inexpensive (estimated cost at less than 25 cents per arrester) acceptance tests that so far have been applied only to valvetype arresters.

H. H. Marsh, Jr. Utility Testing of Station Lightning Arresters This report states the fundamental operating problem in connection with station lightning arresters and outlines various test methods together with selected illustrative results. No attempt has been made to designate any particular method or combination of methods as a recommended guide for utility testing. H. A. Cornelius Establishing a Base Line for New Line Type Lightning Arresters Defects, which may cause failure, appear in all kinds of equipment. Since this is expected in bushings, oil switches, instruments, and power transformers, power factor and other tests are made as a preventive measure to avoid the service interruptions, which accompany equipment failures. That the lightning protection equipment is also likely to develop defects is not so generally appreciated. J. H. Merriman Lightning Arrester Testing A Discussion For the last three years we have been making periodic tests on lightning arresters. Many of these arresters were old when the initial tests were made so we did not have base

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

1939

9-5

1938

8-3

1994

9-3.1

M. deNigris C. Masetti A. Bargigia As surge arresters are among the most important protective devices in use in electrical systems, it is fundamental that they perform their hnction with a very high degree of reliability. Even though they are often considered to be relatively trouble-free components, failures of both gas and metal-oxide types of surge arresters have been reported. This paper intends to illustrate the most recent laboratory and field tests developed in Europe for such components. Particular attention will be given to the contamination and simulated aging tests designed to verify the performance of the new generation of metal-oxide surge arresters. Discussion J. Caron

1989

9-4. 1A

Field Test of Zinc-Oxide Arresters Leakage Current

1987

9-201

Paper Title, Description

Authors

values to work from. During the last two years, however, we have installed about 80 new or factory rebuilt arresters on circuits having line to line voltages ranging from 13 to 110 kV. Discussion of Lightning Arrester Testing. Those taking part in the discussion were Mr. Merriman of Northern States Power Company, Mr. Rawls of Virginia Electric & Power Company, and Mr. Schlottere of Philadelphia Electric Company. Testing Station Type Lightning Arresters with the Doble 1 E. L. Schlottere Tester Testing lightning arresters wit11 the Doble I tester presents an entirely new field for the application of this equipment. As very little infornlation is available on the subject, it becomes necessary first to accumulate considerable field test data on the various types of assesters under consideration. The second step is proper analysis of the data obtained. With this thought in mind, in 1937, the Philadelphia Electric Company made numerous tests on Oxide Film, Auto-valve and Thyrite arresters. It is, therefore, the putpose of this paper briefly to summarize the experience of this company.

4.17

-

Q Testing and Test Schedules

Experience with Leakage-Current Testing of 380 kV MOV Paul Leemans Guy Moulaer Surge Arresters in the Field, Utilizing an LCM Portable Instrument It has been shown that premature aging and failures of MOV surge arresters can be attributed to degradation of the coating on zinc-oxide blocks, because of corona discharges in the air gap between the porcelain and the blocks. Measurement of inservice leakage current may be considered to be an effective diagnostic method. This paper presents experience with the application of a leakage current monitoring device and the results of investigations conducted on suspect units. Requirements for installation of the measuring device and surge arresters that will be tested by this method are discussed. "Most Recent Developments in Surge Arrester Testing

J. Caron

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

em

Year

Section

1987 1987

9-201A 9-201B

A Review of Maintenance Testing of Lightning Arresters

S. H. Osborn, Jr. A. L, Rickley As an aid to the test engineer in establishing field-testing criteria, the results of tests on approxiinately 13,000 line- and station-type lightning arrester units are tabulated. The effect and selection of test voltage are discussed, and the recommended test procedure for lightning arresters is outlined.

1954

9-30

Testing Pellet Type Lightning Arresters S. A. Coxhead Our experience in testing line type lightning arresters has been principally on General Electric 9-15 kV pellet types which had been in service for periods ranging from approximately six to nine years. These arresters were installed on a 13.8 kV system with the neutral grounded through a grounding transformer. Before we started testing, several arresters exploded, impressing on us the necessity for testing them.

