Support and Movement

July 28, 2017 | Author: qq235 | Category: Skeleton, Invertebrate, Zoology, Botany, Plants
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form 2 science...

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Support and movement

Science form 2 Chapter 8

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Content 8.1 Support Systems in Animals 8.2 Support Systems in Plants 8.3 Appreciating the Support System in Living Things

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8.1 Support Systems in Animals [email protected](a)

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Vertebrate and invertebrate • Vertebrates are animals with backbones. • Invertebrates are animals without backbones.

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Vertebrates

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Vertebrate • Vertebrates are supported by internal skeleton of bones called endoskeleton.

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Vertebrate The functions of endoskeleton are: (a) to support the body weight (b) to protect the internal organs (c) to maintain the shape of the body

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Land Vertebrate • The land vertebrates have to support their own body weight. • Hence, the endoskeletons of land vertebrates are normally big and strong. strong

Horse skeleton

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Elephant skeleton

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Aquatic Vertebrate • The body weight of aquatic vertebrates is supported by the buoyancy of water. Hence, the endoskeletons of aquatic vertebrates are smaller. whale skeleton

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Invertebrate The support systems of invertebrates consist of i. exoskeleton and ii. hydrostatic skeleton.

exoskeleton

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hydrostatic skeleton

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Invertebrate- Exoskeleton • Cuticle is an exoskeleton which is made of chitin. • It covers and protects the body. • Bees, flies, cockroaches , scorpions, crabs and prawns are supported by cuticle.

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Invertebrate- Hydrostatic skeleton • Invertebrates which have soft bodies such as worms, leeches and caterpillars are supported by the body fluid pressure called hydrostatic pressure.

Earth worms

Leeches [email protected](a)

Caterpillars

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8.2 Support Systems in Plants [email protected](a)

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Woody plants • The woody plants are supported by woody tissues. • Some of the examples of woody trees are rubber trees, rambutan trees and durian trees. [email protected](a)

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Woody plant • Some woody plants have additional features to help them. (a) Buttress roots (b) Prop roots (c) Stilt roots

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Buttress roots • Casuarina trees have buttress roots to provide additional support to the stems.

Casuarinas 木麻黄树 ச மரக [email protected](a)

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Prop roots • Banyan trees and maize plants have prop roots to give them extra support

Banyan trees = Pokok Ara [email protected](a) ஆலமர  மரக 榕树

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Stilt roots • Mangrove trees have stilt roots which provide extra support to the stem and help them to obtain sunlight.

Mangrove trees = pokok bakau 红树 ச நில [email protected](a)

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Non-woody plant • Non-woody plants have soft stems. • The turgidity of the cells provides support to these non-woody plants. • Some of the examples of non-woody plants are yam plant, leafy vegetables and balsam plant. [email protected](a)

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Non-woody plant • Some non-woody plants have weak stems which are unable to support the plants. • However, they have other features to help them. (a) Tendrils (b) Thorns and prickles (c) Twining stems (d) Clasping roots [email protected](a)

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Tendrils • Cucumber plants and pumpkin plants climb and grow upwards using tendrils.

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Thorns and prickles • Bougainvillea plants, rattan plants and rose plants climb using thorns

Rattan

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Prickles

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Twining stems • Morning glory plants twine around other plants to help them climb higher in order to get enough sunlight.

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Clasping roots • Money plants and pepper plants climb by clasping.

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