1938

8-19

Lightning Arresters from the Testing Viewpoint E. H. Povey Among the possible applications of the Doble Insulation Test Set is the detection of certain types of faults in lightning arresters. While this field may not have the possibilities that circuit breaker and transformer insulation present, it is interesting and of some value. The various types and makes of lightning arresters show considerable variation in construction. To be able to discuss testing technique and test results it is essential to have a general idea of the constructional details of the arresters under consideration.

1937

9-3

1994

9-3.1

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Measurement Aging of ZnO arresters may be closely monitored by precise measurement of leakage current at voltage in the range of MCOV. For that purpose, Hydro-Quebec is now developing two different test sets. (1) A 150 kV transformer test set, to measure offline the leakage current of each arrester section at MCOV. A prototype of that test set has been hlly tested and is now used successfully for field testing. (2) A portable meter, to measure current on live arresters by means of a clamp-on transformer on the ground loop. This second meter is under preliminary design now, but tests gave good results and a prototype will be built very soon. The paper presents basic schematic of both meters, test results for test set No. 1, and proposed routine tests for arrester snaintenailce benchmarking. Discussion W. McDermid J. Caron Closure

4.1 8

-

R Tests And Test Equipment

Experience with Leakage-Current Testing of 380 kV MOV Paul Leemans Guy Moulaert Surge Arresters in the Field, Utilizing an LCM Portable Instrument It has been shown that premature aging and failures of MOV surge arresters can be attributed to degradation of the coating on zinc-oxide blocks, because of corona discharges in the air gap between the porcelain and the blocks. Measurement of inservice leakage current may be considered to be an effective diagnostic method. This

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

Failure Modes of Metal Oxide Surge Arresters and Possible Methods of Detection

John G. Anderson Stephen R. Lambert The paper discusses ZnO surge arrester (MOV) failure modes such as cracked blocks resulting from physical damage or an excessive rate of energy input, collar failure, and punctures due to high current. Various detection techniques are examined including ones using electrical, mecl~anical,and chemical approaches. Criteria for acceptable technique application are presented including consideration of arrester location, whether or not arresters are energized, and the test equipment required.

1992

9-4.1

M. deNigris C. Masetti A. Bargigia As surge arresters are among the most important protective devices in use in electrical systems, it is fundamental that they perform their function with a very high degree of reliability. Even though they are often considered to be relatively trouble-free components, failures of both gas and metal-oxide types of surge arresters have been reported. This paper intends to illustrate the most recent laboratory and field tests developed in Europe for such components. Particular attention will be given to the contamination and simulated aging tests designed to verify the performance of the newgeneration of metal-oxide surge arresters. J. Caron Discussion

1989

9-4.1

1989

9-4.1A

Dielectric-Losses for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters (A D. J. Kopaczynski Progress Report) M. J. Rizzi The primary purpose of this report is to give Doble Clients an up-to-date tabulation of dielectric-loss (Watts-loss) data on metal-oxide arresters. Some important principles concerning analysis of results for arresters are reviewed along with field experiences.

1989

9-6.1

Testing of Zinc Oxide Arresters W. McDermid This report reviews Manitoba Hydro's experience with various test methods for zinc oxide arresters, both for commissioning and routine maintenance purposes. Test methods on which experience is reported include impulse, partial discharge, 60 Hz V/I, and 60 Hz watts loss.

1986

9-201

E. J. Marottoli Dielectric-Losses for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters (A Progress Report) G. A. Heuston The purpose of this report is to present a tabulation of the dielectric losses measured by the Doble Client Group for metal-oxide arresters. The report also reviews the test procedures and discusses test experience to date.

1983

9-301

Paper Title, Description

Authors

paper presents experience with the application of a leakage current monitoring device and the results of investigations conducted on suspect units. Requirements for installation of the measuring device and surge arresters that wil be tested by this method are discussed.

Most Recent Developments in Surge Arrester Testing

DIELECTRIC LOSS

72A- 1972-0 1 Rev. B 7/04

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

Section

1982

9-201

1982 1982

9-201A 9-201B

1978

I

A. A. Carlomagno Defective Seal in a 588-kV Lightning Arrester Detected by Doble Testing This report covers the reason for removal of the arrester, a summary of the field and factory tests, a review of the internal examination of two units, and resulting conclusions.

1971

9-601

Dielectric Losses for Lightning Arresters D. J. Kopaczynski G. W. Armstrong, Jr. (A Progress Report) This report reviews test procedures and updates data tabulations published in 1949, 1950, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1962, and 1964 Conference Papers.

1970

9-301

Comparison of Various test Methods as Applied to ASEA R. G. A. Brearley XRSC-160 Arresters This paper deals with the detection of deteriorated insulation in Swedish XRSC-160 arresters by the Doble test, Megger test, 60- cycle sparkover, and RIV tests. It is pointed out in the paper that these data may be applicable to similar arresters produced under license in other countries.

1965

9-201

Lightning Arrester Tests with the Doble Type M 2500-Volt J. C. Parker Test Set W. D. Morgan Presents graphically the results of tests on 12 kV and 23 kV station-type arresters and 4 kV line-type arresters. Theories as to the cause and effect of corrosion are discussed. The results of investigations and the methods of reconditioning are included. Discussion

1946

9-101

Application and Field Testing of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters R. G. Black General application information and service environment considerations for metal-oxide arresters are addressed. Field testing possibilities are discussed, and information on expected capacitance and watts loss values as measured by normal field testing equipment for Ohio Brass metal-oxide surge arresters are presented. Discussion E. C. Sakshaug Closure R. G. Black Dielectric Losses for Surge Arresters A Progress Report)

D. J. Kopaczynski E. J. Marottoli

The tabulated data presented in this paper supplements the data published in the 1970 Doble Client Conference Minutes and in the Doble Arrester Field-Test Guide. A brief summary of dielectric-loss data for newer arrester types is presented.

F. S. Oliver Notes on the Testing of Lightning Arresters and Carrier Current Capacitors This paper discusses detection of problems with the Thyrite Lightning Arrester using the Doble 10 kV Test Set. The problem was identified and corrected, and the unit was reassembled. Westinghouse Lightning Arresters

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

H. J. Lingal

I

Year

Section

Tests on Lightning Arresters by the Doble Method H. C. Marcroft This report covers service and Doble testing experience with both Thyrite and autovalve type arresters.

1940

9-3

A Discussion of Auto-Valve Arresters - Station Type H. L.Cole Paper discusses the information gained from factory and field test data relating to the serviceability of Auto- Valve lightning al~esters.

1940

9-4

Testing Station Type Lightning Arresters with the Doble ' I ' E. L. Schlottere Tester Testing lightning arresters with the Doble I tester presents an entirely new field for the application of this equipment. As very little information is available on the subject, it becomes necessary first to accumulate considerable field test data on the various types of arresters under consideration. The second step is that of proper analysis of the data obtained. With this thought in mind, in 1937, the Philadelphia Electric Company made numerous tests on Oxide Film, Auto-valve and Thyrite arresters. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper briefly to summarize the experience of this company. Lightning Arresters from the Testing Viewpoint E. H. Povey Among the possible applications of the Doble Insulation Test Set is the detection of certain types of faults in lightning arresters. While this field may not have the possibilities that circuit breaker and transformer insulation present, it is interesting and of some value. The various types and makes of lightning arresters show considerable variation in construction. To be able to discuss testing technique and test results, it is essential to have a general idea of the constructional details of the arresters under consideration.

1938

8-3

1937

9-3

Testing of Zinc Oxide Arresters W. McDernlid This report reviews Manitoba Hydro's experience with various test methods for zinc oxide arresters, both for comrnissioniilg and routine maintenance purposes. Test methods on which experience is reported include impulse, partial discharge, 60 Hz VII, and 60 Hz watts loss.

1986

9-201

Field Impulse Tests on Station Class Arresters W. M. McDermid The paper describes the construction of a test set suitable for performing impulse sparkover tests on arresters installed in switchyards. The highest arrester units, which can be tested, are those rated 258-kV RMS in a single porcelain. Typical test results are also presented.

1973

9-201

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Paper discusses manufacturer's information for various types of Westinghouse Lightning Arresters. The positive and negative aspects of Doble power-factor tests on arresters are also discussed.

IMPULSE

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Paper Title, Description

Authors

INSULATION RESISTANCE Comparison of Various test Methods as Applied to ASEA R. G. A. Brearley XRSC-160 Arresters This paper deals with the detection of deteriorated insulation in -Swedish XRSC-160 arresters by the Doble test, Megger test, 60- cycle sparkover, and RIV tests. It is pointed out in the paper that these data may be applicable to siiiiilar at-resters produced under license in other countries.

L. M. Donahue 3 kV Arrester Testing Early in 1942 we were faced with the problem of having a large number of distribution lightning arresters returned to the general stockroom to be redistributed for use. The reason for this redistribution is the change of some of the distribution system from delta operation to wye operation. This paper discusses the problem of testing and inspecting these units so that defective and obsolete units will not find their way back into service. SPARKOVER

R. E. Edwards Experience with Field Testing of Lightning Arresters This report covers the testing of lightning arresters in the field using a portable test set. The test set applies a series of unidirectional pulses up to the sparkover level. A large number of arresters have subsequently been tested on the laboratory surge generator to verify field results. A Discussion of the R. E. Edwards Paper Experience with Field Testing of Lightning Arresters On the D. A. Gillies Discussion A Discussion of the R. E. Edwards Paper Experience with Field Testing of Lightning Arresters

D. A. Gillies R. E. Edwards W. M. McDermid

R. G. A. Brearley Comparison of Various test Methods as Applied to ASEA XRSC-160 Arresters This paper deals with the detection of deteriorated insulation in Swedish XRSC-160 arresters by the Doble test, Megger test, 60- cycle sparkover, and RIV tests. It is pointed out in the paper that these data may be applicable to similar arresters produced under license in other countries. TYPES OF TESTS John G. Anderson Failure Modes of Metal Oxide Surge Arresters and Possible Stephen R. Lambert Methods of Detection The paper discusses ZnO surge arrester (MOV) failure modes such as cracked blocks resulting from physical damage or an excessive rate of energy input, collar failure, and punctures due to high current. Various detection techniques are examined including those using electrical, mechanical, and chemical approaches. Criteria for acceptable

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

Year

Section

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

Section

Design and Experience with Portable Test Equipment for A. G. Richenbacher Determining 60 Hz VoltJAmp Characteristics of Gapless Oxide Arresters The test circuit, which we discussed at the 1986 and 1988 Conferences for use under shop conditions, has been redesigned specifically for field use. Measurement changes are discussed together with dimensions of the test equipment and its electrical characteristics. Recent field experience is summarized.

1990

9-3.1

Field Test of Zinc-Oxide Arresters Leakage Current J. Caron Measurement Aging of ZnO arresters may be closely monitored by precise measurement of leakage current at voltage in the range of MCOV. For that purpose, Hydro-Quebec is now developing two different test sets. (1) A 150 kV transformer test set, to measure offline the leakage current of each arrester section at MCOV. A prototype of that test set has been h l l y tested and is now used successfully for field testing. (2) A portable meter, to measure current on live arresters by means of a clamp-on transformer on the ground loop. This second meter is under preliminary design now, but bench tests gave good results, and a prototype will be built very soon. The paper presents basic schematic of both meters, test results for test set No. 1,and proposed routine tests for arrester maintenance. W. McDennid Discussion J. Caron Closure

1987

9-201

1987 1987

9-201A 9-201B

Testing of Zinc Oxide Arresters W. McDermid This report reviews Manitoba Hydro's experience with various test methods for zinc oxide arresters, both for commissioning and routine maintenance purposes. Test methods on which experience is reported include impulse, partial discharge, 60 Hz V/I, and 60 Hz watts loss.

1986

9-201

In-Service Tests of EHV Lightning Arresters E. H. Hunter The paper describes testing of EHV (345-kV system) lightning arresters using the magnitude and waveform of the arrester grading current. An oscilloscope samples the grading current, and a Polaroid camera permanently records the trace for measurement and provides for future comparison tests.

1981

9-101

1965

9-10]

1963

9-101

1963

9-101

technique application are presented including consideration of arrester location, whether or not arresters are energized, and the test equipment required.

Lightning Arrester Contamination and Failure This report covers the contamination, testing, and inspection of various types of arresters.

W. I,.Gronberg

M. H. Simmons 0. R. Compton The need for a portable lightning arrester test set is discussed. The test set is explained in detail with circuit diagrams, and the method of use and field test results are presented. Discussion: Following the presentation by M. H. Simmons, the discussion brought put that the arresters tested were in stock because several lines had been uprated in voltage. Field Test Set for Lightning Arrester Performance Tests

114

7214-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGEARRESTERS

Paper Title, Description

Authors

Year

Section

1960

9-401

1959

9-601

General Electric Lightning Arresters W. H. Eason This paper discusses the new Form 3K high-voltage Thyrite station-class arrester, reports of damage to transformer-mounted arresters due to vibration, switching arresters on or off an energized bus, factory routine tests, and recommended field acceptance tests.

1959

9-501

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters Edward Beck This paper discusses connecting arresters to the system, tests in the factory and field, and damage to arresters caused by vibration.

1959

9-701

Westinghouse Lightning Arresters Edward Beck The principal subject covered by this discussion is this company's views on the methods of testing lightning arresters in the field. Tests for insulating quality and valve element tests are covered in some detail.

1957

9-301

Lightning Arrester Testing A Discussion J. H. Merriman For the last three years, we have been making periodic tests on lightning arresters. Many of these arresters were old when the initial tests were made, so we did not have base values to work from. During the last two years, however, we have installed about 80 new or factory rebuilt arresters on circuits having line to line voltages ranging from 13 to 110 kV.

1939

9-4

Discussion of Lightning Arrester Testing Those taking part in the discussion were Mr. Merriman of Northern States Power Company, Mr. Rawls of Virginia Electric & Power Company, and Mr. Schlottere of Philadelphia Electric Company.

1939

9-5

It was also brought out that it was not known how many, if any, had been returned to the shop because of insufficient or improper dielectric qualities. It was hrther pointed out that this test does not demonstrate the ability of an arrester to dispel large values of surge current. Locating Damaged Lightning Arresters With the Doble Type J. R. Bracewell MH Test Set The author distinguishes between insulation leakage current and arrester grading current tests and develops the arguments for tests at full rated voltage and at reduced voltage. He suggests the establishment of a project for collection of statistical data that could lead to a dependable test to show the degree of contamination of porcelain surfaces. Routine Tests During the Manufacture of Thorex Arresters This discussion covers the various factory tests used by this manufacturer.

A. G. Yost

W. J. Rudge Field Testing and Maintenance of Line and Station-Type Thyrite Arresters The characteristics of Thyrite arresters and the ability of such arresters to protect are discussed. Various types of tests and types of trouble are also discussed.

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7104

REFERENCE BOOK ON SURGE ARRESTERS

Paper Title, Description

Year

Section

E. L. Schlottere Testing Station Type Lightning Arresters with the Doble ' I ' Tester Testing lightning arresters with the Doble I tester presents an entirely new field for the application of this equipment. As very little information is available on the subject, it first becomes necessary to accumulate considerable field test data on the various types of arresters under consideration. The second step is that of proper analysis of the data obtained. With this thought in mind, in 1937, the Philadelphia Electric Conipany made numerous tests on Oxide Film, Auto-Valve, and Thyrite arresters. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper briefly to suin~narizethe experience of this coinpany.

1938

8-3

Testing Pellet Type Lightning Arresters S. A. Coxhead Our experience in testing line type lightning an-esters has been principally on General Electric 9-15 kV pellet types, which had been in service for periods ranging from approxinlately six to nine years. These arresters were installed on a 13.8 kV system with the neutral grounded through a grounding transformer. Before we started testing, several arresters exploded, impressing on us the necessity for testing them.

1938

8-19

Safety in Handling Faulty Lightning Arresters J. Bracewell This report covers the importance of a well planned safety program, the hazards involved in damaged arresters which from outside appearance seem to be in perfect condition, and the possibility of an arrester in this condition causing a long interruption of service.

1958

9-101

Lightning Arrester Testing E. A. Walker The Problem: A lightning arrester is a device to divert surges from apparatus connected to a power fine. In performing this function, however, the arrester should not add any new hazards to the safe operation of the equipment. There are, therefore, two questions to ask about any arrester: (1) Does it protect the equipment? (2) Does it present a hazard to safe operation'? Any test that will give data to help answer these questions is valuable.

1938

8-15

4.19

s

Authors

- Safety

72A-1972-01 Rev. B 7/04

6m

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